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Sample records for strontium sodium niobate

  1. Macroscopic polarization and thermoluminescence of barium niobate - sodium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorban', I.S.; Gumenyuk, A.F.; Omel'yanenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of initial and thermally treated purposely undoped crystals of barium niobate - sodium has been studied within 85-400 K. The TL intensity is found to depend on the temperature to which the sample has been heated. A conclusion is drawn that nonstationarity of the TL properties is due to slowly occuring processes of compensation of pyrocharge, which depend on the temperatural prehistory of the sample. A mechanism of the traps transformation in a strong pyrofield of high-impedance crystals is discussed

  2. Macroscopic polarization and thermoluminescence of barium niobate - sodium niobate. Makroskopicheskaya polyarizatsiya i termolyuminestsentsiya niobata bariya - natriya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorban' , I S; Gumenyuk, A F; Omel' yanenko, V A [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukrainian SSR)

    1989-11-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) of initial and thermally treated purposely undoped crystals of barium niobate - sodium has been studied within 85-400 K. The TL intensity is found to depend on the temperature to which the sample has been heated. A conclusion is drawn that nonstationarity of the TL properties is due to slowly occuring processes of compensation of pyrocharge, which depend on the temperatural prehistory of the sample. A mechanism of the traps transformation in a strong pyrofield of high-impedance crystals is discussed.

  3. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Terrassa 08222 (Spain); Sola, I. [Grupo de Investigación en Óptica Extrema (GIOE), Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Krolikowski, W. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Science Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Sheng, Y. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.

  4. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Krolikowski, W.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system

  5. Fabrication and performance of porous lithium sodium potassium niobate ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caifeng; Zhu, Yuan; Ji, Jun; Cai, Feixiang; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Ningyi; Wang, Andong

    2018-02-01

    Porous lithium sodium potassium niobate (LNK) ceramic has excellent piezoelectric properties, chemical stability and great chemical compatibility. It has a good application potential in the field of biological bone substitute. In the paper, porous LNK ceramic was fabricated with egg albumen foaming agent by foaming method. Effects of preparation process of the porous LNK ceramic on density, phase structure, hole size and piezoelectric properties were researched and characterized. The results show that the influence factors of LNK solid content and foaming agent addition are closely relevant to properties of the porous LNK ceramic. When solid content is 65% and foaming agent addition is 30%, the porous LNK ceramic has uniform holes and the best piezoelectric properties.

  6. Conical light scattering in strontium barium niobate crystals related to an intrinsic composition inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastwoeste, K; Sander, U; Imlau, M

    2007-01-01

    Conical light scattering is uncovered in poly- and mono-domain, nominally pure and Eu-doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystals over a wide temperature regime. The appearance of two scattering cones, a scattering line and a corona is observed and can be explained comprehensively within the Ewald sphere concept. Photorefraction, scattering from domain boundaries or from growth striations can be excluded from explaining the origin of the scattering. It is shown that the temperature-persistent scattering process is related to a growth-induced seeding rod, i.e. a composition inhomogeneity primarily localized at the centre of the SBN sample. The rod is directed parallel to the c axis and yields a refractive-index inhomogeneity with spatial frequencies on the micro-scale

  7. Luminescence life time and time-resolved spectroscopy of Cr3+ ions in strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.P.J.; Jaque, F.; Jaque, D.; Garcia-Sole, J.; Ivleva, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the photo-luminescence spectroscopic results of congruent strontium-barium-niobate (SBN) crystals doped with Cr 2 O, at cryogenic temperature (20 K). The experimental results reveal the need of re-assignment of the Cr 3+ ions defect centres in this material. For first time, a broad emission band in the near infrared region centred at ca. 950 nm is reported. This emission band has micro-seconds decaytime constant and a band-width full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) larger than 1700 cm -1 and has been ascribed to the vibronically assisted 4 T 2 →4 A 2 transition. A much narrower emission band centred at ca. 764 nm with milli-seconds decaytime constant and a FWHM band-width of ca. 170 cm -1 is correlated to the 2 E →4 A 2 radiative transition (R-line)

  8. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  9. Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, S.; Feinberg, J.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured the low-frequency (''unclamped'') electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients in undoped BaTiO/sub 3/ and Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (chi - 0.61) crystals using interferometric techniques. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the Pockels measurement is discussed. For an applied ac electric field in the range 0.1-200 V/cm, the electrooptic and piezoelectric effects are linear in the magnitude of of the applied field and independent of its frequency in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz. The unclamped electrooptic coefficients of poled BaTiO/sub 3/ single crystals are r/sub 13/ = 19.5 +- 1 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 97 +- 7 pm/V, and for strontium barium niobate are r/sub 13/ = 47 +- 5 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 235 +- 21 pm/V, all measured at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and at T = 23 0 C. For the barium titanate samples the measured Pockels coefficient r/sub c/ identical to r/sub 33/ - (n/sub 1//n/sub 3/)/sup 3/r/sub 13/ = 79 +- 6 pm/V in good agreement with the value r/sub c/ = 76 +- 7 pm/V computed from the above values of r/sub 13/ and r/sub 33/, where n/sub 1/ and n/sub 3/ are the ordinary and extraordinary indexes of refraction, respectively. The measured piezoelectric coefficient is d/sub 23/ = +28.7 +- 2 pm/V for barium titanate, and is d/sub 23/ = +24.6 +- 2 pm/V for strontium barium niobate. They also measured the photoreflective coupling of two optical beams in the crystals, and they show that the dependence of the coupling strength on beam polarization is in fair agreement with the measured values of the Pockels coefficients

  10. Microwave-assisted sintering of non-stoichiometric strontium bismuth niobate ceramic: Structural and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rajveer [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Atmaram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Tandon, R.P., E-mail: ram_tandon@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the microwave sintering has been utilized for the synthesis of materials in enhancement of the properties. In this paper strontium bismuth niobate (Sr{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 2.2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}:SBN) bulk ceramic has been synthesized by microwave reactive sintering and conventional heating techniques. A relative density of 99.6% has been achieved for microwave sintered SBN, which is higher than that of (98.81%) conventionally sintered SBN. The phase formation of SBN synthesized by both processes has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of SBN was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure was found to be more uniform in case of SBN sintered by microwave sintering. The dielectric properties of SBN were studied as a function of frequency in the temperature range of 30–500 °C. Both the samples synthesized by two different processes were found to follow Curie–Weiss law above the transition temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN. The dielectric constant and the transition temperature were observed to be higher for SBN ceramic synthesized by microwave sintering technique. The ac and dc activation energy values were also found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN as compared to conventional sintering technique.

  11. Safe disposal of radioactive iodide ions from solutions by Ag2O grafted sodium niobate nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Liu, Guoping; Yu, Qianhong; Xie, Xiang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2016-01-14

    Radioactive iodine isotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials, and have negative effects on organisms living within the ecosystem. Thus, safe disposal of radioactive iodine is necessary and crucial. For this reason, the uptake of iodide ions was investigated in Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate nanofibers, which were prepared by forming a well-matched phase coherent interface between them. The resulting composite was applied as an efficient adsorbent for I(-) anions by forming an AgI precipitate, which also remained firmly attached to the substrates. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be easily dispersed in liquids and readily separated after purification. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The change in structure from the pristine sodium niobate to Ag2O anchored sodium niobate and to the used adsorbent was examined by using various characterization techniques. The effects of Ag(+) concentration, pH, equilibration time, ionic strength and competing ions on the iodide ion removal ability of the composite were studied. The Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate adsorbent showed a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for I(-) anions in basic solutions. Our results are useful for the further development of improved adsorbents for removing I(-) anions from basic wastewater.

  12. Effect of excess bismuth on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of strontium bismuth niobate ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Maya; Tanwar, Amit; Sreenivas, K.

    2013-01-01

    Excess Bismuth Strontium Bismuth Niobate (Sr 2 Bi 2 Nb 2 O 9 + x wt% Bi 2 O 3 ) ceramics were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method by varying x in the range (x=0%wt - 20%wt). X-ray diffraction studies reveal no significant shift in the peak positions as the Bi content increases from 0.0 to 5%wt. However, at a higher content of Bi beyond x = 5wt% secondary phases relating to Bi 2 O 3 are identified. The c-axis orientation is found to be minimum for SBN ceramic prepared with 5% excess bismuth whereas with further increase in excess Bi 2 O 3 addition during processing, SBN ceramics show a much stronger c-axis orientation. Room temperature dielectric constant measured at 100 KHz is found to increase from 117 to 130 with increase in Bi content from x = 0 to 10wt% suggesting Bi addition has make up for the bismuth losses at higher sintering temperature (1200℃), however with further increase in Bi content (x > 10wt%), the dielectric constant decreases, and could be due to the increased probability of segregation of Bi on the grains of SBN ceramics. The improvement in ferroelectric properties were obtained when the bismuth excess is increased from 0% to 5%. It may be observed that on increasing the excess bismuth to 5%, the transition temperature increases from 424 to 450℃, while further increasing to 10%, transition becomes slightly diffused and phase transition temperature gets decreased to 398℃, which may be due to the formation of secondary phase. 5% excess Bi is found to enhance the dielectric and ferroelectricity properties, and any further increase of Bi in excess (>10%) during processing is found to degrade the electrical and functional properties of SBN. (author)

  13. Crystallization of Reduced Strontium and Barium Niobate Perovskites from Borate Fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, B.; Sunshine, S.A.; Siegrist, T.; Jimenez, R.

    1991-01-01

    Single crystals of three AxNbO3 (A = Sr, Ba) reduced niobate cubic perovskites have been obtained by recrystallization of reduced ternary ceramic precursors from borate fluxes under high-vacuum. Product formation could be influenced by variation of the alkaline-earth metal oxide content of the flux,

  14. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium-potassium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politova, E. D.; Golubko, N. V.; Kaleva, G. M.; Mosunov, A. V.; Sadovskaya, N. V.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Kiselev, D. A.; Kislyuk, A. M.; Panda, P. K.

    Lead-free sodium-potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1-x)(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  15. Remarkable Strontium B-Site Occupancy in FerroelectricPb(Zr1-xTix)O3 Solid Solutions Doped with Cryolite-Type StrontiumNiobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltz, A.; Schmidt-Winkel, P.; Schossman, M.; Booth, C.H.; Albering, J.

    2007-04-26

    New high-performance ferroelectric materials based on Pb(Zr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x})O{sub 3} (PZT) that are doped with cryolite-type strontium niobate (SNO, Sr{sub 4}(Sr{sub 2-2y/3}Nb{sub 2+2y/3})O{sub 11+y}V{sub 0,1-y} with 0 {le} y {le} 1), hence denoted PZT:SNO, and their microscopic structure are described. The combination of exceptional piezoelectric properties, i.e. a piezoelectric strain constant of d{sub 33} {approx} 760 pm/V, with excellent stability and degradation resistance makes ferroelectric PZT:SNO solid solutions very attractive for use in novel and innovative piezoelectric actuator and transducer applications. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) analyses of PZT:SNO samples revealed that {approx}10 % of the Sr cations occupy the nominal B-sites of the perovskite-type PZT host lattice. This result was supported by EXAFS analyses of both a canonical SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite and two SNO model and reference compounds. Fit models that do not account for Sr cations on B-sites were ruled out. A clear Sr-Pb peak in Fourier transformed EXAFS data visually confirmed this structural model. The generation of temporary oxygen vacancies and the intricate defect chemistry induced by SNO-doping of PZT are crucial for the exceptional materials properties exhibited by PZT:SNO materials.

  16. Optical properties of Er{sup 3+}-doped strontium barium niobate nanocrystals obtained by thermal treatment in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: patharo@ull.es; Lahoz, F. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Platas, J. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Caceres, J.M. [Dep. of Edafologia y Geologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Perez, S. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dep. of Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Capuj, N. [Dep. of Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Martin, I.R. [Dep. of Fisica Fundamental Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna Avda Astrofisico Franscisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Measurements of the optical properties of Er{sup 3+} ions in strontium barium niobate glass and glass ceramics have been carried out. The glasses have been fabricated using a melt-quenching method, and the glass ceramic samples have been obtained from the glass precursor by a thermal treatment. The ceramic samples formed by a glassy phase, and a crystalline phase contains nanocrystals of Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) doped with Er{sup 3+} ions with a mean size of {approx}50 nm, as confirmed with XRD. Green up-conversion emission has been obtained under excitation at 800 nm, and the temporal evolution of this emission has been reported with the purpose of determining the involved up-conversion mechanism. These optical measures have confirmed that the Er{sup 3+} ions have been incorporated into the SBN matrix, after a thermal treatment, which produced an increment of the up-conversion efficiency.

  17. Electronic and Optical Properties of Sodium Niobate: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fritsch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much effort has been devoted to replace the most commonly used piezoelectric ceramic lead zirconate titanate Pb[ZrxTi1−x]O3 (PZT with a suitable lead-free alternative for memory or piezoelectric applications. One possible alternative to PZT is sodium niobate as it exhibits electrical and mechanical properties that make it an interesting material for technological applications. The high-temperature simple cubic perovskite structure undergoes a series of structural phase transitions with decreasing temperature. However, particularly the phases at room temperature and below are not yet fully characterised and understood. Here, we perform density functional theory calculations for the possible phases at room temperature and below and report on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the different phases in comparison to experimental findings.

  18. DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM IONS IN WATERS WITH A HIGH CONTENT OF SODIUM IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mitina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the influence of sodium ions on experimental determination of strontium ions concentration in waters with a high content of sodium ions by using emission flame photometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For the method of emission flame photometry it was shown that at a wavelength of 460.7 nm (spectral emission line of strontium the emission is linearly dependent on the concentration of sodium ions. The greatest impact of high concentrations of sodium ions on the result of determination the strontium ions concentration has been registered at low levels of strontium. The influence of nitric acid on the results is also discussed. In the case of using atomic absorption spectroscopy method no influence of sodium ions and nitric acid on the results of determination the strontium ions concentration was revealed. The metrological characteristics of both methods are evaluated.

  19. Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohtani, Tozo.

    1978-01-01

    The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

  20. Phase transition characteristics and associated piezoelectricity of potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyu; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Yang, Hui

    2015-08-14

    To achieve high piezoelectric activity and a wide sintering temperature range, the ceramic system concerning (1 - x)(K(0.48)Na(0.52))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O(3)-x[Bi(0.5)(Na(0.7)Ag(0.3))(0.5)](0.90) Zn(0.10)ZrO(3) was designed, and the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can drive a high d(33). Phase transition characteristics as well as their effects on the electrical properties were investigated systematically. The R-T coexistence phase boundary (0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) can be driven via modification with BNAZZ, and has been confirmed by XRD and temperature-dependent dielectric constants as well as Raman analysis, and the ceramics possess enhanced piezoelectric properties (d(33) ∼ 425 pC N(-1) and k(p) ∼ 0.43) and a high unipolar strain (∼0.3%). In addition, a wide sintering temperature range of 1050-1080 °C can warrant a large d(33) of 400-430 pC N(-1), which can benefit practical applications. As a result, the addition of BNAZZ is an effective method to improve the electrical properties (piezoelectricity and strain) and sintering behavior of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics.

  1. Modification of both d33 and TC in a potassium-sodium niobate ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we simultaneously achieved a giant d33 and a high TC in a lead-free piezoelectric ternary system of (1-x-y)K0.48Na0.52NbO3-xBiFeO3-yBi0.5Na0.5ZrO3 {(1-x-y)KNN-xBF-yBNZ}. Owing to the rhombohedral-orthorhombic-tetragonal (R-O-T) phase coexistence and the enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties, the ceramics with a composition of (x = 0.006, y = 0.04) show a giant d33 of ∼428 pC N(-1) together with a TC of ∼318 °C, thereby proving that the design of ternary systems is an effective way to achieve both high d33 and high TC in KNN-based materials. In addition, a good thermal stability for piezoelectricity was also observed in these ceramics (e.g., d33 > 390 pC N(-1), T ≤ 300 °C). This is the first time such a good comprehensive performance in potassium-sodium niobate materials has been obtained. As a result, we believe that this type of material system with both giant d33 and high TC is a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric devices.

  2. Effect of chemical pressure on competition and cooperation between polar and antiferrodistortive distortions in sodium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Mrinal; Mishra, S. K.; Mittal, R.; Sastry, P. U.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present results obtained from a combination of dielectric and x-ray diffraction measurements for compositional design of (1 -x )NaNb O3-x BaTi O3(NNBT x ) , which can induce interferroelectric phase transitions. Anomalies are observed in dielectric measurements performed for various compositions at 300 K, as well as at different temperatures for NNBT03. We observed the appearance(disappearance) of the superlattice reflections along with change in the intensities of the main perovskite peaks in the powder x-ray diffraction data, which provide clear evidences for structural phase transitions with composition and temperature. We found that increasing the concentration of BaTi O3 leads to the suppression of out-of-phase rotation of octahedra and an increment in tetragonality (c /a ratio), which promotes the polar mode at room temperature. The temperature-dependent powder diffraction study shows that the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase of pure sodium niobate gets suppressed for the composition x =0.03 , and the monoclinic phase C c gets stabilized at low temperature. The monoclinic phase is believed to provide for a flexible polarization rotation and is considered to be directly linked to the high-performance piezoelectricity in materials due to presence of more easy axes for spontaneous polarizations than the rhombohedral phase.

  3. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malič, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 °C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 °C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 °C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 °C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  4. Phase transitions of sodium niobate powder and ceramics, prepared by solid state synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruza, J.; Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Bobnar, V.; Kosec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phase transitions of sodium niobate, prepared by the solid state synthesis method, were examined using dielectric measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and high temperature x-ray diffraction, in order to contribute to the clarification of its structural behavior below 400 deg. C. Four phase transitions were detected in the ceramic sample using dielectric measurements and differential scanning calorimetry and the obtained temperatures were in a good agreement with previous reports for the transitions of the P polymorph. The anomaly observed by dielectric measurements in the vicinity of 150 deg. C was frequency dependent and could be related to the dynamics of the ferroelectric nanoregions. The phase transitions of the as-synthesized NaNbO 3 powder were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. The results show the existence of the Q polymorph at room temperature, not previously reported for the powder, which undergoes a transition to the R polymorph upon heating through a temperature region between 265 and 326.5 deg. C. This transition is mainly related to the displacement of Na into a more symmetric position and a minor change in the tilting system. The structures at room temperature, 250, 300, and 420 deg. C were refined by the Rietveld method and the evolution of the tilting system of the octahedral network and cationic displacement are reported.

  5. Effect of powder processing conditions on the electromechanical properties of lithium doped potassium sodium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensur-Alkoy, E.; Berksoy-Yavuz, A.

    2016-07-01

    Lithium doped potassium sodium niobate ceramics with (K0.50−x/2Na0.50−x/2Lix)NbO3 composition where x=0.04 and 0.07 were fabricated by solid state calcination and pressureless sintering methods. However, two different powder processing and calcination routes were used in this study and their effect on the structural and electrical properties were investigated and discussed. The routes were namely loose calcination and compact calcination. A general trend of decreasing grain size was observed in the sintered ceramics prepared from these powders. The most drastic effect was observed on the electromechanical properties of the samples, where the maximum strain of 7% lithium modified sample under an E-field of 50kV/cm was increased from 0.09% to 0.12% by changing processing route. Furthermore, hysteretic behavior of the strain was found to decrease. This tendency was also valid for ferroelectric hysteresis property, with remnant polarization (2Pr) increasing from 23μC/cm2 to 46μC/cm2. The improvements observed in the electrical properties were discussed on the basis of chemical homogeneity and uniform ionic distribution. (Author)

  6. PHYSICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ENHANCEMENT OF RARE-EARTH DOPED-POTASSIUM SODIUM NIOBATE (KNN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Mat Harttat Maziati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline niobate mainly potassium sodium niobate, (KxNa1-x NbO3 (abreviated as KNN has long attracted attention as piezoelectric materials as its high Curie temperature (Tc and piezoelectric properties. The volatility of alkaline element (K, Na is, however detrimental to the stoichiometry of KNN, contributing to the failure to achieve high-density structure and lead to the formation of intrinsic defects. By partially doping of several rare-earth elements, the inherent defects could be improved significantly. Therefore, considerable attempts have been made to develop doped-KNN based ceramic materials with high electrical properties. In this paper, these research activities are reviewed, including dopants type and doping role in KNN perovskite structure.

  7. Electromechanical properties of engineered lead free potassium sodium niobate based materials =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Asif

    vacancies whose concentration increases with Mn doping. Single crystals of potassium sodium niobate (KNN) were grown by a modified high temperature flux method. A boron-modified flux was used to obtain the crystals at a relatively low temperature. XRD, EDS and ICP analysis proved the chemical and crystallographic quality of the crystals. The grown KNN crystals exhibit higher dielectric permittivity (29,100) at the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition temperature, higher remnant polarization (19.4 ?C/cm2) and piezoelectric coefficient (160 pC/N) when compared with the standard KNN ceramics. KNN single crystals domain structure was characterized for the first time by piezoforce response microscopy. It could be observed that - oriented potassium sodium niobate (KNN) single crystals reveal a long range ordered domain pattern of parallel 180° domains with zig-zag 90° domains. From the comparison of KNN Single crystals to ceramics, It is argued that the presence in KNN single crystal (and absence in KNN ceramics) of such a long range order specific domain pattern that is its fingerprint accounts for the improved properties of single crystals. These results have broad implications for the expanded use of KNN materials, by establishing a relation between the domain patterns and the dielectric and ferroelectric response of single crystals and ceramics and by indicating ways of achieving maximised properties in KNN materials. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Composition-Driven Phase Boundary and Piezoelectricity in Potassium-Sodium Niobate-Based Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2015-09-16

    The piezoelectricity of (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics strongly depends on the phase boundary types as well as the doped compositions. Here, we systematically studied the relationships between the compositions and phase boundary types in (K,Na) (Nb,Sb)O3-Bi0.5Na0.5AO3 (KNNS-BNA, A=Hf, Zr, Ti, Sn) ceramics; then their piezoelectricity can be readily modified. Their phase boundary types are determined by the doped elements. A rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary can be driven in the compositions range of 0.035≤BNH≤0.040 and 0.035≤BNZ≤0.045; an orthorhombic-tetragonal (O-T) phase boundary is formed in the composition range of 0.005≤BNT≤0.02; and a pure O phase can be only observed regardless of BNS content (≤0.01). In addition, the phase boundary types strongly affect their corresponding piezoelectricities. A larger d33 (∼440-450 pC/N) and a higher d33* (∼742-834 pm/V) can be attained in KNNS-BNA (A=Zr and Hf) ceramics due to the involvement of R-T phase boundary, and unfortunately KNNS-BNA (A=Sn and Ti) ceramics possess a relatively poor piezoelectricity (d33≤200 and d33*piezoelectricity and phase boundary types were also discussed. We believe that comprehensive research can design more excellent ceramic systems concerning potassium-sodium niobate.

  9. Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

    2014-02-19

    Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ∼490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33∼390-490 pC/N and TC∼217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last".

  10. Fatigue properties and impedance analysis of potassium sodium niobate-strontium titanate transparent ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Fan, Huiqing; Lei, Shenhui; Wang, Ju; Tian, Hailin [Northwestern Polytechnical University, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highly transparent ferroelectric ceramics based on 0.9K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3}-0.1SrTiO{sub 3} were prepared using a pressure-less solid-state sintering method without using hot isostatic pressing and spark plasma sintering. An independence electromechanical response of bipolar switching cycles (S{sub 33} only degraded 3.2 % up to 10{sup 7} cycles) was presented in this transparent ceramics, which indicated an extremely stable property under electric field. From impedance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, it was concluded that such optical transparency and fatigue-resistant behaviors were mainly attributed to the lower density of oxygen vacancies in the ceramics. (orig.)

  11. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  12. Adsorption of strontium on different sodium-enriched bentonites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Sanja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bentonites from three different deposits (Wyoming, TX, USA and Bogovina, Serbia with similar cation exchange capacities were sodium enriched and tested as adsorbents for Sr2+ in aqueous solutions. X-Ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful Na-exchange. The textural properties of the bentonite samples were determined using low-temperature the nitrogen physisorption method. Significant differences in the textural properties between the different sodium enriched bentonites were found. Adsorption was investigated with respect to adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time and the initial concentration of Sr2+. The adsorption capacity increased with pH. In the pH range from 4.0–8.5, the amount of adsorbed Sr2+ was almost constant but 2–3 times smaller than at pH ≈11. Further experiments were performed at the unadjusted pH since extreme alkaline conditions are environmentally hostile and inapplicable in real systems. The adsorption capacity of all the investigated adsorbents toward Sr2+ was similar under the investigated conditions, regardless of significant differences in the specific surface areas. It was shown and confirmed by the Dubinin–Radushkevich model that the cation exchange mechanism was the dominant mechanism of Sr2+ adsorption. Their developed microporous structures contributed to the Sr2+ adsorption process. The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second-order model. The isotherm data were best fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 45001

  13. Evidence for existence of functional monoclinic phase in sodium niobate based solid solution by powder neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jauhari, Mrinal; Mittal, R.; Krishna, P. S. R.; Reddy, V. R.; Chaplot, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out systematic temperature-dependent neutron diffraction measurements in conjunction with dielectric spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K for sodium niobate based compounds (1-x) NaNbO3-xBaTiO3 (NNBTx). The dielectric constant is measured as a function of both temperature and frequency. It shows an anomaly at different temperatures in cooling and heating cycles and exhibits a large thermal hysteresis of ˜150 K for the composition x = 0.03. The dielectric constant is found to be dispersive in nature and suggests a relaxor ferroelectric behavior. In order to explore structural changes as a function of temperature, we analyzed the powder neutron diffraction data for the compositions x = 0.03 and 0.05. Drastic changes are observed in the powder profiles near 2θ ˜ 30.6°, 32.1°, and 34.6° in the diffraction pattern below 200 K during cooling and above 190 K in heating cycles, respectively. The disappearance of superlattice reflection and splitting in main perovskite peaks provide a signature for structural phase transition. We observed stabilization of a monoclinic phase (Cc) at low temperature. This monoclinic phase is believed to provide a flexible polarization rotation and considered to be directly linked to the high performance piezoelectricity in materials. The thermal hysteresis for composition x = 0.03 is larger than that for x = 0.05. This suggests that the addition of BaTiO3 to NaNbO3 suppresses the thermal hysteresis. It is also observed that the structural phase transition temperature decreases upon increasing the dopant concentration.

  14. Synthesis of potassium sodium niobate nanostructures by hydrothermal combining with the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xianghe; Wang, Wen, E-mail: wangwen@hit.edu.cn; Ke, Hua; Rao, Jiancun; Zhou, Yu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We prepared novel metastable perovskite K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} microstructures with a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal via hydrothermal method with SDS surfactant-assist. - Highlights: • KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}NbO{sub 3} nanowires were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Metastable K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} microfingers have a morphotropic phase boundary. • Sodium dodecyl sulfate could improve the crystallinity of K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} powders. • The Curie temperature of rhombohedral-tetragonal KNN was 555 °C. - Abstract: In this paper the K{sub 1−x}Na{sub x}NbO{sub 3}(KNN) nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using KNN gel powders as precursors. KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic KNN nanowires and perovskite KNN microfingers with a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between rhombohedral and tetragonal characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were obtained at 190 °C and 220 °C, respectively. KNbO{sub 3}-type orthorhombic KNN nanowires had rectangular shape and the growth direction of these nanowires was [0 0 1]. The rhombohedral-tetragonal KNN microfingers were metastable, and changed the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase into the orthorhombic phase via thermal treatment at 600 °C then cooled down to room temperature. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant was added to the hydrothermal reaction. It was found that SDS could improve the crystallinity of the rhombohedral-tetragonal K{sub 0.52}Na{sub 0.48}NbO{sub 3} and reduce the impurity effectively. The tetragonal-cubic phase transition temperature (Tc) of the rhombohedral-tetragonal powders appeared at 555 °C.

  15. Impregnation of sodium titanate onto DMAPAA-grafted fiber under mild reaction conditions and its strontium removal performance from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Mizuki; Kono, Michitaka; Goto, Shun-ichi; Kawai-Noma, Shigeko; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Fujiwara, Kunio; Sugo, Takanobu

    2015-01-01

    Sodium titanate was impregnated onto a commercially available 6-nylon fiber by means of radiation-induced graft polymerization of dimethyaminopropyl acrylamide (DMAPAA) and subsequent chemical modifications. A peroxo complex of titanium anions was bound onto the DMAPAA-grafted fiber before the bound titanium species was converted to sodium titanate through precipitation with sodium hydroxide. Impregnation percentage of sodium titanate of the fiber was constant at 20% in the range of sodium hydroxide concentration in a mixture of methanol and water at a volume fraction of methanol of 80% of 0.001 to 1 M, whereas the removal percentage of strontium from seawater leveled off at 80% above a sodium hydroxide concentration in water of 0.1 M. Determination of adsorption isotherms in seawater demonstrates that the sodium-titanate-impregnated fiber with an impregnation percentage of 10% exhibited 2.6-fold higher amount of strontium adsorbed in seawater per g of sodium titanate (8.8 mg-Sr/g) than a commercially available granular adsorbent for strontium, SrTreat ® (3.4 mg-Sr/g). (author)

  16. Continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation generated in single-pass sum-frequency generation with periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, J; She, C-Y; Williams, B P; Vance, J D; Acott, P E; Kawahara, T D

    2009-04-01

    With two cw single-mode Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm and a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, 11 mW of 2 kHz/100 ms bandwidth single-mode tunable 589 nm cw radiation has been detected using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The demonstrated conversion efficiency is approximately 3.2%[W(-1) cm(-1)]. This compact solid-state light source has been used in a solid-state-dye laser hybrid sodium fluorescence lidar transmitter to measure temperatures and winds in the upper atmosphere (80-105 km); it is being implemented into the transmitter of a mobile all-solid-state sodium temperature and wind lidar under construction.

  17. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  18. Textured and tungsten-bronze-niobate-doped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O3 piezoceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soller, Thomas; Bathelt, Robert; Benkert, Katrin; Bodinger, Hermann; Schuh, Carsten; Schlenkrich, Falko

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an alkaline-earth niobate doping in tungsten-bronze (TB) stoichiometry on the piezoelectric properties and the phase transition temperatures of lead-free (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O 3 ceramics were investigated. In particular, the TB compounds barium niobate (BN), barium sodium niobate (BNN) and strontium calcium sodium niobate (SCNN) were investigated. The TB-modified ceramics show promising piezoelectric properties with large-signal piezo coefficients, d 33 * lose to 400 pm/V, planar coupling coefficients, k p , up to 0.45 and Curie temperatures of approximately 310 .deg. C. In addition, the effect of texturing on the undoped (K,Na,Li)(Nb,Ta)O 3 base composition via templated grain growth (TGG) with microcrystalline NaNbO 3 templates was examined. Lotgering factors up to 81% and strain enhancements by a factor 1.5 with large-signal values of d 33 * up to 550 pm/V could be achieved in the textured samples.

  19. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  20. Diffusion mechanisms of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.

    1986-01-01

    For a porous water-saturated material where diffusion in the porewater, sorption on the solid material and diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) occur, a diffusion equation can be derived where the apparent diffusivity includes two terms. One represents diffusion in the pore-water, the other surface diffusion. In this research diffusion mechanisms were studied. The apparent diffusivities of strontium, cesium and cobalt in compacted sodium bentonite were measured by a non-steady state method. The sorption factors were adjusted using different sodium chloride solutions, groundwater and addition of EDTA for saturation of the bentonite samples. The corresponding sorption factors were measured by a batch method. The results suggest that cations diffuse also while being sorbed. A combined pore diffusion-surface diffusion model has been used to explain the transport and the corresponding diffusivities have been evaluated. The surface diffusivities (D/sub s/) of Sr and Cs were 8-9 x 10 -12 m 2 /s and 4-7 x 10 -13 m 2 /s respectively. The pore diffusivity epsilon D/sub p/ of Cs was 3.5 x 10 -11 m 2 /s which has been used also for Sr. The sorption mechanisms of Co seems to be different from that of Sr or Cs and the results allow no specific conclusions of the diffusion mechanisms of Co. The apparent diffusivity of Co ranged from 2 x 10 -14 to 7 x 10 -14 m 2 /s. The anionic Co-EDTA seems to follow some other diffusion mechanism than the cations

  1. Effect of sodium and strontium modifiers on microstructure and tensile properties of LM-13 Al-Si Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Q.A.; Ikram, N.; Ahmed, R.

    2006-01-01

    During present research work LM 13 aluminium silicon alloy was prepared using high purity aluminium ingot and various master alloys of Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Al-Fe and Al-Mg. A gas fired crucible pit type furnace was used to prepare various heats of LM 13 alloy. Degassing procedure was carried out by using perforated bell type plunger using the degassing tablet. Modification was performed by plunging the modifier at the bottom of the crucible containing the molten metal. Three types of modifiers sodium salt, metallic sodium and strontium in the form of Al-Sr master alloy were used in order to evaluate the microstructure and tensile properties of the alloy. Degassed, unmodified and modified test samples for metallurgical testing purposes were prepared according to the standard procedures. An optical UFX-DX Nikon microscope and Hitachi S3400N scanning electron microscope were used for the observation of microstructural studies of the samples. Similarly tensile properties were determined using Autograph AG-IS series, 20KN Shimadzu Universal Tester. However hardness measurements were carried out using Shimadzu HMV micro hardness testing machine. Experimental results proved that the addition of modifiers improved the microstructures as well as the mechanical properties of the alloy. The present result also showed that sodium and strontium modifiers had almost similar beneficial effects on the microstructure but Sr-modifier showed improved tensile properties of LM 13 alloy. However, the salt method was not so effective if the same was compared to the metallic sodium and strontium modifiers. (author)

  2. The diffusivity of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel in concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.; Rantanen, J.

    1986-07-01

    The engineering barriers suggested to be used for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes in Finland are concrete and crushed rock or mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite. In the repository the barriers are saturated by groundwater and radionuclides may be released by diffusion through the barries. For safety analysis, the mechanisms by which the nuclides migrate and corresponding parameters should be known. In this study diffusion measurements on different types of concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock were carried out. Radioactive isotopes of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel were used as tracers. The apparent diffusivities (Dsub(a)) were evaluated on the basis of the measurements. The apparent diffusivity of cesium in concretes was 10 -14 ...10 -15 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on cement where it diffuses slowly. Part of strontium propably penetrates in the rock ballast by diffusion. The diffusivities of carbon and nickel in the concrete was low. The upper limit was evaluated to be Dsub(a) -14 m 2 /s. The diffusivity of cesium in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite varies between 0.5x10 -12 and 7x10 -12 m 2 /s. Cesium was mainly sorbed on the rock. The diffusivity of strontium was 2x10 -11 ...2x10 -12 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on bentonite. The diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) seems to be a additional migration mechanism in the case of cesium and strontium in the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The diffusivity of carbon in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 6x10 -11 ...4x10 -12 m 2 /s. No sorption was found in the case of carbon. The measured Dsub(a) of nickel in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 4x10 -14 ...2x10 -15 m 2 /s. The experimental arrangement was not, however, in the stationary state and the more correct values would propably be 10 -13 ...10 -14 m 2 /s. No surface diffusion was found in the case of nickel. (author)

  3. Effect of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant on electrical and optical properties of potassium sodium niobate silicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsiri, Ploypailin [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sirisoonthorn, Somnuk [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Pengpat, Kamonpan, E-mail: kamonpan.p@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The KNN–SiO{sub 2} doped Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramics was prepared by incorporation method. • High dielectric constant (458.41 at 100 kHz) and low loss (0.0005) could be obtained. • TEM and SEM confirmed the existence of KNN crystals embedded in glass matrix. • The Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant causes insignificant effect on modifying E{sub g} value. - Abstract: In this study, transparent glass-ceramics from potassium sodium niobate (KNN)-silicate glass system doped with erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were successfully prepared by incorporation method. KNN was added in glass batches as heterogeneous nucleating agent. The KNN powder was mixed with SiO{sub 2} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} dopant with KNN and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} content varied between 70–80 and 0.5–1.0 mol%, respectively. Each batch was subsequently melted at 1300 °C for 15 min in a platinum crucible using an electric furnace. The quenched glasses were then subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures for 4 h. XRD results showed that the prepared glass ceramics contained crystals of KNN solid solution. In contrary, dielectric constant (ϵ{sub r}) and dielectric loss (tan δ) were found to increase with increasing heat treatment temperature. Additionally, optical properties such as absorbance and energy band gap have been investigated.

  4. Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.P.; Krasnobaeva, O.N.; Nosova, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

  5. A comparative clinical study investigating the efficacy of a test dentifrice containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm sodium fluoride versus a marketed control dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nathan; Mason, Stephen; Jeffery, Peter; Welton, Helen; Tobin, Maira; O'Shea, Caoimhe; Browne, Mairead

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy in reducing dentin hypersensitivity of an 8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice to a marketed control 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, 1450 ppm sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice after twice-daily brushing for two, four, and eight weeks. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, two-arm parallel group, eight-week longitudinal clinical study with seventy-nine subjects, stratified based on baseline tooth sensitivity (Schiff score, Yeaple). Subjects brushed with either an 8% strontium acetate-based dentifrice or a marketed 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice twice daily for approximately one minute. At screening, baseline, weeks two, four, and eight, subjects' tooth sensitivity was determined through both evaporative (Schiff and Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]) and tactile stimuli (Yeaple probe). Subject assessments using each stimulus were performed by the same examiner throughout the study. Seventy-seven subjects completed this clinical study. Both subject groups exhibited significant cumulative reductions from baseline to Days 14, 28, and 56 in dentin hypersensitivity as measured by Schiff, Yeaple, and VAS (for the 8% strontium acetate group, p carbonate group, p = 0.0031 for Yeaple at Day 14, p = 0.0015 for VAS at Day 14, and p 0.05) were observed between treatments for any of the time points and measures except for tactile sensitivity at Day 56, for which the 8% strontium acetate-based dentifrice was statistically superior (p = 0.0391) to the control 8% arginine calcium carbonate dentifrice. The 8% strontium acetate, 1040 ppm sodium fluoride dentifrice provided significant reductions in dentin hypersensitivity (p carbonate dentifrice showed no significant differences (p > 0.05) apart from tactile (Yeaple) sensitivity at week 8, where the 8% strontium acetate-based dentifrice showed significant improvement over the control (p = 0.0391).

  6. Strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennaro, G.P.; Haney, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite, a compound having the formula: M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 wherein M is calcium, strontium, barium, lead, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, cadmium, magnesium, aluminium or a rare earth metal, is provided as a support medium for strontium-82 in a strontium-82/rubidium-82 parent-daughter radionuclide generator

  7. Effect of the synthesis temperature of sodium nona-titanate on batch kinetics of strontium-ion adsorption from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceille, A.; Weinzaepfel, E.; Grandjean, A.; Merceille, A.; Weinzaepfel, E.; Barre, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium titanate materials are promising inorganic ion exchangers for the adsorption of strontium from aqueous solutions. Sodium nona-titanate exhibits a layered structure consisting of titanate layers and exchangeable sodium ions between the layers. The materials used in this study include samples synthesized by a hydrothermal method at temperatures between 60 degrees C and 200 degrees C. Their structure, composition, and morphology were investigated with X-Ray diffraction measurements; thermogravimetric, compositional and surface area analyses, and scanning electron microscopy. The structure, composition, and morphology depended on the synthesis temperature. Batch kinetics experiments for the removal of strontium from aqueous solutions were performed, and the data were fitted by a pseudo-second-order reaction model and a diffusive model. The strontium extraction capacity also depended on the synthesis temperature and exhibited a maximum for samples synthesized at 100 degrees C. The sorption process occurs in one or two diffusion-controlled steps that also depend on the synthesis temperature. These diffusion-limited steps are the boundary-layer diffusion and intra-particle diffusion in the case of pure nona-titanate synthesized at temperatures lower than 170 degrees C, and only intra-particle diffusion in the case of nona-titanate synthesized at 200 degrees C. (authors)

  8. Lithium niobate packaging challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, E.J.; Holmes, R.J.; Jander, R.B.; Schelling, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium niobate integrated optic devices outside of the research laboratory is predicated on the development of a sound packaging method. The authors present a discussion of the many issues that face the development of a viable, robust packaging technology. The authors emphasize the interaction of lithium niobate's physical properties with available packaging materials and technologies. The broad range of properties (i.e. electro-optic, piezo-electric, pyro-electric, photorefractive...) that make lithium niobate an interesting material in many device applications also make it a packaging challenge. The package design, materials and packaging technologies must isolate the device from the environment so that lithium niobate's properties do not adversely affect the device performance

  9. Modeling strontium-cesium-calcium-magnesium-sodium ion exchange equilibria on chabazite with the Wilson equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Chabazite zeolites are used at ORNL for decontamination of wastewaters containing 90 Sr and 137 Cs. Treatability studies have shown that chabazite can remove trace amounts of these nuclides from wastewaters containing much higher concentrations of calcium and magnesium. The design of ion exchange columns for multicomponent systems requires a method for predicting multicomponent equilibria from binary or ternary experiments, since the number of experiments required for an empirical equilibrium model is generally not feasible. Binary interaction parameters for the Wilson equation were used to predict solid-phase activity coefficients for the five-component system, and the sum of squares of deviations between experimental and predicted solution concentrations for the data points available was calculated. The average deviation per data point for the five-component system was about the same as for the calcium-magnesium-sodium ternary system

  10. STUDIES ON THE INHIBITION OF INTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE STRONTIUM. 3. THE EFFECT OF ADMINISTRATION OF SODIUM ALGINATE IN FOOD AND IN DRINKING WATER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WALDRON-EDWARD, D; SKORYNA, S C; PAUL, T M

    1964-11-07

    A method is reported which permits selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium from ingested food material, permitting calcium to be available to the body. Studies were carried out by measuring bone uptake of Sr(89) and Ca(45) when various amounts of sodium alginate were fed with the diet. Long-term studies were made in which two different levels of radioactivity were used, to determine the pattern of Sr(89) deposition with continuous intake of binding agent. It was found that administration of sodium alginate as a jelly overcomes the problem of constipation and effectively reduces Sr(89) uptake, up to 83%. This fact represents a significant finding with respect to the use of the compound in human subjects. Addition of sodium alginate to drinking water is effective with low levels of Sr(89) intake.This naturally occurring water-soluble macromolecular substance possesses several advantages in use for the suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium when compared with synthetic ion exchange resins: there is no disturbance of electrolyte balance; efficiency is not reduced by treatment over a prolonged period of time; and finally, the product is palatable.

  11. Visible light absorbance enhanced by nitrogen embedded in the surface layer of Mn-doped sodium niobate crystals, detected by ultra violet - visible spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electric conductivity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molak, A., E-mail: andrzej.molak@us.edu.pl; Pilch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2016-05-28

    Sodium niobate crystals doped with manganese ions, Na(NbMn)O{sub 3}, were annealed in a nitrogen N{sub 2} flow at 600, 670, and 930 K. It was verified that simultaneous doping with Mn ions and annealing in nitrogen enhanced the photocatalytic features of sodium niobate. The transmission in the ultraviolet-visible range was measured at room temperature. The absorbance edge is in the range from 3.4 to 2.3 eV. The optical band gap E{sub gap} = 1.2–1.3 eV was evaluated using the Tauc relation. Crystals annealed at 670 K and 930 K exhibited an additional shift of the absorption edge of ∼20–40 nm toward longer wavelengths. The optical energy gap narrowed as a result of the superimposed effect of Mn and N co-doping. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy test showed that N ions incorporated into the surface layer. The valence band consisted of O 2p states hybridized with Nb 4d, Mn 3d, and N 2s states. The disorder detected in the surroundings of Nb and O ions decreased due to annealing. The binding energy of oxygen ions situated within the surface layer was E{sub B} ≈ 531 eV. The other contributions were assigned to molecular contamination. The contribution centered at 535.5 eV vanished after annealing at 600 K and 670 K. The contribution centered at 534 eV vanished after annealing at 930 K. The N{sub 2} annealing partly removed carbonates from the surfaces of the samples. In the 480–950 K range, the electric conductivity activation energy, E{sub a} = 0.7–1.2 eV, was comparable with the optical E{sub gap}. The electric permittivity showed dispersion in the 0.1–800 kHz range that corresponds to the occurrence of defects.

  12. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  13. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  14. Dissolution of barite for the analysis of strontium isotopes and other chemical and isotopic variations using aqueous sodium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G.N.; Simmons, E.C.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A simple procedure for preparing barite samples for chemical and isotopic analysis is described. Sulfate ion, in barite, in the presence of high concentrations of aqueous sodium carbonate, is replaced by carbonate. This replacement forms insoluble carbonates with the cations commonly in barite: Ba, Sr, Ca and Pb. Sulfate is released into the solution by the carbonate replacement and is separated by filtration. The aqueous sulfate can then be reprecipitated for analysis of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes. The cations in the carbonate phase can be dissolved by acidifying the solid residue. Sr can be separated from the solution for Sr isotope analysis by ion-exchange chromatography. The sodium carbonate used contains amounts of Sr which will affect almost all barite 87Sr 86Sr ratios by less than 0.00001 at 1.95?? of the mean. The procedure is preferred over other techniques used for preparing barite samples for the determination of 87Sr 86Sr ratios because it is simple, rapid and enables simultaneous determination of many compositional parameters on the same material. ?? 1985.

  15. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  16. Isotope exchange of strontium and molybdate ions in strontium polymolybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneous isotopic exchange reactions in strontium polymolybdates of Sr 2+ and MoO 4 2- ions in the strontium nitrate and sodium molybdate solutions have been studied using 90 Sr and 99 Mo as tracers. Electrometric methods have been used to study the compositions of strontium molybdates obtained by adding strontium chloride to a progressively acidified solution of sodium molybdate. It has been found that the exchange fraction increases with increasing chain length of strontium polymolybdate. The exchange equilibrium constant (K ex ) has been calculated between 298 and 348 K as well as ΔG deg, ΔH deg and ΔS deg. The results indicate that Sr 2+ cations have a much higher affinity for exchangers than MoO 4 2- anions. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm it has been shown that the exchange capacity (X m ) for both ions is affected by the ion adsorption process at low temperatures and by the ion exchange process at high temperatures. At high concentrations, the recrystallization process contributes to on the cation exchange but is ineffective on the anion exchange mechanism. (author)

  17. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  18. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  19. Alloying in an Intercalation Host: Metal Titanium Niobates as Anodes for Rechargeable Alkali-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Swain, Diptikanta; Araujo, Rafael B; Shi, Songxin; Ahuja, Rajeev; Row, Tayur N Guru; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2018-02-02

    We discuss here a unique flexible non-carbonaceous layered host, namely, metal titanium niobates (M-Ti-niobate, M: Al 3+ , Pb 2+ , Sb 3+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ), which can synergistically store both lithium ions and sodium ions via a simultaneous intercalation and alloying mechanisms. M-Ti-niobate is formed by ion exchange of the K + ions, which are specifically located inside galleries between the layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO 6 and NbO 6 octahedral units in the sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO 5 ). Drastic volume changes (approximately 300-400 %) typically associated with an alloying mechanism of storage are completely tackled chemically by the unique chemical composition and structure of the M-Ti-niobates. The free space between the adjustable Ti/Nb octahedral layers easily accommodates the volume changes. Due to the presence of an optimum amount of multivalent alloying metal ions (50-75 % of total K + ) in the M-Ti-niobate, an efficient alloying reaction takes place directly with ions and completely eliminates any form of mechanical degradation of the electroactive particles. The M-Ti-niobate can be cycled over a wide voltage range (as low as 0.01 V) and displays remarkably stable Li + and Na + ion cyclability (>2 Li + /Na + per formula unit) for widely varying current densities over few hundreds to thousands of successive cycles. The simultaneous intercalation and alloying storage mechanisms is also studied within the density functional theory (DFT) framework. DFT expectedly shows a very small variation in the volume of Al-titanium niobate following lithium alloying. Moreover, the theoretical investigations also conclusively support the occurrence of the alloying process of Li ions with the Al ions along with the intercalation process during discharge. The M-Ti-niobates studied here demonstrate a paradigm shift in chemical design of electrodes and will pave the way for the development of a multitude of improved electrodes

  20. Determination of barium and strontium in Basub(x)Srsub(1-x)Nbsub(2)Osub(6) monocrystals and raw materials after their solvent ' extraction separation with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazolone-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizonenko, N.T.; Egorova, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of milligram amounts of barium and strontium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazolone-5 solutions in various diluents has been examined. The possibility has been shown of using the reagent for extraction separation of the elements for determining the stoichiometric composition of barium- and strontium-based compounds. Conditions have been studied for separation of barium and strontium at their different ratios by the chromate method in the presence of EDTA. A procedure has been worked out of determining barium and strontium in the estimation of stoichiometric composition of charge and single crystals of barium-strontium niobates of different composition

  1. Applicability of sodium alginate in decorporation therapy of strontium radioisotopes in human being; Aplicabilidade do alginato de sodio na terapia de decorporacao de radioisotopos de estroncio em seres humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Aloisio Cordilha

    1999-10-01

    The increasing release of fission products from nuclear weapon tests in the environment has been rising the levels of radioactive contamination of food chains caused by the fall-out of these elements. In cases of accidental exposure, human subjects could be submitted to an internal contamination, which is likely to include several radionuclides. Special concern must be given, however, to the radioactive isotopes of strontium, cesium and iodine, along with the highly radio toxic transuranium elements like cerium. It was found that sodium alginate, a polyelectrolyte commonly used in food industry and obtained from brown algae (Phaeophyceae), provides the selective suppression of absorption of radioactive strontium presented in the ingested food material with no disturbance of the electrolyte balance nor undesirable side effects, even for a long term treatment. Moreover, these patterns were maintained when alginate was associated to other decontamination additives, specially those related to the other radioisotopes mentioned above, as, in this case, losses in the effectiveness, mutual interference or adverse health effects were not detected. These conclusions ground the discussion about the present trend in the usual choice of EDTA/DTPA complex therapy rather than of alginate therapy for medical assistance of radiocontaminated patients, although they corroborate the efficiency and usefulness of alginate salts in situations related to extensive intakes of strontium radioisotopes alone or associated to other fission products. The purpose of the present work is to make a general review of the alginate therapy as well as to discuss its present and future therapeutic importance from the scientific and institutional points of view. (author)

  2. Synthesis of lithium niobate and monocrystal growth by Czochralski method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzuweit, K.

    1988-01-01

    The qualitative analysis of lithium niobate by x-ray analysis and optical microscopy is presented. The lithium niobate compound was obtained by synthesis using niobium oxides and lithium carbonates. The lithium niobate monocrystal growth was done by Czochralski method. (M.C.K.)

  3. sodium

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les initiatives de réduction de la consommation de sel qui visent l'ensemble de la population et qui ciblent la teneur en sodium des aliments et sensibilisent les consommateurs sont susceptibles de réduire la consommation de sel dans toutes les couches de la population et d'améliorer la santé cardiovasculaire. Ce projet a ...

  4. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  5. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  6. Uptake behavior of titanium molybdophosphate for cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavari, R.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Huang, Y.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates uptake of cesium and strontium from aqueous solution similar to nuclear waste on three samples of titanium molybdophosphate (TMP) synthesized under various conditions. Effects of concentration of sodium nitrate, pH and contact time on the uptake of cesium and strontium have been studied by bath method. The results showed that TMP has high affinity toward cesium and strontium at pH > 2 and relatively low concentration of sodium nitrate. Kinetic data indicated that cesium uptake process to achieve equilibrium was faster than strontium. Cesium and strontium breakthrough curves were examined at 25 deg C using column packed with H 3 O + form of TMP and breakthrough curves showed symmetrical S-shaped profiles. At the same time, the calculated breakthrough capacity for cesium was higher than strontium. The results of desorption studies showed that over 99% of cesium and strontium was washed out of column by using 4 M NH 4 Cl solution. This study suggests that TMP can have great potential applications for the removal of strontium and specially cesium from nuclear waste solution. (author)

  7. Catalytic oxidation of soot over alkaline niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecchi, G.; Cabrera, B.; Buljan, A.; Delgado, E.J.; Gordon, A.L.; Jimenez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► No previous reported studies about alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation. ► NaNbO 3 and KNbO 3 perovskite-type oxides show lower activation energy than other lanthanoid perovskite-type oxides. ► The alkaline niobate does not show deactivation by metal loss. - Abstract: The lack of studies in the current literature about the assessment of alkaline niobates as catalysts for soot oxidation has motivated this research. In this study, the synthesis, characterization and assessment of alkaline metal niobates as catalysts for soot combustion are reported. The solids MNbO 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb) are synthesized by a citrate method, calcined at 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, 750 °C, and characterized by AAS, N 2 adsorption, XRD, O 2 -TPD, FTIR and SEM. All the alkaline niobates show catalytic activity for soot combustion, and the activity depends basically on the nature of the alkaline metal and the calcination temperature. The highest catalytic activity, expressed as the temperature at which combustion of carbon black occurs at the maximum rate, is shown by KNbO 3 calcined at 650 °C. At this calcination temperature, the catalytic activity follows an order dependent on the atomic number, namely: KNbO 3 > NaNbO 3 > LiNbO 3 . The RbNbO 3 solid do not follow this trend presumably due to the perovskite structure was not reached. The highest catalytic activity shown by of KNbO 3 , despite the lower apparent activation energy of NaNbO 3 , stress the importance of the metal nature and suggests the hypothesis that K + ions are the active sites for soot combustion. It must be pointed out that alkaline niobate subjected to consecutive soot combustion cycles does not show deactivation by metal loss, due to the stabilization of the alkaline metal inside the perovskite structure.

  8. Optical cleaning of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesters, Michael

    2010-01-15

    An all-optical method for the removal of photoexcitable electrons from photorefractive centers to get rid of optical damage in lithium niobate crystals is presented, the so-called ''optical cleaning''. The method combines the photovoltaic drift of electrons with ionic charge compensation at sufficiently high temperatures of about 180 C. Optimum choice of the light pattern plus heat dramatically decreases the concentration of photoexcitable electrons in the exposed region leading to a suppression of optical damage. Experiments with slightly iron-doped lithium niobate crystals have shown an increase of the threshold for optical damage of more than 1000 compared to those of untreated crystals. (orig.)

  9. Micro- and nanostructuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, Holger

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the application of the ion-beam-enhanced-etching (IBEE) technique for the fabrication of different optical elements, among these photonic crystals, in lithium niobate, was studied. The development of a mask technology fitted to the requirements of the IBEE technique as well as a simulation of the process were performed. Hereby the limitations of the technique in view on minimal structure sizes and structure quality were analyzed. In chapter 1 first the material lithium niobate with its properties and the structuration procedures studied hitherto in the literature is presented. Chapter 2 presents the functionality of the IBEE process and describes the studies on the application of IBEE in lithium niobate performed in the framework of this thesis. In chapter 3 the experimental conditions of all applied processes of the IBEE procedure, the processes used for the mask fabrication, as well all further applied methods and technologies are summarized. Chapter 4 deals with the mask fabrication. The requirements on the masks and the developments necessary for their fulfilment are studied. In chapter 5 the performed simulation of the irradiation, annealing, and etching process is described. This simulation makes the prediciton of the geometry of the components from the process parameters and vice versa the determination of parameters for the reaching of an optimal element geometry possible. In chapter 6 the application of the technique for the fabrication of photonic-crystal membranes and their optical characterization is described. Chapter 7 shows the fabrication of different waveguide and diffractive elements in lithium niobate by means of IBEE.

  10. Effect of competing cations on strontium sorption to surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The following study was conducted to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K d 'S) of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine K d 's which describe the partitioning of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A surficial sediment was mixed with synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically simulate wastewater disposed to infiltrations ponds near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the INEL with respect to major ionic character and pH. The effects of variable concentrations of competing cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) on strontium sorption were investigated at a fixed pH of 8.00. The pH of the natural system shows no appreciable variation, whereas a marked variability in cation concentration has been noted. Strontium sorption was impacted to a greater degree by the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution than by the presence of sodium or potassium. However, extreme sodium solution concentrations of 1.0 to 5.0 g/L dramatically reduced strontium sorption. In all cases, strontium K d 's decreased as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution increased. Linear isotherm model K d 's ranged from 12.0 to 84.7 mL/g. Analysis of data from these experiments indicated that moderate concentrations of calcium and magnesium (less than 40 mg/L) and high concentrations of sodium (1.0 to 5.0 g/L) in wastewater increase strontium mobility by decreasing the sorption of strontium on surficial sediments beneath infiltration ponds at the INEL

  11. Crystal structure and phase transitions of sodium potassium niobate perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, J.; Malic, B.; Dkhil, B.; Jenko, D.; Cilensek, J.; Kosec, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the crystal structure and the phase transitions of K xNa 1- xNbO 3 (0.4 ≤ x ≤ 0.6). X-ray diffraction measurements were used to follow the change of the unit-cell parameters and the symmetry in the temperature range 100-800 K. At room temperature all the compositions exhibited a monoclinic metric of the unit cell with a small monoclinic distortion (90.32° ≤ β ≤ 90.34°). No major change of symmetry was evidenced in the investigated compositional range, which should be characteristic of the morphotropic phase-boundary region. With increasing temperature, the samples underwent first-order monoclinic-tetragonal and tetragonal-cubic transitions. Only the potassium-rich phases were rhombohedral at 100 K.

  12. Rubidium-strontium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubansky, A.

    1980-01-01

    The rubidium-strontium geological dating method is based on the determination of the Rb and Sr isotope ratio in rocks, mainly using mass spectrometry. The method is only practical for silicate minerals and rocks, potassium feldspars and slates. Also described is the rubidium-strontium isochrone method. This, however, requires a significant amount of experimental data and an analysis of large quantities of samples, often of the order of tons. The results are tabulated of rubidium-strontium dating of geological formations in the Czech Socialist Republic. (M.S.)

  13. Method for strontium isolation from high-mineralized water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evzhanov, Kh.; Andriyasova, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method to isolate strontium from high-mineralized waters containing sodium, magnesium, calcium and strontium chlorides, which differ from the prototype method in a considerable decrease in energy consumption with the preservation of a high degree of Sr, Mg and Ca isolation selectivity, has been suggested. According to the method suggested mineralized waters are treated with alkali (NaOH) in the amount of 95-97% of stoichiometry by magnesium, then after separation of magnesium hydroxide precipitate mother liquor is treated with sodium carbonate in the amount of 50-60% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium carbonate precipitate mother liquor is treated with NaOH in the amount of 130-135% of stoichiometry by calcium. After separation of calcium hydroxide precipitate from mother liquor by means of sodium carbonate introduction strontium carbonate is isolated. The degree of strontium extraction in the form of SrCO 3 constitutes 90.5% of its content in the initial solution. The method presented can be used for strontium separation from natural and waste waters

  14. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Heng-Jui; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Ke, Jr-Jian; Wu, Chung-Lun; Yin, Yu-Peng; Zhan, Qian; Lin, Gong-Ru; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice

  15. Leaching of strontium sulfide from produced clinker in conversion furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanian, S. A.; Salehpour, A. R.; Radpour, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Iran is rich in mineral resources one of which is mineral Celestine. Basing on current estimations, the capacity of mineral Celestine is over two million tons, 75-95% of which is strontium sulfate. However; in industries such as Color cathode Ray Tubes, pyrochemical processes, ceramics, paint production, zinc purification processes; strontium sulfate is not a direct feed, rather it is largely consumed in the form of strontium carbonate. Two conventional methods are used to produce strontium carbonate from the sulfate; that is direct reaction and black ash methods. Strontium sulfide, as an intermediate component has a key role in black ash process including strontium sulfate reduction by coke, hence producing and leaching the strontium sulfide by hot water. Finally the reaction of strontium sulfate with sodium carbonate lead to strontium carbonate. In this paper, a system was designed to analyze and optimize the process parameters of strontium sulfide production which is less expensive and available solvent in water. Fundamentally, when strontium sulfide becomes in contact with strontium sulfate; Sr(SH) 2 , and Sr(OH) 2 , are produced. The solubility of strontium sulfide depends on water temperature and the maximum solubility achieved at 90 d egree C . The results showed that in the experimental scale, at water to SrS ratio of 6; they sediment for 45 minutes at 95 d egree C in five operational stages; the separation of 95 and 97.1 percent of imported SrS is possible in effluent of fourth and fifth stages, respectively. Thus; four leaching stages could be recommended for pilot scale plants. Also, the results show that at water to SrS ratio of 8, 40 minutes sedimentation at 85-95 d egree C in one operational stage, the separation of 95 percent separation of inputted SrS, is possible. Solvent leaching process is continued till no smell of sulfur components is felt. It could be used as a key role to determine the number of leaching stages in experiments. Finally, the

  16. Micromachining Lithium Niobate for Rapid Prototyping of Resonant Biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shibaany, Zeyad Yousif Abdoon; Hedley, John; Huo, Dehong; Hu, Zhongxu

    2014-01-01

    Lithium niobate material is widely used in MEMS application due to its piezoelectric properties. This paper presents the micromachining process of lithium niobate to rapid prototype a resonant biosensor design. A high precision CNC machine was used to machine a sample of lithium niobate material at 5 different spindle speeds to find out the best conditions to machine this brittle material. A qualitative visual check of the surface was performed by using scanning electron microscopy, surface roughness was quantitatively investigated using an optical surface profiler and Raman spectroscopy to check the strain of the surface. Results show that the surface quality of the lithium niobate was significantly affected by the spindle speed with optimum conditions at 70k rpm giving a strained surface with 500 nm rms roughness

  17. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  18. Thermoluminescence of strontium tetraborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.; Caselli, E.; Lester, M.

    1999-01-01

    The thermoluminescent properties of crystalline strontium tetraborate are reported. Without activators it has an efficiency comparable to that of TLD-700 powder. Its fading after 40 days amount to less than 2%. The isometric plot shows that most of the emitted light is concentrated at wavelengths ranging from 350 to 450 nm, which accounts partially for the high efficiency. (author)

  19. Interactive effects of vitamin D3 and strontium on performance, nutrient retention and bone mineral composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Linda C; Cowieson, Aaron J

    2015-03-30

    Strontium is currently prescribed for patients with osteoporosis to increase bone density and reduce bone fractures but its relevance in animal nutrition is obscure. In order to investigate the effect of supplemental strontium and vitamin D3 on performance, egg quality and skeletal integrity in poultry a total of 108 laying hens, 99 weeks of age, were fed three levels of strontium (0, 500, 1000 mg kg(-1) ) and two levels of vitamin D3 (2500, 5,000 iu kg(-1)) over a 12-week period. There was an improvement (P < 0.05) in egg production and feed conversion efficiency with strontium at 500 mg kg(-1) and a significant increase in egg weight in those hens fed additional vitamin D3 . Supplemental strontium increased phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 2500 iu D3 kg(-1) but reduced phosphorus, sodium and strontium retention in birds fed 5000 iu D3 kg(-1), resulting in an interaction (P < 0.01) between strontium and vitamin D3 . Addition of 5000 iu D3 kg(-1) increased egg weight (P < 0.05); predominantly by increased albumen content (P < 0.05), whereas strontium supplementation reduced egg weight (P < 0.001). Similarly, 5000 iu kg(-1) D3 increased apparent metabolizable energy (P < 0.05); in contrast, strontium supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) apparent metabolizable energy. The addition of 500 mg kg(-1) strontium significantly improved egg production and feed efficiency; however, further investigation needs to be undertaken to refine the optimum level of strontium required to maximize hen performance. The interrelationship between strontium and vitamin D3 requires further exploratory study. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Optical properties of Eu(III) doped strontium gadolinium niobate oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwnath, Verma, E-mail: mnsmsu@gmail.com, E-mail: vermavicky.1988@gmail.com; Srinivas, M.; Patel, Nimesh; Modi, Dhaval [Luminescent Materials Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Murthy, K. V. R. [Display Materials Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390001, Gujarat (India)

    2016-05-23

    Sr{sub 2}GdNbO{sub 6} doped with trivalent ion of Eu phosphors having monoclinic phase of space group P2{sub 1}/n have been synthesized via solid state reaction method, and their photoluminescence properties have been examined under UV excitation. The emission peaks exhibited around 580, 596, and 610 nm wavelength. By using xenon lamp as a source of excitation having wavelengths at 254 and 262 nm, it is observed that the maximum light emission yielded in red region. It is inferred that the dopant Eu{sup +3} ions may take the substitutional positions at non-centrosymmetric site.

  1. Host Excitation Induced Red Emission from Pr3+ in Strontium Bairum Niobate Thin Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hi

    2004-01-01

    .... At 10 K, the main emission peak splits into four components. In addition, a broadband SBN-host luminescence was identified at 560 nm in the annealed sample, associated with the charge-transfer vibronic exciton...

  2. Host Excitation-Induced Red Emission from Pr3+ in Strontium Barium Niobate Thin Film

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, H

    2004-01-01

    .... At 10K, the main emission peak splits into four components. In addition, a broadband SBN-host luminescence was identified at 560 nm in the annealed sample, associated with the charge-transfer vibronic exciton...

  3. Fast polarization mechanisms in the uniaxial tungsten-bronze relaxor strontium barium niobate SBN-81

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kempa, Martin; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Bednyakov, Petr; Hlinka, Jiří; Dec, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Dec (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 18034. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-09142S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15014 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relaxor * tungsten-bronzes * dielectric response * phonons * broad-band spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. Optical properties of calcium barium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, Urs; Betzler, Klaus [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Burianek, Manfred; Muehlberg, Manfred [Institute of Crystallography, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on optical measurements on the novel tungsten bronze type calcium barium niobate. [001]-oriented transparent and colorless single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method with dimensions of 12 mm in diameter and about 80 mm in length. With its relatively high Curie temperature of about 538 K for the congruently melting composition of 28.1 mole% calcium and its high nonlinear coefficients, CBN is a promising material for future applications. Recent experiments revealed, that the application of an external electric field of several kV/cm to CBN at room temperature leads to an increasing opacity of the sample. This might be a drawback considering the future usability of CBN in optical systems. We present investigations on the transmittance behaviour of CBN under external electric fields, demonstrating the erasement of the clouding without affecting the polarization. Experiments have been performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to approximately 480 K. When heating up the sample, its colorless appearance changes to a light yellow, which can be attributed to a shift of the band edge to longer wavelengths with increasing temperature. To further investigate the transmittance properties of CBN, measurements of the band edge under various temperatures up to the ferroelectric phase transition have been performed.

  5. Rapid method for the radioactive strontium determination in natural samples; Brza metoda za odredjivanje radioaktivnog stroncija u prirodnim uzorcima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahek, Z; Kosutic, K; Lulic, S [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Radioactive strontium isotopes belong to the group of isotopes that are very dangerous for human health. Therefore radioactive strontium is regularly determined in natural samples. When determining strontium isotopes in natural samples, it is necessary to isolate strontium from the sample because strontium isotopes are pure {beta}-emitters. As natural samples contain much more calcium and sodium than strontium it is necessary to isolate a small quantity of strontium from large sample with simultaneous separation of calcium and other interfering elements. For this purposes an elegant method based on ion exchange chromatography has been developed. Namely, examinations with model system have shown that strontium may be separated from calcium on the column filled with anion exchanger and the mixture of the methanol and nitric acid as eluent. It was also shown that yttrium does not separate from strontium but elutes almost simultaneously with it. Yttrium may be separated from strontium on the column filled with cation exchanger DOWEX 50X8 and nitric acid as eluent. According to the above examinations, the procedure of isolation of strontium and yttrium from natural sample has been created (on assumption that {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium in sample). Strontium and yttrium have been isolated from natural sample (standard IAEA A-7) on the column filled with the exchanger AMBERLITE CG-400 and the mixture of methanol and nitric acid as eluent. Strontium and yttrium have been separated on the column with cation exchanger. {sup 90}Sr has been determined through {sup 90}Y by counting the solid yttrium oxalate immediately upon isolation and separation from strontium. {sup 90}Sr has also been determined by counting {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium after 15 days. The obtained results of determination of {sup 90}Sr through {sup 90}Y and through secular equilibrium {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y correspond to the declared values of standard. (author). 2 figs., 1

  6. Stability of lithium niobate on irradiation at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primak, W.; Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Monahan, E.

    1977-01-01

    In contrast to results obtained for neutron irradiation in a thermal reactor near room temperature, lithium niobate plates irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) did not become metamict. This is attributed to the elevated temperature of the EBR-II. Ion bombardment experiments indicate that to avoid disordering of lithium niobate on irradiation, its temperature should be maintained above 673 K. Evidence for ionic conductivity was found at 873 K, indicating that it would be inadvisable to permit the temperature to rise that high, particularly with voltage across the plate. In reactor application as a microphone transducer, it is tentatively recommended that the lithium niobate be maintained in the middle of this temperature range for a major portion of reactor operating time

  7. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant

  8. Investigation of Varied Strontium-Transuranic Precipitation Chemistries for Crossflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-07-27

    Precipitation chemistries for strontium and transuranic (TRU) removal have been tested for crossflow filterability and lanthanide removal with simulants of Hanford tank 241-AN-107 supernate. This is the initial work indicating the usefulness of a strontium and permanganate precipitation process as applied to the Hanford River Protection Project. Precipitations with both ferric and ferrous iron were shown to be at least two orders of magnitude less filterable than a 0.1 gpm/ft target average flux that was desired at the time. A precipitate from a strontium nitrate strike alone was found to filter easily and to make the desired average flux. Other chemistries tested included precipitant of lanthanum(III), nickel (II), calcium (II), and a redox chemistry using sodium permanganate. Of these chemistries a strontium and permanganate strike including calcium provided the highest filter flux compared to the other chemistries. It showed the most promise in lanthanide removal as well. This work provides a promising direction for further work to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project. The work reported here was originally intended to satisfy needs for crossflow filter testing of a strontium and ferric precipitation method for treating Envelope C using a 241-AN-107 simulant.

  9. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Sub-band-gap laser micromachining of lithium niobate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, F. K.; Müllenborn, Matthias

    1995-01-01

    method is reported which enables us to do laser processing of lithium niobate using sub-band-gap photons. Using high scan speeds, moderate power densities, and sub-band-gap photon energies results in volume removal rates in excess of 106µm3/s. This enables fast micromachining of small piezoelectric...

  11. The use of one-dimensional Niobate to improve MgH{sub 2} hydrogen sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, M.C., E-mail: mbrum@metalmat.ufrj.br; Conceição, M.O.T. da; Jardim, P.M.; Santos, D.S. dos

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • The 1-D Niobate W and Niobate C catalysts were synthesized. • The composites MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% catalysts were obtained by 20 min of mechanical milling. • The synthesized wired-like material 1-D Niobate W showed to be a promising catalyst. • A desorption capacity of 6.0 wt.%. of H{sub 2} was attained in 10 min with MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% 1-D Niobate W. - Abstract: A study was performed on the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties of MgH{sub 2} with the addition of Niobates synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} in 10 M NaOH. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate their synthesis and show the morphological and crystallographic differences between Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} used as a precursor and the Niobates produced, the one-dimensional wired type, 1-D Niobate W and the cuboid one, Niobate C. The ball milling of MgH{sub 2} with the Niobates was performed within only 20 min and afterwards the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) examination of MgH{sub 2} + 1-D Niobate W and MgH{sub 2} + Niobate C showed the shifting of the peaks for both composites in comparison to pure MgH{sub 2}. The influence of the two different types of Niobates and also the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} on the hydrogen absorption/desorption capacity was evaluated at 350 °C. The higher absorption and desorption values were attained by the MgH{sub 2} + 5 wt.% 1-D Niobate W composite, reaching, in 10 min, approximately 5.0 wt.% and 6.0 wt.%, respectively. The possible mechanism involved in such property improvement upon adding niobium based catalysts with different morphology and structure was discussed.

  12. Reduction in the absorption and retention of strontium in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slat, B; Kostial, K; Harrison, G E

    1971-12-01

    Rats were fed a stock diet supplemented with calcium phosphate and sodium alginate, both separately and simultaneously, over a period of 4-5 months. Observations were made at intervals on the growth rate and on visual and histological abnormalities in some body tissues. No toxic effects were observed. The absorption and skeletal retention of calcium for rats on the combined supplements remained almost unchanged but the absorption and retention of strontium was reduced 7-fold.

  13. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  14. Strontium-90 - ED 4309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of strontium-90, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the transport of strontium-90, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  15. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  16. Preparation of strontium hexaferrite magnets from celestite and blue dust by mechanochemical route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwary R.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation celestite (natural ore of strontium and blue dust (iron ore fines have been used for the preparation of strontium hexaferrite powder. The mechanical alloying process has been adopted to prepare strontium hexaferrite powder. The celestite after chemical upradation and physically upgraded blue dust alongwith sodium carbonate was taken for the preparation of strontium hexaferrite in this experiment. The high-energy planetary ball mill with tungsten carbide jar and ball was used to prepare strontium hexaferrite powder. A long time of ball milling for different duration has led to displacement solid-state reaction. At the end of each experiment the product was washed thoroughly and dried. The X-ray diffaction study after annealing shows the development of single-phase strontium hexaferrite after 40 hrs. of milling. The resultant powder was compacted under magnetic field and sintered to prepare the magnet after annealing the ferrite powder. The magnetic properties were measured by Pulse magneto meter. The moderate value of coercivity, remanence and energy product were observed in this sintered magnet. The work illustrates the feasibility to prepare strontium hexaferrite magnetic powders directly from natural ores which can reduce the total cost of production as compared to conventional method.

  17. Nonlinear optical oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Liang, Hanxiao; Luo, Rui; Jiang, Wei C; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Lin, Qiang

    2017-06-12

    Recent advance of lithium niobate microphotonic devices enables the exploration of intriguing nonlinear optical effects. We show complex nonlinear oscillation dynamics in high-Q lithium niobate microresonators that results from unique competition between the thermo-optic nonlinearity and the photorefractive effect, distinctive to other device systems and mechanisms ever reported. The observed phenomena are well described by our theory. This exploration helps understand the nonlinear optical behavior of high-Q lithium niobate microphotonic devices which would be crucial for future application of on-chip nonlinear lithium niobate photonics.

  18. Removal of cesium and strontium from low active waste solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Savita; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Ion exchange, crystallographic and thermal characteristics of sodium, cesium and strontium forms of locally available synthetic zeolites have been investigated. X-ray and differential thermal analyses have confirmed that the synthetic materials AR1 and 4A belonged to the mordenite and A type families of zeolites respectively. Equilibrium uptake of cesium and strontium ions by sodium forms of zeolite was studied as a function of time, pH and sodium concentration. It was found that the rate of sorption by AR1 was higher than that by 4A. In regard to pH, distribution of nuclides on zeolites was found to pass through maxima at a pH value of around 9. Sodium ion interfered with the sorption of cesium and strontium by zeolites. However, at sodium concentration ≤ 0.01 M, distribution coefficient values for these nuclides were sufficiently high to merit consideration of these zeolites for low level waste treatment. Lab-scale column runs using 5 ml beds of materials showed that the zeolites AR1 and 4A were very effective in removing cesium and strontium nuclides respectively from large volumes (a decontamination factor of 50 for a throughput of 6000 bed volumes) of actual low level waste solutions. Thus, the zeolite system has a potential future for large scale application in the treatment of low level wastes. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May 1985 to Jul. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is aimed at listing measurements of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil made at eight places across Japan during the period from May to July in 1985. Collection and pretreatment methods are described for samples of rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water and freshwater, soil, sea water, sea sediments, total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, as well as fish, shellfish and seaweeds. The methods for the preparation of these samples for analysis are also outlined. Sample solutions were neutralized with sodium hydroxide, and the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated after sodium carbonate was added. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After being precipitated as oxalates, strontium and calcium were separated by successive fuming nitric acid separations. For the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, soil and sediment were treated with sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid for extraction while other samples were ashed and digested. Calcium, separated as oxalate, was determined by titration while stable strontium and potassium were determined by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy, respectively. Couting for activity was carried out using low background beta counters normally for 60 min. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Photorefractive effect at 775 nm in doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, G.; Minzioni, P.; Cristiani, I.; Degiorgio, V. [Department of Electrical, Computer, and Biomedical Engineering, and CNISM, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Argiolas, N.; Bazzan, M.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Pozza, G.; Sada, C. [Physics and Astronomy Departement, University of Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The photorefractive effect induced by 775-nm laser light on doped lithium niobate crystals is investigated by the direct observation in the far field of the transmitted-beam distortion as a function of time. Measurements performed at various Zr-doping concentrations and different light intensities show that the 775-nm light beam induces a steady-state photorefractive effect comparable to that of 532-nm light, but the observed build-up time of the photovoltaic field is longer by three-orders of magnitude. The 775-nm photorefractivity of lithium niobate crystals doped with 3 mol. % ZrO{sub 2} or with 5.5 mol. % MgO is found to be negligible.

  1. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzan, Marco, E-mail: marco.bazzan@unipd.it; Sada, Cinzia, E-mail: cinzia.sada@unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  2. Shock-induced luminescence from Z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannon, P.J.; Morris, R.W.; Asay, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Shock-induced luminescence from lithium niobate has been studied in the stress range 1.6--21.0 GPa. Both fast-framing photography and five-channel optical pyrometry were used to observe the luminescence. The framing photography showed that the emission pattern is heterogeneous for stresses just above the dynamic yield point. A further increase of the stress resulted in a pattern which was essentially homogeneous to within the experimental spatial resolution of about 30 μm. Narrowband filters and photomultiplier tubes were used in the optical pyrometry experiments. A broadband spectrum with a peak near 700 nm was observed. A plot of the energy dissipated by the shock versus shock stress correlates very well with a plot of the 700-nm intensity versus shock stress. The mechanism for light emission in lithium niobate appears to be closely related to the dynamic yielding process

  3. Double photoionization of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, Emma; Grimm, Michael; Sheridan, Paul, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements have been used to study the double photoionization process in strontium. Two sets of measurements were made at the photon energy of the 4p {yields} 4d resonance. The coplanar geometry was used and the fixed analyser, positioned at -90{sup 0} to the main axis of polarization of the photons, detected electrons with {approx}65% of the available excess energy. The mutual angle between the two electrons had a range just short of 90 {yields} 270{sup 0}. The TDCS exhibit unexpected lobes at a mutual angle of 180{sup 0}. Comparison with other measurements made with the same geometry but with different sharings of the available energy indicate that these TDCS all show the unexpected lobe. Some possible explanations for the lobe are considered.

  4. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  5. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  7. Method of processing radioactive metallic sodium with recycling alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko; Mitsuzuka, Norimasa.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To employ high safety alcohol procession and decrease the amount of wastes in the procession of radioactive metallic sodium discharged from LMFBR type reactors. Method: Radioactive metallic sodium containing long half-decay period nuclides such as cesium, strontium, barium, cerium, lanthanum or zirconium is dissolved in an alcohol at about 70% purity. After extracting the sodium alcoholate thus formed, gaseous hydrochloride is blown-in to separate the sodium alcoholate into alcohol and sodium chloride, and regenerated alcohol is used again for dissolving sodium metal. The sodium chloride thus separated is processed into solid wastes. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have analysed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. At each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, 100 literes of service water (8 prefectures, water from the intake of each station of water works) and tap water (32 prefectures) were collected as sample twice a year. The samples were filtrated with large filter papers after addition and mixture of both some carries. The filtration was then applied on a column filled the sodium cation exchange resin, and all the cations were absorbed on it. These resin and filter papers were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method applied for the analysis of rain and dry fallout materials. (author)

  9. Permanganate Treatment of Savannah River Site Simulant Wastes for Strontium and Actinide Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the use of sodium permanganate and strontium nitrate to remove the actinides and radio-strontium from Savannah River Site (SRS) waste supernate. We examined the quantities of chemical feed reagents along with increased mixing and the excess of organic reductant. Additionally, we examined two processing schemes including that applicable to either the Salt Waste Processing Facility or the Alpha Removal Process (ARP) (5.6 M sodium ion concentration) conditions and the conditions for an In-Tank application (7.5 M sodium ion concentration). Our results support the following conclusions: The process met minimum required decontamination factors (DFs) within the tested parameter sets for strontium and plutonium in both the ARP and In-Tank application. The strontium DFs far exceeded the required values within the tested parameter sets. Within the ARP application, the use of peroxide as the reductant for permanganate produced higher plutonium DFs than the use of sodium formate. Reductant concentration and degree of mixing strongly influenced radionuclide decontamination. In the formate application under the ARP process, increasing the reductant concentration and mixing energy resulted in higher Sr and Pu decontamination

  10. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  11. Polymeric strontium ranelate nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Stahl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[[μ-aqua-tetraaqua{μ-5-[bis(carboxylatomethylamino]-3-carboxylatomethyl-4-cyanothiophene-2-carboxylato}distrontium(II] tetrahydrate], [Sr2(C12H6N2O8S(H2O5]·3.79H2O, crystallizes with nine- and eight-coordinated Sr2+ cations. They are bound to seven of the eight ranelate O atoms and five of the water molecules. The SrO8 and SrO9 polyhedra are interconnected by edge-sharing, forming hollow layers parallel to (011. The layers are, in turn, interconnected by ranelate anions, forming a metal–organic framework (MOF structure with channels along the a axis. The four water molecules not coordinated to strontium are located in these channels and hydrogen bonded to each other and to the ranelates. Part of the water H atoms are disordered. The compound dehydrates very easily and 0.210 (4 water molecules out of nine were lost during crystal mounting causing additional disorder in the water structure.

  12. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2017-04-24

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom that can give rise to the photostriction, that is, changes in the dimensions of material due to the absorption of light. In this study, we observe a photon-induced strain as high as 1.12% in single domain SrRuO3, which we attribute to a nonequilibrium of phonons that are a result of the strong interaction between the crystalline lattice and electrons excited by light. In addition, these light-induced changes in the SrRuO3 lattice affect its electrical resistance. The observation of both photostriction and photoresistance in SrRuO3 suggests the possibility of utilizing the mechanical and optical functionalities of the material for next-generation optoelectronics, such as remote switches, light-controlled elastic micromotors, microactuators and other optomechanical systems.

  13. Morphological control of strontium oxalate particles by PSMA-mediated precipitation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiaguo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)]. E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Tang Hua [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Cheng Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, strontium oxalate particles with different morphologies could be easily obtained by a precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with strontium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of pH, aging time and concentration of PSMA on the phase structures and morphologies of the as-prepared strontium oxalate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that strontium oxalate particles with various morphologies, such as, bi-pyramids, rods, peanuts, and spherical particles, etc., could be obtained by varying the experimental conditions. PSMA promoted the formation of strontium oxalate dihydrate (SOD) phase. Suitable pH values (pH 7 and 8) favor the formation of the peanut-shaped SrC{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. This research may provide new insight into the control of morphologies and phase structures of strontium oxalate particles and the biomimetic synthesis of novel inorganic materials.

  14. Temperature dependent dielectric relaxation and ac-conductivity of alkali niobate ceramics studied by impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhinav; Mantry, Snigdha Paramita; Fahad, Mohd.; Sarun, P. M.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) ceramics is prepared by conventional solid state reaction method at sintering temperature 1150 °C for 4 h. The structural information of the material has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The XRD analysis of NaNbO3 ceramics shows an orthorhombic structure. The FE-SEM micrograph of NaNbO3 ceramics exhibit grains with grain sizes ranging between 1 μm to 5 μm. The surface coverage and average grain size of NaNbO3 ceramics are found to be 97.6 % and 2.5 μm, respectively. Frequency dependent electrical properties of NaNbO3 is investigated from room temperature to 500 °C in wide frequency range (100 Hz-5 MHz). Dielectric constant, ac-conductivity, impedance, modulus and Nyquist analysis are performed. The observed dielectric constant (1 kHz) at transition temperature (400 °C) are 975. From conductivity analysis, the estimated activation energy of NaNbO3 ceramics is 0.58 eV at 10 kHz. The result of Nyquist plot shows that the electrical behavior of NaNbO3 ceramics is contributed by grain and grain boundary responses. The impedance and modulus spectrum asserts that the negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior and non-Debye type relaxation in NaNbO3.

  15. Strontium 90 fallout prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Gwinn, E.

    1986-01-01

    An empirical formula is developed for predicting monthly sea level strontium 90 fallout (F) in the northern hemisphere as a function of time (t), precipitation rate (P), latitude (phi), longitude (lambda), and the sea level concentration of stronium 90 in air (C): F(lambda, phi, t) = C(t, phi)[v /sub d/(phi) + v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t)], where v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t) = a(phi)[P(lambda, phi, t)/P/sub o/]/sup b//sup (//sup phi//sup )/ is the wet removal, v/sub d/(phi) is the dry removal and P 0 is 1 cm/month. The constants v/sub d/, a, and b are determined as functions of latitude by fitting land based observations. The concentration of 90 Sr in air is calculated as a function of the deseasonalized concentration at a reference latitude (C-bar/sub r//sub e//sub f/), the ratio of the observations at the latitude of interest to the reference latitude (R), and a function representing the seasonal trend in the air concentration (1 + g): C-bar(t, phi) = C/sub r//sub e//sub f/(t)R(phi)[1 + g(m, phi)]; m is the month. Zonal trends in C are shown to be relatively small. This formula can be used in conjuction with precipitation observations and/or estimates to predict fallout in the northern hemisphere for any month in the years 1954 to 1974. Error estimates are given; they do not include uncertainty due to errors in precipitation data

  16. Domain wall width of lithium niobate poled during growth

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, R; Hole, D E; Callejo, D; Bermudez, V; Diéguez, E

    2003-01-01

    Good quality crystals of periodically poled lithium niobate can be generated directly during growth. However, the temperature gradients at the zone boundaries define the width of the regions where the polarity is reversed. Hence, the region influenced the domain transition may be a significant fraction of the overall poling period for material poled during growth. Evidence for the scale of this feature is reported both by chemical etching and by the less common method of ion beam luminescence and the 'domain wall' width approximately 1 mu m for these analyses. The influence of the reversal region may differ for alternative techniques but the relevance to device design for second harmonic generation is noted.

  17. Photoluminescence of Copper-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Pyatyshev, A. Yu.; Sidorov, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of copper-doped lithium niobate single crystals is studied using different UV-Vis light-emitting diodes and a pulse-periodic laser with a wavelength of 266 nm as excitation radiation sources. With the resonance excitation from a 527-nm light-emitting diode, the intensity of PL increases sharply (by two orders of magnitude). When using a 467-nm light-emitting diode for excitation, the PL spectrum is characterized by the presence of multiphonon lines in the range of 520-620 nm.

  18. The effects of dopants on the electrical resistivity in lead magnesium niobate multilayer ceramic capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.D.; Ling, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Electrical resistivity studies were performed on multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLC) based on lead magnesium niobate and containing dopants of lead titanate, lead zinc niobate, and lead cobalt niobate. The results showed that lead titanate and/or lead zinc niobate had no effect on the electrical resistivity while lead cobalt niobate decreased the resistivity. In samples without lead cobalt niobate, we observed a conduction mechanism with an activation energy of --1 eV, which is commonly observed in barium titanate based dielectrics. This is attributed to ionic conduction via the motion of oxygen vacancies. The increase in conductivity (or decrease in resistivity) resulting from the addition of lead cobalt niobate was rationalized as due to electronic conduction through charge hopping among the cations. This conduction mechanism was characterized by an activation energy of --0.5 eV. Since the activation energy associated with the long-term failure was previously determined by a matrix of temperature and voltage accelerated life tests to be -- 1 eV, they conclude that conduction through charge hopping is not affecting the long-term reliability of these devices

  19. The removal of radioactive strontium from aqueous solutions by foam separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Aziz, M.; Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo

    1979-01-01

    The flotation of strontium ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, potassium laurate, sodium lauryl sulphate or Aeroslo 18 as collector. Aerosol 18 proved to be the most suitable. With this reagent strontium removals of about 97.5% - 99% could be achieved for metal ion concentrations ranging from 1 x 10 -7 M (or probably less) to 1.3 x 10 -4 M. The effects of pH, collector concentration, ionic strength, gas flow rate and period of bubbling were determined and the optimum flotation conditions have been established. (orig.) [de

  20. Physical and chemical grounds of electrolytic fabrication of aluminium-strontium alloying composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    It was revealed via study of literature sources that usage of alloying composition of strontium (not of sodium) is more expedient in modification of silumin-type alloys. In this case modification effect is keeping during long holdings and in repeated meltings. Electrolytic decomposition of strontium chloride with usage of liquid aluminium cathode is the most simple and cheap method for fabrication of alloying composition. The operation scheme for production of Al-Sr alloy was proposed in this work on the base of thermodynamic analysis

  1. Study of mineral ion exchangers for strontium removal from nuclear waste waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceille, A.

    2012-01-01

    The problems of chemical pollution of water have become a major concern and a priority for the nuclear industry. The aim of this work is to study some ion exchangers used for the removal of strontium ions because 90 Sr is one of a major pollutant in nuclear liquid wastes. This study allows linking the physical and chemical properties of these materials and their sorption properties. This work presents therefore the synthesis of two materials - sodium nona-titanate and zeolite A - selected for their specific sorption properties of strontium: A second part of this work is dedicated to the study of specific exchange capacities of these materials for the strontium in presence of other elements such as sodium and calcium. Batch experiments were performed and kinetic and ion exchange models have been applied to understand the selectivity of the materials for strontium removal. Sodium nona-titanate and zeolite A are also studied in actual effluents. Monoliths of zeolite A have been also tested in dynamic ion exchange process. This material is promising for the treatment of radioactive effluents in continuous flow because it joins the sorption properties of the zeolite powder with the advantage of a solid with a macroporous network. (author) [fr

  2. Absorption and reflectivity of the lithium niobate surface masked with a graphene layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Salas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed simulations of the interaction of a graphene layer with the surface of lithium niobate utilizing density functional theory and molecular dynamics at 300K and atmospheric pressure. We found that the graphene layer is physisorbed on the lithium niobate surface with an adsorption energy of -0.8205 eV/(carbon-atom. Subsequently, the energy band structure, the optical absorption and reflectivity of the new system were calculated. We found important changes in these physical properties with respect to the corresponding ones of a graphene layer and of a lithium niobate crystal.

  3. Monolithic acoustic graphene transistors based on lithium niobate thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, J.; Liu, B.-H.; Zhang, H.-X.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, M.-L.; Zhang, D.-H.; Pang, W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces an on-chip acoustic graphene transistor based on lithium niobate thin film. The graphene transistor is embedded in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) acoustic wave device, and surface acoustic waves generated by the resonator induce a macroscopic current in the graphene due to the acousto-electric (AE) effect. The acoustic resonator and the graphene share the lithium niobate film, and a gate voltage is applied through the back side of the silicon substrate. The AE current induced by the Rayleigh and Sezawa modes was investigated, and the transistor outputs a larger current in the Rayleigh mode because of a larger coupling to velocity ratio. The output current increases linearly with the input radiofrequency power and can be effectively modulated by the gate voltage. The acoustic graphene transistor realized a five-fold enhancement in the output current at an optimum gate voltage, outperforming its counterpart with a DC input. The acoustic graphene transistor demonstrates a paradigm for more-than-Moore technology. By combining the benefits of MEMS and graphene circuits, it opens an avenue for various system-on-chip applications.

  4. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  5. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kalabin, I.E.; Kesler, V.G.; Pervukhina, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d 5/2 and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values measured with XPS for Nb 5+ -niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values possible in Nb 5+ -niobates has been defined. An energy gap ∼1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d 5/2 ) values reasonable for Nb 5+ and Nb 4+ states in niobates

  6. Nb 3d and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in niobates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Kalabin, I.E. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Technical Center, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pervukhina, N.V. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    A set of available experimental data on binding energies of Nb 3d{sub 5/2} and O 1s core levels in niobates has been observed with using energy difference (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) as a robust parameter for compound characterization. An empirical relationship between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values measured with XPS for Nb{sup 5+}-niobates and mean chemical bond length L(Nb-O) has been discussed. A range of (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values possible in Nb{sup 5+}-niobates has been defined. An energy gap {approx}1.4-1.8 eV is found between (O 1s-Nb 3d{sub 5/2}) values reasonable for Nb{sup 5+} and Nb{sup 4+} states in niobates.

  7. Rare-Earth Tantalates and Niobates Single Crystals: Promising Scintillators and Laser Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renqin Dou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare-earth tantalates, with high density and monoclinic structure, and niobates with monoclinic structure have been paid great attention as potential optical materials. In the last decade, we focused on the crystal growth technology of rare-earth tantalates and niobates and studied their luminescence and physical properties. A series of rare-earth tantalates and niobates crystals have been grown by the Czochralski method successfully. In this work, we summarize the research results on the crystal growth, scintillation, and laser properties of them, including the absorption and emission spectra, spectral parameters, energy levels structure, and so on. Most of the tantalates and niobates exhibit excellent luminescent properties, rich physical properties, and good chemical stability, indicating that they are potential outstanding scintillators and laser materials.

  8. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA Phase I STTR effort, the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate (5% MgO:LN) will be established....

  9. Design considerations for quasi-phase-matching in doubly resonant lithium niobate hexagonal microresonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sono, Tleyane J

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication capabilities of high optical quality hexagonal superstructures by chemical etching of inverted ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate platform suggests a route for efficient implementation of compact hexagonal microcavities...

  10. Release of fission products from contaminated sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.

    1976-01-01

    Leaks in the primary coolant system of a LMFBR and also serious incidents with tank rupture may entail the escape of fission products into the containment of the reactor. For incident analysis it is important to know the retention capability of sodium for the different fission products. The release of cesium and strontium from pools contaminated with 100 to 1000 ppM was investigated by experiments. The cesium content of airborne aerosols depends on oxygen concentration: at 21 percent oxygen concentration the Cs content of sodium-oxide aerosols is 3 times and at 0.5 percent 15 times as high as the initial Cs concentration in the pool. Strontium content of aerosols over burning contaminated sodium pools is 10 3 times smaller than the strontium pool concentration

  11. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88

    OpenAIRE

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 (88Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 (90Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water co...

  12. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  13. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  15. Flotation separation of strontium via phosphate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Luong H V; Liu, J C

    2017-06-01

    Flotation separation of strontium (Sr) from wastewater via phosphate precipitation was investigated. While 37.33% of Sr precipitated at highly alkaline pH in the absence of PO 4 3- , it completely precipitated as Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 at a molar ratio ([PO 4 3- ]:[Sr 2+ ]) of 0.62 at a lower pH value. The presence of Ca 2+ hindered Sr precipitation, yet it could be overcome by increasing the PO 4 3- dose. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was a better collector for dispersed air flotation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 than cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, or mixed collector systems of SDS and saponin. The highest separation efficiency of 97.5% was achieved at an SDS dose of 40 mg/L. The main mechanism in the precipitate flotation is adsorption of anionic SDS on the positively charged surface of colloidal Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 via electrostatic interaction. SDS enhanced the aggregation of Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 precipitates as the size increased from 1.65 to 28.0 μm, which was beneficial to separation as well.

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis of strontium in environmental water by using barium carbonate coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Akio; Maeda, Yoshimichi; Azumi, Takatugu

    1986-01-01

    Determination of strontium in environmental water was studied by a coprecipitation method with barium carbonate and the subsequent X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fifty mg of barium ion and 1 g of sodium carbonate were added to sample water, which was then mixed for one hour by a magnetic stirrer. Precipitate was gathered onto a membrane filter paper to measure its XF intensity. The amount of strontium from 2 to 150 μg could be repeatedly determined by means of the calibration curve method, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.6 μg of strontium. A large amount of calcium and magnesium ions was found to interfere with the coprecipitation of strontium ion. However, this interference could be eliminated by using a small amount of sample water. Strontium in several environmental waters was determined by the above method. The results obtained from the calibration curve method and the standard addition method agreed with each other, and also agreed with those from the atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  17. Strontium sorption on Savannah River Plant soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    A laboratory study of strontium-85 sorption was conducted using Savannah River Plant soil and groundwater from the low-level waste burial ground. Systematic variation of soil and water composition indicates that strontium sorption is most strongly a function of pH. Changes in clay content and in K + , Ca 2+ , or Mg 2+ concentrations influence strontium sorption indirectly through the slight pH changes which result. The ions Na + , Cl - , and NO 3 - have no effect. Ferrous ion, added to groundwater to simulate the conditions of water at the bottom of waste trenches, did not account for low strontium sorption observed with some trench waters

  18. Optimization of a Strontium Aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Alexandria N. [Maryville College, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Strontium aluminate with Eu2+ and Dy3+ has been at the forefront of emerging applications for storage phosphors since its discovery in 1996. In this study, the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ were enhanced by partial substitution of Ca2+ into Sr2+ sites in the matrix.

  19. Twinning structures in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shuhua; Chen, Yanfeng

    2010-01-01

    A near-stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method in a hanging double crucible with a continuous powder supply system. Twins were found at one of the three characteristic growth ridges of the as-grown crystal. The twin structure was observed and analyzed by transmission synchrotron topography. The image shifts ΔX and ΔY in the transmission synchrotron topograph were calculated for the 3 anti 2 anti 12 and 0 anti 222 reflections based on results from high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. It is confirmed that one of the {01 anti 1 anti 2} m planes is the composition face of the twin and matrix crystals. The formation mechanism of these twins is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Integrated optics on Lithium Niobate for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltron, A.; Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zamboni, R.; Ciampolillo, M.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Kroesen, S.; Esseling, M.; Denz, C.

    2015-05-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, optofluidic technology holds great promise for creating efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. Therefore, in this work the possibility of integrating opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. In particular, a T-junction droplet generator is directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by means of laser ablation process and optical waveguides are realized in the same material by exploiting the Titanium in-diffusion approach. The coupling of these two stages as well as the realization of holographic gratings in the same substrate will allow creating new compact optical sensor prototypes, where the optical properties of the droplets constituents can be monitored.

  1. Study of structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent lithium niobate

    CERN Document Server

    Kling, A; Correia, J G; Da Silva, M F A; Diéguez, E; Agulló-López, F; Soares, J C

    1996-01-01

    The structural differences between stoichiometric and congruent (lithium deficient) lithium niobate single crystals were studied by RBS- and NRA-channeling as well as perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements. The d-PAC111Cd-PAC investigations point out that a second Li site can be detected in congruent material, while only one is present in stoichiometric. Channeling studies of different axes and the comparison of the results with computer simulations corroborated former indications that this additional lattice site can be attributed to the formation of ilmenite type stacking faults. A comparative study of the energy dependence of the dechanneling showed that a remarkable disorder is also present in the Nb sublattice of the congruent crystals and that these defects have a point-like character.

  2. Photorefractive lithium niobate crystals for applications in photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, U.

    2006-12-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO 3 ) generally show a photorefractive response, i.e., light-induced refractive index changes. Crystals are investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. As a result 'classical' photorefractive holographic volume-phase gratings, originating from space charge fields and the electro-optic effect, and 'non-classical' photorefractive volume-phase gratings, which can be traced back to strong absorption gratings, emerge. Single domain and periodically poled crystals (PPLN) are investigated. PPLN is typically used in non-linear optics for frequency conversion. The crystals also show non-linear photorefractive response during holographic recording with isotropically polarized light beams of equal intensity and, in the case of PPLN, by mixing of domain and holographic gratings. The results are important for applications combining the photorefractive and non-linear optical properties of LiNbO 3 . (orig.)

  3. Li Storage of Calcium Niobates for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Haena; Yu, Seung-Ho; Yoo, So Yeon; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choi, Ji-Won

    2015-10-01

    New types of niobates negative electrode were studied for using in lithium-ion batteries in order to alternate metallic lithium anodes. The potassium intercalated compound KCa2Nb3O10 and proton intercalated compound HCa2Nb3O10 were studied, and the electrochemical results showed a reversible cyclic voltammetry profile with acceptable discharge capacity. The as-prepared KCa2Nb3O10 negative electrode had a low discharge capacity caused by high overpotential, but the reversible intercalation and deintercalation reaction of lithium ions was activated after exchanging H+ ions for intercalated K+ ions. The initial discharge capacity of HCa2Nb3O10 was 54.2 mAh/g with 92.1% of coulombic efficiency, compared with 10.4 mAh/g with 70.2% of coulombic efficiency for KCa2Nb3O10 at 1 C rate. The improved electrochemical performance of the HCa2Nb3O10 was related to the lower bonding energy between proton cation and perovskite layer, which facilitate Li+ ions intercalating into the cation site, unlike potassium cation and perovskite layer. Also, this negative material can be easily exfoliated to Ca2Nb3O10 layer by using cation exchange process. Then, obtained two-dimensional nanosheets layer, which recently expected to be an advanced electrode material because of its flexibility, chemical stable, and thin film fabricable, can allow Li+ ions to diffuse between the each perovskite layer. Therefore, this new type layered perovskite niobates can be used not only bulk-type lithium ion batteries but also thin film batteries as a negative material.

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil (from May, 1982, to September, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil measured at 29 locations across Japan from May to September, 1982, are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 , respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, the determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and the counting are also described. Soil was collected in the spacious and flat area without past disturbance on the surface. Soil was taken from two layers of different depths, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 20 cm. The sample solution was prepared and was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 6 to 1300 pCi/Kg for Sr-90 and 1 to 5000 pCi/Kg for Cs-137 in the sampling depth of 0 to 5 cm. (J.P.N.)

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater (from September, 1982, to December, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water measured at 4 locations across Japan from September to December, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. The sample was passed through a cation exchange column. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column. The sample solution prepared was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.08 to 0.22 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.003 to 0.020 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the freshwater. (J.P.N.)

  6. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water (from June, 1982, to December, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water measured at 19 locations across Japan from June to December, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. Service water was collected at an intake of the water-treatment plant and at the tap. The sample was then passed through a cation exchange column. Strontium and cesium were eluted with hydrochloric acid from the cation exchange column. The sample solution prepared was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.01 to 0.10 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.001 to 0.010 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the service water. (J.P.N.)

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in soil from May to July 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The measured values in soil of strontium-90 and cesium-137 at a total of 4 locations throughout Japan from May to July, 1983 are given in pCi/kg and mCi/km 2 in the tables. The method of measurement is also described: collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of the samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting. Soil was collected from the location in the spacious and flat area without any past disturbance. Soil was taken from two layers having different depths: 0--5 cm and 5--20 cm. The sample solution was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The maximum values were 690 pCi/kg for Sr-90 and 1300 pCi/kg for Cs-137, which were obtained from the samples in the 5-to-20 cm depth, in June 1983, at Akita-ken,Japan. (Mori, K.)

  8. Tunable dielectric properties of Barium Magnesium Niobate (BMN) doped Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alema, Fikadu; Reinholz, Aaron; Pokhodnya, Konstantin

    2013-03-01

    We report on the tunable dielectric properties of Mg and Nb co-doped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin film prepared by the magnetron sputtering using BST target (pure and doped with BaMg0.33Nb0.67O3 (BMN)) on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 4'' wafers at 700 °C under oxygen atmosphere. The electrical measurements are conducted on 2432 metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitors using Pt as the top and bottom electrode. The crystalline structure, microstructure, and surface morphology of the films are analyzed and correlated to the films dielectric properties. The BMN doped and undoped BST films have shown tunabilities of 48% and 52%; and leakage current densities of 2.2x10-6 A/cm2 and 3.7x10-5 A/cm2, respectively at 0.5 MV/cm bias field. The results indicate that the BMN doped film exhibits a lower leakage current with no significant decrease in tunability. Due to similar electronegativity and ionic radii, it was suggested that both Mg2+ (accepter-type) and Nb5+ (donor-type) dopants substitutTi4+ ion in BST. The improvement in the film dielectric losses and leakage current with insignificant loss of tunability is attributed to the adversary effects of Mg2+ and Nb5+ in BST.

  9. Propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a strontium barium niobate photorefractive crystal under reverse external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q L; Liang, B L; Wang, Y; Deng, G Y; Jiang, Y H; Zhang, S H; Fu, G S; Simmonds, P J

    2014-10-01

    The propagation characteristics of a focused laser beam in a SBN:75 photorefractive crystal strongly depend on the signal-to-background intensity ratio (R=Is/Ib) under reverse external electric field. In the range 20>R>0.05, the laser beam shows enhanced self-defocusing behavior with increasing external electric field, while it shows self-focusing in the range 0.03>R>0.01. Spatial solitons are observed under a suitable reverse external electric field for R=0.025. A theoretical model is proposed to explain the experimental observations, which suggest a new type of soliton formation due to "enhancement" not "screening" of the external electrical field.

  10. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  11. Application of crown-ethers to caesium and strontium removal from Marcoule reprocessing concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Garcia, J.C.i; Sastre, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The liquid wastes arising from reprocessing plants are treated by evaporation, the distillate is discharged into environment and the concentrate containing all the active and inactive salts must be stored in geological formation, after embedding, due to the activity of long life radionuclides (actinides, Cs, Sr). The object of the work is to remove actinides and cesium/strontium from high sodium content acidic concentrated in order to sharply decrease the volume of wastes to be stored in geological formation. (author)

  12. Application of crown-ethers to cesium and strontium removal from Marcoule reprocessing concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Casas I Garcia, J.

    1990-01-01

    The liquid wastes arising from reprocessing plants are treated by evaporation, the distillate is discharged into environment and the concentrate containing all the active and inactive salts must be stored in geological formation, after embedding, due to the activity of long life radionuclides (actinides, Cs, Sr). The objective of this work, is after removal actinides, to remove cesium/strontium from high sodium content acidic concentrates in order to sharply decrease the volume of wastes to be stored in geological formation

  13. Strontium-90 measurements in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, C.; Geering, J.J.; Lerch, P.

    1988-01-01

    Strontium-90 contamination in Switzerland has been measured since the sixties. The determination of 90 Sr in human vertebrae, milk-teeth, milk and wine have shown a maximum activity between 1964 and 1966. Since 1976, the survey has been extended to the food chain. After the Chernobyl accident, the measurements indicated a significative 90 Sr contamination in the Tessin and the north-east of Switzerland. The partition of 90 Sr in wheat has been determined and transfer factors are given for the milk - cheese - whey chain

  14. High-temperature thermal conductivity of uranium chromite and uranium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoseev, D.V.; Varshavskaya, I.G.; Lavrent'ev, A.V.; Oziraner, S.N.; Kuznetsova, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of determining thermal conductivity coefficient of uranium niobate and uranium chromite on heating with laser radiation is described. Determined is the coefficient of free-convective heat transfer (with provision for a conduction component) by means of a standard specimen. The thermal conductivity coefficients of uranium chromite and niobate were measured in the 1300-1700 K temperature range. The results are presented in a diagram form. It has been calculated, that the thermal conductivity coefficient for uranium niobate specimens is greater in comparison with uranium chromite specimens. The thermal conductivity coefficients of the materials mentioned depend on temperature very slightly. Thermal conductivity of the materials considerably depends on their porosity. The specimens under investigation were fabricated by the pressing method and had the following porosity: uranium chromite - 30 %, uranium niobate - 10 %. Calculation results show, that thermal conductivity of dense uranium chromite is higher than thermal conductivity of dense uranium niobate. The experimental error equals approximately 20 %, that is mainly due to the error of measuring the temperature equal to +-25 deg, with a micropyrometer

  15. New, dense, and fast scintillators based on rare-earth tantalo-niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshyna, O.V.; Boiaryntseva, I.A.; Baumer, V.N.; Ivanov, A.I.; Korjik, M.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of undoped yttrium and gadolinium tantalo-niobates with common formulae RE(Nb x Ta 1−x )O 4 , where RE=Y or Gd and x=0–1, have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Systematic study of structural, luminescent, and scintillation properties of these compounds was carried out. Lattice parameters and space groups of the mixed compounds were identified. UV- and X-ray luminescence spectra, as well as relative light outputs and scintillation decay times are measured. Gadolinium tantalo-niobate with the formulae GdNb 0.2 Ta 0.8 O 4 showed the light output around 13 times larger than PbWO 4 and fast decay with time constant 12 ns without additional slow component. Gadolinium tantalo-niobates may be considered as promising materials for high energy physics due to extremely high density, substantial light output, and fast decay. -- Highlights: •Structural, optical and scintillation properties of the rare earth tantalo-niobates were studied. •Light output shows about gradual increase with Nb content in GdTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •Light output increases by 2–7 times relatively to yttrium tantalate and niobate in YTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •GdTa 0.8 Nb 0.2 O 4 demonstrates the most promising scintillation parameters

  16. Comparative study on the change in index of refraction in ion-exchange interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glasses containing calcium, strontium, barium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, V.Ya.; Marchuk, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Different ability to ion exchange from the salts of lithium-sodium-silicate glass melt containing calcium (or strontium, or barium) and titanium oxides in addition has been shown. CaO, SrO and BaO have negative effect, but TiO 2 -positive one on the fullness of ion exchange of lithium-sodium and on the rate of interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glass. The value of change in index of refraction of glass with TiO 2 is twice higher than glass with calcium oxide (or strontium, or barium) as the fourth component

  17. Strontium metabolism and mechanism of interaction with mineralized tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadkins, C.L.; Fu Peng, C

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the administration of strontium to birds and mammals which results in limited incorporation into skeletal tissue, depressed intestinal calcium absorption, and development of rachitic bone lesions. Comparison of radiostrontium and radiocalcium incorporation by intact animals reveals discrimination against strontium in favor of calcium. Comparison of the Sr 85 - Ca 2+ and Ca 45 - Ca 2+ exchange reveals discrimination against strontium in favor of calcium. Thus, this system manifests product specificity, strontium inhibition, strontium exchange, and discrimination observed with intact animals

  18. Lead-free piezoelectrics based on potassium-sodium niobate with giant d(33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binyu; Wu, Jiagang; Cheng, Xiaojing; Wang, Xiaopeng; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Xiangjian; Lou, Xiaojie

    2013-08-28

    High-performance lead-free piezoelectrics (d33 > 400 pC/N) based on 0.96(K0.5Na0.5)0.95Li0.05Nb1-xSbxO3-0.04BaZrO3 with the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary have been designed and prepared. The R-T phase boundary lies the composition range of 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.07, and the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with the compositions near the phase boundary are significantly enhanced. In addition, the ceramic with x = 0.07 has a giant d33 of ~425 pC/N, which is comparable to that (~416 pC/N) of textured KNN-based ceramics (Saito, Y.; Takao, H.; Tani, T.; Nonoyama, T.; Takatori, K.; Homma, T.; Nagaya, T.; Nakamura, M. Nature 2004, 432, 84). The underlying physical mechanisms for enhanced piezoelectric properties are addressed. We believe that the material system is the most promising lead-free piezoelectric candidates for the practical applications.

  19. Nanostructured sodium lithium niobate and lithium niobium tantalate solid solutions obtained by controlled crystallization of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radonjic, L.; Todorovic, M.; Miladinovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Transparent, nanostructured glass ceramics based on ferroelectric solid solutions of the type Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 (in very narrow composition regions for x = 0.12 and 0.93) and LiNb 1-y Ta y O 3 (y = 0.5 unlimited solid solubility), can be obtained by controlled crystallization of glass. The parent glass samples were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique. Heat-treatment of the parent glasses was performed at the various temperatures, for the same time. The glass structure evolution during the controlled crystallization was examined by FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM was used for microstructure characterization. Densities of the crystallized glasses were measured by Archimedean principle. The capacitance and dielectric loss tangent were measured at a frequency of 1 kHz, at the room temperature. It was found that in the all investigated systems crystallize solid solutions Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 and LiNb 1-y Ta y O 3 in the glassy matrix, have crystal size on nanoscale (less than 100 nm), which is one of requirements to get a transparent glass ceramic that could be a good ferroelectric material regarding to the measured properties

  20. Curie temperature variation in polycrystalline sodium-lithium niobate with various thermodynamic prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdnyakova, I.V.; Reznichenko, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Curie temperature T C in the samples obtained by various methods is measured with the purpose of establishing the effect of the structure formation conditions (thermal prehistory) of the Na 1-x Li x NbO 3 ceramic samples by 0.015 ≤ x ≤ 0.0275 on the behavior of solid solutions in the external electrical field. It is established that essential dependence of the transition temperature shift in the electrical field and also in T C on the conditions of the solid solution preparation is observed in the (NaLi)NbO 3 system. The conclusion is made that hot pressing with increased high-temperature seasoning is the best method for obtaining the ceramics of the given composition in the area of antiferro-ferroelectrical transition [ru

  1. Ferroelectric and octahedral tilt twin disorder and the lead-free piezoelectric, sodium potassium niobate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiemer, Jason; Withers, Ray L.; Liu, Yun; Yi, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Using electron diffraction, trends in the local structural behaviour of the K x Na 1−x NbO 3 (KNN x) ‘solid solution’ system are investigated and interpreted using an order/disorder based theoretical framework. At room temperature, electron diffraction shows a single plane of transverse polarised, diffuse intensity perpendicular to [0 1 0] p ⁎ (p for parent sub-structure) across the entire phase diagram, indicative of ferroelectric disorder along the [0 1 0] p direction co-existing with long range ferroelectric order along the orthogonal [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p directions. An additional characteristic pattern of diffuse scattering is also observed, involving rods of diffuse intensity running along the [1 0 0] p * and [0 0 1] p * directions of the perovskite sub-structure and indicative of octahedral tilt disorder about the [1 0 0] p and [0 0 1] p axes co-existing with long range ordered octahedral tilting around the [0 1 0] p direction. A possible crystal chemical explanation for the existence of this latter octahedral tilt disorder is explored through bond valence sum calculations. The possible influence of both types of disorder on the previously refined, room temperature space group/s and average crystal structure/s is examined. - Graphical abstract: [−3,0.−1]p zone axis EDP of K 0.46 Na 0.54 NbO 3 indexed according to both the relevant Pcm21 space groups (no subscripts) and the parent perovskite subcell (denoted by a subscript p). Highlights: ► Characterises ferroelectric and octahedral tilt disorder in the KNN solid solution. ► Discusses the possible driving forces for this disorder. ► Discusses the implications of this disorder for physical properties. ► Discusses the effects of this disorder on powder diffraction data.

  2. Gold particle formation via photoenhanced deposition on lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaniewski, A.M., E-mail: azaniews@asu.edu; Meeks, V.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Gold chloride is reduced into solid gold nanoparticles at the surface of a polarized semiconductor. • Reduction processes are driven by ultraviolet light. • Gold nanoparticle and silver nanoparticle deposition patterns are compared. - Abstract: In this work, we report on a technique to reduce gold chloride into sub-micron particles and nanoparticles. We use photoelectron transfer from periodically polarized lithium niobate (PPLN) illuminated with above band gap light to drive the surface reactions required for the reduction and particle formation. The particle sizes and distributions on the PPLN surface are sensitive to the solution concentration, with inhibited nucleation and large particles (>150 nm) for both low (2E−8M to 9E−7M) and high (1E−5M to 1E−3M) concentrations of gold chloride. At midrange values of the concentration, nucleation is more frequent, resulting in smaller sized particles (<150 nm). We compare the deposition process to that for silver, which has been previously studied. We find that the reduction of gold chloride into nanoparticles is inhibited compared to silver ion reduction, due to the multi-step reaction required for gold particle formation. This also has consequences for the resulting deposition patterns: while silver deposits into nanowires along boundaries between areas with opposite signed polarizations, such patterning of the deposition is not observed for gold, for a wide range of concentrations studied (2E−8 to 1E−3M).

  3. Analysis of Waveguides on Lithium Niobate Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Waveguides formed by etching, proton-exchange (PE, and strip-loaded on single-crystal lithium niobate (LN thin film were designed and simulated by a full-vectorial finite difference method. The single-mode condition, optical power distribution, and bending loss of these kinds of waveguides were studied and compared systematically. For the PE waveguide, the optical power distributed in LN layer had negligible change with the increase of PE thickness. For the strip-loaded waveguide, the relationships between optical power distribution in LN layer and waveguide thickness were different for quasi-TE (q-TE and quasi-TM (q-TM modes. The bending loss would decrease with the increase of bending radius. There was a bending loss caused by the electromagnetic field leakage when the neff of q-TM waveguide was smaller than that of nearby TE planar waveguide. LN ridge waveguides possessed a low bending loss even at a relatively small bending radius. This study is helpful for the understanding of waveguide structures as well as for the optimization and the fabrication of high-density integrated optical components.

  4. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  5. Generation of ionizing radiation from lithium niobate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work done experimentally explores generation of electron and x-ray radiation in the process of heating and cooling monolithic and iron-doped crystals of lithium niobate. Iron doping to the concentrations in the range of 1023 m3 was carried out by adding ferric oxide into the melt during the process of crystal growth. The research into radiation generation was performed at 1-10 Pa. The speed of heating from -10 to 1070 C was 10-20 degrees a minute. Current pulses appeared at 17, 38, 56, 94, 98, 100, 105, 106, 1070 C with the interval of 1-3 minutes. The obtained electron current increased in direct proportion to the crystal surface area. The maximum current was 3mA at the design voltage 11 kV on the crystal with 14,5x10,5x10 mm3 surface area. The article describes the possibility to control the start of generation by introducing priming pulse. The results achieved are explained by the domain repolarization while heating the crystal and the appearance of electric field local strength. Bias and overcharge currents contribute to the appearance of electric strength, which stimulates breakdown and plasma formation. X-ray radiation appears both at the stage of discharge formation and during electron deceleration on gas and target material.

  6. Effect of Ion Irradiation in Cadmium Niobate Pyrochlores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Weilin; Weber, William J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been performed for cadmium niobate pyrochlore (CdNb2O) single crystals at both 150 and 300 K using 1.0 MeV Au ions over fluences ranging from 0.01 to 0.10 ions/nm. In-situ 3.0 MeV He Rutherford backscattering spectrometry along the -axial channeling direction (RBS/C) has been applied to study the damage states ranging from small defect concentrations to a fully amorphous state. Results show that the crystal can be readily amorphized under the irradiation conditions. Room-temperature recovery of the defects produced at 150 K has been observed, while the defects produced at 300 K are thermally stable at room temperature. Results also indicate that the RBS/C analysis used in this study induced negligible damage in the near-surface regime. In addition, irradiation at and below room temperature using He and C3 ions leads to surface exfoliation at the corresponding damage peaks

  7. Recent Achievements on Photovoltaic Optoelectronic Tweezers Based on Lithium Niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel García-Cabañes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an up-dated summary of the fundamentals and applications of optoelectronic photovoltaic tweezers for trapping and manipulation of nano-objects on the surface of lithium niobate crystals. It extends the contents of previous reviews to cover new topics and developments which have emerged in recent years and are marking the trends for future research. Regarding the theoretical description of photovoltaic tweezers, detailed simulations of the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic forces acting on different crystal configurations are discussed in relation to the structure of the obtained trapping patterns. As for the experimental work, we will pay attention to the manipulation and patterning of micro-and nanoparticles that has experimented an outstanding progress and relevant applications have been reported. An additional focus is now laid on recent work about micro-droplets, which is a central topic in microfluidics and optofluidics. New developments in biology and biomedicine also constitute a relevant part of the review. Finally, some topics partially related with photovoltaic tweezers and a discussion on future prospects and challenges are included.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlore nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth zinc niobate pyrochlores Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (alpha-BZN, and Bi2(Zn1/3Nb2/32O 7 (beta-BZN have been synthesized by chemical method based on the polymeric precursors. The pyrochlore phase was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X ray diffraction. Powder and sintered pellets morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The study of alpha-BZN phase formation reveals that, at 500 °C, the pyrochlore phase was already present while a single-phased nanopowder was obtained after calcination at 700 °C. The crystallization mechanism of the beta-BZN is quite different, occurring through the crystallization of alpha-BZN and BiNbO4 intermediary phases. Both compositions yielded soft agglomerated powders. alpha-BZN pellets, sintered at 800 °C for 2 hours, presented a relative density of 97.3% while those of beta-BZN, sintered at 900 °C for 2 hours, reached only 91.8%. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss, measured at 1 MHz, were 150 and 4 x/10-4 for a-BZN, and 97 and 8 x 10-4 for beta-BZN.

  9. Magnetophotorefractive effect and interference filters in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam-Hansen, C.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental photorefractive and photovoltaic properties of iron-doped lithium niobate crystals. Experimental observations of a strong magnetic field effect on the energy coupling and grating formation in a vectorial interaction scheme are presented. To the author's knowledge these are the first reported results in the field. It is shown that an enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of 60% is possible by applying even a moderate magnetic field of 0.23 T. A new theoretical model of the magnetophotorefractive effect in the vectorial interaction scheme is presented. It describes the space-charge field formation, two-wave mixing and grating formation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic field. Good agreement with the experimental results and the first measurement of nondiagonal components of the magnetophotovoltaic tensor are reported. A theoretical model for the temperature properties of photorefractive interference filters with subangstrom bandwidths are presented and compared favourably with experimental investigations. A novel method for determining the spectral response of these filters from a combined thermal and angular response measurements is described. (au) 9 tabs., 30 ills., 84 refs

  10. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  11. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-01-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000 deg. C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO 3 , producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO 3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips

  12. Fixation of Radioactive Strontium in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    of the other long-lived fission products. Much work2–5 has, therefore, been concerned with the possibility of bringing down the strontium-90 uptake by plants through ploughing or through the addition of lime or fertilizer to the soil. Another factor, the effect of ageing on the availability of strontium, has...... been considered6,7. In general, these methods appear to be of little practical value, except for deep ploughing and the liming of acid soils, both of which will reduce the strontium uptake by a factor of 3–4....

  13. Ceria and strontium titanate based electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A ceramic anode structure obtainable by a process comprising the steps of: (a) providing a slurry by dispersing a powder of an electronically conductive phase and by adding a binder to the dispersion, in which said powder is selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate......, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate, and mixtures thereof, (b) sintering the slurry of step (a), (c) providing a precursor solution of ceria, said solution containing a solvent and a surfactant, (d) impregnating the resulting sintered structure of step (b...

  14. Strontium clusters: electronic and geometry shell effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    charged strontium clusters consisting of up to 14 atoms, average bonding distances, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, and spectra of the density of electronic states (DOS). It is demonstrated that the size-evolution of structural and electronic properties of strontium clusters...... is governed by an interplay of the electronic and geometry shell closures. Influence of the electronic shell effects on structural rearrangements can lead to violation of the icosahedral growth motif of strontium clusters. It is shown that the excessive charge essentially affects the optimized geometry...

  15. Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Sokol'nitskaya, T.A.; Yukhkam, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater is considered and prospects of use of selective adsorbents for purification of seawater or liquid radioactive wastes mixed with seawater from 90 Sr are discussed. Comparative analysis of sorptive properties of adsorbents of different nature is done. It is shown that sorption-reagent materials developed by authors can to afford effective separation of 90 Sr from seawater. Possible mechanism of strontium sorption by these adsorbents is considered. The prospect of their use for purification of liquid radioactive wastes from strontium is shown [ru

  16. Optimal design of DC-based polarization beam splitter in lithium niobate on insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zisu; Yin, Rui; Ji, Wei; Wang, Junbao; Wu, Chonghao; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Shicheng

    2017-08-01

    We propose a DC-based polarization beam splitter (PBS) in lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI). Utilizing the high birefringence property of Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3, LN), the device is achieved by simple structure in a short length. With the use of beam propagation method (BPM), the simulation results show that the device has a good performance for the separation of TE and TM polarizations with a high extinction ratio (about 35 dB). The simulated fabrication tolerance for the variation of the waveguide width is about 100 nm and the bandwidth is about 65 nm when the extinction ratio is higher than 10 dB.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  18. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  19. Writing single-mode waveguides in lithium niobate by ultra-low intensity solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, E.; Ramadan, W.; Petris, A.; Chauvet, M.; Bosco, A.; Vlad, V.I.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical waveguides can be conveniently written in photorefractive materials by using spatial solitons. We have generated bright spatial solitons inside lithium niobate which allow single-mode light propagation. Efficient waveguides have been generated with CW light powers as high as few microwatts. According to the soliton formation, waveguides can be formed with different shapes. Due to the slow response time of the lithium niobate, both for soliton formation and relaxation, the soliton waveguide remains memorised for a long time, of the order of months

  20. Tunable dual-wavelength filter and its group delay dispersion in domain-engineered lithium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hao Shao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tunable dual-wavelength filter is experimentally demonstrated in domain-engineered lithium niobate. Application of an electric field on the y-surfaces of the sample results in the optical axes rotating clockwise and anticlockwise, which makes selective polarization rotation. The quasi phase-matching wavelengths could be adjusted through suitable domain design. A unique dual valley spectrum is obtained in a periodically poled lithium niobate structure with a central defect if the sample is placed between two parallel polarizers. The expected bandwidth could be varied from ∼1 nm to ∼40 nm. Moreover, both the spectral response and group delay dispersion could be engineered.

  1. Separation of cesium and strontium with zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, T; Hashimoto, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy

    1976-06-01

    The basic studies of separation of cesium and strontium were made with specimens of zeolite, which are synthetic zeolites A, X and Y; synthetic mordenite; natural mordenite; and clinoptilolite. Ammonium chloride was used as eluent, because it was considered to be a most appropriate eluent in alkaline chlorides. Cesium was easily eluted from the zeolites A and X by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the synthetic mordenite, natural mordenite and clinoptilolite by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the zeolites A and X. The zeolite Y is the only one zeolite among these zeolites from which both of cesium and strontium were easily eluted by ammonium chloride solution. Strontium could be separated from cesium with zeolites by formation of Sr-EDTA chelate at pH above 11. In this process, cesium was only exchanged in zeolite column, but strontium flow out from it.

  2. Separation of cesium and strontium with zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takuji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1976-01-01

    The basic studies of separation of cesium and strontium were made with specimens of zeolite, which are synthetic zeolites A, X and Y; synthetic mordenite; natural mordenite; and clinoptilolite. Ammonium chloride was used as eluent, because it was considered to be a most appropriate eluent in alkaline chlorides. Cesium was easily eluted from the zeolites A and X by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the synthetic mordenite, natural mordenite and clinoptilolite by ammonium chloride solution, but it was difficult to elute from the zeolites A and X. The zeolite Y is the only one zeolite among these zeolites from which both of cesium and strontium were easily eluted by ammonium chloride solution. Strontium could be separated from cesium with zeolites by formation of Sr-EDTA chelate at pH above 11. In this process, cesium was only exchanged in zeolite column, but strontium flow out from it. (auth.)

  3. Dielectric behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dielectric loss (tan δ) as functions of frequency and temperature. Ion core type ... Since the data on dielectric properties of strontium tartrate trihydrate (STT) do not ... through 'AE' make 15-amp dimmerstat, the rate of heating was maintained ...

  4. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  5. Strontium Diibuprofenate Dihydrate, Strontium Malonate Sesquihydrate, Strontium Diascorbate Dihydrate and Strontium 2-Oxidobenzoate Hydrate at 120 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Kenny; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Cristgau, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    -sharing to form chains. The Sr coordination chains are packed into layers, which are stacked by van der Waals interactions. Poly[-aqua-diaquadi--malonato-distrontium(II)], [Sr2(C3H2O4)2(H2O)3]n, crystallizes with nine-coordinated Sr atoms three-dimensionally interconnected into a framework structure. One...... of the two crystallographically independent water molecules is located on a twofold axial site. catena-Poly[[diaqua(ascorbato)strontium(II)]--ascorbato], [Sr(C6H7O6)2(H2O)2]n, crystallizes with isolated eight-coordinated Sr polyhedra. One of the ascorbate ligands bridges two Sr atoms, forming zigzag...

  6. Determination of radioactive strontium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahek, Zeljko; Rozmaric Macefat, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures of isolating strontium and yttrium from seawater that enable the determination of 89,90 Sr. In one procedure, strontium is directly isolated from seawater on the column filled with Sr resin by binding of strontium to the resin from 3 M HNO 3 in a seawater, and successive elution with HNO 3 . In others, strontium is precipitated from seawater with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , followed by isolation on a Sr column or an anion exchange column. It is shown that strontium precipitation is optimal with concentration of 0.3 M (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 at pH = 11. In these conditions, 100% Y, 78% Sr, 80% Ca and 50% Mg are precipitated. Strontium is bound on to Sr column from 5 to 8 M HNO 3 , separated from other elements by elution with 3 M HNO 3 and 0.05 M HNO 3 . Strontium and yttrium are bound on to anion exchange column from alcoholic solutions of nitric acid. The optimum mixture of alcohols for sample binding is a mixture of ethanol and methanol with the volume ratio 1:3. Strontium and yttrium are separated from Mg, Ca, K, and other elements by elution with 0.25 M HNO 3 in the mixture of ethanol and methanol. After the separation, yttrium and strontium are eluted from the column with water or methanol. In the procedure of direct isolation from 1 l of the sample, the average recovery of 50% was obtained. In the remaining two procedures, the strontium recovery was about 60% for the Sr column and 65% for anion exchange column. Recovery of yttrium is about 70% for the anion exchange column. It turned out that the procedure with the Sr resin (direct isolation and isolation after precipitation) is simpler and faster in the phase of the isolation on the column in comparison with the procedure with the anion exchanger. The procedure with the anion exchanger, however, enables the simultaneous isolation of yttrium and strontium and rapid determination of 89,90 Sr. These procedures were tested by determination of 89,90 Sr on liquid scintillation counter and Cherenkov

  7. Strontium-90 migration in Hanford sediments, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Carroll, S.A.; Roberts, S.; Zachara, J.M.; Yabusaki, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Strontium-90 is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford site in eastern Washington, USA. Disposal operations at the Hanford 100-N area released millions of liters of reactor cooling water containing high concentrations of strontium-90 into the vadose zone immediately adjacent to the Columbia River. The effectiveness of pump-and-treat methods for remediation have been questioned, largely because the strontium is strongly sorbed on subsurface sediments via ion exchange reactions and co-precipitation in carbonates. In addition, groundwater monitoring wells show a fluctuating seasonal behavior in which high strontium-90 concentrations correlate with high Columbia River stage, even while average concentrations remain approximately constant. A series of fully saturated reactive transport column experiments have been conducted to investigate the important controls on strontium migration in Hanford groundwater [1]. The experiments were designed to investigate the multicomponent cation exchange behavior of strontium in competition with the cations Na + , Ca +2 , and Mg +2 , the concentration of which differs between river water and groundwater. Reactive transport modeling of the experiments indicates that the Sr +2 selectivity coefficient becomes larger with increasing NaNO 3 concentration, a behavior also shown by the divalent cations Ca +2 and Mg +2 . A new set of column experiments investigates the effect of wetting and drying cycles on strontium- 90 sorption and migration by considering episodic flow in Hanford sediments. In addition, the effect of fluctuating aquifer chemistry as a result of changes in the Columbia River stage on Sr +2 sorption is addressed. Modeling of multicomponent reactive transport under variably saturated conditions is used to interpret the results of the episodic flow/chemistry experiments. [1] Experimental and modeling studies of the migration behavior of strontium in Hanford sediments, USA. C

  8. Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengyel, K.; Péter, Á.; Kovács, L.; Corradi, G.; Dravecz, G.; Hajdara, I.; Szaller, Zs.; Polgár, K. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege M. út 29-33 (Hungary); Pálfalvi, L.; Unferdorben, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pécs, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6 (Hungary); MTA-PTE High Field Terahertz Research Group, 7624 Pécs (Hungary)

    2015-12-15

    Owing to the extraordinary richness of its physical properties, congruent lithium niobate has attracted multidecade-long interest both for fundamental science and applications. The combination of ferro-, pyro-, and piezoelectric properties with large electro-optic, acousto-optic, and photoelastic coefficients as well as the strong photorefractive and photovoltaic effects offers a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components in high energy laser applications, tailoring of key material parameters, especially stoichiometry, is required. This paper reviews the state of the art of growing large stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} (sLN) crystals, in particular, the defect engineering of pure and doped sLN with emphasis on optical damage resistant (ODR) dopants (e.g., Mg, Zn, In, Sc, Hf, Zr, Sn). The discussion is focused on crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) technique using alkali oxide fluxing agents. Based on high-temperature phase equilibria studies of the Li{sub 2}O–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–X{sub 2}O ternary systems (X = Na, K, Rb, Cs), the impact of alkali homologue additives on the stoichiometry of the lithium niobate phase will be analyzed, together with a summary of the ultraviolet, infrared, and far-infrared absorption spectroscopic methods developed to characterize the composition of the crystals. It will be shown that using HTTSSG from K{sub 2}O containing flux, crystals closest to the stoichiometric composition can be grown characterized by a UV-edge position of at about 302 nm and a single narrow hydroxyl band in the IR with a linewidth of less than 3 cm{sup −1} at 300 K. The threshold concentrations for ODR dopants depend on crystal stoichiometry and the valence of the dopants; Raman spectra, hydroxyl vibration spectra, and Z-scan measurements prove to be useful to distinguish crystals below and above the photorefractive threshold. Crystals just above the threshold are

  9. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P; McCallum, J C [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Synthesis and thermoluminescent characterization of lithium niobate doped with erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landavazo, M.; Brown, F.; Cubillas, F.; Munoz, I.; Cruz Z, E.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Lithium niobate (Nl) is a synthetic dielectric and is mainly used in optical devices. There are reports on the thermoluminescent property of Nl monocrystals doped with rare earths and excited with X and gamma rays. In this study the Nl was synthesized and doped with erbium (Er) at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4 % mol and was characterized by its Tl property. The synthesis was realized by solid state reaction at 1000 degrees C for 22 hours and the formation of Nl:Er was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDS analysis, finding a new phase (ErNbO 4 ). Was studied the dose-response gamma in a range of 1-1000 Gy, the material showed linear behavior of 1-600 Gy. The brightness curves have maxima at 185 and 285 degrees C to 1% in 183 and 301 degrees C for 2%, respectively. While for the concentration of 4% a maximum in 177 degrees C accompanied by a smaller peak at higher temperature of the glow curve was observed. The Tl response of Nl:Er 4% to 450 Gy was increased 271 times compared to pure Nl. The reproducibility of the Tl signal at ten cycles of irradiation-reading, present a standard deviation of 5%. In Nl:Er 1% Tl signal fades in 21.3% after 24 hours, while in 2 and 4% an unusual fading occurs. The Tl characteristics of Nl:Er synthesized material is of interest to gamma radiation dosimetry of high doses. (Author)

  11. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  12. Annealing behaviour of MeV erbium implanted lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gortmaker, P.; McCallum, J.C. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) is a crystalline ceramic commonly used in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. Recently, rare earth doping of LiNbO{sub 3} has become a topic of particular interest. The electronic configuration of rare earth elements such as Erbium (Er) and Neodymium (Nd) allows them to lase in nearly any host matrix making fabrication of a whole range of new optoelectronic devices possible. At present, the doping technique, for LiNbO{sub 3} are centred upon diffusion technology, but the diffusion profiles for the rare earths are not generally well-matched to the optical modes of the device. The aim of this research is to develop MeV implantation and annealing conditions of rare earth doped LiNbO{sub 3} that would be compatible with optoelectronic device fabrication. To determine the characteristics of the rare earth elements in the LiNbO{sub 3} host material over the depth range of interest in optoelectronic device applications, high energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling (RBS-C) must be used. Presented here are the Er depth profile and lattice damage results obtained from 5 MeV RBS-C measurements on samples of LiNbO{sub 3} implanted with various doses of MeV Erbium and subsequently thermally annealed at a temperature of 1000 deg C. It was found that there is a peak implant concentration (2 x 10{sup 16} Er/cm{sup 2}) for which erbium no longer goes substitutional in the lattice, and the implantation damage is not fully removed by annealing. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water (from July, 1982, to September, 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea water collected at 11 locations across Japan from July to September, 1982, are given in pCi/l, respectively. The methods of the collection and pretreatment of samples, the preparation of samples for analysis, the separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, and the counting are also described. Sea water was collected at the fixed station where the effect of the terrestrial fresh water from rivers was negligibly small. The sampling was carried out when there was no rainfall for the last few days. The sample solution was prepared and was neutralized with sodium hydroxide. After sodium carbonate was added, the precipitate of strontium and calcium carbonates was separated. The supernatant solution was retained for cesium-137 determination. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitate was counted for activity using a low background beta counter normally for 60 min. The radioactivity ranged 0.09 to 0.13 pCi/l for Sr-90 and 0.05 to 0.13 pCi/l for Cs-137 in the sea water. (Mori, K.)

  14. Kinetics of isotopic exchange between strontium polymolybdate and strontium ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, Gulten; Bilgin, Binay; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2002-01-01

    A heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction of strontium polymolybdate in strontium chloride solution was studied using 90 Sr as a tracer. The effects of low and high strontium chloride concentration on the rate and mechanism of the isotopic exchange reaction were investigated. It was found that, at high concentrations, the rate is independent of strontium concentration, but, at low concentrations, the rate is proportional to the strontium concentration. These results support a hypothesis that, at low concentrations, the rate is controlled by film diffusion, whereas at high concentrations it is controlled by particle diffusion. Experiments were performed at 293, 303 and 313 K. Activation energy of isotopic exchange reaction and thermodynamic parameters ΔH*, ΔS*, and ΔG* were calculated using the Arrhenius and Eyring equations. The results also indicated that recrystallization is a predominant factor in the present exchange reaction

  15. Kinetics of isotopic exchange between strontium polymolybdate and strontium ions in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atun, Gulten E-mail: gultena@istanbul.edu.tr; Bilgin, Binay; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2002-06-01

    A heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction of strontium polymolybdate in strontium chloride solution was studied using {sup 90}Sr as a tracer. The effects of low and high strontium chloride concentration on the rate and mechanism of the isotopic exchange reaction were investigated. It was found that, at high concentrations, the rate is independent of strontium concentration, but, at low concentrations, the rate is proportional to the strontium concentration. These results support a hypothesis that, at low concentrations, the rate is controlled by film diffusion, whereas at high concentrations it is controlled by particle diffusion. Experiments were performed at 293, 303 and 313 K. Activation energy of isotopic exchange reaction and thermodynamic parameters {delta}H*, {delta}S*, and {delta}G* were calculated using the Arrhenius and Eyring equations. The results also indicated that recrystallization is a predominant factor in the present exchange reaction.

  16. Chemical transport of niobium(V) oxide and of lithium niobate with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1988-01-01

    Niobium(V) oxide is transported by means of sulphur (calculated for 10 bar at 1223 K) from 1273 → 1173 K. The same applies for lithium niobate. Similar experiments of lithium oxide lead to turbidity of the quartz ampoule. (author)

  17. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, S.; Rensberg, J.; Johannes, A.; Thomae, R.; Smit, F.; Neveling, R.; Moodley, M.; Bierschenk, T.; Rodriquez, M.; Afra, B.; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, C.; Ridgway, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Ronning, C.

    2016-01-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm−1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to

  18. All-optical switching in lithium niobate directional couplers with cascaded nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiek, R.; Baek, Y.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Stegeman, G.I.; Baumann, I.; Sohler, W.

    1996-01-01

    We report on intensity-dependent switching in lithium niobate directional couplers. Large nonlinear phase shifts that are due to cascading detune the coupling between the coupler branches, which makes all-optical switching possible. Depending on the input intensity, the output could be switched

  19. Erbium medium temperature localised doping into lithium niobate and sapphire: A comparative study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav; Červená, Jarmila; Čapek, P.; Schrofel, J.; Špirková, J.; Oswald, Jiří

    90-91, - (2003), s. 559-564 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : lithium niobate * sapphire * erbium Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  20. UV laser-assisted fabrication of ridge waveguides in lithium niobate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sones, C.L.; Ying, C.Y.J.; Eason, R.W.; Mailis, S.; Ganguly, P.; Soergel, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a UV laser-assisted method for the fabrication of ridge waveguides in lithium niobate. The UV laser irradiation step provides the refractive index change required for the vertical light confinement in the waveguide and also defines the ferroelectric domain pattern which produces the ridge structures after chemical etching.

  1. Flexible Piezoelectric Touch Sensor by Alignment of Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate Microcubes in PDMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; de Leeuw, D.M.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by

  2. Investigation of hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile fibers utilization for the removal of strontium from liquid nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, U.; Altas, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this study polyacrylonitrile fiber (PANF) was hydrolyzed both with sodium and potassium hydroxide solutions using alkali hydrolysing method and hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile fibers (HPANF) were obtained. These two types of hydrolyzed fibers were compared taking into consideration strontium adsorption capacities and it was decided that the hydrolysis with KOH solution is more convenient. The hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile fiber was characterized by DTA/TGA, FTIR and SEM analysis. The adsorption behaviors of HPANF towards Sr ions was investigated by batch technique, the parameters affect the strontium adsorption such as the initial pH of the solution, Sr concentration, temperature, shaking time, adsorbent dose (V/m ratio) were determined. The adaptation of the obtained adsorption equilibrium data to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were investigated and some of the thermodynamic values of the system (ΔGo, ΔHo, ΔSo) were calculated.

  3. Amino acid-assisted synthesis of strontium hydroxyapatite bone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Strontium-incorporated calcium phosphates show potential in biomedical application, particularly the doped stron- tium may ... shows that the addition of glycine plays an important role in reducing the particle size of strontium hydroxyapatite.

  4. Reduced-graphene-oxide-and-strontium-titanate-based double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GO)/strontium titanate were pre- ... R-GO and strontium titanate were synthesized and characterized before ... Microwave absorption capabilities of the composite absorbers were investigated using a .... was backed with a conducting metal sheet.

  5. Interaction of light with impurities in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwesyg, Judith Renate Marie-Luise

    2011-06-06

    Congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) and 5-mol% MgO-doped LiNbO{sub 3} (MgO:LN) crystals are widely used as nonlinear-optical crystals in frequency-conversion devices due to their large nonlinear-optic coefficients. These devices usually require high optical pump powers, but absorption of photons by impurities limits their usability due to heat accumulation that leads to thermo-optic refractive index changes. These refractive index changes distort the beam shape and disturb the phase-matching condition. Furthermore pyroelectric fields can build up. In this thesis the residual optical absorption in congruent LiNbO{sub 3} (CLN) and MgO:LN crystals is studied. Absorption spectra of CLN and MgO:LN crystals between 400-2000 nm reveal a residual absorption up to 0.04 cm{sup -1}. This absorption is mainly caused by transition metal impurities. Between 2300-2800 nm unknown hydrogen absorption bands in CLN and MgO:LN are revealed on the order of 0.001 cm{sup -1}. High-temperature annealing is applied to the CLN and MgO:LN crystals, which decreases optical absorption by up to one order of magnitude. As an application, the operation of a 1550-nm pumped singly-resonant CW optical parametric oscillator, resonant around 2600 nm, using a low-loss, periodically-poled, annealed CLN crystal is demonstrated. Another issue that affects CLN is photorefractive damage (PRD), i.e. light-induced refractive index changes. In contrast, MgO:LN crystals do not suffer from PRD even at high optical intensities. However, it is shown in this thesis that PRD can occur within seconds in MgO:LN, using green laser light at light intensity levels as low as 100 mW/cm{sup 2}, if the crystal is heated by several degrees Celsius during or before illumination. Photorefractive damage does not occur in CLN crystals under the same conditions. We show that the pyroelectric effect together with an elevated photoconductivity compared to that of CLN causes this beam distortion and that this effect also

  6. Interaction of light with impurities in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesyg, Judith Renate Marie-Luise

    2011-01-01

    Congruent lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and 5-mol% MgO-doped LiNbO 3 (MgO:LN) crystals are widely used as nonlinear-optical crystals in frequency-conversion devices due to their large nonlinear-optic coefficients. These devices usually require high optical pump powers, but absorption of photons by impurities limits their usability due to heat accumulation that leads to thermo-optic refractive index changes. These refractive index changes distort the beam shape and disturb the phase-matching condition. Furthermore pyroelectric fields can build up. In this thesis the residual optical absorption in congruent LiNbO 3 (CLN) and MgO:LN crystals is studied. Absorption spectra of CLN and MgO:LN crystals between 400-2000 nm reveal a residual absorption up to 0.04 cm -1 . This absorption is mainly caused by transition metal impurities. Between 2300-2800 nm unknown hydrogen absorption bands in CLN and MgO:LN are revealed on the order of 0.001 cm -1 . High-temperature annealing is applied to the CLN and MgO:LN crystals, which decreases optical absorption by up to one order of magnitude. As an application, the operation of a 1550-nm pumped singly-resonant CW optical parametric oscillator, resonant around 2600 nm, using a low-loss, periodically-poled, annealed CLN crystal is demonstrated. Another issue that affects CLN is photorefractive damage (PRD), i.e. light-induced refractive index changes. In contrast, MgO:LN crystals do not suffer from PRD even at high optical intensities. However, it is shown in this thesis that PRD can occur within seconds in MgO:LN, using green laser light at light intensity levels as low as 100 mW/cm 2 , if the crystal is heated by several degrees Celsius during or before illumination. Photorefractive damage does not occur in CLN crystals under the same conditions. We show that the pyroelectric effect together with an elevated photoconductivity compared to that of CLN causes this beam distortion and that this effect also influences frequency conversion

  7. Measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fall-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Soedyartomo; Suhartono.

    1976-01-01

    The procedure of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 in the rain fallout as well as the measurement of the fallout gross beta activity have been studied. In the preliminary study strontium 90 is separated from other cations especially fission products by fuming nitric acid, and radioactivity measurement is carried out in the form of strontium oxalate. Data of radioactivity measurement of strontium 90 and the gross beta activity in the fallout are given. (author)

  8. Distribution of strontium in milk component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of strontium between the milk components, i.e., serum, casein micelles, whey and hydroxyapatite was determined. The sorption on hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The aqueous phase comprised of either milk or whey. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of its preparation and on the composition of the aqueous phase. The sorption of strontium was increased with an increase of pH. The presence of citrate species resulted in decrease of the sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite. The sorption of 85 Sr on hydroxyapatite decreased with the increasing concentration of Ca 2+ ions. Addition of Ca 2+ ions to milk resulted in milk pH decrease. The decrease in pH value after calcium addition to milk is related to exchanges between added calcium and micellar H + . The average value of strontium sorption on casein micelles in milk with presence of hydroxyapatite was (47.3 ± 5.6) %. The average value of sorption of 85 Sr on casein micelles in milk without the addition of hydroxyapatite was (68.9 ± 2.2) %. (author)

  9. Sorption of caesium and strontium onto calcium silicate hydrate in saline groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, D.; Fujita, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the concept for radioactive waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. The sorption of radionuclides onto cement materials, which controls the aqueous concentrations of elements in the pore-water, is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from the near field of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. Many safety assessment calculations currently assume radionuclide retardation as linear sorption equilibrium and describe it with a distribution ratio (R d value). In this study, the sorption mechanism is discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of caesium, strontium (10 -5 ∼ 10 -2 mol dm -3 ) and sodium (10 -4 ∼ 10 -1 mol dm -3 ) onto Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H gel, Ca/Si 0.65 ∼ 1.2) at a liquid:solid ratio of 100:1, to support the assumption. In addition, the competitive sorption between caesium or strontium, and sodium is studied by sorption measurements using a range of sodium chloride concentration to simulate different ionic strengths in saline groundwater. The initial and equilibrated aqueous compositions were measured in the sorption experiments and it was found that caesium, strontium and sodium were sorbed by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases by examining the mass balance. Based on the experimental results, we propose a modelling approach in which the ion-exchange model is employed and the presence of some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values in C-S-H is assumed by considering the composition and the structure of C-S-H. The modelling calculation results predict the measured Rd values well and also describe the competition of sorption of caesium or strontium, and sodium in the experiments. The log K values for sorption of each cation element decreased as Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H gel increased. This agrees with the trend that C-S-H gel is negatively charged at low

  10. Growth and characterization of pure and lithium doped strontium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Abstract. The effect of lithium ion as dopant on the size and transparency of strontium tartrate tetrahydrate. (SrC4H4O6⋅4H2O) crystals are presented in this paper. Growth of single crystals of undoped and lithium doped strontium tartrate tetrahydrate by controlled diffusion of strontium nitrate into the gel charged with.

  11. Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth of strontium oxalate crystals in agar–agar gel. P V DALAL. ∗ and K B SARAF. Postgraduate Department of Physics, Pratap College, Amalner 425 401, India. MS received 16 March 2008; revised 5 April 2010. Abstract. Single crystals of strontium oxalate have been grown by using strontium chloride and oxalic acid in.

  12. Rapid determination of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in food and environmental samples by Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, Judith; Suomela, Jorma

    1995-01-01

    The method has been developed for emergency situations. Minimum detectable concentrations of 5 Bq/liter, kilogram of strontium-89 and strontium-90 respectively is achievable in the presence of nuclides considered to be released under accidental conditions. Result on the strontium-89 and strontium-90 content in a sample can be obtained within 12 hours. One technician can easily handle 8-10 samples during a working day of eight hours. The determination of the strontium isotopes is accomplished by monitoring the Cerenkov radiation from strontium-89 and yttrium-90 in a liquid scintillation counter. The latter is the daughter product of strontium-90. Prior to the Cerenkov counting the sample is separated from interfering nuclides by oxalate precipitation, chromate precipitation and HDEHP-extraction. The method has to be further improved and evaluated with respect to different soil types such as forest mineral soil layers, agricultural soils and pastures. Furthermore, the decontamination procedure should be evaluated for a sample containing freshly irradiated uranium. (author)

  13. Alveolar bone repair with strontium- containing nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Boziki Xavier do Carmo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to evaluate bone repair in rat dental sockets after implanting nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate (CHA and nanostructured carbonated hydroxyapatite/sodium alginate containing 5% strontium microspheres (SrCHA as bone substitute materials. Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups: CHA and SrCHA (n=5/period/group. After one and 6 weeks of extraction of the right maxillary central incisor and biomaterial implantation, 5 μm bone blocks were obtained for histomorphometric evaluation. The parameters evaluated were remaining biomaterial, loose connective tissue and newly formed bone in a standard area. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Withney and and Wilcoxon tests at 95% level of significance. Results: The histomorphometric results showed that the microspheres showed similar fragmentation and bio-absorbation (p>0.05. We observed the formation of new bones in both groups during the same experimental periods; however, the new bone formation differed significantly between the weeks 1 and 6 (p=0.0039 in both groups. Conclusion: The CHA and SrCHA biomaterials were biocompatible, osteoconductive and bioabsorbable, indicating their great potential for clinical use as bone substitutes.

  14. Near-field-optical-microscopy studies of micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser irradiation in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamela, J.; Jaque, D.; Rodenas, A.; Jaque, F.; Torchia, G.A.; Vazquez, J.R.; Mendez, C.; Roso, L.

    2008-01-01

    Near-field-optical-microscopy has been used to study the micro-modifications caused by femtosecond laser pulses focused at the surface and in the volume of lithium niobate crystals. We have found experimental evidence of the existence, close to femtosecond ablation craters, of periodic modifications in the surface reflectivity. In addition, the potential application of near-field-optical microscopy for the spatial location of permanent modifications caused by femtosecond pulses focused inside lithium niobate crystals has been also demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. Damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Qinglong; Zhang, Bin; Zhong, Sencheng; Zhu, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses has been studied theoretically and experimentally. Firstly, the model for the damage threshold prediction of crystal materials based on the improved rate equation has been proposed. Then, the experimental measure method of the damage threshold of crystal materials has been given in detail. On the basis, the variation of the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal with the pulse duration has also been analyzed quantitatively. Finally, the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses has been measured and compared to the theoretical results. The results show that the transmittance of lithium niobate crystal is almost a constant when the laser pulse fluence is relative low, whereas it decreases linearly with the increase in the laser pulse fluence below the damage threshold. The damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal increases with the increase in the duration of the femtosecond laser pulse. And the damage threshold of lithium niobate crystal under multiple laser pulses is obviously lower than that irradiated by a single laser pulse. The theoretical data fall in good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)

  16. Strontium and fluorine in tuatua shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompetter, W.J.; Coote, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the research to date on the elemental distributions of strontium, calcium, and fluorine in a collection of 24 tuatua shells (courtesy of National Museum). Variations in elemental concentrations were measured in the shell cross-sections using a scanning proton microprobe (PIXE and PIGME). In this paper we report the findings to date, and present 2-D measurement scans as illustrative grey-scale pictures. Our results support the hypothesis that increased strontium concentrations are deposited in the shells during spawning, and that fluorine concentration is proportional to growth rate. (author). 15 refs.; 13 figs.; 1 appendix

  17. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  18. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  19. Thermo-electric oxidization of iron in lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO 3 ) are a promising material for nonlinear-optical applications like frequency conversion to generate visible light, e.g., in laser displays, but their achievable output power is greatly limited by the ''optical damage'', i.e., light-induced refractive-index changes caused by excitation of electrons from iron impurities and the subsequent retrapping in unilluminated areas of the crystal. The resulting space-charge fields modify the refractive indices due to the electro-optic effect. By this ''photorefractive effect'' the phase-matching condition, i.e., the avoidance of destructive interference between light generated at different crystal positions due to the dispersion of the fundamental wave and the converted wave, is disturbed critically above a certain light intensity threshold. The influence of annealing treatments conducted in the presence of an externally applied electric field (''thermo-electric oxidization'') on the valence state of iron impurities and thereby on the optical damage is investigated. It is observed that for highly iron-doped LiNbO 3 crystals this treatment leads to a nearly complete oxidization from Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ indicated by the disappearance of the absorption caused by Fe 2+ . During the treatment an absorption front forms that moves through the crystal. The absorption in the visible as well as the electrical conductivity are decreased by up to five orders of magnitude due to this novel treatment. The ratio of the Fe 2+ concentration to the total iron concentration - a measure for the strength of the oxidization - is in the order of 10 -6 for oxidized crystals whereas it is about 10 -1 for untreated samples. Birefringence changes are observed at the absorption front that are explained by the removal of hydrogen and lithium ions from the crystal that compensate for the charges of the also removed electrons from Fe 2+ . A microscopic shock-wave model is developed that explains the observed absorption front by

  20. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  1. Deposition of strontium and calcium in snail shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Jr, G M; Nelson, D J; Gardiner, D A

    1965-07-03

    The relative effects of strontium and calcium concentrations in the environment on their uptake and incorporation into snail shell were investigated. /sup 45/Ca and /sup 85/Sr were used as tracers and specific activities were used to determine deposition. Data are presented in tables and graphs. Deposition of both calcium and strontium in the snail shell depended primarily on the respective concentrations of these elements in the immediate environment. A slight effect of strontium on calcium deposition was observed. There was found to be a minimum strontium deposition for various combinations of strontium and calcium in the environment. It was concluded that strontium uptake is more closely associated with environmental strontium concentrations than with calcium concentrations.

  2. Immobilization of strontium and cesium in intermediate-level liquid wastes by solidification in cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, G.; Koester, R.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated leach test at elevated temperature has been developed which gives intercomparable results within one day. It is very useful for product quality control at large throughputs. Using this test, it has been shown that cesium leachabilities from cement products containing a simulated waste typical of fuel reprocessing plants can be reduced by addition of a bentonite. Addition of barium silicate hydrate retards strontium leaching in these cements. Leach rates in tap water and in salt brine are lower than in distilled water and sodium chloride solution

  3. Determination of temperature dependency of material parameters for lead-free alkali niobate piezoceramics by the inverse method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ogo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium potassium niobate (NKN piezoceramics have been paid much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials in high temperature devices because of their high Curie temperature. The temperature dependency of their material parameters, however, has not been determined in detail up to now. For this purpose, we exploit the so-called Inverse Method denoting a simulation-based characterization approach. Compared with other characterization methods, the Inverse Method requires only one sample shape of the piezoceramic material and has further decisive advantages. The identification of material parameters showed that NKN is mechanically softer in shear direction compared with lead zirconate titanate (PZT at room temperature. The temperature dependency of the material parameters of NKN was evaluated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 150 °C. As a result, we figured out that dielectric constants and piezoelectric constants show a monotonous and isotropic increment with increasing temperature. On the other hand, elastic stiffness constant c 44 E of NKN significantly decreased in contrast to other elastic stiffness constants. It could be revealed that the decrement of c 44 E is associated with an orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition. Furthermore, ratio of elastic compliance constants s 44 E / s 33 E exhibited similar temperature dependent behavior to the ratio of piezoelectric constants d15/d33. It is suspected that mechanical softness in shear direction is one origin of the large piezoelectric shear mode of NKN. Our results show that NKN are suitable for high temperature devices, and that the Inverse Method should be a helpful approach to characterize material parameters under their practical operating conditions for NKN.

  4. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Nekvindova, P; Cervena, J; Budnar, M; Razpet, A; Zorko, B; Pelicon, P; 10.1016/S0925-3467(01)00186-0

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1120) and Z (0001) substrate cuts during waveguide fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by mode spectroscopy (waveguide characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cut structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on fitting X-cut orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate c...

  5. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Branch, D. W.; Cular, S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Schamiloglu, E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  6. Design of multi-wavelength tunable filter based on Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Song, Hongyun

    2018-05-01

    A multi-wavelength tunable filter is designed. It consists of multiple waveguides among multiple waveguide gratings. A pair of electrodes were placed on both sides of each waveguide. The tunable filter uses the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate to tune the phase caused by each waveguide. Consequently, the wavelength and wavelength spacing of the filter are tuned by changing external voltages added on the electrode pairs. The tunable property of the filter is analyzed by phase matching condition and transfer-matrix method. Numerical results show that not only multiple wavelengths with narrow bandwidth are tuned with nearly equal spacing by synchronously changing the voltages added on all electrode pairs, but also the number of wavelengths is determined by the number of phase shifts caused by electrode pairs. Furthermore, due to the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate, the tuning speed of the filter can reach the order of ns.

  7. Propagation of light in the lithium niobate crystal along directions close to an optical axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.V.; Egorova, G.A.; Lonskij, Eh.S.; Potapov, E.V.; Rakov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are given of studying some characteristics of electrooptical modulator from lithium niobate when propagating in it linear-polarized light in directions close to the optical axis, the electric field being applied along the X axis. It has been shown that an increase in an angle of deviation from the optical axis of a light beam passing in the crystal changes the value of the controlling voltage. This is accompanied by the rotation of the polarization plane and the change in the intensity of the light being passed. The methods have been proposed of increasing the modulator aperture, determining the main refraction indices and some electrooptical coefficients fo the lithium niobate crystal

  8. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Ronning, Carsten; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Ridgway, Mark; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic "8"4Kr and "1"9"7Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm"−"1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles. (paper)

  9. Influence of UV light and heat on the ferroelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigerwald, Hendrik

    2011-08-15

    One of the most important non-linear-optical materials is lithium niobate, due to its ease of fabrication, robustness, transparency in the visible-to-infrared and excellent nonlinear properties. In this thesis the issue of tailoring ferroelectric domain structures in lithium niobate crystals is approached from two sides: interaction of defect structures inside the crystal with growing ferroelectric domains is investigated and also actual domain patterning on all crystal faces by different methods is performed. Special emphasis is given to the Mg-doped material. The fundamental understanding and the methods of domain patterning developed in this thesis are then used to obtain tailored domain structures that meet the requirements of their intended application in non-linear optics. (orig.)

  10. Properties of complex tungstates, niobates, translated with fluorite-like structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetkina, S.N.; Zolin, V.F.; Sirotinkin, V.P.; Smirnov, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of ternary tungstates, niobates and tantalates (MeLa 2 WO 7 , La 3 TO 7 ; Me=Ba, Sr; T=Ta, Nb) related to the layered fluorite group are analyzed. The laser pumping and time resolved luminescence are used for selecting spectra of unequivalent centers. The symmetry of the first center is near to the distorted cubic one. The vibrational spectra of europium in Eu 3 NbO 7 and SrLa 2 WO 7 are due to the chain-like structure of niobates and to the net-like structure of tantalates. The stimulated emission of Nd 3+ in powders of BaLa 2 WO 7 and La 3 NbO 7 is observed at wavelengths of 1.07 and 1.063 μm, respectively

  11. Measurement of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in environmental waters. A tentative reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of 89 Sr and 90 Sr in environmental waters is described. Samples of environmental water sources are collected, preserved with acid-strontium carrier, and analyzed for 89 Sr and/or 90 Sr. The isotopes are separated from the sample water by precipitating with stable strontium carrier as carbonate. The strontium carbonate is dissolved, 90 Sr separated, the strontium reprecipitated as carbonate, filtered, and counted for the combined 89 Sr and 90 Sr activity. The 90 y is allowed to grow in from the 90 y activity; the strontium carbonate is redissolved; the 90 y is separated, precipitated, and counted for the 90 Sr determination. The 89 Sr activity is then determined by difference of the total 89 Sr and 90 y and the separate 90 Sr activities. Recoveries are determined from the added and found (recovered) strontium carrier. Counting efficiencies are determined with prepared standard reference samples. Results are reported in pCi/liter

  12. Calcium and Strontium in Swedish Waters and Fish, and Accumulation of Strontium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P O

    1966-04-15

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the correlation between calcium and strontium in fish in relation to the concentration of these elements in the water. An investigation of the uptake of strontium-90 has also been made and permissible levels of strontium-90 in the water is calculated based upon the uptake in fish muscle tissues. Lakes with calcium concentrations between 2 - 63 mg/l have been studied and samples from the Baltic coastal water are also included. Three fish species are studied, viz. pike (Esox lucius (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) and roach (Leuciscus rutilus (L.)). Bones, muscle tissues and skin + scales have been analysed. Strontium-90 measurements have been made showing an increase in both water and fish. Calculations show that in water with about 2 mg Ca/l a 10-fold increase of the existing strontium-90 level might give strontium-90 concentrations in fish muscle tissues close to what is permissible. In lakes with calcium concentrations 20 - 40 mg/l the permissible levels for drinking water will be exceeded before the fish consumption would have to be restricted.

  13. Calcium and Strontium in Swedish Waters and Fish, and Accumulation of Strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.

    1966-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the correlation between calcium and strontium in fish in relation to the concentration of these elements in the water. An investigation of the uptake of strontium-90 has also been made and permissible levels of strontium-90 in the water is calculated based upon the uptake in fish muscle tissues. Lakes with calcium concentrations between 2 - 63 mg/l have been studied and samples from the Baltic coastal water are also included. Three fish species are studied, viz. pike (Esox lucius (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) and roach (Leuciscus rutilus (L.)). Bones, muscle tissues and skin + scales have been analysed. Strontium-90 measurements have been made showing an increase in both water and fish. Calculations show that in water with about 2 mg Ca/l a 10-fold increase of the existing strontium-90 level might give strontium-90 concentrations in fish muscle tissues close to what is permissible. In lakes with calcium concentrations 20 - 40 mg/l the permissible levels for drinking water will be exceeded before the fish consumption would have to be restricted

  14. Resonant double photoionisation spectroscopy of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, E; Grimm, M; Sheridan, P, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i, E-mail: paul.sheridan@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-11-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements on atomic strontium on the 4p {yields} 4d resonance are presented. All of these TDCS measurements display unexpected lobes at a mutual emission angle for the two electrons of 180{sup o}. Possible explanations for these lobes are explored.

  15. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  16. The coprecipitation of strontium with hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Osamu

    1975-01-01

    The distribution behavior of the strontium ion between hydroxyapatite and the parent solution was investigated. The hydroxyapatite was formed by the extremely slow addition of diammonium hydrogenphosphate to solutions of calcium and strontium nitrate buffered with ethylenediamine at 80 0 C. The precipitate yielded a typical X-ray diffraction pattern of hydroxyapatite and had a composition in which the Ca/P molar ratio was 1.67 at pH 6.80. The strontium ion was coprecipitated in the apatite, obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithnmic distribution law. The distribution coefficient was scarcely affected by the strontium concentration on the pH value in the parent solution, and had a value of 0.26+-0.02 at 80 0 C. On the other hand, the apparent distribution coefficient was a little affected by such organic anions as acetate, citrate, lactate, glycinate, and glutamate ions. The lattice constants of the precipitates prepared in the research were measured in order to confirm the formation of the solid solutions. (auth.)

  17. Infrared characterization of strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, B.G.; Pietka, A.; Mendes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium titanate thin films have been prepared at different oxygen pressures with various post-deposition annealing treatments. The films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at room temperature on Si(0 0 1) substrates with a silica buffer layer. Infrared reflectance measurements were performed in order to determine relevant film parameters such as layer thicknesses and chemical composition. The infrared reflectance spectra were fitted by using adequate dielectric function forms for each layer. The fitting procedure provided the extraction of the dielectric functions of the strontium titanate film, the silica layer and the substrate. The as-deposited films are found to be amorphous, and their infrared spectra present peaks corresponding to modes with high damping constants. As the annealing time and temperature increases the strontium titanate layer becomes more ordered so that it can be described by its SrTiO 3 bulk mode parameters. Also, the silica layer grows along with the ordering of the strontium titanate film, due to oxidation during annealing

  18. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  19. Strontium ranelate in the treatment of osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-11-05

    Nov 5, 2006 ... postmenopausal women (mean age 69 years) with osteoporosis or osteopenia. Strontium ranelate significantly decreased markers of bone resorption and increased biomarkers of formation. Spinal BMD increased by 14%, while vertebral fractures decreased by 49% within the first year, a reduction that was.

  20. Strontium PVC-membrane sensor based on 2-[(2-mercaptophenylimino)methyl]phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Young Researchers Club, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adib, Mahdi [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-10

    The 2-[(2-mercaptophenylimino)methyl]phenol (MPMP) was used as an excellent ionophore in the construction of a Sr{sup 2+} PVC-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride), 62% nitrobenzen (NB), 5.5% MPMP and 2.5% sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTBP). This sensor demonstrates a good selectivity and sensitivity towards the strontium ion for many cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients for strontium ions in comparison with the previously reported strontium sensors. The proposed sensor exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with a slope of 29.6 {+-} 0.3 mV per decade) for the concentration range of (1.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M) with a detection limit of 5.5 x 10{sup -7} M (48.2 ng/mL). It illustrates a relatively fast response time in the whole concentration range (< 10 s) and it can be used for at least 10 weeks in a pH range of 2.8-9.6. The developed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the Sr(II) titration with EDTA and the Sr{sup 2+} ion recovery from binary mixtures.

  1. Understanding the defect chemistry of alkali metal strontium silicate solid solutions: insights from experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bayliss, Ryan D.; Cook, Stuart N.; Scanlon, David O.; Fearn, Sarah; Cabana, Jordi; Greaves, Colin; Kilner, John A.; Skinner, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Recent reports of remarkably high oxide ion conduction in a new family of strontium silicates have been challenged. It has recently been demonstrated that, in the nominally potassium substituted strontium germanium silicate material, the dominant charge carrier was not the oxygen ion, and furthermore that the material was not single phase (R. D. Bayliss et. al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00734d). In this work we re-investigate the sodium-doped strontium silicate material that was reported to exhibit the highest oxide ion conductivity in the solid solution, nominally Sr0.55Na0.45SiO2.775. The results show lower levels of total conductivity than previously reported and sub-micron elemental mapping demonstrates, in a similar manner to that reported for the Sr0.8K0.2Si0.5Ge0.5O2.9 composition, an inhomogeneous chemical distribution correlating with a multiphase material. It is also shown that the conductivity is not related to protonic mobility. A density functional theory computational approach provides a theoretical justification for these new results, related to the high energetic costs associated with oxygen vacancy formation. This journal is

  2. Effect of 10% Strontium Chloride and 5% Potassium Nitrate with Fluoride on Bleached Bovine Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Cristiane de Melo; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Araújo, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Silva da Silveira, Ana Daniela; Silva, Cecy Martins

    2017-01-01

    Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel. Next, five specimens of each experimental group were subjected to KHN and tristimulus colorimetry tests, and 10 specimens were subjected to surface roughness (SR) tests. The values obtained for the different groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test in addition to Student's T-test for paired data. In the intergroup comparison, KHN final differed statistically ( p 0.05). 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate combined with 2% fluoride downplayed morphological changes to the enamel, without interfering with the effectiveness of the bleaching process.

  3. Understanding the defect chemistry of alkali metal strontium silicate solid solutions: insights from experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bayliss, Ryan D.

    2014-09-24

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Recent reports of remarkably high oxide ion conduction in a new family of strontium silicates have been challenged. It has recently been demonstrated that, in the nominally potassium substituted strontium germanium silicate material, the dominant charge carrier was not the oxygen ion, and furthermore that the material was not single phase (R. D. Bayliss et. al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00734d). In this work we re-investigate the sodium-doped strontium silicate material that was reported to exhibit the highest oxide ion conductivity in the solid solution, nominally Sr0.55Na0.45SiO2.775. The results show lower levels of total conductivity than previously reported and sub-micron elemental mapping demonstrates, in a similar manner to that reported for the Sr0.8K0.2Si0.5Ge0.5O2.9 composition, an inhomogeneous chemical distribution correlating with a multiphase material. It is also shown that the conductivity is not related to protonic mobility. A density functional theory computational approach provides a theoretical justification for these new results, related to the high energetic costs associated with oxygen vacancy formation. This journal is

  4. Temperature dependence of the thermoelectric coeffiicients of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachaturyan, O.A.; Gabrielyan, A.I.; Kolesnik, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Thermoelectric Zeebeck,Thomson, Peltier coefficients for LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 monocrystals and their dependence on temperature in 300-1400 K range were investigated. It is shown that Zeebeck (α) coefficient changes its sign, depending on temperature change - the higher is α, the higher is material conductivity in the corresponding temperature region. Thomson and Peltier coefficients were calculated analytically for lithium niobate and tantalate

  5. Generation of tunable narrow-band surface-emitted terahertz radiation in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Avetisyan, Y; Beigang, R

    2001-04-15

    Generation of tunable narrow-band terahertz (THz) radiation perpendicular to the surface of periodically poled lithium niobate by optical rectification of femtosecond pulses is reported. The generated THz radiation can be tuned by use of different poling periods and different observation angles, limited only by the available bandwidth of the pump pulse. Typical bandwidths were 50-100 GHz, depending on the collection angle and the number of periods involved.

  6. Micro- and nanostructuration of lithium niobate; Mikro- und Nanostrukturierung von Lithiumniobat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Holger

    2010-04-13

    In the framework of this thesis the application of the ion-beam-enhanced-etching (IBEE) technique for the fabrication of different optical elements, among these photonic crystals, in lithium niobate, was studied. The development of a mask technology fitted to the requirements of the IBEE technique as well as a simulation of the process were performed. Hereby the limitations of the technique in view on minimal structure sizes and structure quality were analyzed. In chapter 1 first the material lithium niobate with its properties and the structuration procedures studied hitherto in the literature is presented. Chapter 2 presents the functionality of the IBEE process and describes the studies on the application of IBEE in lithium niobate performed in the framework of this thesis. In chapter 3 the experimental conditions of all applied processes of the IBEE procedure, the processes used for the mask fabrication, as well all further applied methods and technologies are summarized. Chapter 4 deals with the mask fabrication. The requirements on the masks and the developments necessary for their fulfilment are studied. In chapter 5 the performed simulation of the irradiation, annealing, and etching process is described. This simulation makes the prediciton of the geometry of the components from the process parameters and vice versa the determination of parameters for the reaching of an optimal element geometry possible. In chapter 6 the application of the technique for the fabrication of photonic-crystal membranes and their optical characterization is described. Chapter 7 shows the fabrication of different waveguide and diffractive elements in lithium niobate by means of IBEE.

  7. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  8. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  9. Shock-wave compression of lithium niobate from 2.4 to 44 GPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, P.L.; Graham, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Shock compression of lithium niobate above the Hugoniot elastic limit (about 2.5 GPa) reveals a succession of unusual features. Just above the Hugoniot elastic limit, the shock velocity is observed to be well below the bulk sound speed, indicative of a drastic reduction of shear strength. The shock velocity is observed to increase with particle velocity at an unusually large rate due to the reduction of strength in a very stiff material and an anomalously large pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. This later behavior may be due to the effects of localized shock heating resulting from heterogeneous shear deformation in ferroelectrics like lithium niobate and lithium tantalate in which increases in temperature are shown to have a strong effect on bulk modulus. A shock-induced polymorphic phase transition occurs at 13.9 GPa. Above the transition point the slope of the Hugoniot curve relating shock velocity and particle velocity is unusually low, indicative of a broad mixed phase region of undetermined extent. Limited work is reported on the isomorphous crystal, lithium tantalate, which exhibits features similar to lithium niobate with a Hugoniot elastic limit of 4 GPa and a phase transition in the vicinity of 19 GPa

  10. Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

  11. Selective decontamination for cesium and strontium in evaporation concentrates from reprocessing plants with crown ethers by transport through supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas i Garcia, J.

    1991-01-01

    Reprocessing operations lead to the production of radioactive medium activity liquid waste which is treated by evaporation. The concentrates from reprocessing plant evaporators have to be stored in geological storage sites in view of their strong caesium, strontium and actinides activity. These elements, contained in acid and high sodium nitrate content liquid waste, are removed by means of selective extractants, using the supported liquid membrane technique (SLM), which allows them to be stored in surface sites, the actinides and long-life fission products being respectively recycled and concentrated into reduced volumes. The removal of the actinides is done by means of an Octyl N.N Diisobutyl Carbamoyl Methyl Phosphine Oxyde (C.M.P.O.) based liquid membrane, whereas the removal of the caesium and strontium involves crown ethers. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) have the advantage of implementing very small quantities of extractant, but, they generally have poor stability. The extractant, the diluent and the phase modifier that constitute the organic phase impregnating the membrane play a vital role in SLM stability; the support also affects stability by its nature and geometry. For the extraction of strontium, DtBu 18 C6 enables higher strontium transfer kinetics to be attained than with DC18 C6. As regards caesium, nDec B21 C7 is the most efficient. Unlike strontium, caesium cannot be quantitatively removed, due to the competition of sodium ions in the concentrate. Stable membranes are obtained with DC18 C6 or DtBu18 C6 diluted in alkylbenzene with an added phase modifier such as decanol or isotridecanol. The highest strontium transfer kinetics were obtained with the DC18 C6/hexylbenzene/isotridecanol mixture

  12. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ... dehydrogenase deficiency (an inherited condition in which certain substances build up in the body and cause retardation ...

  13. Sodium Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure to a large amount of sodium azide by any route may cause these other health effects as well: Convulsions Low blood pressure Loss of consciousness Lung injury Respiratory failure leading to death Slow heart rate ...

  14. Isomorfic Substitutions of Calcium by Strontium in Calcium Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Hilbert

    1962-12-01

    By means of homogeneous precipitation it has been possible to synthesize crystalline solid solutions of calcium strontium hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions. The lattice constants for the solid solutions were measured in the range Ca 9 Sr(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 - CaSr 9 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . The investigations show that the discrimination of strontium against calcium is considerably smaller than reported elsewhere (1). Strontium is preferentially built into the c-axis direction of the apatite lattice

  15. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: geise.zerfass@petrobras.com.br [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: fchemale@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: karen.costa@usp.br [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: koji@usp.br [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-07-01

    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  16. Strontium isotopic study of sediment from the Ross Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.; Faure, G.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report summarizing the results of a study of the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and of the rubidium and strontium concentrations of the fine-grained (less than 150 microns) noncarbonate fractions of sediment samples from core E32-25 raised from a depth of 327 fathoms in the Ross Sea at 78 0 31.0'S 164 0 24.7'W was presented. The strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios of the samples analyzed range from 0.7119 to 0.7220. Rubidium and strontium concentrations range, respectively, from 126 to 164 parts per million and from 113 to 174 parts per million. The observed strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and strontium concentrations in sediment samples from core E32-25 fit a hyperbolic curve. These ratios can be used to estimate the concentrations of volcanogenic detritus in the sediment samples. The results of this study provide additional baseline data for anticipated future studies of sediment cores to be recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf by the Ross Ice Shelf Project. 1 figure

  17. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immediate need to perform treatment studies. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional and lime-soda ash softening treatments to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Conventional drinking water treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve 12% and 5.9% strontium removal at best, while lime softening removed as much as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Systematic fundamental experiments showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was related to pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. Final strontium concentration was also directly associated with initial strontium concentration. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium likely replaced calcium inside the crystal lattice and was likely mainly responsible for removal during lime softening. To inform the public.

  18. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  19. Structuring of material parameters in lithium niobate crystals with low-mass, high-energy ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peithmann, K.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Goetze, J.; Haaks, M.; Hattermann, H.; Haubrich, S.; Hinterberger, F.; Jentjens, L.; Mader, W.; Raeth, N. L.; Schmid, H.; Zamani-Meymian, M.-R.; Maier, K.

    2011-10-01

    Ferroelectric lithium niobate crystals offer a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components, tailoring of key material parameters, especially of the refractive index n and the ferroelectric domain landscape, is required. Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with accelerated ions causes strong structured modifications in the material. The effects induced by low-mass, high-energy ions (such as 3He with 41 MeV, which are not implanted, but transmit through the entire crystal volume) are reviewed. Irradiation yields large changes of the refractive index Δn, improved domain engineering capability within the material along the ion track, and waveguiding structures. The periodic modification of Δn as well as the formation of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) (supported by radiation damage) is described. Two-step knock-on displacement processes, 3He→Nb and 3He→O causing thermal spikes, are identified as origin for the material modifications.

  20. A new method for the preparation of strontium titanate and strontium hypovanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Strontium titanate has been a prized chemical by virtue of its dielectric, photoelectric and surface properties. The compound crystallises with the cubic perovskite structure. Till now only two techniques (and a few variants therein) have been employed for its synthesis, one of them is a solid state reaction between SrCO 3 and TiO 2 at 1100deg, and the other is a coprecipitation of strontium titanyl oxalate followed by calcination at 850deg. As ternary oxides, such as copper chromite, have been prepared by complex formation, the author found it interesting to apply this method to the preparation of strontium titanate. The most easily accessible and versatile complexing agent, EDTA, was used. (author)

  1. Real-Time Chord Length Analysis of Strontium and Manganese Precipitates Formed from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KING, WILLIAMD

    2004-01-01

    Removal of radioactive strontium and transuranic elements from Hanford Envelope C waste solutions can be accomplished by the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide, strontium nitrate, and sodium permanganate solutions. This multistep precipitation process is the baseline technology in the River Protection Project -Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) for the removal of these radioactive species from Hanford Waste Tanks. Decontamination targets are easily met using these precipitation technologies and current work in this area focuses on optimization to minimize reagent levels. Downstream treatment processes require filtration of the precipitate slurry. In order to avoid further precipitation after filtration, it is necessary to know the precipitation reaction time-scale. In addition, precipitate slurry filter flux is a primary parameter of interest to plant design personnel. Optimization of the filtration process is benefited by an understanding of the parameters that impact particle size distribution. Filter cake packing and, hence, filter flux are often sensitive to small changes in the particle size distribution. However, traditional methods of particle size analysis often are not sufficiently sensitive to develop correlations to filterability. Focused Beam Reflectance Measurements (FBRM) are a relatively new chord length analysis method with extremely high sensitivity. The method is suited for continuous monitoring of chord length distributions in the process medium. The instrument is equipped with statistical data analysis software for the identification of small shifts in the population. Reported herein are the results of FBRM analysis of strontium and manganese precipitation tests with Hanford AN-107 simulant. The objectives of the testing were to: (1) evaluate the impacts of precipitation parameters (temperature and reagent levels) upon the strontium and manganese particle chord length distributions; (2) evaluate the stability of the particles under shear; (3

  2. Steering Charge Kinetics of Tin Niobate Photocatalysts: Key Roles of Phase Structure and Electronic Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shushu; Wang, Chunyan; Sun, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Su, Yiguo

    2018-05-23

    Tin niobate photocatalysts with the phase structures of froodite (SnNb 2 O 6 ) and pyrochlore (Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 ) were obtained by a facile solvothermal method in order to explore the impact of phase structure and electronic structure on the charge kinetics and photocatalytic performance. By employing tin niobate as a model compound, the effects of phase structure over electronic structure, photocatalytic activity toward methyl orange solution and hydrogen evolution were systematically investigated. It is found that the variation of phase structure from SnNb 2 O 6 to Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 accompanied with modulation of particle size and band edge potentials that has great consequences on photocatalytic performance. In combination with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transient photocurrent responses, transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), and the analysis of the charge-carrier dynamics suggested that variation of electronic structure has great impacts on the charge separation and transfer rate of tin niobate photocatalysts and the subsequent photocatalytic performance. Moreover, the results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the existent of Sn 4+ species in Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 could result in a decrease in photocatalytic activity. Photocatalytic test demonstrated that the SnNb 2 O 6 (froodite) catalyst possesses a higher photocatalytic activity toward MO degradation and H 2 evolution compared with the sample of Sn 2 Nb 2 O 7 (pyrochlore). On the basis of spin resonance measurement and trapping experiment, it is expected that photogenerated holes, O 2 -• , and OH • active species dominate the photodegradation of methyl orange.

  3. Growth of potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets with monoclinic phase and its excellent piezoelectric property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Huang, Jingyun; Wang, Ye; Yang, Yefeng; Wu, Yongjun; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-09-01

    Potassium niobate micro-hexagonal tablets were synthesized through hydrothermal reaction with KOH, H2O and Nb2O5 as source materials by using a polycrystalline Al2O3 as substrate. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra and selected area electron diffraction analysis results indicated that the tablets exhibit monoclinic phase structure and are highly crystallized. Meanwhile, piezoelectric property of the micro-hexagonal tablets was investigated. The as-synthesized tablets exhibit excellent piezoactivities in the experiments, and an effective piezoelectric coefficient of around 80 pm/V was obtained. The tablets have huge potential applications in micro/nano-integrated piezoelectric and optical devices.

  4. Control of coercive field in lithium niobate crystals with repeated polarization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Doun; Park, Taeyong; Kim, Chulhan; Kwon, Soon-Bok; Cha, Myoungsik; Choi, Byeong Cheol; Yu, Nanei; Kurimura, Sunao; Jeon, Gyerok

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the amount of decrease in coercive field of congruent lithium niobate during repeated poling and back-poling was measured. The polarization is reversed in 300 ms and then back-poled during the rest period. The coercive field can be decreased around 1 kV/mm with a repeated poling interval of 5 s. As the interval prolonged, the poling field decrease became smaller, and a stretched exponential function is suggested for the experimental fitting resulting in a set of meaningful parameters. These values are essential for the design of high quality domain engineering

  5. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, S; Mase, Y; Shimizu, S; Maeda, K; Fujii, I; Nakashima, K; Pulpan, P; Miyajima, N, E-mail: swada@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO{sub 3}, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  6. Radiation-damage-assisted ferroelectric domain structuring in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentjens, L.; Peithmann, K.; Maier, K.; Steigerwald, H.; Jungk, T.

    2009-06-01

    Irradiation of 5% magnesium-doped lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3:Mg) with high-energy, low-mass 3He ions, which are transmitted through the crystal, changes the domain reversal properties of the material. This enables easier domain engineering compared to non-irradiated material and assists the formation of small-sized periodically poled domains in LiNbO3:Mg. Periodic domain structures exhibiting a width of ≈520 nm are obtained in radiation-damaged sections of the crystals. The ferroelectric poling behavior between irradiated and non-treated material is compared.

  7. Tuning characteristics of narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, C; Torosyan, G; Meyn, J P; Wallenstein, R; Beigang, R; Avetisyan, Y

    2001-04-23

    The tuning properties of pulsed narrowband THz radiation generated via optical rectification in periodically poled lithium niobate have been investigated. Using a disk-shaped periodically poled crystal tuning was easily accomplished by rotating the crystal around its axis and observing the generated THz radiation in forward direction. In this way no beam deflection during tuning was observed. The total tuning range extended from 180 GHz up to 830 GHz and was limited by the poling period of 127 microm which determines the maximum THz frequency in forward direction.

  8. Continuous wave ultraviolet radiation induced frustration of etching in lithium niobate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailis, S.; Riziotis, C.; Smith, P.G.R.; Scott, J.G.; Eason, R.W

    2003-02-15

    Illumination of the -z face of congruent lithium niobate single crystals with continuous wave (c.w.) ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation modifies the response of the surface to subsequent acid etching. A frequency doubled Ar{sup +} laser ({lambda}=244 nm) was used to illuminate the -z crystal face making it resistive to HF etching and thus transforming the illuminated tracks into ridge structures. This process enables the fabrication of relief patterns in a photolithographic manner. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy indicates preservation of the good crystal quality after irradiation.

  9. Diffusion of iron in lithium niobate: a secondary ion mass spectrometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, M.V.; Argiolas, N.; Zaltron, A.; Bazzan, M.; Sada, C. [University of Padova, Physics Department (Italy); CNISM, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Iron-doped X-cut lithium niobate crystals were prepared by means of thermal diffusion from thin film varying in a systematic way the process parameters such as temperature and diffusion duration. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry was exploited to characterize the iron in-depth profiles. The evolution of the composition of the Fe thin film in the range between 600 C and 800 C was studied, and the diffusion coefficient at different temperatures in the range between 900 C and 1050 C and the activation energy of the diffusion process were estimated. (orig.)

  10. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  11. Investigation of the cluster formation in lithium niobate crystals by computer modeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskresenskii, V. M.; Starodub, O. R., E-mail: ol-star@mail.ru; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The processes occurring upon the formation of energetically equilibrium oxygen-octahedral clusters in the ferroelectric phase of a stoichiometric lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) crystal have been investigated by the computer modeling method within the semiclassical atomistic model. An energetically favorable cluster size (at which a structure similar to that of a congruent crystal is organized) is shown to exist. A stoichiometric cluster cannot exist because of the electroneutrality loss. The most energetically favorable cluster is that with a Li/Nb ratio of about 0.945, a value close to the lithium-to-niobium ratio for a congruent crystal.

  12. Domain-Reversed Lithium Niobate Single-Crystal Fibers are Potentially for Efficient Terahertz Wave Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear frequency conversion remains one of the dominant approaches to efficiently generate THz waves. Significant material absorption in the THz range is the main factor impeding the progress towards this direction. In this research, a new multicladding nonlinear fiber design was proposed to solve this problem, and as the major experimental effort, periodic domain structure was introduced into lithium niobate single-crystal fibers by electrical poling. The introduced periodic domain structures were nondestructively revealed using a crossly polarized optical microscope and a confocal scanning optical microscope for quality assurance.

  13. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, S; Mase, Y; Shimizu, S; Maeda, K; Fujii, I; Nakashima, K; Pulpan, P; Miyajima, N

    2011-01-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO 3 , KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  14. Preparation and photocatalytic property of potassium niobate K6Nb10.8O30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gaoke; Zou Xi; Gong Jie; He Fangsheng; Zhang Hao; Zhang Qiang; Liu Ying; Yang Xia; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    The TB-type potassium niobate K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 was synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the structure of the photocatalyst. The photocatalyst K 6 Nb 10.8 O 30 shows high photocatalytic activity to photodegrade acid red G under UV irradiation. The influences of catalyst dosage, initial concentration of acid red G on the photocatalytic reaction were investigated. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of acid red G follows the first order kinetics

  15. Processing and characterization of lead-free ceramics on the base of sodium–potassium niobate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Politova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lead-free sodium–potassium niobate-based piezoelectric materials are most intensively studied in order to replace the widely used Pb-based ones. In this work, the effects of modification of compositions by donor and acceptor dopants in the A- and B-sites of perovskite lattice on structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of ceramics from Morphotropic Phase Boundary in the (1−x(K0.5Na0.5NbO3–xBaTiO3 system and in compositions with x=0.05 and 0.06 additionally doped by Ni3+ cations have been studied.

  16. Separation and recovery of sodium nitrate from low-level radioactive liquid waste by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kato, Atsushi; Watanabe, Yoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    An advanced method, in which electrodialysis separation of sodium nitrate and decomposition of nitrate ion are combined, has been developed to remove nitrate ion from low-level radioactive liquid wastes including nitrate salts of high concentration. In the electrodialysis separation, the sodium nitrate was recovered as nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. When they are reused, it is necessary to reduce the quantity of impurities getting mixed with them from the waste fluid as much as possible. In this study, therefore, a cation exchange membrane with permselectivity for sodium ion and an anion exchange membrane with permselectivity for monovalent anion were employed. Using these membranes sodium and nitrate ions were effectively removed form a sodium nitrate solution of high concentration. And also it was confirmed that sodium ion was successfully separated from cesium and strontium ions and that nitrate ion was separated from sulfate and phosphate ions. (author)

  17. The effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of fluoride, strontium, theobromine and their combinations on caries lesion rehardening and fluoridation (EFU) under pH cycling conditions. Human enamel specimens were demineralized at 37°C for 24h using a pH 5.0 solution containing 50mM lactic acid and 0.2% Carbopol 907 which was 50% saturated with respect to hydroxyapatite. Lesions were assigned to nine treatment groups (n=16) based on Knoop surface microhardness indentation length. aqueous solutions were: placebo, 11.9mM sodium fluoride (F), 23.8mM sodium fluoride (2×F), 1.1mM strontium chloride hexahydrate (Sr), 1.1mM F theobromine, Sr+theobromine, F+Sr, F+theobromine, F+Sr+theobromine. Lesions were pH cycled for 5d (daily protocol: 3×1min-treatment; 2×60min-demineralization; 4×60min & overnight-artificial saliva). Knoop indentation length was measured again and%surface microhardness recovery (%SMHr) calculated. EFU was determined using the acid-etch technique. Data were analysed using ANOVA. Model showed fluoride dose-response for both variables (2×F>F>placebo). For%SMHr, F+Sr+/-theobromine resulted in more rehardening than F, however less than 2×F. F+theobromine was similar to F. For EFU, F+Sr was inferior to F, F+theobromine and F+Sr+theobromine which were similar and inferior to 2×F. In absence of fluoride, Sr, theobromine or Sr+theobromine were virtually indistinguishable from placebo and inferior to F. It can be concluded that a) strontium aids rehardening but not EFU and only in presence of fluoride; b) theobromine does not appear to offer any anti-caries benefits in this model; c) there are no synergistic effects between strontium and theobromine in the presence or absence of fluoride. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  19. Thermal reactions of some calcium, strontium, and barium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarska-Piesse, B.; Gontarz, Z.; Ostrowski, A.; Kucharski, R.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of calcium chromates and solid state reactions of barium and strontium chromates(VI) with barium and strontium hydroxides and carbonates, as well as the reduction of chromates by carbon and hydrogen, have been investigated. The mechanisms of individual stages of the thermal decomposition have been proposed on the basis of morphological classification. (author)

  20. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and cesium-137 content in powdered milk. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 content was carried out using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  1. Reduced-graphene-oxide-and-strontium-titanate-based double

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave-absorbing materials based on reduced graphene oxide (r-GO)/ strontium titanate were prepared by embedding in epoxy matrix. R-GO and strontium titanate were synthesized and characterized before composite fabrication. Microstructures of the constituent elements were studied by scanning electron ...

  2. Thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient strontium titanates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Choongho; Scullin, Matthew L.; Huijben, Mark; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We report significant thermal conductivity reduction in oxygen-deficient lanthanum-doped strontium titanate (Sr1−xLaxTiO3−δ) films as compared to unreduced strontium titanates. Our experimental results suggest that the oxygen vacancies could have played an important role in the reduction. This could

  3. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  4. Growth and characterization of strontium oxalate crystals by the decomposition of ascorbic acid in presence of strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijini, B.R.; Prasanna, S.; Rajendra Babu, K.; Deepa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Ascorbic acid (vitamin c) is an important organic compound that helps to maintain the optimal health of human body. It is essential for the development and maintenance of connective tissues. Vitamin C plays an important role in a number of metabolic functions including the activation of the B vitamin, folic acid, the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the conversion of the amino acid, tryptophan, to the neurotransmitter, serotonin. During the process of metabolism it decomposes into oxalic acid. This compound is photosensitive and has least thermal stability. The decomposition of Ascorbic acid has been studied in various conditions. It is reported that decomposition of ascorbic acid in presence of Cd 2+ ions leads to the formation of cadmium oxalate crystals. In the present work, in presence of Sr 2+ ion the ascorbic acid is decomposed to Strontium Oxalate in gel media. In this technique, silica gel is used as a medium to grow crystals. Slow diffusion of reactants in the gel medium can be considered to mimic the growth of crystals in the human body. Gels were prepared by mixing appropriate quantities of sodium meta silicate and ascorbic acid, adjusting the pH in the range 5-7.5. Over the set gel, the feed solution of 1M Strontium chloride was added. Yellowish prismatic and bar shaped crystals were obtained within 24 hours. The nucleation density is maximum at a pH of 6 and minimum at 5. Good quality crystals were obtained for a pH of 5 and gel density 1.05g/cc. The FTIR spectra of grown crystals are recorded and analyzed.The band at 3431 cm -1 is assigned to OH stretching frequency of co-ordinated water molecule and the band at 1637cm -1 corresponds to C=O Stretching of carbonyl group. The band at 1319cm -1 is assigned to symmetric stretching of COO- group. The IR band at 767cm -1 corresponds to the combined effect of inplane deformation of CO 2 and the presence of metal oxygen bond .The band at 505cm -1 is due to wagging mode

  5. Calcium versus strontium handling by the heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrych, Michal; Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role in numerous processes in living systems, from both intracellular and intercellular signalling to blood clotting. Calcium can be replaced by strontium in various intracellular processes due to high level of their similarity and strontium thus may serve as a valuable tool for different experimental studies. On the other hand, strontium is also used in clinical medicine and is commonly taken to the human body with food and water. The negative cardiac side effects of strontium therapy of osteoporosis and bone metastases are well known, but still not fully explained. This fact explains enhanced interest in this element and its impact on human body. This article reviews effects of calcium and strontium on several biochemical and physiological processes, with special emphasis on cardiac muscle.

  6. Strontium 90 in silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, V.D.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Matvienko, L.P.; Klenus, V.G.; Nasvit, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    The change of strontium-90 content in water and silts of the Dnieper cascade water reservoirs was analyzed. It was shown, that decrease of strontium-90 content in water in time connected basically with ion exchange adsorption of strontium-90 by residues. A high sorption ability of residues made it possible for radioisotopes to reduce sharply their concentration along depth of soils. The highest concentration of radioisotopes was in the upper layers, enriched by silt. It was ascertained, that strontium-90 migration along depth of residues took place rapidly in the Kiev's water reservoir. Down the cascade strontium-90 content reduced in lower layers of residues as well as in upper layers. 4 tabs

  7. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  8. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G. Y.; Du, J. K.; Huang, B.; Jin, Y. A.; Xu, M. H.

    2017-04-01

    The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE) is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM). The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  9. Bending waveguides made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals for technological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarepi, V; Perrone, C; Aveni, M; Videla, F; Torchia, GA

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the performance of several designs of integrated optical deviators made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals by means of femtosecond laser writing using the double line approach. Straight and bent guiding structures have been designed and implemented using this technique. Well-confined propagation modes at communication wavelengths (1.55 μm) were conducted in these structures with acceptable overall losses (less than 2 dB cm −1 ). Further, a discussion about the optical propagation losses for curved and straight deviators devices is included in this work. At a low aperture angle (less than 0.2°), as expected, low losses were determined for both structures; however, a weak output light was observed for large angles (greater than 0.2°) in the straight optical circuits. In contrast, a smooth variation of the output was measured for the bent structures. The results presented in this paper support the possibility of the technological implementation of integrated optical circuits for optical communications fabricated with ultrashort laser writing in lithium niobate crystals. In addition, some hypotheses of loss mechanisms that are normally not considered are discussed in order to explain the differences between the measured values and predictions obtained by calculating with the usual models. (paper)

  10. Irradiation-induced modification of the material parameters in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentjens, Lena

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the material properties of lithium niobate are directedly influenced by the irradiation with 3 He ions with an energy of 40 MeV. In the first part the irradiation-induced material changes are intensively studied. Long-time stable changes of the refractive index are measured in the range of up to 6.10 -3 , which depend on the radiation dose and exhibit until now no saturation behaviour. Accompanied is this change by an also dose-dependent deformation as well as a brownish change of color of the crystals. Furthermore a by several orders of magnitude increased electrical dark- and photoconductivity, which depends on the ion dose and exhibits until now also no saturation behaviour. An effect independent on the ion dose is the reduction of the coercive field strength by about 10%. Furthermore it was stated the quantity of the effects not only depends on the absolute dose, but also on the irradiation direction in view of the crystallographic c-axis. The second part of this thesis deals with the generation of microscopic structures in lithium niobate. By an ion microbeam respectively a shiftable slit aperture the fabrication of refractive-index gratings is pursued. Grating with periodicity lengths in the range of 12-160 μm could until now be detected and promise in comparison with photorefractive gratings the advance of larger stability.

  11. Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackwitz, P., E-mail: peterm@mail.upb.de; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Zrenner, A. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Center for Optoelectronics and Photonics Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Widhalm, A.; Müller, K. [Department Physik, Universität Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2016-04-11

    We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO{sub 2} layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.

  12. Surface acoustic waves in acoustic superlattice lithium niobate coated with a waveguide layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the waveguide layer on the band structure of Rayleigh waves are studied in this work based on a one-dimensional acoustic superlattice lithium niobate substrate coated with a waveguide layer. The present phononic structure is formed by the periodic domain-inverted single crystal that is the Z-cut lithium niobate substrate with a waveguide layer on the upper surface. The plane wave expansion method (PWE is adopted to determine the band gap behavior of the phononic structure and validated by the finite element method (FEM. The FEM is also used to investigate the transmission of Rayleigh waves in the phononic structure with the interdigital transducers by means of the commercial package COMSOL. The results show that, although there is a homogeneous waveguide layer on the surface, the band gap of Rayleigh waves still exist. It is also found that increasing the thickness of the waveguide layer, the band width narrows and the band structure shifts to lower frequency. The present approach can be taken as an efficient tool in designing of phononic structures with waveguide layer.

  13. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  14. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  15. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  16. Development of an improved ion-exchange process for removing cesium and strontium from high-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.M.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Processes are being developed to solidify and isolate the biologically hazardous radionuclides from approximately 23 million gallons of alkaline high-level waste accumulated at the Savannah River Plant. The waste consists mainly of a liquid supernate, a damp salt cake, and a gelatinous, insoluble sludge. The reference solidification process involves separation of the water soluble fraction (supernate) from the insoluble fraction, removal of cesium and traces of strontium from the supernate, incorporation of the sludge and the radionuclides from the supernate in glass, and incorporation of the residual salt in concrete. A new process, now being developed, involves sorbing cesium on phenolic resins that contain no strongly acidic sulfonate groups. These resins can then be eluted with formic acid which is not possible with Duolite ARC-359. Duolite CS-100, a phenol-carboxylate resin, was chosen for further development because of its greater breakthrough capacity and because it also sorbs strontium to some extent. Strontium sorption by CS-100 was not sufficient to eliminate the need for Amberlite IRC-718. However, the latter resin can also be eluted with formic acid because its functional groups are weakly acidic. Formic acid elution permits several options to be considered. The preferred option consists simply of mixing the eluate with sludge prior to calcination. Sodium formate, which is formed when the resins in the sodium form are eluted, decomposes rapidly between 450 0 C and 500 0 C and will be destroyed in either the calciner or the melter. The resulting sodium oxide would be incorporated into glass. The principal advantage of the new process is the elimination of a number of process steps

  17. Investigation of strontium accumulation on ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rat tibia by micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Li, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Jin, W. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zheng, Y.; Rong, C.; Lyu, H. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug effective in osteoporosis treatment by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation. Strontium accumulation and distribution are determined in bones of rat after strontium ranelate administration by using micro-PIXE. The investigated rats are divided into four groups: (A) control, (B) ovariectomized, (C) ovariectomized followed with strontium chloride, (D) ovariectomized followed with strontium ranelate. It was found that strontium ranelate would result in increasing trabecular volume and decreasing bone resorption to treat osteoporosis. There are similar contours of calcium and strontium in two-dimensional images, while the strontium is not evenly distributed in the bone. It supports the conclusion that strontium has an affinity for bone and it is capable of replacing calcium atoms as a part of the strontium mechanism in the osteoporosis treatment. The results related to biochemistry are also discussed.

  18. Atomic-Scale Origin of the Quasi-One-Dimensional Metallic Conductivity in Strontium Niobates with Perovskite-Related Layered Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlin; Yin, Deqiang; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Lichtenberg, Frank; Ma, Xiuliang; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Bednorz, Johannes Georg

    2017-12-26

    The quasi-one-dimensional (1D) metallic conductivity of the perovskite-related Sr n Nb n O 3n+2 compounds is of continuing fundamental physical interest as well as being important for developing advanced electronic devices. The Sr n Nb n O 3n+2 compounds can be derived by introducing additional oxygen into the SrNbO 3 perovskite. However, the physical origin for the transition of electrical properties from the three-dimensional (3D) isotropic conductivity in SrNbO 3 to the quasi-1D metallic conductivity in Sr n Nb n O 3n+2 requires more in-depth clarification. Here we combine advanced transmission electron microscopy with atomistic first-principles calculations to unambiguously determine the atomic and electronic structures of the Sr n Nb n O 3n+2 compounds and reveal the underlying mechanism for their quasi-1D metallic conductivity. We demonstrate that the local electrical conductivity in the Sr n Nb n O 3n+2 compounds directly depends on the configuration of the NbO 6 octahedra in local regions. These findings will shed light on the realization of two-dimensional (2D) electrical conductivity from a bulk material, namely by segmenting a 3D conductor into a stack of 2D conducting thin layers.

  19. Laser Stabilization with Laser Cooled Strontium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Takashi Røjle

    The frequency stability of current state-of-the-art stabilized clock lasers are limited by thermal fluctuations of the ultra-stable optical reference cavities used for their frequency stabilization. In this work, we study the possibilities for surpassing this thermal limit by exploiting the nonli......The frequency stability of current state-of-the-art stabilized clock lasers are limited by thermal fluctuations of the ultra-stable optical reference cavities used for their frequency stabilization. In this work, we study the possibilities for surpassing this thermal limit by exploiting...... the nonlinear effects from coupling of an optical cavity to laser cooled atoms having a narrow transition linewidth. Here, we have realized such a system where a thermal sample of laser cooled strontium-88 atoms are coupled to an optical cavity. The strontium-88 atoms were probed on the narrow 1S0-3P1 inter......-combination line at 689 nm in a strongly saturated regime. The dynamics of the atomic induced phase shift and absorption of the probe light were experimentally studied in details with the purpose of applications to laser stabilization. The atomic sample temperature was in the mK range which brought this system out...

  20. A study on characteristic of selective membrane for strontium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hyun; Choi, Young Woo [Kwang-ju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, supported liquid membranes (SLMs) using crown ether were prepared in order to separate strontium ion selectively from a calcium contained solution However, at the higher than 3 N nitric acid concentration of a strip solution, stability of a SLM was declined remarkably owing to the hasty loss of carrier impregnated in supporter and, on account of this phenomena, facilitated transports were not accomplished. And DC18C6 as a neutral carrier affected remarkably the selectivity of strontium and the factor determining permeabilities of metal ions was as a role of DNNS. Consequently, in order to be a optimal SLM for the high permeability and the stable selectivity of strontium, concentration of DC18C6 and DNNS should be 0.1 M and 25 mM, respectively and, at this condition, the relative removal ratio of strontium to calcium was 93.3%. And the change of calcium concentration in the feed solution affected the permeability of strontium. In particular, when the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration in the feed solution was in the range of 1/5 - 1/50, strontium could be separated selectively at stable permeabilities. (author). 17 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Calcium phosphate cements with strontium halides as radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Engqvist, Håkan; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    High radiopacity is required to monitor the delivery and positioning of injectable implants. Inorganic nonsoluble radiopacifiers are typically used in nondegradable bone cements; however, their usefulness in resorbable cements is limited due to their low solubility. Strontium halides, except strontium fluoride, are ionic water-soluble compounds that possess potential as radiopacifiers. In this study, we compare the radiopacity, mechanical properties, composition, and cytotoxicity of radiopaque brushite cements prepared with strontium fluoride (SrF2 ), strontium chloride (SrCl2 ·6H2 O), strontium bromide (SrBr2 ), or strontium iodide (SrI2 ). Brushite cements containing 10 wt % SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , or SrI2 exhibited equal to or higher radiopacity than commercial radiopaque cements. Furthermore, the brushite crystal lattice in cements that contained the ionic radiopacifiers was larger than in unmodified cements and in cements that contained SrF2 , indicating strontium substitution. Despite the fact that the strontium halides increased the solubility of the cements and affected their mechanical properties, calcium phosphate cements containing SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 showed no significant differences in Saos-2 cell viability and proliferation with respect to the control. Strontium halides: SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 may be potential candidates as radiopacifiers in resorbable biomaterials although their in vivo biocompatibility, when incorporated into injectable implants, is yet to be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Ion exchange removal of strontium from simulated and actual N-Springs well water at the Hanford 100-N Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kafka, T.M.; White, L.R.

    1996-06-01

    Experimental ion exchange studies are being conducted by the Pacific Northwest national Laboratory (PNNL) under the Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program to evaluate newly emerging materials and technologies for removing cesium, strontium, technetium, and transuranic elements from simulated and actual wastes at Hanford. Previous work focused on applications to treat high-level alkaline tank wastes, but many of the technologies can also be applied in process and ground-water remediation. Ultimately, each process must be evaluated in terms of life-cycle costs, removal efficiency, process chemical consumption and recycle, stability of materials exposed to chemicals and radiation, compatibility with other process streams, secondary waste generation, process and maintenance costs, and final material disposal. This report assesses the performance of the 3M-designed Process Absorber Development Unit (PADU) and the AlliedSignal-produced sodium nonatitanate (NaTi) material in trace quantities of strontium from simulated and actual Hanford N-Springs ground water. The experimental objective was to determine the strontium-loading breakthrough profile of a proprietary 3M-engineered material in either disk or cartridge forms

  3. The effect of refluxing on the alkoxide-based sodium potassium niobate sol-gel system: Thermal and spectroscopic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chowdhury, A.; Bould, Jonathan; Londesborough, Michael Geoffrey Stephen; Milne, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 184, č. 2 (2011), s. 317-324 ISSN 0022-4596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : sol-gel processes * spectroscopy * thermal properties * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.159, year: 2011

  4. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  5. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in sea sediments from July, 1981, to January, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Sediment was collected in the same area as that of sea water sampling, taking the following criteria into account: the depth of water exceeds 1 m at low tide, no significant sedimental movement is observed in the vicinity of concern, mud, silt and fine sand are preferable. A conventional sediment sampling device was used for collecting a top few cm of surface sediment. Approximately 4 kg of the sample in wet weight was spread on a large porcelain dish and dried in an electric oven to a constant weight. After removal of pebbles, shells and other foreign matters, the sediment sample was dried in a hot air oven, and ground finely with a mortar. The sample was passed through a 20 mesh sieve, and heated in the presence of strontium and cesium carriers with sodium hydroxide. Then it was heated with hydrochloric acid, and the radiochemical separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 was performed. The mounted precipitates were counted for activity, and after the correction of net counting rates, concentrations of these nuclides were calculated. The maximum values obtained were 22 pCi/kg of Sr-90 and 220 pCi/kg of Sc-137 in Mutsu-bay in August, 1981. (Kako, I.)

  6. STRONTIUM & TRANSURANIC (TRU) SEPARATION PROCESS IN THE DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON; SWANSON; BOECHLER

    2005-06-10

    The supernatants stored in tanks 241-AN-102 (AN-102) and 241-AN-107 (AN-107) contain soluble strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and transuranic (TRU) elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) specification and with the 1997 agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on incidental waste. A precipitation process has been developed and tested with tank waste samples and simulants using strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) to separate {sup 90}Sr and TRU from these wastes. This report evaluates removing Sr/TRU from AN-102 and AN-107 supernates in the DST system before delivery to the WTP. The in-tank precipitation is a direct alternative to the baseline WTP process, using the same chemical separations. Implementing the Sr/TRU separation in the DST system beginning in 2012 provides {approx}6 month schedule advantage to the overall mission, without impacting the mission end date or planned SST retrievals.

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater from May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater measured in May 1984 are given in pCi/l. The sampling point is 1, Kasumigaura-Lake (Ibaraki). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. The sample was passed through a cation exchange column. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  8. Crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite in the presence of strontium ranelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, R. R.; Golovanova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of strontium ranelate on the crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite from a prototype of synovial fluid of humans has been investigated. The synthesis products are studied by IR Fourier spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The amount of strontium in the samples is determined by atomic emission analysis. The sizes of crystallites in the synthesized phases are calculated from the Selyakov-Scherrer formula; the lattice parameters are also determined. The phases obtained are found to be species of calcium-deficient strontium-containing carbonate hydroxyapatite of mixed A and B types. Schemes of chemical reactions occurring during heat treatment are proposed.

  9. Isomorfic Substitutions of Calcium by Strontium in Calcium Hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Hilbert

    1962-12-15

    By means of homogeneous precipitation it has been possible to synthesize crystalline solid solutions of calcium strontium hydroxyapatite from aqueous solutions. The lattice constants for the solid solutions were measured in the range Ca{sub 9}Sr(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} - CaSr{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. The investigations show that the discrimination of strontium against calcium is considerably smaller than reported elsewhere (1). Strontium is preferentially built into the c-axis direction of the apatite lattice.

  10. Material modifications in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeth, Niels Lennart

    2017-01-01

    The artificially produced crystals lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) and the closely related lithium tantalate (LiTaO 3 ) are proven starting materials for producing active and passive devices that can guide, amplify, switch and process light. For this purpose, it is often necessary to be able to influence the refractive index of the substrate targeted, which is possible in addition to other methods by irradiation of the materials with fast light ions. In this work, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate crystals are irradiated with alpha particles, 3 He ions, deuterons, and protons at projectile energies of up to 14 MeV / nucleon. Energy and crystal thickness are chosen so that the projectiles penetrate the entire sample and are not implanted. All isotopes responsible for the unwanted nuclear activation of the crystals due to the irradiation are relatively short-lived and overall the activation decreases fast enough to allow the safe handling of the irradiated samples after a storage period of a few days to a few weeks. The refractive index changes produced in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate by irradiation with the different projectiles are determined interferometrically and can also be measured by suitable choice of the sample geometry as a function of the ion penetration depth: In LiNbO 3 the ordinary refractive index decreases, the extraordinary increases equally. In LiTaO 3 , both the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices decrease as a result of the irradiation; the ordinary refractive index change is many times stronger than the extraordinary one. There is an enormous long-term stability at room temperature for both crystal systems: Even after eleven (LiNbO 3 ) or three (LiTaO 3 ) years, no decrease in the ion beam-induced refractive index change can be observed. The ion beam-induced refractive index changes are probably the result of atomic displacements such as vacancies, defect clusters or ''latent tracks''. An explanation for

  11. Strontium D-Glutamate Hexahydrate and Strontium Di(hydrogen L-glutamate) Pentahydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, Stephan; Odderhede, Jette; Stahl, Kenny

    2005-01-01

    Sr(C5H7NO4)] center dot 6H(2)O, ( I), and [Sr(C5H8NO4)(2)] center dot 5H(2)O, (II), both crystallize with similar strontium - glutamate - water layers. In ( I), the neutral layers are connected through hydrogen bonds by water molecules, while in ( II), the positively charged layers are connected...... through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions by interleaving layers of hydrogen glutamate anions and water molecules....

  12. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 ). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals

  13. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Peter O; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T; Pomerene, Andrew T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Lentine, Anthony L; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.

  14. Thermal stability of Dion-Jacobson mixed-metal-niobate double-layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Andrew T.; Wiley, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability and decomposition pathways of six Dion-Jacobson-related double-layered perovskites, ALaNb 2 O 7 (A = H, Li, Na, Ag) and (ACl)LaNb 2 O 7 (A = Fe, Cu), are investigated. These compounds are made by low temperature ( 2 O 7 . All the compounds are low temperature phases with some of them exhibiting decomposition exotherms consistent with metastability. Decomposition temperatures and reactions pathways vary with the identity of A with most decompositions resulting in the formation of a niobate (containing A) and LaNbO 4 . Results from differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction studies are presented and structural parameters pertinent to compound stability discussed

  15. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Kong, Yongfa, E-mail: kongyf@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); R and D Center, Taishan Sports Industry Group, Leling 253600 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Shiguo [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Xu, Jingjun [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); MOE Key Laboratory of Weak-Light Nonlinear Photonics and TEDA Applied Physics School, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm{sup 2}). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals.

  16. Conversion of broadband thermal radiation in lithium niobate crystals of various compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuy, A. V.; Litvinova, M. N.; Goncharova, P. S.; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.; Krishtop, V. V.; Likhtin, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    The conversion of the broadband thermal radiation in stoichiometric ( R = 1) lithium niobate single crystals that are grown from melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2, congruent ( R = Li/Nb = 0.946) melt with the K2O flux admixture (4.5 and 6.0 wt %), and congruent melt and in congruent single crystals doped with the Zn2+, Gd3+, and Er3+ cations is studied. It is demonstrated that the conversion efficiency of the stoichiometric crystal that is grown from the melt with 58.6 mol % of LiO2 is less than the conversion efficiency of congruent crystal. In addition, the stoichiometric and almost stoichiometric crystals and the doped congruent crystals exhibit the blue shift of the peak conversion intensity in comparison with a nominally pure congruent crystal. For the congruent crystals, the conversion intensities peak at 520 and 495 nm, respectively.

  17. Numerical and Experimental Study of Optoelectronic Trapping on Iron-Doped Lithium Niobate Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gazzetto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OET are a promising technique for the realization of reconfigurable systems suitable to trap and manipulate microparticles. In particular, dielectrophoretic (DEP forces produced by OET represent a valid alternative to micro-fabricated metal electrodes, as strong and spatially reconfigurable electrical fields can be induced in a photoconductive layer by means of light-driven phenomena. In this paper we report, and compare with the experimental data, the results obtained by analyzing the spatial configurations of the DEP-forces produced by a 532 nm laser beam, with Gaussian intensity distribution, impinging on a Fe-doped Lithium Niobate substrate. Furthermore, we also present a promising preliminary result for water-droplets trapping, which could open the way to the application of this technique to biological samples manipulation.

  18. Phase decomposition in niobate glasses and the electrooptical effect in materials based on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, I.P.; Karapetyan, G.O.; Korolov, Y.G.; Maksimov, L.V.

    1986-10-01

    This paper studies the effect of the composition and heat treatment on the dielectric, electrooptical, and structural-physical proprties of niobium-containing glasses. The appearance and intensification of fluctuations of the niobium concentration accompanying an increase in the niobium content in the samples is characteristic for glasses in the system Na/sub 2/O-K/sub 2/O-Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/-SiO/sub 2/. The presence of insignificant quantities of NaNbO/sub 3/ microcrystals in niobate glasses gives rise to a significant growth of the dielectric constant (by a factor of 508) and the appearance of a quadratic electrooptical effect.

  19. Evaluation of domain randomness in periodically poled lithium niobate by diffraction noise measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik

    2013-12-16

    Random duty-cycle errors (RDE) in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) devices not only affect the frequency conversion efficiency, but also generate non-phase-matched parasitic noise that can be detrimental to some applications. We demonstrate an accurate but simple method for measuring the RDE in periodically poled lithium niobate. Due to the equivalence between the undepleted harmonic generation spectrum and the diffraction pattern from the QPM grating, we employed linear diffraction measurement which is much simpler than tunable harmonic generation experiments [J. S. Pelc, et al., Opt. Lett.36, 864-866 (2011)]. As a result, we could relate the RDE for the QPM device to the relative noise intensity between the diffraction orders.

  20. Photorefractive lithium niobate crystals for applications in photonics; Photorefraktive Lithiumniobatkristalle fuer Anwendungen in der Photonik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, U.

    2006-12-15

    Lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO{sub 3}) generally show a photorefractive response, i.e., light-induced refractive index changes. Crystals are investigated at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. As a result 'classical' photorefractive holographic volume-phase gratings, originating from space charge fields and the electro-optic effect, and 'non-classical' photorefractive volume-phase gratings, which can be traced back to strong absorption gratings, emerge. Single domain and periodically poled crystals (PPLN) are investigated. PPLN is typically used in non-linear optics for frequency conversion. The crystals also show non-linear photorefractive response during holographic recording with isotropically polarized light beams of equal intensity and, in the case of PPLN, by mixing of domain and holographic gratings. The results are important for applications combining the photorefractive and non-linear optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3}. (orig.)

  1. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost. PMID:26927022

  2. Formation of 2D bright spatial solitons in lithium niobate with photovoltaic response and incoherent background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustozerov, A.; Shandarov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of incoherent background illumination produced by light-emitting diodes (LED's) of different average wavelengths and laser diode emitting in blue region of visible on diffraction characteristics of narrow coherent light beams of He-Ne laser due to refractive index changes of Fe-doped lithium niobate sample are studied. It has been experimentally demonstrated that nonlinear diffraction of red beams with wavelength 633 nm and diameters on full width of half maximum (FWHM) near to 15 μm may be totally compensated using background light with average wavelengths 450 - 465 nm. To provide the necessary intensity of incoherent background, the combinations of spherical and cylindrical concave lenses with blue LED and laser diode module without focusing its beam have been used.

  3. Ferroelectric domain inversion and its stability in lithium niobate thin film on insulator with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Bai, Yu-hang; Cui, Guo-xin; Li, Chen; Qiu, Xiang-biao; Wu, Di; Lu, Yan-qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Geng, De-qiang [Jinan Jingzheng Electronics Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Ferroelectric domain inversion and its effect on the stability of lithium niobate thin films on insulator (LNOI) are experimentally characterized. Two sets of specimens with different thicknesses varying from submicron to microns are selected. For micron thick samples (∼28 μm), domain structures are achieved by pulsed electric field poling with electrodes patterned via photolithography. No domain structure deterioration has been observed for a month as inspected using polarizing optical microscopy and etching. As for submicron (540 nm) films, large-area domain inversion is realized by scanning a biased conductive tip in a piezoelectric force microscope. A graphic processing method is taken to evaluate the domain retention. A domain life time of 25.0 h is obtained and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our study gives a direct reference for domain structure-related applications of LNOI, including guiding wave nonlinear frequency conversion, nonlinear wavefront tailoring, electro-optic modulation, and piezoelectric devices.

  4. Cascading second-order nonlinear processes in a lithium niobate-on-insulator microdisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-09-15

    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microcavities are very important in both fundamental science and practical applications, among which on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators play an important role in integrated photonic functionalities. Here we demonstrate resonant second-harmonic generation (SHG) and cascaded third-harmonic generation (THG) in a lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) microdisk resonator. Efficient SHG in the visible range was obtained with only several mW input powers at telecom wavelengths. THG was also observed through a cascading process, which reveals simultaneous phase matching and strong mode coupling in the resonator. Cascading of second-order nonlinear processes gives rise to an effectively large third-order nonlinearity, which makes on-chip second-order nonlinear microresonators a promising frequency converter for integrated nonlinear photonics.

  5. Ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate single crystals for ultrasonic hydrophone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, S.T.; Lam, K.H.; Chan, H.L.W.; Choy, C.L.; Luo, H.S.; Yin, Q.R.; Yin, Z.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) single crystals with a composition around the rhombohedral-tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary (65 mol% of PMN) were used to fabricate single-element needle-type hydrophones for measuring the spatial and temporal characteristics of medical ultrasonic transducers. PMN-PT single crystal was grown by a modified Bridgman method. Discs (0.5 mm thick) with normal along the direction were cut and then poled by a dc field in the thickness direction. The single crystal has a high relative permittivity (ε r ∼4000) making it appropriate for small area hydrophone applications. Single-element needle-type hydrophones with this material as the sensing element have been fabricated and characterized. The hydrophones have flat frequency response and good receiving sensitivity over certain frequency range in the megahertz region

  6. Enhancement of Lithium Niobate nanophotonic structures via spin-coating technique for optical waveguides application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Makram A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to investigation of temperature effects in Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 nanostructures. The LiNbO3 nanostructures were deposited on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. LiNbO3 was set down at 3000 rpm for 30 sec and annealed from 100 to 600 °C. The structures were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectrophotometer. The measured results have showed that by increasing annealing temperatures, the structures start to be more crystallized and be more homogenized until the optimum arrangement was achieved. Once this was accomplished, it's applicable for optical waveguides development. Eventually, it starts to be less crystallization and non-homogeneous. Energy gap was recorded to be at average value of 3.9 eV.

  7. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Reaction of strontium zirconate with refractory borides and carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowker, J.C.; Lane, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical compatibility of the potential oxide ceramic matrix material, strontium zirconate, and several different potential nonoxide ceramic reinforcement materials was studied by elevated temperature reaction. Results are presented in this paper

  9. Cation interdiffusion in polycrystalline calcium and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, E.P.; Jain, H.; Smyth, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a method that has been developed to study bulk lattice interdiffusion between calcium and strontium titanate by fabrication of a diffusion couple using cosintering. The measured interdiffusion coefficients, D(C), indicate that strontium impurity diffusion in calcium titanate occurs at a faster rate than calcium impurity diffusion in strontium titanate. These interdiffusion coefficients are composition independent when the concentration of the calcium cation exceeds that of the strontium cation; otherwise D(C) is strongly composition dependent. Investigations into the effect of cation nonstoichiometry give results that are consistent with a defect incorporation reaction in which excess TiO 2 , within the solid solubility limit, produces A-site cation vacancies as compensating defects. The interdiffusion coefficients increase with increasing concentrations of TiO 2 , so it is concluded that interdiffusion of these alkaline-earth cations in their titanates occurs via a vacancy mechanism

  10. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  11. Strontium removal jar test dataset for all figures and tables.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The datasets where used to generate data to demonstrate strontium removal under various water quality and treatment conditions. This dataset is associated with the...

  12. Strontium-90 Error Discovered in Subcontract Laboratory Spreadsheet. Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.D.; Nagel, A.S.

    1999-07-01

    West Valley Demonstration Project health physicists and environment scientists discovered a series of errors in a subcontractor's spreadsheet being used to reduce data as part of their strontium-90 analytical process

  13. Adsorption of strontium (II) metal ions using phosphonate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chelation is a process wherein metalions and a polymer/matrix are bound together ... waste: evaporation, chemical precipitation/flocculation, solid-phase separation ... sary to remove strontium from the waste streams before it is discharged to ...

  14. Secondary laser cooling of strontium-88 atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkin, S. A.; Khabarova, K. Yu., E-mail: kseniakhabarova@gmail.com; Galyshev, A. A.; Berdasov, O. I.; Gribov, A. Yu.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Slyusarev, S. N. [Federal State Unitary Enterprise “All-Russia Research Institute for Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements” (VNIIFTRI) (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The secondary laser cooling of a cloud of strontium-88 atoms on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 3}P{sub 1} (689 nm) intercombination transition captured into a magneto-optical trap has been demonstrated. We describe in detail the recapture of atoms from the primary trap operating on the strong {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 1}P{sub 1} (461 nm) transition and determine the recapture coefficient κ, the number of atoms, and their temperature in the secondary trap as a function of experimental parameters. A temperature of 2 µK has been reached in the secondary trap at the recapture coefficient κ = 6%, which confirms the secondary cooling efficiency and is sufficient to perform metrological measurements of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}–{sup 3}P{sub 1} (698 nm) clock transition in an optical lattice.

  15. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Zhao

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05. Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

  16. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy utilizing authigenic dolomites in hemipelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Kastner, M. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Elderfield, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))

    1990-05-01

    Authigenic dolomites commonly occur in organic-rich, continental margin marine sediments. These dolomites play a key role in the age dating of stratigraphic sections. The dolomites often are the only lithology amenable to paleomagnetic stratigraphy; they preserve siliceous microfossils against diagenetic; recrystallization, and provide useful strontium isotopic stratigraphic ages. Several potential sources of error frequently are unique to the use of authigenic dolomites in the strontium isotope methods. (1) The dolomites occur as cements of the host lithology, hence, they are not a pure phase. Potentially important contaminants during analysis include gypsum clay minerals, feldspars, and iron and manganese oxides. Strontium may occur as a structural substituent ion in these minerals or as a surface-adsorbed ion. Various leaching techniques have been tested to isolate dolomitic strontium. Purer dolomites and strontium-enriched dolomites often can be selected to ease these problems. (2) The dolomites form after the deposition of the host sediment, therefore, they record the diagenetic age not the depositional age. The stable isotopic composition of the dolomites can aid in selection of early formed samples. (3) The dolomites record pore-water strontium isotope compositions, not seawater isotopic compositions. This problem is also minimized by choosing dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface. (4) The dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface originated as rotodolomites and undergo subsequent burial diagenesis, creating a potential for later strontium isotope exchange. This problem is minimized by selecting fresh samples from the interior of nearly impermeable beds and nodules. Results from the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and from the Eocene through Pliocene Pisco basin of Peru show that authigenic dolomites can provide useful strontium isotopic age estimates.

  17. Separation of fission strontium from nuclear fuels by ammonium molybdatophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, A.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of fission strontium from solutions of prolonged cooled nuclear fuel has been performed using ammoniummolybdatophosphate (AMP) columns. The sorption mechanism of bivalent ions of AMP has been investigated by column and batch experiments. A pure ion exchange of Sr 2+ for two H + or NH 4 + ions has been established. Conditions for the sepasorption and elution of fission strontium and other fission products on AMP columns are described. (author)

  18. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  19. Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, S; Cranney, A; Wells, G A; Adachi, J D; Reginster, J Y

    2006-10-18

    Strontium ranelate is a new treatment for osteoporosis therefore, its benefits and harms need to be known. To determine the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate for the treatment and prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. We searched MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1996 to week 9 2005), the Cochrane Library (1996 to Issue 1 2005), reference lists of relevant articles and conference proceedings from the last two years. Additional data was sought from authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of at least one year duration comparing strontium ranelate versus placebo reporting fracture incidence, bone mineral density (BMD), health related quality of life or safety in postmenopausal women. Treatment (versus prevention) population was defined as women with prevalent vertebral fractures and/or lumbar spine BMD T score gastritis or death. Additional data suggests that the risk of vascular and nervous system side-effects is slightly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily over three to four years. There is silver level evidence (www.cochranemsk.org) to support the efficacy of strontium ranelate for the reduction of fractures (vertebral and to a lesser extent non-vertebral) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and an increase in BMD in postmenopausal women with/without osteoporosis. Diarrhea may occur however, adverse events leading to study withdrawal were not significantly increased with taking 2 g of strontium ranelate daily. Potential vascular and neurological side-effects need to be further explored.

  20. Flame Spectrophotometric Determination of Strontium in Water and Biological Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, G

    1964-10-15

    A flame spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in biological material and water samples. Strontium is determined in the presence of calcium at a wavelength of 4607 A. The intensity of the strontium emission from the sample is increased if n-butanol is added to a solution of the sample in water. With a 6 vol% solution of n-butanol in water, an optimum intensity of 3.5 times that obtained with pure water solution is obtained. Anions and alkali metals which might interfere with the flame spectrophotometric determination are separated from the sample by a simple ion exchange operation. The method allows determination of strontium in solutions down to 0.1{mu}g/ml. In this case the standard deviation is 3.1 % and with a strontium concentration of 1 {mu}g/ml the deviation is 0.9 %. This method has been used for the determination of strontium in samples of varying composition such as bone, meat and skin from fishes, samples of human bones, shell-fish, milk, and water, in which case Sr quantities of 5{mu}g were determined with an analytical error of less than 5 % and Sr{sub q}uantities greater than 10 {mu}g with an error of less than 3 %.

  1. Strontium-90 (90Sr) determination using liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheberle, L.T.V.; Rosa, M.M.L.; Ferreira, M.T.; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This procedure describes a method for separation and measurement of strontium 90 Sr in water, soils, and biological samples. Water samples may be concentrated using evaporation or calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Soils and biological materials must be dissolved using wet digestion. Tracers and carriers must be added before the attack. Radioactive strontium is separated employing a specific resin before determination by liquid scintillation counting using the double energetic window method. The resin is used to concentrate strontium from samples. Stable strontium is used to monitor method yields and correct results to improve precision and accuracy. The presence of elemental strontium in the sample may bias the gravimetric yield determination. If it is suspected that natural strontium is present in the sample, its concentration should be determined by a suitable means (ICP), and the yield calculation properly modified. Sr-Spec resin with an 8M HNO 3 load solution is used to effectively remove 140 Ba and 40 K isotopes, as well as other interferences from the matrix. Tetravalent plutonium, neptunium, cerium and ruthenium, however, are not removed using nitric acid. The radiochemical procedure was tested using PROCORAD intercomparison exercises and PNI samples. (author)

  2. Flame Spectrophotometric Determination of Strontium in Water and Biological Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1964-10-01

    A flame spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in biological material and water samples. Strontium is determined in the presence of calcium at a wavelength of 4607 A. The intensity of the strontium emission from the sample is increased if n-butanol is added to a solution of the sample in water. With a 6 vol% solution of n-butanol in water, an optimum intensity of 3.5 times that obtained with pure water solution is obtained. Anions and alkali metals which might interfere with the flame spectrophotometric determination are separated from the sample by a simple ion exchange operation. The method allows determination of strontium in solutions down to 0.1μg/ml. In this case the standard deviation is 3.1 % and with a strontium concentration of 1 μg/ml the deviation is 0.9 %. This method has been used for the determination of strontium in samples of varying composition such as bone, meat and skin from fishes, samples of human bones, shell-fish, milk, and water, in which case Sr quantities of 5μg were determined with an analytical error of less than 5 % and Sr q uantities greater than 10 μg with an error of less than 3 %

  3. The Strontium Isotope Record of Zavkhan Terrane Carbonates: Strontium Isotope Stability Through the Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Petach, Tanya N.

    2015-01-01

    First order trends in the strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) composition of seawater are controlled by radiogenic inputs from the continent and non-radiogenic inputs from exchange at mid-ocean ridges. Carbonates precipitated in seawater preserve trace amounts of strontium that record this isotope ratio and therefore record the relative importance of mid-ocean ridge and weathering chemical inputs to sea water composition. It has been proposed that environmental changes during the Ediacaran-Cambria...

  4. Silver niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanirbergenov, B.; Rozhenko, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    By means of determination of residual concentrations and pH measurements investigated are the AgNO 3 -KNbO 3 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 3 NbO 4 -H 2 O, AgNO 3 -K 8 Nb 16 O 19 -H 2 O systems and established is formation of meta-, ortho-and hexaniobates of silver. AgNbO 3 x H 2 O, Ag 8 Nb 6 O 19 x 6H 2 O and Ag 3 NbO 3 x 2.5H 2 O are separated from aqueous solution. Using the methods of differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and X-ray-phase analyses it is shown that silver metaniobate transforms into the crystal state at 530 deg C. Ortho- and hexaniobate of silver decompose at 500 deg C with formation of silver metaniobate and metal silver

  5. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  6. Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site and its ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RE Peterson; TM Poston

    2000-01-01

    Strontium-90, a radioactive contaminant from historical operations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, enters the Columbia River at several locations associated with former plutonium production reactors at the Site. Strontium-90 is of concern to humans and the environment because of its moderately long half-life (29.1 years), its potential for concentrating in bone tissue, and its relatively high energy of beta decay. Although strontium-90 in the environment is not a new issue for the Hanford Site, recent studies of near-river vegetation along the shoreline near the 100 Areas raised public concern about the possibility of strontium-90-contaminated groundwater reaching the riverbed and fall chinook salmon redds. To address these concerns, DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to prepare this report on strontium-90, its distribution in groundwater, how and where it enters the river, and its potential ecological impacts, particularly with respect to fall chinook salmon. The purpose of the report is to characterize groundwater contaminants in the near-shore environment and to assess the potential for ecological impact using salmon embryos, one of the most sensitive ecological indicators for aquatic organisms. Section 2.0 of the report provides background information on strontium-90 at the Hanford Site related to historical operations. Public access to information on strontium-90 also is described. Section 3.0 focuses on key issues associated with strontium-90 contamination in groundwater that discharges in the Hanford Reach. The occurrence and distribution of fall chinook salmon redds in the Hanford Reach and characteristics of salmon spawning are described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 describes the regulatory standards and criteria used to set action levels for strontium-90. Recommendations for initiating additional monitoring and remedial action associated with strontium-90 contamination at the Hanford Site are presented in Section 6

  7. Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site and its ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RE Peterson; TM Poston

    2000-05-22

    Strontium-90, a radioactive contaminant from historical operations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, enters the Columbia River at several locations associated with former plutonium production reactors at the Site. Strontium-90 is of concern to humans and the environment because of its moderately long half-life (29.1 years), its potential for concentrating in bone tissue, and its relatively high energy of beta decay. Although strontium-90 in the environment is not a new issue for the Hanford Site, recent studies of near-river vegetation along the shoreline near the 100 Areas raised public concern about the possibility of strontium-90-contaminated groundwater reaching the riverbed and fall chinook salmon redds. To address these concerns, DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to prepare this report on strontium-90, its distribution in groundwater, how and where it enters the river, and its potential ecological impacts, particularly with respect to fall chinook salmon. The purpose of the report is to characterize groundwater contaminants in the near-shore environment and to assess the potential for ecological impact using salmon embryos, one of the most sensitive ecological indicators for aquatic organisms. Section 2.0 of the report provides background information on strontium-90 at the Hanford Site related to historical operations. Public access to information on strontium-90 also is described. Section 3.0 focuses on key issues associated with strontium-90 contamination in groundwater that discharges in the Hanford Reach. The occurrence and distribution of fall chinook salmon redds in the Hanford Reach and characteristics of salmon spawning are described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 describes the regulatory standards and criteria used to set action levels for strontium-90. Recommendations for initiating additional monitoring and remedial action associated with strontium-90 contamination at the Hanford Site are presented in Section 6

  8. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  9. Migration of strontium-90 from a strontium-90 fluoride deep ocean source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabusaki, S.

    1981-06-01

    A hypothetical rupture of a heat source capsule on the ocean floor is analyzed for strontium-90 migration and attenuation. The evolution of the three-dimensional contaminant plume is simulated by a modified version of the Okubo-Pritchard radially symmetrical, diffusion velocity dispersion model. Results from this study indicate that released solutes are confined vertically to a layer near the level of introduction. Along the plume centerline, however, water quality is affected for considerably distances downstream from the source, with the maximum effect occurring after one year

  10. Optical lattice clock with strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X.; Le Targat, R.; Fouche, M.; Brusch, A.; Westergaard, Ph.G.; Lecallier, A.; Lodewyck, J.; Lemonde, P. [Observatoire de Paris, LNE-SYRTE, Systemes de Reference Temps Espace, 75 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Optical lattice clocks, which were first imagined in 2000, should allow one to achieve unprecedented performances in the domain of atomic clocks. We present here the Strontium lattice clock, developed at LNE-SYRTE. The principle, in particular trapping atoms in the Lamb-Dicke regime and the notion of magic wavelength, is first explained. We then present the results obtained for the {sup 87}Sr isotope, with a frequency accuracy of 2,6.10{sup -15}, and the {sup 88}Sr isotope, with. which we perform the first frequency measurement of an optical lattice clock with bosonic atoms. (authors)

  11. Radiopaque strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram eHöland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals, was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2 – Al2O3 – Y2O3 – SrO – Na2O – K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O – P2O5 – F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: a Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6 , b Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4 c Sr5(PO43F – pollucite, CsAlSiO4 , and nano-sized NaSrPO4, d Sr5(PO43F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4.The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needlelike morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needlelike Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism.The formation of leucite, pollucite and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  12. Mechanoluminescence of Dy doped strontium aluminate nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ravi, E-mail: rvsharma65@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Commerce Girls College, Raipur, C.G. 492001 (India); Bisen, D.P. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G. 492010 (India); Chandra, B.P. [Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482001 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Nanosized strontium aluminate phosphors activated with Dy{sup 3+} were prepared by a combustion method. Nanophosphor was prepared by this method at reaction temperatures as low as 600 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope analysis was used to characterize the prepared product. The monoclinic phase was observed in the XRD pattern. The particle size of the samples was calculated around 35 nm. The SEM images show irregular shape of the prepared nanophosphor. Two peaks were found in the mechanoluminescence (ML) response curve plotted between time and ML intensity. The H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} added strontium aluminate phosphors activated with Dy show more bright ML peak as compared to the powders of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} without H{sub 3}BO{sub 3.} It was found that the PL and ML intensity increases with increasing concentration of Dy, it becomes maximum for 3% of Dy. The photoluminescence emission shows two intense fluorescence transitions peaks at 498 nm and 583 nm, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} in the blue and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} in the yellow-orange wavelength region. - Highlights: • Combustion synthesis route is used to prepare the SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Dy {sup 3+} nanophosphors. • The size of the synthesized sample was found to be in the nano-meter range. • The mechanoluminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy {sup 3+} nanophosphors is studied. • The photoluminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}: Dy {sup 3+} nanophosphors showed blue-shift as compared to bulk. • Effect of H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} on the mechanoluminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Dy{sup 3+} was studied.

  13. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  14. Selective decontamination of cesium and strontium from evaporation concentrates of spent fuel reprocessing plants with crown ethers by transport through supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas i Garcia, J.

    1993-01-01

    Reprocessing operations lead to the production of radioactive medium activity liquid waste which is treated by evaporation and solutions of very high salinity are thus formed. The concentrates from reprocessing plant evaporators have to be stored in geological storage sites in view of their strong caesium, strontium and actinides activity. These elements, contained in acid and high sodium nitrate content liquid waste, are removed by means of selective extractants, using the supported liquid membrane technique (SLM), which allows them to be stored in surface sites, the actinides and long-life fission products being respectively recycled and concentrated into reduced volumes. The removal of the actinides is done by means of an Octyl N.N Diisobutyl Carbamoyl Methyl Phosphine Oxide (C.M.P.O.) based liquid membrane, whereas the removal of the caesium and strontium involves crown ethers. Supported liquid membranes (S.L.M.s) have the advantage of implementing very small quantities of extractant, but they generally have poor stability. The extractant, the diluent and the phase modifier impregnating the membrane play a vital role in SLM stability; the support also affects stability by its nature and geometry. For the extraction of strontium, the most lipophilic extractant, DtBu 18 C 6, enables higher strontium transfer kinetics to be attained. As regards caesium, the extremely lipophilic nDec B21 C7 is the most efficient. Caesium cannot be quantitatively removed, due to the competition of the very high content of sodium ions in the concentrate. Stable membranes are obtained with DC18 C6 or DtBu18 C6 diluted in alkylbenzenes with an added phase modifier such as decanol or especially isotridecanol

  15. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  16. Ion irradiation effects on lithium niobate etalons for tunable spectral filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garranzo, D.; Ibarmia, S.; Alvarez-Herrero, A.; Olivares, J.; Crespillo, M.; Díaz, M.

    2017-11-01

    , coupled with the HV field, could trigger a dielectric breakdown in the Lithium Niobate. In this paper we present the electro-optical results obtained when exposing a set of LN samples and a lowquality full size etalon to different radiation conditions. In a first irradiation campaign, performed at the Centre for Micro Analysis of Materials (CMAM-Madrid) facilities, we were mainly focused on the long-term degradation effects with a series of high flux (109 cm-2 s-1) proton tests at an energy of 10 MeV. In order to study the possibility of a single ion breakdown, a second campaign was carried out, at the Texas A&M University (TAMU), exposing Lithium Niobate to high LET ion species (78Kr, 40Ar, 129Xe, 197Au) accelerated to the GeV energy range to penetrate or even pass through the entire Lithium Niobate thickness.

  17. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillard, X.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr 87 using the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr 87 atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10 -15 and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10 -15 level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr 88 by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10 -14 . (author)

  18. Measurements of cesium and strontium diffusion in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1988-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interactions between the nuclides in the ground water and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation, it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result shows that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurement of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel

  19. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  20. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15 percentage Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results. (author)

  1. Diffusion measurements of cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Neretnieks, I.

    1985-01-01

    A significant retardation of radionuclides transported by flowing water from an underground repository can be expected if the nuclides are able to diffuse into the water filled micropores in the rock. This diffusion into the pores will also increase the surface available to interaction between the nuclides in the groundwater and the rock material, such as sorption. To calculate the retardation it is necessary to know the sorption properties and the diffusivities in the rock matrix for the radionuclides. Diffusion experiments with cesium and strontium in biotite gneiss samples have been performed. Both the transport of strontium and cesium through rock samples and the concentration profiles of cesium and strontium inside rock samples have been determined. The result show that diffusion of cesium and strontium occurs in the rock material. A diffusion model has been used to evaluate the diffusivity. Both pore diffusion and surface diffusion had to be included in the model to give good agreement with the experimental data. If surface diffusion is not included in the model, the effective pore diffusivity that gives the best fit to the experimental data is found to be higher than expected from earlier measurements of iodide diffusion in the same type of rock material. This indicates that the diffusion of cesium and strontium (sorbing components) in rock material is caused by both pore diffusion and surface diffusion acting in parallel. (author)

  2. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N; Fayyaz, M; Iqbal, W; Irfan, M; Alam, S

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr 2 + into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results

  3. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2014-06-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results.

  4. Spectroscopy and Laser-SNMS on stable and radioactive strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Hauke; Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Franzmann, Michael [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kron, Tobias; Wendt, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear accidents as experienced e.g. in Chernobyl or Fukushima and nuclear weapon tests released considerable activity levels and a variety of medium to long-lived radionuclides into the environment. Strontium-90 appears as a significant share of the fission products in spent nuclear fuel and correspondingly in any possible release. Due to its chemical properties it is subject to long range transport through the environment and can cause considerable dose to man when entering the food chain. Correspondingly, the investigation of speciation and migration channels is of major relevance. A radioanalytical approach is severely hampered by the low beta energy of the strontium-90 decay and the need to separate strontium-90 from the secular equilibrated daughter yttrium-90. Hence, application of a mass spectrometric method without chemical separation of the elements is a promising alternative for low-level investigation of strontium-90. Application of the new Laser-SNMS system at IRS Hannover could well suit those needs. It applies three Ti:Sa lasers for resonant ionization of neutral atoms produced by primary ion sputtering in a SIMS together with a time-of-flight mass analysis which provides high spatial resolution. The analytical measurements are preceded by spectroscopic studies on the level structure of strontium to develop a most efficient ionization scheme.

  5. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  6. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  7. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  8. Placental transfer of calcium and strontium and of their radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessl, I.; Stieve, F.E.

    1987-11-01

    The first part of the report deals with the occurrence and the chemistry of strontium and its radioisotopes, and the second part discusses the calcium and the strontium metabolism in man. General information on the biology and physiology of the human skeleton is given in part 3, whereas part 4 again discusses the calcium and strontium metabolism in man, however with particular emphasis on the conditions during pregnancy and lactation. Part 5 presents an evaluation of the literature in this subject field, concentrating on results obtained with experimental animals such as cows, swine, dogs, guinea pigs, rats, and mice, and discusses the applicability of these findings to the conditions in man. An annex presents data on the yttrium metabolism in man and animal. (MG) [de

  9. Bulgarian regional patterns of contamination by global fallout (strontium 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Shopov, N.; Simova, G.; Andreev, E.; Mikha lov, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    For selected districts in the country, mean annual atmospheric precipitation rates were related to strontium-90 contents in milk over the period 1970-1977. Strontium-90 in milk was determined by the method of Popov, using Va-Z-310 counters for activity measurements. The impact of annual precipitation means was examined by monofactorial spread analysis, with sites distributed into three groups according to precipitation rates observed over longer time periods: up to 650 l/m 2 from 650 to 750 l/m 2 ; and above 750 L/M 2 . Values of coefficient F were estimated, representing the ratio of group to random spreads. These figures were compared with critical values in Student's tables for 0.05 significance level. The F data indicated a definite alternative relationship to exist between strontium-90 amounts in mils and annual precipitation rates, which is prognostically meaningful from the strandpoint of radiological protection of the population

  10. Strontium titanate thin film deposition - structural and electronical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzig, Florian; Hanzig, Juliane; Stoecker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Abendroth, Barbara; Meyer, Dirk C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik (Germany); Franke, Michael [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Elektronik- und Sensormaterialien (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Strontium titanate is on the one hand a widely-used model oxide for solids which crystallize in perovskite type of structure. On the other hand, with its large band-gap energy and its mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, SrTiO{sub 3} is a promising isolating material in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for resistive switching memory cells. Here, we used physical vapour deposition methods (e. g. electron-beam and sputtering) to produce strontium titanate layers. Sample thicknesses were probed with X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Additionally, layer densities and dielectric functions were quantified with XRR and SE, respectively. Using infrared spectroscopy free electron concentrations were obtained. Phase and element composition analysis was carried out with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequent temperature treatment of samples lead to crystallization of the initially amorphous strontium titanate.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-15

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu{sup 1+} and Cu{sup 2+}) and Fe (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu{sup 1+}) and sixfold (Cu{sup 2+}) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  12. Synthesis, structure and electrical properties of Mg-, Ni-codoped bismuth niobates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Koroleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mg-, Ni-codoped bismuth niobates Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ (x = 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 were obtained by conventional solid-state reaction method. It was shown that the Mg atoms are distributed at the Nb sites while the Ni atoms are distributed over the Bi- and the Nb-sites, according to the results of comparison of pycnometric and X-ray density of the Bi1.6Mg0.4Ni0.4Nb1.6O7-δ pyrochlore. In this case, about 15–20% of the vacancies are formed at the Bi sites. The obtained compounds are stable up to their melting point based on the DSC analysis data. Real dielectric permittivity ε' of the Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ samples decreases from 80 to 65 with the temperature decrease from 25 to 700 °C and practically does not depend on frequency in the range of 1–1000 kHz. Oxides Bi1.6Mg0.8-xNixNb1.6O7-δ behave like insulators up to 280 °C, their conductivity increases with temperature (Ea,dc ≈ 1.3 eV, dc and with the Ni content at a given temperature.

  13. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia [Department of Applied Physics, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.

  14. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-01-01

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity

  15. Phenomenological theory of the dielectric response of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the random field effects originating from charges chemical defects and non-domain textures of the formation and dynamics of polar clusters is analyzed. The spatial distribution of the local fields is not totally random but contains some correlations in direction and strength. Polar clusters are classified to be dynamic or frozen according to their dynamic characteristics in the random fields. The relaxation formula of a dipolar moment in an anisotropic double-well potential is deduced. Two percolation models are introduced, one to account for frustration effects associated with multiple orientations of polar clusters, which results in a broad diffuse dielectric response and the second to account for the case whereby there may be a phase transition to a ferroelectric state. The dielectric permittivity and dissipation factor of the typical relaxors lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate are predicted as a function of both temperature and frequency, which results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. 30 refs., 9 figs

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of structurally modified lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitova, Tonya

    2008-02-01

    The type and concentration of impurity centers in different valence states are crucial for tuning the photorefractive properties of doped Lithium Niobate (LN) crystals. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is an appropriate tool for studying the local structure of impurity centers. XAS combined with absorption in UV/VIS/IR and High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (HRXES) provide information about the valence state of the dopant ions in as-grown, reduced or oxidized doped LN crystals. Cu (Cu 1+ and Cu 2+ ) and Fe (Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) atoms are found in two different valence states, whereas there are indications for a third Mn valency, in addition to Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ in manganese-doped LN crystals. One of the charge compensation mechanisms during reduction of copper- doped LN crystals is outgassing of oxygen atoms. Cu ions in the reduced crystals have at least two different site symmetries: twofold (Cu 1+ ) and sixfold (Cu 2+ ) coordinated by O atoms. Fe and Mn atoms are coordinated by six O atoms. Cu and Fe ions are found to occupy only Li sites, whereas Mn ions are also incorporated into Li and Nb sites. The refractive index change in LN crystals irradiated with 3 He 2+ ions is caused by structurally disordered centers, where Nb atoms are displaced from normal crystallographic sites and Li or/and O vacancies are present. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of pyroelectric electron emission from monodomain lithium niobate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Moon, Chang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Woon; Kyeong Yoo, In

    2006-01-01

    The behaviors of thermally stimulated electron emission from pyroelectric monodomain lithium niobate single crystal (LiNbO 3 ) were investigated by utilizing a Si p-n junction photodiode as electron detector and a receptive electron beam resist (E-beam resist) as electron collector. In high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), the pyroelectric electron emission (PEE) was found to depend on the exposed emitting polar crystal surface (+Z face or -Z face) and was significantly influenced by the emitter-electron receiver gap distances. Thus, the PEE from +Z face was detected during heating and was activated, in small gaps ( 2 mm) the emission was simply mastered by field emission effect. Whereas, The PEE from -Z face was detected during cooling and was solely due to the field ionization effect. Therewith, for small gaps ( 2 mm) PEE was governed by field ionization generating a soft and continuous plasma ambient atmosphere. Significant decrease of electron emission current was observed from +Z face after successive thermal cycles. A fast and fully emission recovery was established after a brief exposure of crystal to a poor air vacuum of 10 -1 Torr

  18. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul; Park, Jaehong; Jeong, Haedo

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO 3 ) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H 2 O 2 ) and complexing agent (citric acid; C 6 H 8 O 7 ) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H 2 O 2 -citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H 2 O 2 at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  19. Nanotechnology in lithium niobate for integrated optic frequency conversion in the UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busacca, Alessandro C.; Santini, Claudia; Oliveri, Luigi; Riva-Sanseverino, Stefano; Parisi, Antonino; Cino, Alfonso C.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-11-01

    In the domain of Earth Explorer satellites nanoengineered nonlinear crystals can optimize UV tunable solid-state laser converters. Lightweight sources can be based on Lithium Niobate (LN) domain engineering by electric field poling and guided wave interactions. In this Communication we report the preliminary experimental results and the very first demonstration of UltraViolet second-harmonic generation by first-order quasi-phase-matching in a surface-periodically-poled proton-exchanged LN waveguide. The pump source was a Ti-Sapphire laser with a tunability range of 700- 980 nm and a 40 GHz linewidth. We have measured UV continuous-wave light at 390 nm by means of a lock-in amplifier and of a photodiode with enhanced response in the UV. Measured conversion efficiency was about 1%W-1cm-2. QPM experiments show good agreement with theory and pave the way for a future implementation of the technique in materials less prone to photorefractive damage and wider transparency in the UV, such as Lithium Tantalate.

  20. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X D

    1995-10-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO{sub 3}. Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Observation and analysis of nanodomain textures in dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.; Qian, Hua; Peng, Julin; Fan, X.D.

    1995-01-01

    High-resolution (0.2nm) images are used to locate chemical domains occurring with length scales of 1-5nm in the dielectric relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN). The experimental HRTEM images are analysed using computer-simulations and image matching in order to clarify and characterize the nature of the chemical ordering. Madelung electrostatic energy calculations are used to rank a set of structural models for possible ordered and disordered distributions of Nb and Mg over the B-sites of perovskite ABO 3 . Next, the chemical domain textures are modelled using next-nearest-neighbour Ising (NNNI) models and Monte Carlo methods. This results in a preferred model for the B-site distribution (the extended NNN-Ising model), which is used for image simulations. Both HRTEM many-beam bright-and dark-field and single-beam dark-field TEM images are obtained and compared with the experimental images. The final result is a realistic atomic model for the Nb, Mg distribution of PMN. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Influence of heat treatment on structure and some physical properties of lithium boro-niobate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, I.; Sakr, E. M.; Soliman, A. A.; Ratep, A.

    2012-08-01

    The glass composition (90 mol% Li2B4O7-10 mol% Nb2O5) was prepared by the melt quenching technique. The quenched sample was heat treated at 480°C, 545°C and 630°C for 5 h and heat treated at 780°C with different time. The times were 5, 10, 15, 20, 28, and 36 h. The glass and glass ceramics were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dc conductivity as a function of temperature. Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium diborate (Li2B4O7) were the main phases in glass ceramic addition to traces from LiNb3O8. Crystallite size of the main phases determined from the X-ray diffraction peaks are in the range <100 nm. The fraction of crystalline (LiNbO3) phase increases with increase the heat treatment temperature and time. The relation between physical properties and structure were studied.

  3. Inscription of type I and depressed cladding waveguides in lithium niobate using a femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, S; Mittholiya, K; Bhatnagar, A; Bernard, R; Dharmadhikari, J A; Mathur, D; Dharmadhikari, A K

    2017-07-10

    We describe two types of waveguides (type I and depressed cladding) inscribed in lithium niobate using a variable repetition rate (200 kHz-25 MHz), 270 fs duration fiber laser. The type I modification-based waveguides have propagation losses in the range from 1.2 to 10 dB/cm at 1550 nm, depending on experimental parameters. These waveguides are not permanent; they deteriorate over time. Such deterioration of waveguides can be slowed down from 30 days to 100 days by pre-annealing the samples and by writing at a 720 kHz laser repetition rate. The propagation losses measured at 1550 nm show significant improvement for pre-annealed samples. The depressed cladding-inscribed waveguides are permanent, but the propagation loss depends on the number of damage tracks. A track separation of ∼1  μm between adjacent damage tracks yields the lowest propagation loss of 0.5 dB/cm at 1550 nm for a 40 μm diameter waveguide. We observe multimode guidance for sizes in the range of 20-80 μm in these waveguide structures at 1550 nm. Their crystalline nature is found to remain intact, as inferred from second-harmonic generation within the waveguide region.

  4. Iron doping of lithium niobate by thermal diffusion from thin film: study of the treatment effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciampolillo, Maria Vittoria; Zaltron, Annamaria; Bazzan, Marco; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia [Universita di Padova (Italy); CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Padova (Italy); Mignoni, Sabrina; Fontana, Marc [Universite de Metz et Supelec, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photoniques et Systemes, UMR CNRS 7132, Metz (France)

    2011-07-15

    Thermal diffusion from thin film is one of the most widespread approaches to prepare iron doped regions in lithium niobate with limited size for photorefractive applications. In this work, we investigate the doping process with the aim of determining the best process conditions giving a doped region with the characteristics required for photorefractive applications. Six samples were prepared by changing the atmosphere employed in the diffusion treatment in order to obtain different combination of diffusion profiles and reduction degrees and also to check the effect of employing a wet atmosphere. The compositional, optical, and structural properties are then extensively characterized by combining Secondary ion Mass Spectrometry, UV, visible and IR spectrophotometry, High Resolution X-Rays Diffraction, and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Moreover, the sample topography was checked by Atomic Force Microscopy. An analysis of all our data shows that the best results are obtained performing a double step process, i.e. diffusion in oxidizing atmosphere and subsequent reduction at lower temperature in an hydrogen-containing atmosphere. (orig.)

  5. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  6. Anisotropic surface acoustic waves in tungsten/lithium niobate phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Hong; Yu, Yuan-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Phononic crystals (PnC) were known for acoustic band gaps for different acoustic waves. PnCs were already applied in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices as reflective gratings based on the band gaps. In this paper, another important property of PnCs, the anisotropic propagation, was studied. PnCs made of circular tungsten films on a lithium niobate substrate were analyzed by finite element method. Dispersion curves and equal frequency contours of surface acoustic waves in PnCs of various dimensions were calculated to study the anisotropy. The non-circular equal frequency contours and negative refraction of group velocity were observed. Then PnC was applied as an acoustic lens based on the anisotropic propagation. Trajectory of SAW passing PnC lens was calculated and transmission of SAW was optimized by selecting proper layers of lens and applying tapered PnC. The result showed that PnC lens can suppress diffraction of surface waves effectively and improve the performance of SAW devices.

  7. Complex capacitance in the representation of modulus of the lithium niobate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Batra, A.K.; Bhattacharjee, Sudip; Aggarwal, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    The lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 or LN) single crystal is grown in-house. The ac small-signal electrical characterization is conducted over a temperature range 35≤T≤150 o C as a function of measurement frequency (10≤f≤10 6 Hz). Meaningful observation is noted only in a narrow temperature range 59≤T≤73 o C. These electrical data when analyzed via complex plane formalisms revealed single semicircular relaxation both in the complex capacitance (C * ) and in the modulus (M * ) planes. The physical meaning of this kind of observation is obtained on identifying the relaxation type, and then incorporating respective equivalent circuit model. The simplistic non-blocking nature of the equivalent circuit model obtained via M * -plane is established as the lumped relaxation is identified in the C * -plane. The feature of the eventual equivalent circuit model allows non-blocking aspect for the LN crystal attributing to the presence of the operative dc conduction process. Identification of this leakage dc conduction via C * -plane is portrayed in the M * -plane where the blocking nature is removed. The interacting interpretation between these two complex planes is successfully presented.

  8. Label-free investigation of the effects of lithium niobate polarization on cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, M.; Grilli, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of contact area is pivotal to understand how biomaterials properties influence cell adhesion. In particular, the influence of surface charges is well-known but still controversial, especially when new functional materials and methods are introduced. Here, we use for the first time Holographic Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (HoloTIRM) to study the influence of the spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) on the adhesion properties of fibroblast cells. The selective illumination of a very thin region directly above the substrate, achieved by Total Internal Reflection, provides high-contrast images of the contact regions. Holographic recording, on the other hand, allows for label-free quantitative phase imaging of the contact areas between cells and LN. Phase signal is more sensitive in the first 100nm and, thus more reliable in order to locate focal contacts. This work shows that cells adhering on negatively polarized LN present a significant increase of the contact area in comparison with cells adhering on the positively polarized LN substrate, as well as an intensification of contact vicinity. This confirms the potential of LN as a platform for investigating the role of charges on cellular processes. The similarity of cell adhesion behavior on negatively polarized LN and glass control also confirms the possibility to use LN as an active substrate without impairing cell behavior.

  9. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  10. High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Jeremy D.; Valery, Joseph A.; Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Sarabalis, Christopher J.; Hill, Jeff T.; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2017-04-01

    Future quantum networks, in which superconducting quantum processors are connected via optical links, will require microwave-to-optical photon converters that preserve entanglement. A doubly-resonant electro-optic modulator (EOM) is a promising platform to realize this conversion. Here, we present our progress towards building such a modulator by demonstrating the optically-resonant half of the device. We demonstrate high quality (Q) factor ring, disk and photonic crystal resonators using a hybrid silicon-on-lithium-niobate material system. Optical Q factors up to 730,000 are achieved, corresponding to propagation loss of 0.8 dB/cm. We also use the electro-optic effect to modulate the resonance frequency of a photonic crystal cavity, achieving a electro-optic modulation coefficient between 1 and 2 pm/V. In addition to quantum technology, we expect that our results will be useful both in traditional silicon photonics applications and in high-sensitivity acousto-optic devices.

  11. Strontium effects on root dentin tubule occlusion and nanomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kuniko; Marshall, Grayson W; Gansky, Stuart A; Parkinson, Charles R; Marshall, Sally J

    2016-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity often is treated by promotion of dentin tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study we evaluated nanomechanical properties and degree of tubule occlusion conferred to sound and demineralized human root dentin following treatment with a 10% (w/w) strontium acetate solution and its relation to the treatment duration and delivery method. 24 human cervical root dentin disks (8 groups of 3) were polished through 0.25 μm. 12 disks were subjected to an acid challenge (1% citric acid, pH 3.8) for 2 min. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva, treated by soaking or brushing with deionized (DI) water or a solution of 10% strontium acetate for 2 min twice a day for 28 days. The occlusion percent and nanomechanical properties were determined at the baseline, 5, 14 and 28 days. Cross-sectioned specimens were prepared to evaluate the depth affected by strontium acetate / dentin interaction by SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models. A 10% strontium acetate treatment over 5-28 days significantly increased tubule occlusion for normal root dentin and to a lesser extent for demineralized dentin and increased the AFM based nanomechanical properties of demineralized dentin. Brushing was more effective than soaking in recovery of properties of demineralized dentin when treated with strontium. No difference in tubuleocclusion was found between the two delivery methods. Strontium acetate itself proved to have the ability to occlude dentin tubules and result in small changes in the mechanical properties of dentin. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervanne, Heini; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry

    2014-11-01

    The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m{sup 3}/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO{sub 4} solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO{sub 4} solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

  13. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  14. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  15. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Effect of the structure and mechanical properties of the near-surface layer of lithium niobate single crystals on the manufacture of integrated optic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Ponomarev, R. S.; Yur'ev, V. A.; Volyntsev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that the near-surface layer of a lithium niobate single layer 15 μm in depth is essentially different from the rest of the volume of the material from the standpoint of composition, structure, and mechanical properties. The pointed out differences are due to the effect of cutting, polishing, and smoothing of the lithium niobate plates, which increase the density of point defects and dislocations. The increasing density of the structural defects leads to uncontrollable changes in the conditions of the formations of waveguides and the drifting of characteristics of integrated optical circuits. The results obtained are very important for the manufacture of lithium niobate based integrated optical circuits.

  17. Strontium cobaltite oxygen sponge catalyst and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Biegalski, Michael; Folkman, Chad M.; Tung, I-Cheng; Fong, Dillon D.; Freeland, John W.; Shin, Dongwon; Ohta, Hiromichi; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2017-01-24

    Rapid, reversible redox activity may be accomplished at significantly reduced temperatures, as low as about 200.degree. C., from epitaxially stabilized, oxygen vacancy ordered SrCoO.sub.2.5 and thermodynamically unfavorable perovskite SrCoO.sub.3-.delta.. The fast, low temperature redox activity in SrCoO.sub.3-.delta. may be attributed to a small Gibbs free energy difference between the two topotactic phases. Epitaxially stabilized thin films of strontium cobaltite provide a catalyst adapted to rapidly transition between oxidation states at substantially low temperatures. Methods of transitioning a strontium cobaltite catalyst from a first oxidation state to a second oxidation state are described.

  18. ADSORPTION OF STRONTIUM IONS FROM WATER ON MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ciobanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of strontium ions from aqueous solutions on active carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been studied. It has been found that allure of the adsorption isotherms for both studied active carbons are practically identical. Studies have shown that the adsorption isotherms for strontium ions from aqueous solutions are well described by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations, respectively. The surface heterogeneity of activated carbons CAN-7 and oxidized CAN-8 has been assessed by using Freundlich equation.

  19. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  20. Spectrographic determination of strontium in yttrium-90 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1970-01-01

    The copper spark method has been used for determining strontium in the concentration range 1-100 g/ml in yttrium-90 solutions containing 0,5 % or thereabouts of ammonium citrate. The influence of the citric acid as well as the ammonium citrate with regard to 2N HCL solutions has been studied: the citric acid enhances the line intensities of strontium. The employment of either barium or lanthanum as reference element compensates for this enhancement. Because of the increase in sensitivity mentioned above, the study of influence of the citric acid has been extended and several impurities usually determined in radioisotope solutions have been considered. (Author) 4 refs

  1. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  2. Crystal structure of strontium dinickel iron orthophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Ouaatta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, SrNi2Fe(PO43, synthesized by solid-state reaction, crystallizes in an ordered variant of the α-CrPO4 structure. In the asymmetric unit, two O atoms are in general positions, whereas all others atoms are in special positions of the space group Imma: the Sr cation and one P atom occupy the Wyckoff position 4e (mm2, Fe is on 4b (2/m, Ni and the other P atom are on 8g (2, one O atom is on 8h (m and the other on 8i (m. The three-dimensional framework of the crystal structure is built up by [PO4] tetrahedra, [FeO6] octahedra and [Ni2O10] dimers of edge-sharing octahedra, linked through common corners or edges. This structure comprises two types of layers stacked alternately along the [100] direction. The first layer is formed by edge-sharing octahedra ([Ni2O10] dimer linked to [PO4] tetrahedra via common edges while the second layer is built up from a strontium row followed by infinite chains of alternating [PO4] tetrahedra and FeO6 octahedra sharing apices. The layers are held together through vertices of [PO4] tetrahedra and [FeO6] octahedra, leading to the appearance of two types of tunnels parallel to the a- and b-axis directions in which the Sr cations are located. Each Sr cation is surrounded by eight O atoms.

  3. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  4. Novel Pharmaceutical Strontium Malonate Influence on Calcium and Strontium Adsorption by Dog Femur and by Dog Teeth in a Four-Week Toxicity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Christgau, Stephan; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    of osteoporosis. As part of this development the compound was administered in doses of 0 (placebo), 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day to beagle dogs for a period of 4 weeks. We measured the incorporation of strontium in bone, marrow and teeth in this study. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... marginally higher incorporation of strontium suggesting that saturation levels were reached with the lowest dose level. There was no gender difference in strontium incorporation. Correlations of strontium levels with Sr/Ca-ratio and other important biological parameters were investigated....

  5. Linear diffraction of light waves on periodically poled domain structures in lithium niobate crystals: collinear, isotropic, and anisotropic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandarov, S M; Mandel, A E; Akylbaev, T M; Borodin, M V; Savchenkov, E N; Smirnov, S V; Akhmatkhanov, A R; Shur, V Ya

    2017-01-01

    The possible variants of experimental observation of light diffraction on periodically poled domain structures (PPDS) in the lithium niobate crystal with 180-degree domain Y-walls are considered. We experimentally investigated isotropic and anisotropic diffraction of coherent light (λ = 655nm) on the PPDS with spatial period Λ = 8.79 μm produced by poling method in a LiNbO 3 : 5% MgO crystal. The central wavelength of irradiation experiencing a collinear diffraction on these PPDS is estimated as λ c = 455 nm. (paper)

  6. The compact converter of Bessel beams of zero and second orders on the basis of z-cut lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranin, V D; Karpeev, S V; Khonina, S N; Tukmakov, K N

    2016-01-01

    Transformation of zero-order Bessel beams into a second-order vortex beam in the process of propagation in a c-cut of lithium niobate LiNbO 3 crystal has been investigated experimentally. The possibility of controlling beam transformation by means of changing the curve radius of the illuminating beam is shown. The possibility of Bessel beam transforming by compact devices on the basis of thin c-cuts of uniaxial crystals with a diffraction mask formed on their surface is proved. (paper)

  7. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  8. Heterogeneous integration of lithium niobate and silicon nitride waveguides for wafer-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Pfeiffer, Martin H P; Volet, Nicolas; Zervas, Michael; Peters, Jon D; Manganelli, Costanza L; Stanton, Eric J; Li, Yifei; Kippenberg, Tobias J; Bowers, John E

    2017-02-15

    An ideal photonic integrated circuit for nonlinear photonic applications requires high optical nonlinearities and low loss. This work demonstrates a heterogeneous platform by bonding lithium niobate (LN) thin films onto a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide layer on silicon. It not only provides large second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients, but also shows low propagation loss in both the Si3N4 and the LN-Si3N4 waveguides. The tapers enable low-loss-mode transitions between these two waveguides. This platform is essential for various on-chip applications, e.g., modulators, frequency conversions, and quantum communications.

  9. X-ray analysis of phase coexistence and electric poling processing in alkaline niobate-based compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jian; Zuo Ruzhong; Liu Yi

    2010-01-01

    The characteristic and origin of two-phase coexistence and the content of each phase in typical alkaline niobate-based lead-free compositions were investigated through the refinement of X-ray diffraction peaks and the measurement of dielectric constant versus temperature curves. The diffuse nature of polymorphic phase transition has resulted in the coexistence of two ferroelectric phases within a wide composition and temperature range. As a result, the optimum piezoelectric properties appear in the composition rich in tetragonal phases and there is a remarkable poling temperature effect. Discussions on the difference between morphotropic phase boundary and polymorphic phase boundary were made in combination with the variation of electrical properties.

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigation of lattice defect structures in a series of Zn, Fe-doped nonstoichiometric lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Fengyun; Lue Qiang; Sun Liang; Li Hongtao; Zhen Xihe; Xu Yuheng; Zhao Liancheng

    2006-01-01

    A series of the double doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 , LN) single crystals had been grown by Czochralski method. The Curie temperatures of various concentrations doped or [Li]/[Nb] ratio LN crystals measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA) were discussed to investigate their defect structures with Safaryan et al. new approach about LN lattice defect structure using Curie temperatures calculated. Infrared transmission spectra of various concentrations doped were used to compare the investigation above. The results show that the lithium vacancy model is the more probable to describe the lattice defect structure of the doped LN single crystal

  11. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Strontium tartrate; dopant; effect of magnetic field; thermal behaviour. 1. Introduction ... tals of such type of compounds cannot be grown by either slow evaporation or ... is observed under a stereo binocular microscope (Carl. Zeiss) and ... a depth of 1⋅8 cm due to the diffusion of the top solution. After about a week ...

  12. New Composite Sorbents for Caesium and Strontium Ions Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kartel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite lignocellulose-inorganic sorbents derived from plant residues of agriculture and food industry, modified with ferrocyanides of d-metals and hydrated antimony pentoxide were prepared. Caesium and strontium ions removal from water was tested by radiotracer method. Sorption of heavy metal ions, methylene blue, gelatin, vitamin B12 was also studied.

  13. Strontium adsorption and penetration in kaolinite at low Sr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ning, Zigong; Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.; Sato, Tsutomu; Kashiwagi, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Behavior of radioactive strontium (Sr2+) in contaminated soils is an important issue in relation to nuclear power plant accidents. The Sr2+ adsorption on kaolinite and its migration in a kaolinite soil were investigated because toxic effects of radioactive Sr2+ have been found to be very severe for

  14. Study of sorption processes of strontium on the synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Galambos, M.; Rajec, P.

    2011-01-01

    The sorption of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by a wet precipitation process followed by calcination of calcium phosphate that precipitated from aqueous solution. Also, commercial hydroxyapatites were used. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of preparation and it was pH independent ranging from 4 to 9 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The distribution coefficient K d was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ ions in solution with concentration above 1 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 . The percentage strontium sorption for commercial and by wet method prepared hydroxyapatite was in the range of 83-96%, while calcined hydroxyapatite was ranging from 10 to 30%. The experimental data for sorption of strontium have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Sr 2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca 2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite. Although calcined hydroxyapatite is successfully used as biomaterial for hard tissues repair, it is not used for the treatment of liquid wastes. (author)

  15. Coherent normalization of finger strontium XRF measurements: feasibility and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamburlini, M; Pejovic-Milic, A; Chettle, D R [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2008-08-07

    A non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method of measuring bone strontium concentrations has previously been reported as a potential diagnostic tool able to detect strontium concentration in the finger and ankle bones. The feasibility of coherent normalization for {sup 125}I-source-based finger bone strontium x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements is assessed here by theoretical considerations and Monte Carlo simulations. Normalization would have several advantages, among which are the correction for the signal attenuation by the overlying soft tissue, and intersubject variability in the bone size and shape. The coherent normalization of bone strontium XRF measurements presents several challenges dictated by the behaviour of the coherent cross section and mass attenuation coefficient at the energies involved. It was found that the coherent normalization alone with either 22.1 keV or 35.5 keV photons was not successful in correcting for the overlying soft tissue attenuation. However, it was found that the coherent peak at 35.5 keV was able to correct effectively for variability in the finger bone size between people. Thus, it is suggested that, if the overlying soft tissue thickness can be obtained by means of an independent measurement, the 35.5 keV peak can be used to correct for the bone size, with an overall accuracy of the normalization process of better than 10%. (note)

  16. Phonons in face-centred cubic calcium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Rathore, R.P.S.

    1984-01-01

    The axially symmetric and unpaired forces are employed to analyse the phonon dispersion and elastic behaviour of face centred cubic calcium and strontium which have so far not been studied adequately. The model with three parameters predicts the results which agree marvellously with the recently measured data. (author)

  17. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of substituting strontium for calcium in fluoroaluminosilicate glass on the mechanical and ion-releasing properties of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements. Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, ...

  18. Strontium-90 content of human bone collected in 1967

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.

    1969-01-01

    This report follows report CEA-R-3381 and presents the strontium 90 content of human bones collected in 1967 in the Paris area. The main trend is much the same as during 1966; contamination levels are falling down in infants up to 5 year old. Beyond this age, the values are the same or experience a slight increase. (authors) [fr

  19. Effect of selected foodstuffs on strontium 89 metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keslev, D.; Jotov, M.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of a variety of food products used in human nutrition on strontium-89 cumulation in rat organism is studied. To this end the animals were fed for a week with meat, beans, maize, white and brown bread, cabbage, milk or potatoes prepared so as to be edible by man. Then for additional 15 days the animals were fed the same diet + a daily oral dose of 2 μCi strontium-89. On the 16th day radionuclide activity in the thigh bone was measured. Beans was the food product exerting optimal limiting effect on strontium deposition (reduction factor (RF) 17), milk and ranking next (RF 13, resp. 6.5). All other products showed approximately equal efforts (RF 1.4 - 1.8). The different calcium content of each of these food products is responsible for their different effectiveness. Together with the discrimination which the living organism displays in the presence of calcium, other constituents of the food products which form complexes with strontium and prevent its deposition in the bones are equally essential. (Ch.K.)

  20. Quaternary system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkushin, I.K.; Voronin, K.Yu.; Dibirov, M.A.; Miftakhov, T.T.

    1996-01-01

    Four-component system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides is studied by differential thermal analysis. A low-melting eutectic composition is revealed, specific fusion heat of the composition is experimentally determined, its thermal properties are calculated. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  2. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, T.

    1996-01-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah

  3. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium whole rock isochron ages and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and uranium-lead ages on zircon from suites of samples selected from localities across Canada are presented. Descriptions of the geological probelms and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced. (auth)

  4. Effects of strontium ranelate on spinal osteoarthritis progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyere, O; Delferriere, D; Roux, C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 3-year treatment with strontium ranelate could delay the progression of spinal osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This study was a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and TReatment...

  5. Study of strontium and cesium migration in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been to study the retardation and dilution of non-active strontium and cesium relative to a non-absorbing substance (iodide) in a well-defined fracture zone in the Finnsjoen field research area. The investigation was carried out in a previously tracer-tested fracture zone. The study has encompassed two separate test runs with prolonged injection of strontium and iodide and of cesium and iodide. The test have shown that: - Strontium is not retarded, but rather absorbed to about 40% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 36.3% of the injected mass of strontium has been absorbed and there is no deabsorption. -Cesium is retarded a factor of 2-3 and absorbed to about 30% at equilibrium. - At injection stop, 39.4% of the injected mass of cesium has been absorbed. Cesium is deabsorbed after injection stop (400h) and after 1300 hours, only 22% of the injected mass of cesium is absorbed. (author)

  6. Dielectric Strontium Zirconate Sprayed by a Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Janata, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-230 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Strontium Zirconate * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/18/1/18/1010/

  7. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 1): Glass synthesis and characterisation, and the effects on the cement handling variables and ... acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: working and setting times were determined by rheometry; and, ...

  8. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  9. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  10. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  11. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  12. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  13. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  14. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  15. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  16. Domain wall kinetics of lithium niobate single crystals near the hexagonal corner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ju Won [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Do-Kyeong [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Nan Ei, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, GIST, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ro, Jung Hoon, E-mail: neyu@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: jhro@pnu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-09

    A mesospheric approach based on a simple microscopic 2D Ising model in a hexagonal lattice plane is proposed to explain macroscopic “asymmetric in-out domain wall motion” observation in the (0001) plane of MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium niobate. Under application of an electric field that was higher than the conventional coercive field (E{sub c}) to the ferroelectric crystal, a natural hexagonal domain was obtained with walls that were parallel to the Y-axis of the crystal. When a fraction of the coercive field of around 0.1E{sub c} is applied in the reverse direction, this hexagonal domain is shrunk (moved inward) from the corner site into a shape with a corner angle of around 150° and 15° wall slopes to the Y-axis. A flipped electric field of 0.15E{sub c} is then applied to recover the natural hexagonal shape, and the 150° corner shape changes into a flat wall with 30° slope (moved outward). The differences in corner domain shapes between inward and outward domain motion were analyzed theoretically in terms of corner and wall site energies, which are described using the domain corner angle and wall slope with respect to the crystal Y-axis, respectively. In the inward domain wall motion case, the energy levels of the evolving 150° domain corner and 15° slope walls are most competitive, and could co-exist. In the outward case, the energy levels of corners with angles >180° are highly stable when compared with the possible domain walls; only a flat wall with 30° slope to the Y-axis is possible during outward motion.

  17. Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng

    2009-10-01

    A range of ion beam techniques have been used to fabricate a variety of photonic guiding structures in the well-known lithium niobate (LiNbO3 or LN) crystals that are of great importance in integrated photonics/optics. This paper reviews the up-to-date research progress of ion-beam-processed LiNbO3 photonic structures and reports on their fabrication, characterization, and applications. Ion beams are being used with this material in a wide range of techniques, as exemplified by the following examples. Ion beam milling/etching can remove the selected surface regions of LiNbO3 crystals via the sputtering effects. Ion implantation and swift ion irradiation can form optical waveguide structures by modifying the surface refractive indices of the LiNbO3 wafers. Crystal ion slicing has been used to obtain bulk-quality LiNbO3 single-crystalline thin films or membranes by exfoliating the implanted layer from the original substrate. Focused ion beams can either generate small structures of micron or submicron dimensions, to realize photonic bandgap crystals in LiNbO3, or directly write surface waveguides or other guiding devices in the crystal. Ion beam-enhanced etching has been extensively applied for micro- or nanostructuring of LiNbO3 surfaces. Methods developed to fabricate a range of photonic guiding structures in LiNbO3 are introduced. Modifications of LiNbO3 through the use of various energetic ion beams, including changes in refractive index and properties related to the photonic guiding structures as well as to the materials (i.e., electro-optic, nonlinear optic, luminescent, and photorefractive features), are overviewed in detail. The application of these LiNbO3 photonic guiding structures in both micro- and nanophotonics are briefly summarized.

  18. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie, E-mail: gallo@kth.se [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal and Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode–PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN–PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  19. Ion-beam enhanced etching for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gischkat, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the usage of the ion-beam enhanced etching (IBEE) for the 3D structuration of lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ).Hereby the approach of the enhancement of the wet-chemical etching rate due to the irradiation with energetic ions is pursued. This method is very success promising for the realization of micro- and nanostructures with perpendicular structural walls as well as small roughnesses. The aim of this thesis consisted therein to form the foundations for the realization of three-dimensional micro- and nanostructures (for instance: Layer systems and photonic crystals) in LiNbO 3 with high optical quality and to demonstrate on selected examples. Conditions for the success of the IBEE structuration technique is first of all the understanding of the defect formation under ion irradiation as well as the radiation-induced structure changes in the crystal and the change of the chemical resistance connected with this. For this the defect formation was studied in dependence on th ion mass, the ion energy, and the irradiation temperature. Thermally induced influences and effects on the radiation damage, as they can occur in intermediate steps in the complex processing, must be known and were studied by means of subsequent temperature treatment. The results from the defect studies were subsequently applied for the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures in LiNbO 3 . Shown is the realization of lateral structure with nearly perpendicular structure walls as well as the realization of thin membranes and slits. The subsequent combination of lateral structuration with the fabrication of thin membranes and slits allowed the three-dimensional structuration of LiNbO 3 . This is exemplarily shown for a microresonator and for a 2D photonic crystal with below lying air slit. [de

  20. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia, E-mail: gallo@kth.se, E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [Department of Applied Physics, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Roslagstullbacken 21, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kholkin, Andrei L. [Department of Physics and CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-14

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg:LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the “up” to the “down” state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg:LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original “up” state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg:LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg:LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg:LN boundary. These alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg:LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.

  1. Grimsel test site: preparation and performance of migration experiments with radioisotopes of sodium, strontium and iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberg, J.; Hoehn, E.; Fierz, T.; Frick, U.

    1994-09-01

    During 1991 four migration experiments with 22 Na (run 50), 24 Na (run 48), 85 Sr (run 50) and 123 I (run 47,49) were carried out in the migration fracture at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) using a two-well injection -extraction technique (dipole configuration). All tests were accompanied by simultaneous injection of Na-fluorescein (uranine) as a conservative tracer. The dipole flow field was installed between boreholes 86.004 (injection well) and 87.006 (extraction well). The extraction flow rate was always held constant at 150 mL/min, while two different injection flow rates of 50 mL/min (runs 47,48) and 10 mL/min (runs 49, 50) were chosen to vary the flow field geometry. These exercises advance the transport model studies to evaluate important fracture specific parameters. Prior to the field tests with radiotracers of cationic Na + and Sr 2+ , the potential sorption of these elements onto equipment materials such as tubing, pumps, detectors was investigated in the field rock laboratory under identical flow conditions and test arrangements as for the fracture tests. In contrast to Na + , bivalent Sr 2+ sorbed strongly, especially onto stainless steel tubing surrounding the NaI scintillation counters used for on-line γ-detection of the radiotracers. To minimize sorption of Sr 2+ on equipment, all exposed materials were then completely replaced by PRFE (Teflon). Further tests revealed that this material proved to be chemically inert with respect to Na + and Sr 2+ . Calibration of the field data was made by check laboratory analyses of water samples. The detection limits of all tracers were below 0.05 Bp/mL. (author) 38 figs., 13 tabs., refs

  2. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  3. Effect of strontium ranelate on bone mineral: Analysis of nanoscale compositional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, André L; Moldovan, Simona; Querido, William; Rossi, Alexandre; Werckmann, Jacques; Ersen, Ovidiu; Farina, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Strontium ranelate has been used to prevent bone loss and stimulate bone regeneration. Although strontium may integrate into the bone crystal lattice, the chemical and structural modifications of the bone when strontium interacts with the mineral phase are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate apatite from the mandibles of rats treated with strontium ranelate in the drinking water and compare its characteristics with those from untreated rats and synthetic apatites with and without strontium. Electron energy loss near edge structures from phosphorus, carbon, calcium and strontium were obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The strontium signal was detected in the biological and synthetic samples containing strontium. The relative quantification of carbon by analyzing the CK edge at an energy loss of ΔE = 284 eV showed an increase in the number of carbonate groups in the bone mineral of treated rats. A synthetic strontium-containing sample used as control did not exhibit a carbon signal. This study showed physicochemical modifications in the bone mineral at the nanoscale caused by the systemic administration of strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave-assisted fabrication of strontium doped apatite coating on Ti6Al4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huan, E-mail: huanzhou@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Kong, Shiqin [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Pan, Yan; Zhang, Zhiguo [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Deng, Linhong, E-mail: dlh@cczu.edu.cn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Strontium has been shown to be a beneficial dopant to calcium phosphates when incorporated at nontoxic level. In the present work we studied the possibility of solution derived doping strontium into calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V based implants by a recently reported microwave-assisted method. By using this method strontium doped calcium phosphate nuclei were deposited to pretreated titanium alloy surface dot by dot to compose a crack-free coating layer. The presence of strontium in solution led to reduced roughness of the coating and finer nucleus size formed. In vitro study found that proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast cells seeded on the coating were influenced by strontium content in coatings, showing an increasing followed by a decreasing behavior with increasing substitution of calcium by strontium. It is suggested that this new microwave-assisted strontium doped calcium phosphate coatings may have great potential in implant modification. - Highlights: • Strontium doped calcium phosphate coating is deposited with microwave irradiation. • Increase of strontium reduces coating roughness and results in finer nucleus size. • Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts depend on doped strontium content.

  5. Acoustic detection of boiling in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility in-reactor experiment P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, W.M.; Anderson, T.T.; Bobis, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    Acoustic data were obtained from two high-temperature lithium niobate microphones on the loop background noise and transient pressure pulses during the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) P1 in-reactor experiment. This experiment simulated an LMFBR loss-of-piping-integrity (LOPI) transient on a nineteen element, end-of-life, enriched-UO 2 fuel assembly. The microphones were exposed to liquid sodium at a distance 4.85 meters above the reactor core at temperatures between 315 0 and 590 0 C. The distance and location of the microphones in the P1 Test Train provided an attenuative transmission path which was undesirable for optimum acoustic detection of sodium boiling and fuel failure. The data gathered on the loop background noise was observed to be dominated by pump and electrical noise at frequencies below 1.5 KHz and appeared to be dominated by flow induced local turbulence noise at higher frequencies. During the period of time that the sodium in the fuel assembly was at its saturation temperature 943 0 C (1730 0 F), as indicated by the wire wrap thermocouples, several discrete pulses were observed with peak-to-peak pressure between 3.3 kPa and 7.9 kPa and center frequencies between 360 and 550 Hz. The pulses occurred at two separate gradually increasing repetition rates. These observations appear to be consistent with the result of an impulsive forcing function interacting with a band passed Helmholtz resonator. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sodium boiling occurred in the P1 fuel assembly, resulting in the formation of individual voids that collapsed upon reaching the subcooled sodium. These data provide pertinent information regarding the feasibility of sodium boiling detection and may provide additional insight into the dynamics of the void behavior

  6. Recharging processes, radiation induced strain and changes of OH - bands under H + ion implantation in Ti doped lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Moorthy Babu, S.; Bhaumik, I.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A. K.; Kumar, Praveen; Rodrigues, G. O.; Sulania, I.; Kanjilal, D.; Pandey, A. K.; Raman, R.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic analysis of variations in structural and optical characteristics of Z-cut plates of titanium doped congruent lithium niobate single crystals implanted with 120 keV proton beam at various fluences of 10 15, 10 16 and 10 17 protons/cm 2 is presented. Through, high resolution X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible-NIR analysis of congruent lithium niobate, the correlation of properties before and after implantation are discussed. HRXRD (0 0 6) reflection by Triple Crystal Mode shows that both tensile and compressive strain peak are produced by the high fluence implantation. A distinct tensile peak was observed from implanted region for a fluence of 10 16 protons/cm 2. AFM micrographs indicate mountain ridges, bumps and protrusions on target surface on implantation. UV-visible-NIR spectra reveal an increase in charge transfer between Ti 3+/Ti 4+ and ligand oxygen for implantation with 10 15 protons/cm 2, while spectra for higher fluence implanted samples show complex absorption band in the region from 380-1100 nm. Variations of OH - stretching vibration mode were observed for cLN Pure, cLNT2% virgin, and implanted samples with FTIR spectra. The concentration of OH - ion before and after implantation was calculated from integral absorption intensity. The effect of 120 keV proton implantation induced structural, surface and optical studies were correlated.

  7. Influence of Fe{sup 3+} substitution on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of Lead Indium Niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divya, A.S.; Kumar, V., E-mail: vkumar10@yahoo.com

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Prepared phase-pure Fe{sup 3+}-substituted Lead Indium Niobate, Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method. • Spontaneous Relaxor (R) → Ferroelectric (FE) transition observed for the composition with x = 0.20. • Local structural rearrangement responsible for R → FE transition has been confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. - Abstract: Lead Indium Niobate, Pb(In{sub 0.50}Nb{sub 0.50})O{sub 3} (PIN) is a complex perovskite that exhibits Relaxor (R) characteristics. In this study, we report the synthesis of phase-pure compositions in the system Pb[(In{sub 0.50−x}Fe{sub x})Nb{sub 0.50}]O{sub 3} by sol–gel method and discuss the influence of isovalent substitution of Indium by Iron on the dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics. Spontaneous transition to the Ferroelectric (FE) phase has been observed for the composition having x = 0.20. Local structural rearrangements responsible for R → FE transition have also been studied by Raman spectroscopy and are discussed in detail.

  8. Dissolved strontium and calcium levels in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Zvi; Sarkar, Amit; Turchyn, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of seawater alkalinity and dissolved calcium concentrations along oceanic transects are often used to calculate calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution rates. Given that the distribution coefficient of strontium in CaCO3 varies greatly between different groups of organisms, adding precise measurements of dissolved strontium concentrations provides opportunities to also track relative contributions of these different groups to the regional CaCO3 cycle. However, there are several obstacles to this approach. These obstacles include unresolved systematic discrepancies between seawater calcium and alkalinity data, very large analytical noise around the calcium concentration measurements and the unconstrained role of acantharia (radiolarian precipitating SrSO4 skeletons) in the marine strontium cycle. During the first cruise of the second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) water samples were collected along 67°E from 9°N to 5°S to explore the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in the water. The dissolution rate can be calculated by combining measurements of water column potential alkalinity with calcium and strontium concentrations measured by ICP-OES and calcium concentration measurements using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). CaCO3 mineral saturation state calculated using pH and total alkalinity suggests that along 67°E, the aragonite saturation horizon lays at depth of 500 m on both sides of the equator. Across the cruise transect, dissolved strontium concentrations increase by 2-3% along the thermocline suggesting rapid recycling of strontium rich phases. This is particularly evident just below the thermocline at 8-9°N and below 1000 m water depth, south of the equator. The deep, southern enrichment in strontium does not involve a change in the Sr/Ca ratio, suggesting that this strontium enrichment is related to CaCO3 dissolution. In contrast, in the intermediate waters of the northern part of

  9. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  10. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  11. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  12. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X

    2008-01-15

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr{sup 87} using the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr{sup 87} atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10{sup -15} and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10{sup -15} level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr{sup 88} by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10{sup -14}. (author)

  13. Strontium isotope geochemistry of soil and playa deposits near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic composition of strontium contained in the carbonate fractions of soils provides an excellent tracer which can be used to test models for their origin. This paper reports data on surface coatings and cements, eolian sediments, playas and alluvial fan soils which help to constrain a model for formation of the extensive calcretes and fault infillings in the Yucca Mountain region. The playas contain carbonate with a wide range of strontium compositions; further work will be required to fully understand their possible contributions to the pedogenic carbonate system. Soils from an alluvial fan to the west of Yucca Mountain show that only small amounts of strontium are derived from a fan draining a carbonate terrane have strontium component. Although much evidence points to an eolian source for at least some of the strontium in the pedogenic carbonates near Yucca Mountain, an additional component or past variation of strontium composition in the eolian source is required to model the pedogenic carbonate system

  14. Distribution of strontium in DB18K6 and DTBDB18K6 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usarov, Z.O.; Khujaev, S.

    2007-01-01

    Distributions of strontium in DB18K6 and DTBDB18K6 crown-ethers in chloroform were investigated for extraction of strontium from water solutions of nitric acid. Nitrate solutions with various pH were considered. In both crown-ethers the most extraction of strontium was observed for the moderate pH values. Equilibrium of extraction process is reached for comparatively short time and is occurred to be 20 min (authors)

  15. An optimization on strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosavi, K.; Setayeshi, S.; Maragheh, M.Gh.; Ahmadi, S.J.; Kardan, M.R.; Banaem, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an experimental design using artificial neural networks for an optimization on the strontium separation model for fission products (inactive trace elements) is investigated. The goal is to optimize the separation parameters to achieve maximum amount of strontium that is separated from the fission products. The result of the optimization method causes a proper purity of Strontium-89 that was separated from the fission products. It is also shown that ANN may be establish a method to optimize the separation model.

  16. Investigation of the elution by seawater of caesium and strontium from loaded clinoptilolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, B.R.; Mitchell, I.H.; Smyth, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    Simple investigations of the elution of caesium and strontium from loaded clinoptilolite are described. The clinoptilolite was loaded to levels expected in the British Nuclear Fuels plc SIXEP plant and contacted with seawater at approx. 15 C. (The elution time was measured until about 99% of the caesium and strontium had been eluted.) It was found that 99% of the caesium was eluted in 35 hours but the strontium (with more variable results) took at least 400 hours for 99% elution. (author)

  17. Alginate enhances excretion and reduces absorption of strontium and cesium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idota, Yoko; Harada, Hitomi; Tomono, Takumi; Morimoto, Kaori; Kakinuma, Chihaya; Ogihara, Takuo; Kobayashi, Shoko; Miyajima, Chihiro; Kasahara, Fumiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Alginate (ALA), which is an intercellular polysaccharide associated with brown algae, is used as a food additive, a health food and a medicine. Here, we first examined the adsorption of strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) by ALA in vitro, and then evaluated the effects of ALA on absorption and excretion of Sr and Cs in rats, in order to evaluate its potential usefulness for minimizing radiation damage from materials released after a nuclear accident. Both Sr and Cs were concentration-dependently adsorbed by sodium alginate (ALA-Na) in vitro. In rats given diet containing either ALA-Na or calcium alginate (ALA-Ca) for two weeks, the plasma concentration of Sr gradually decreased compared with the controls (normal diet); however, in the case of Cs, the plasma concentration was decreased only in the ALA-Ca group, but not the ALA-Na group. Moreover, we examined the effect of preadministration of diet containing either ALA-Na or ALA-Ca on absorption of Sr and Cs administered orally as the chloride salts to rats. Absorption of both Sr and Cs was reduced in the ALA-Ca group, while absorption of only Sr was reduced in the ALA-Na group. Safety assessments indicated that ALA-Ca is safer than ALA-Na. These results indicate that ALA-Ca reduces absorption and promotes excretion of both Sr and Cs, while ALA-Na does so only for Sr. (author)

  18. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özarslan, Ali Can, E-mail: alicanozarslan@gmail.com; Yücel, Sevil, E-mail: syucel@yildiz.edu.tr

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Production of 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds from different silica sources • The effect of biosilica from rice hull ash on the bioactive glass scaffold • Sr additive impact on the bioactivity and biodegradability properties of scaffolds.

  19. Hierarchical nitrogen doped bismuth niobate architectures: Controllable synthesis and excellent photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Jungang; Cao, Rui; Wang, Zheng; Jiao, Shuqiang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts of peony-like nitrogen doped Bi 3 NbO 7 hierarchical architectures and silver-layered Bi 3 NbO 7−x Nx heterostructures were successfully synthesized in this discovery. Highlights: ► N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were synthesized via two-step hydrothermal process. ► Electronic structure calculations indicated that N replaced O in samples. ► Growth mechanism is proposed for transformation of nanoparticles to microflowers. ► Excellent activities of N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures were obtained for degradation. ► Enhanced photocatalytic performance was observed for Ag/N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures. - Abstract: Nitrogen doped bismuth niobate (N-Bi 3 NbO 7 ) hierarchical architectures were synthesized via a facile two-step hydrothermal process. XRD patterns revealed that the defect fluorite-type crystal structure of Bi 3 NbO 7 remained intact upon nitrogen doping. Electron microscopy showed the N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architecture has a unique peony-like spherical superstructure composed of numerous nanosheets. UV–vis spectra indicated that nitrogen doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge from 450 nm to 470 nm. XPS indicated that [Bi/Nb]-N bonds were formed by inducing nitrogen to replace a small amount of oxygen in Bi 3 NbO 7−x N x , which is explained by electronic structure calculations including energy band and density of states. Based on observations of architectures formation, a possible growth mechanism was proposed to explain the transformation of polyhedral-like nanoparticles to peony-like microflowers via an Ostwald riping mechanism followed by self-assembly. The N-Bi 3 NbO 7 architectures due to the large specific surface area and nitrogen doping exhibited higher photocatalytic activities in the decomposition of organic pollutant under visible-light irradiation than Bi 3 NbO 7 nanoparticles. Furthermore, an enhanced photocatalytic performance was also observed for Ag

  20. A FAMILY OF PEROXO-TITANATE MATERIALS TAILORED FOR OPTIMAL STRONTIUM ANDACTINIDE SORPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D

    2006-01-01

    Achieving global optimization of inorganic sorbent efficacy, as well as tailoring sorbent specificity for target sorbates would facilitate increased wide-spread use of these materials in applications such as producing potable water or nuclear waste treatment. Sodium titanates have long been known as sorbents for radionuclides; 90 Sr and transuranic elements in particular. We have developed a related class of materials, which we refer to as peroxo-titanates: these are sodium titanates or hydrous titanates synthesized in the presence of or treated post-synthesis with hydrogen peroxide. Peroxo-titanates show remarkable and universal improved sorption behavior with respect to separation of actinides and strontium from Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear waste simulants. Enhancement in sorption kinetics can potentially result in as much as an order of magnitude increase in batch processing throughput. Peroxo-titanates have been produced by three different synthetic routes: post-synthesis peroxide-treatment of a commercially produced monosodium titanate, an aqueous-peroxide synthetic route, and an isopropanol-peroxide synthetic route. The peroxo-titanate materials are characteristically yellow to orange, indicating the presence of protonated or hydrated Ti-peroxo species; and the chemical formula can be generally written as H v Na w Ti 2 O 5 -(xH 2 O)[yH z O 2 ] where (v+w) = 2, z = 0-2, and total volatile species accounts for 25-50 wt % of the solid. Further enhancement of sorption performance is achieved by processing, storing and utilizing the peroxo-titanate as an aqueous slurry rather than a dry powder, and post-synthesis acidification. All three synthesis modifications; addition of hydrogen peroxide, use of a slurry form and acidification can be applied more broadly to the optimization of other metal oxide sorbents and other ion separations processes

  1. Migration Behaviour of Strontium in Czech Bentonite Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Baborova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with sorption and diffusion behaviour of strontium in Czech bentonite B75. The study is a part of a research on reactive transport of radioactive contaminants in barrier materials of a deep geological repository of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic. Series of sorption and diffusion experiments with Sr and non-activated Ca bentonite B75 produced in the Czech Republic were performed in two background solutions (CaCl2 and NaCl. On the basis of sorption batch experiments the kinetics of strontium sorption on bentonite was assessed and the sorption isotherms for various experimental conditions were obtained. As a result of performed diffusion experiments the parameters of diffusion (i.e. effective diffusion coefficient De and apparent diffusion coefficient Da were determined. The observed discrepancies between sorption characteristics obtained from the sorption and diffusion experiments are discussed.

  2. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  3. Determination of lithium, rubidium and strontium in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, W.H.; Read, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    For the determination of total lithium, rubidium and strontium in foodstuffs the organic matter is destroyed by a wet-oxidation procedure. Both lithium and rubidium are measured by flame atomic-emission spectrophotometry, rubidium with the addition of a radiation buffer and strontium is measured by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using the same radiation buffer. The optimum conditions for measurement are described and interferences noted. The accuracy of the method was assessed by measuring the recovery of these metals from foodstuff homogenates and values for standard reference materials are listed, for comparison with certified levels where these exist. From the results obtained standard deviations were calculated and derived limits of detection and confidence intervals are given. (author)

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed total diet samples collected from 30 prefectures (2 times per year), and determined to content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in these samples. Each Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have collected all the daily regular diet consumed for five persons, namely three meals and other eating between meals, for radiochemical analysis in polyethylene containers. These samples were collected to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization without smoke rising in the large stainless dish. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance. And the ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrates was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  5. Sea water strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in sea water at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the sea water strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  6. [Effects of strontium in drinking water on the growth of school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y; Cao, S; Xu, F; Li, J

    1999-09-30

    An epidemiological study on the effect of strontium in drinking water on body shape development, bone age, prevalence of caries and dental fluorosis was carried out. The results show: there is a certain promotion on the development of bone age of school-age children, especially of girls, and there is no obvious impact on body shape developing when the concentration of strontium in drinking water is only 10 mg/L. The correlation between strontium in drinking water and the prevalence of caries in children could not get a conclusive evidence in this paper. A further epidemiological investigation is necessary if the role of strontium against caries should be proved.

  7. Strontium-90 in ion-exchange resin used in the Australian FIEFS network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    1977-10-01

    In order to determine monthly strontium-90 fallout deposited at the eight Australian monitoring stations, account must be taken of the level of strontium-90 contamination of the ion-exchange resin as prepared for use in the FIEFS. This procedure has always been important in monitoring strontium-90 fallout deposit in Australia because the level of strontium-90 contamination of ion-exchange resin, supplied by manufacturers in the Northern Hemisphere, has remained of the same order of magnitude as the monthly fallout deposit in the Southern Hemisphere

  8. Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

  9. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium

  10. Strontium Localization in Bone Tissue Studied by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Raffalt, Anders Christer; Ståhl, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Strontium has recently been introduced as a pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. We determined the localization of strontium incorporated into bone matrix from dogs treated with Sr malonate by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A new approach for analyzing the X...... highly ordered sites, and at least 30 % is located at less ordered sites where only the first solvation shell is resolved, suggesting that strontium is sur- rounded by only oxygen atoms similar to Sr2? in solution. Strontium was furthermore shown to be absorbed in collagen in which it obtains a higher...

  11. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, H. B.; Zhao, X. L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, K. B.; Li, L. C.; Li, Z. Y.; Lam, W. M.; Lu, W. W.; Wang, D. P.; Huang, W. H.; Lin, K. L.; Chang, J.

    2009-01-01

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid relea...

  12. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  13. Applications of Random Nonlinear Photonic Crystals Based on Strontium Tetraborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre I. Zaitsev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of strontium tetraborate (SBO and features of as-grown anti-parallel domains are summarized. From the point of view of nonlinear optics, these domains form nonlinear photonic crystals (NPC. Applications of NPC to the deep ultraviolet generation and fs pulse diagnostics are described. NPC and SBO are prospective media for the creation of a widely tunable source of fs pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet and for autocorrelation diagnostics of broadly tunable sources.

  14. Electrical behaviour of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Søren; Hendriksen, P.V.; Jacobsen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    The contact resistance of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) contact pairs is investigated by polarisation analysis at different temperatures and atmospheres. The ceramic contacts have a high contact resistance, and strongly nonlinear current–voltage behaviour is observed at low temperatur....... The nonlinear behaviour is ascribed to the presence of energy barriers at the contact interface. Generally, point contacts showed a more linear behaviour than plane contact interfaces....

  15. Strontium-rubidium infusion pump with in-line dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, S.L.; Loberg, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A strontium-rubidium infusion system is described which consists of: (a) means for generating rubidium 82 in a solution which can be infused into a patient; (b) means for infusing the solution into a patient; (c) means for measuring the radioactivity present in the solution as it is infused into the patient; and (d) means for controlling the means for infusing in response to the amount of radioactivity which has been infused into the patient

  16. Practical aspects of the environmental behavior of strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelmont, Claude; Bittel, Robert; Daburon, Francois.

    1977-03-01

    The practical aspects of contamination patterns of the food chain by strontium isotopes are reviewed - plants with special emphasis on the consequences of irrigation (contamination level at equilibrium); dairy products and the adjustement of a general model to regional conditions (a table of quantitative parameters for some French regions is included); marine and freshwater products. One should keep in mind that transfer parameters may change with time and cannot be assessed definitively [fr

  17. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  18. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  19. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  20. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  1. Literature survey of strontium-89/90 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwakman, P.J.M.

    1994-08-01

    At the RIVM Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO), the determination of strontium-89/90 in grass and milk samples using fuming nitric acid is a bottle neck in the routine monitoring programme, mainly due to the use of hazardous chemicals. In recent scientific articles, a number of alternatives have been described. This report gives an overview of the latest developments in this field and compares the pros and cons of these methods. The most promising method appears to be the 'Sr-spec' method developed by EIChrom Industries. In this method, an ion-exchanger is used for sorption of cations from the sample solution and, subsequently, a crown ether on a polymer support is applied for the selective complexation of bivalent strontium ions in the presence of other interfering bivalent ions. An important advantage is that the hazardous fuming nitric acid can be omitted and that the total number of chemical separation steps can be largely reduced. The possibility of a routine application of the 'Sr-spec' method for the determination of strontium-89/90 in grass and milk at RIVM/LSO is proposed. 2 tabs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  2. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B.; Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 o C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 ) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 o C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO 3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  3. Strontium borate glass: potential biomaterial for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H B; Zhao, X L; Zhang, X; Zhang, K B; Li, L C; Li, Z Y; Lam, W M; Lu, W W; Wang, D P; Huang, W H; Lin, K L; Chang, J

    2010-07-06

    Boron plays important roles in many life processes including embryogenesis, bone growth and maintenance, immune function and psychomotor skills. Thus, the delivery of boron by the degradation of borate glass is of special interest in biomedical applications. However, the cytotoxicity of borate glass which arises with the rapid release of boron has to be carefully considered. In this study, it was found that the incorporation of strontium into borate glass can not only moderate the rapid release of boron, but also induce the adhesion of osteoblast-like cells, SaOS-2, thus significantly increasing the cyto-compatibility of borate glass. The formation of multilayers of apatite with porous structure indicates that complete degradation is optimistic, and the spread of SaOS-2 covered by apatite to form a sandwich structure may induce bone-like tissue formation at earlier stages. Therefore, such novel strontium-incorporated borosilicate may act as a new generation of biomaterial for bone regeneration, which not only renders boron as a nutritious element for bone health, but also delivers strontium to stimulate formation of new bones.

  4. Assessment of strontium in the Savannah River Site environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This document on strontium is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the sixth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of SRS (Savannah River Site) operations. Strontium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Strontium has been produced at SRS during the operation of 5 production reactors. About 300 curies of radiostrontium were released into streams in the late 50s and 60s, primarily from leaking fuel elements in reactor storage basins. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 400 Ci were released to seepage basins. A much smaller quantity, about 2 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 6.2 mrem (atmospheric) and 1.4 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Radiostrontium releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports

  5. Assessment of strontium in the Savannah River Site environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-12-31

    This document on strontium is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the sixth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of SRS (Savannah River Site) operations. Strontium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Strontium has been produced at SRS during the operation of 5 production reactors. About 300 curies of radiostrontium were released into streams in the late 50s and 60s, primarily from leaking fuel elements in reactor storage basins. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 400 Ci were released to seepage basins. A much smaller quantity, about 2 Ci, was released to the atmosphere. The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 6.2 mrem (atmospheric) and 1.4 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Radiostrontium releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  6. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  9. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  10. Gas thermodesorption study of barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenova, T.I.; Khromushin, I.V.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.; Bukenov, K.D.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Berdauletov, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic of water, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules release from doped and undoped samples of barium cerates and doped strontium cerates during vacuum heating was studied. The samples were prepared by inductive melting method. The following two kinds of preliminary samples treatments were used: annealing in air (650-750 deg. C) and wet nitrogen atmosphere (625 deg.C). Main results of thermodesorption studies of barium and strontium cerates are represented in the table. The samples of doped LaSrMnO were investigated also. It was found that the initial doped samples (without preliminary annealing) did not show any gas release in temperature range of 20-1100 deg. C. This fact indicates on high stability of compositions and strong bond of 'host' oxygen in their lattice. A significant amount of water and oxygen molecules were released from BaCe 0.9 Nd 0.1 O 3 samples whereas water and hydrogen molecules desorption from SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3 samples took place. Hydrogen molecules desorption was found for strontium cerates samples; no hydrogen molecules release was observed for doped and pure barium cerate samples.Intensive water molecules release from doped samples confirms the necessity of oxygen vacancies creation in these compounds to get properties of proton conductivity, since it was not found any water molecules release from annealed undoped samples of BaCeO 3 It is necessary to notice that oxygen molecules release from these samples took place at ∼1000 deg. C that is significantly higher then from BaCeNdO samples. Forms of high temperatures part of oxygen and low temperature part of water spectra indicate that phase transformations are responsible for oxygen and water molecules desorption in this cases. These results are in good agreement with literature data. Desorption of water molecules from barium and strontium cerates took place. Oxygen desorption took place only from barium cerates. It can be explained as the following: doped barium cerates have

  11. Comment on: 'The strontium isotopic composition of seawater and seawater-oceanic crust interaction' by E.T.C. Spooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, G.W.; Turekian, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various processes have been proposed as the source of strontium to the oceans but there is no evidence to support the mechanism of release of relatively unradiogenic strontium from deep dea basalts to sea-water. (B.D.)

  12. Strontium migration in a crystalline medium: effects of the presence of bentonite colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, Nairoby; Missana, Tiziana; García-Gutiérrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula; Mingarro, Manuel

    2011-03-25

    The effects of bentonite colloids on strontium migration in fractured crystalline medium were investigated. We analyzed first the transport behaviour of bentonite colloids alone at different flow rates; then we compared the transport behaviour of strontium as solute and of strontium previously adsorbed onto stable bentonite colloids at a water velocity of approximately 7.1·10(-6)m/s-224m/yr. Experiments with bentonite colloids alone showed that - at the lowest water flow rate used in our experiments (7.1·10(-6)m/s) - approximately 70% of the initially injected colloids were retained in the fracture. Nevertheless, the mobile colloidal fraction, moved through the fracture without retardation, at any flow rate. Bentonite colloids deposited over the fracture surface were identified during post-mortem analyses. The breakthrough curve of strontium as a solute, presented a retardation factor, R(f)~6, in agreement with its sorption onto the granite fracture surface. The breakthrough curve of strontium in the presence of bentonite colloids was much more complex, suggesting additional contributions of colloids to strontium transport. A very small fraction of strontium adsorbed on mobile colloids moved un-retarded (R(f)=1) and this fraction was much lower than the expected, considering the quantity of strontium initially adsorbed onto colloids (90%). This behaviour suggests the hypothesis of strontium sorption reversibility from colloids. On the other hand, bentonite colloids retained within the granite fracture played a major role, contributing to a slower strontium transport in comparison with strontium as a solute. This was shown by a clear peak in the breakthrough curve corresponding to a retardation factor of approximately 20. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Van Hoof, Viviane O.; Bohic, Sylvain; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l -1 in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  14. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Enhanced Cherenkov phase matching terahertz wave generation via a magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate ridged waveguide crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Takeya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When combined with a nonlinear waveguide crystal, Cherenkov phase matching allows for highly effective generation of high power and broadband terahertz (THz waves. Using a ridged Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3 waveguide coupled with a specially designed silicon lens, we successfully generated THz waves with intensity of approximately three orders of magnitude stronger than those from conventional photoconductive antenna. The broadband spectrum was from 0.1 THz to 7 THz with a maximum dynamic range of 80 dB. The temporal shape of time domain pulse is a regular single cycle which could be used for high depth resolution time of flight tomography. The generated THz wave can also be easily monitored by compact room-temperature THz camera, enabling us to determine the spatial characteristics of the THz propagation.

  16. Using a helium--neon laser to convert infrared radiation to visible emission on lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurtyunyan, E.A.; Kostanyan, R.B.; Mkrtchyan, V.S.; Mkrtchyan, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The conversion of infrared emission to the visible region was investigated by mixing with helium-neon laser emission in lithium niobate crystals. The infrared source was a Globar, and the laser was the LG-75. Emission of the sum frequencies was filtered out. The spectral composition of the converted radiation was analyzed by the ISP-51 spectrograph with an FEU-79 photomultiplier at the output. The amplified photomultiplier signal was recorded by the ChZ-33 frequency meter. By varying the angle between the optical axis of the crystal and the incident emission, infrared radiation in the 1.75 to 3.3 ..mu..m wavelength band could be converted to visible emission. It is suggested that measurement of the wavelength of converted emission might be used to study the distribution of concentration nonhomogeneities in crystals.

  17. Iron site location in Fe-diffused lithium niobate crystals by combined RBS-PIXE-NRA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltron, A. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Argiolas, N., E-mail: nicola.argiolas@unipd.it [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Bazzan, M. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Ciampolillo, M.V.; Bacci, L.; Sada, C. [University of Padova and CNISM, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    Iron diffused x-cut lithium niobate samples have been studied from a structural point of view by ion beam analysis techniques in channeling conditions. The aim of this work is to determine the most probable position of iron atoms after high temperature diffusion treatment in pure oxygen atmosphere and to verify their location after an additional full reducing annealing at low temperature. The results are compared with the bulk doping case that can be considered the final equilibrium state of the diffusion process. By comparing the iron signal with niobium and lithium counterparts in angular scans along proper crystallographic directions, we demonstrate that iron occupies in any case the lithium site or a very close position regardless of the reduction degree, just as in the case of bulk doped samples.

  18. Hysteresis-free high-temperature precise bimorph actuators produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Baturin, I. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Zorikhin, D. V.; Udalov, A. R.; Greshnyakov, E. D. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 51 Lenin Ave., 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-02

    The current paper presents a piezoelectric bimorph actuator produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers with the mirrored Y and Z axes. Direct bonding technology allowed to fabricate bidomain plate with precise positioning of ideally flat domain boundary. By optimizing the cutting angle (128° Y-cut), the piezoelectric constant became as large as 27.3 pC/N. Investigation of voltage dependence of bending displacement confirmed that bimorph actuator has excellent linearity and hysteresis-free. Decrease of the applied voltage down to mV range showed the perfect linearity up to the sub-nm deflection amplitude. The frequency and temperature dependences of electromechanical transmission coefficient in wide temperature range (from 300 to 900 K) were investigated.

  19. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario, E-mail: mario@io.cfmac.csic.es; Siegel, Jan, E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  20. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Siegel, Jan; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.