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Sample records for strontium isotope analysis

  1. High-resolution stratigraphy with strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolo, D J; Ingram, B L

    1985-02-22

    The isotopic ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 shows no detectable variation in present-day ocean water but changes slowly over millions of years. The strontium contained in carbonate shells of marine organisms records the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 of the oceans at the time that the shells form. Sedimentary rocks composed of accumulated fossil carbonate shells can be dated and correlated with the use of high precision measurements of the ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 with a resolution that is similar to that of other techniques used in age correlation. This method may prove valuable for many geological, paleontological, paleooceanographic, and geochemical problems.

  2. In-situ Strontium Isotopes Analysis on Single Conodont Apatite by LA-MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Qiu, H.; Lv, Z.; Hu, Z.; Wang, F.

    2014-12-01

    Strontium isotope played an important role in stratigraphic chronology and sedimentary geochemistry research (McArthur et al., 2001). Conodonts is a kind of extinct species of marine animals and widely distributed in marine sediments all over the world. Rich in radiogenic Sr contents and difficulty to be affected during diagenesis alteration makes conodonts a good choice in seawater Sr isotope composition studies (John et al., 2008). Conodont samples were collected from 24th to 39th layer across Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan D section (GSSP), Zhejiang Province, South China (Yin et al., 2001). Conodonts was originated from fresh limestone and only conodont elements with CAIextinction events during the Permian-Triassic transition. Our study also makes is possible for high resolution 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio testing on the single conodont apatite and riched the in-situ studies on the conodont apatite, which of great significance for the future conodont Sr isotope research (Zhao et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2013). Keywords: Conodonts, Strontium isotope, LA-MC-ICP-MS, Permian-Triassic transition, Meishan D section [1] John et al., 2008 3P[2] McArthur et al., 2001 J. of Geology [3] Yin et al., 2001 Episodes [4] Zhao et al., 2009 Earth Science J. of CUG [5] Zhao et al., 2013 GPC.

  3. Strontium isotopic stratigraphy utilizing authigenic dolomites in hemipelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA)); Kastner, M. (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Elderfield, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (England))

    1990-05-01

    Authigenic dolomites commonly occur in organic-rich, continental margin marine sediments. These dolomites play a key role in the age dating of stratigraphic sections. The dolomites often are the only lithology amenable to paleomagnetic stratigraphy; they preserve siliceous microfossils against diagenetic; recrystallization, and provide useful strontium isotopic stratigraphic ages. Several potential sources of error frequently are unique to the use of authigenic dolomites in the strontium isotope methods. (1) The dolomites occur as cements of the host lithology, hence, they are not a pure phase. Potentially important contaminants during analysis include gypsum clay minerals, feldspars, and iron and manganese oxides. Strontium may occur as a structural substituent ion in these minerals or as a surface-adsorbed ion. Various leaching techniques have been tested to isolate dolomitic strontium. Purer dolomites and strontium-enriched dolomites often can be selected to ease these problems. (2) The dolomites form after the deposition of the host sediment, therefore, they record the diagenetic age not the depositional age. The stable isotopic composition of the dolomites can aid in selection of early formed samples. (3) The dolomites record pore-water strontium isotope compositions, not seawater isotopic compositions. This problem is also minimized by choosing dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface. (4) The dolomites formed near the sediment-water interface originated as rotodolomites and undergo subsequent burial diagenesis, creating a potential for later strontium isotope exchange. This problem is minimized by selecting fresh samples from the interior of nearly impermeable beds and nodules. Results from the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and from the Eocene through Pliocene Pisco basin of Peru show that authigenic dolomites can provide useful strontium isotopic age estimates.

  4. Automated method for simultaneous lead and strontium isotopic analysis applied to rainwater samples and airborne particulate filters (PM10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Blanca; Avivar, Jessica; Mola, Montserrat; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor; Leal, Luz O

    2013-09-03

    A new automated, sensitive, and fast system for the simultaneous online isolation and preconcentration of lead and strontium by sorption on a microcolumn packed with Sr-resin using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detector was developed, hyphenating lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA). Pb and Sr are directly retained on the sorbent column and eluted with a solution of 0.05 mol L(-1) ammonium oxalate. The detection limits achieved were 0.04 ng for lead and 0.03 ng for strontium. Mass calibration curves were used since the proposed system allows the use of different sample volumes for preconcentration. Mass linear working ranges were between 0.13 and 50 ng and 0.1 and 50 ng for lead and strontium, respectively. The repeatability of the method, expressed as RSD, was 2.1% and 2.7% for Pb and Sr, respectively. Environmental samples such as rainwater and airborne particulate (PM10) filters as well as a certified reference material SLRS-4 (river water) were satisfactorily analyzed obtaining recoveries between 90 and 110% for both elements. The main features of the LOV-MSFIA-ICP-MS system proposed are the capability to renew solid phase extraction at will in a fully automated way, the remarkable stability of the column which can be reused up to 160 times, and the potential to perform isotopic analysis.

  5. Isotope exchange of strontium and molybdate ions in strontium polymolybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneous isotopic exchange reactions in strontium polymolybdates of Sr 2+ and MoO 4 2- ions in the strontium nitrate and sodium molybdate solutions have been studied using 90 Sr and 99 Mo as tracers. Electrometric methods have been used to study the compositions of strontium molybdates obtained by adding strontium chloride to a progressively acidified solution of sodium molybdate. It has been found that the exchange fraction increases with increasing chain length of strontium polymolybdate. The exchange equilibrium constant (K ex ) has been calculated between 298 and 348 K as well as ΔG deg, ΔH deg and ΔS deg. The results indicate that Sr 2+ cations have a much higher affinity for exchangers than MoO 4 2- anions. By fitting the data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm it has been shown that the exchange capacity (X m ) for both ions is affected by the ion adsorption process at low temperatures and by the ion exchange process at high temperatures. At high concentrations, the recrystallization process contributes to on the cation exchange but is ineffective on the anion exchange mechanism. (author)

  6. Strontium isotope stratigraphy of the Pelotas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerfass, Geise de Santana dos Anjos, E-mail: geise.zerfass@petrobras.com.br [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES/PDGEO/BPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello; Chemale Junior, Farid, E-mail: fchemale@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso, E-mail: candido@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Petrologia; Costa, Karen Badaraco, E-mail: karen.costa@usp.br [Instituto Oceanografico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kawashita, Koji, E-mail: koji@usp.br [Unversidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas

    2014-07-01

    Strontium isotope data were obtained from foraminifera shells of the Pelotas Basin Tertiary deposits to facilitate the refinement of the chronostratigraphic framework of this section. This represents the first approach to the acquisition of numerical ages for these strata. Strontium isotope stratigraphy allowed the identification of eight depositional hiatuses in the Eocene-Pliocene section, here classified as disconformities and a condensed section. The reconnaissance of depositional gaps based on confident age assignments represents an important advance considering the remarkably low chronostratigraphic resolution in the Cenozoic section of the Pelotas Basin. The recognition of hiatuses that match hiatuses is based on biostratigraphic data, as well as on global events. Furthermore, a substantial increase in the sedimentation rate of the upper Miocene section was identified. Paleotemperature and productivity trends were identified based on oxygen and carbon isotope data from the Oligocene-Miocene section, which are coherent with worldwide events, indicating the environmental conditions during sedimentation. (author)

  7. Dissolution of barite for the analysis of strontium isotopes and other chemical and isotopic variations using aqueous sodium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G.N.; Simmons, E.C.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A simple procedure for preparing barite samples for chemical and isotopic analysis is described. Sulfate ion, in barite, in the presence of high concentrations of aqueous sodium carbonate, is replaced by carbonate. This replacement forms insoluble carbonates with the cations commonly in barite: Ba, Sr, Ca and Pb. Sulfate is released into the solution by the carbonate replacement and is separated by filtration. The aqueous sulfate can then be reprecipitated for analysis of the sulfur and oxygen isotopes. The cations in the carbonate phase can be dissolved by acidifying the solid residue. Sr can be separated from the solution for Sr isotope analysis by ion-exchange chromatography. The sodium carbonate used contains amounts of Sr which will affect almost all barite 87Sr 86Sr ratios by less than 0.00001 at 1.95?? of the mean. The procedure is preferred over other techniques used for preparing barite samples for the determination of 87Sr 86Sr ratios because it is simple, rapid and enables simultaneous determination of many compositional parameters on the same material. ?? 1985.

  8. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Kinetics of isotopic exchange between strontium polymolybdate and strontium ions in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atun, Gulten; Bilgin, Binay; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2002-01-01

    A heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction of strontium polymolybdate in strontium chloride solution was studied using 90 Sr as a tracer. The effects of low and high strontium chloride concentration on the rate and mechanism of the isotopic exchange reaction were investigated. It was found that, at high concentrations, the rate is independent of strontium concentration, but, at low concentrations, the rate is proportional to the strontium concentration. These results support a hypothesis that, at low concentrations, the rate is controlled by film diffusion, whereas at high concentrations it is controlled by particle diffusion. Experiments were performed at 293, 303 and 313 K. Activation energy of isotopic exchange reaction and thermodynamic parameters ΔH*, ΔS*, and ΔG* were calculated using the Arrhenius and Eyring equations. The results also indicated that recrystallization is a predominant factor in the present exchange reaction

  10. Kinetics of isotopic exchange between strontium polymolybdate and strontium ions in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atun, Gulten E-mail: gultena@istanbul.edu.tr; Bilgin, Binay; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2002-06-01

    A heterogeneous isotopic exchange reaction of strontium polymolybdate in strontium chloride solution was studied using {sup 90}Sr as a tracer. The effects of low and high strontium chloride concentration on the rate and mechanism of the isotopic exchange reaction were investigated. It was found that, at high concentrations, the rate is independent of strontium concentration, but, at low concentrations, the rate is proportional to the strontium concentration. These results support a hypothesis that, at low concentrations, the rate is controlled by film diffusion, whereas at high concentrations it is controlled by particle diffusion. Experiments were performed at 293, 303 and 313 K. Activation energy of isotopic exchange reaction and thermodynamic parameters {delta}H*, {delta}S*, and {delta}G* were calculated using the Arrhenius and Eyring equations. The results also indicated that recrystallization is a predominant factor in the present exchange reaction.

  11. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  12. Seawater strontium isotopes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, J. D.; Martin, E.

    1988-01-01

    Anomalously high values of Seawater Sr-87/Sr-86 near the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary have been reported. However, few of the data from the literature are from a single continuous section, and perhaps the most complete study of the boundary region, from a shallow marine limestone sequence in Alabama, showed elevated Sr-87/Sr-86 but no pronounced spike. Thus, in order to investigate the cause of the change in strontium isotopic composition, it is important to determine the exact nature and magnitude of the increase by studying in detail continuous sections through the boundary. If there is indeed a Sr isotope spike at the K-T boundary, it requires the addition of a large amount of radiogenic Sr to the oceans over a short time period, a phenomenon that may be linked to other large-scale environmental disturbances which occurred at that time. In order to address this question, a high-resolution strontium isotope study of foraminifera from three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores which recovered the K-T boundary section: Site 356 in the South Atlantic, Site 384 in the North Atlantic and Site 577 from the Shatsky Rise in the Pacific was initiated. The isotope measurements are being made on either single or small numbers of forams carefully picked and identified and in most cases examined by SEM before analysis. Because this work is not yet complete, conclusions drawn here must be viewed as tentative. They are briefly discussed.

  13. The Strontium Isotope Record of Zavkhan Terrane Carbonates: Strontium Isotope Stability Through the Ediacaran-Cambrian Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Petach, Tanya N.

    2015-01-01

    First order trends in the strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) composition of seawater are controlled by radiogenic inputs from the continent and non-radiogenic inputs from exchange at mid-ocean ridges. Carbonates precipitated in seawater preserve trace amounts of strontium that record this isotope ratio and therefore record the relative importance of mid-ocean ridge and weathering chemical inputs to sea water composition. It has been proposed that environmental changes during the Ediacaran-Cambria...

  14. Human mobility on the Brazilian coast: an analysis of strontium isotopes in archaeological human remains from Forte Marechal Luz Sambaqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Q. R Bastos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated strontium isotopes in the dental enamel of 32 human skeletons from Forte Marechal Luz sambaqui (shellmound, Santa Catarina, Brazil, aiming at identifying local and non-local individuals. The archeological site presents pot sherds in the uppermost archeological layers. Dental enamel was also examined from specimens of terrestrial fauna (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 71046 to 0. 71273 and marine fauna (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 70917. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio for individuals classified as locals ranged from 0. 70905 to 0. 71064 and was closer to the isotope ratio of the seawater than to the ratio of the terrestrial fauna, indicating a strong influence of marine strontium on the inhabitants of this sambaqui. The results indicate the existence of three non-local individuals (87Sr/86Sr = 0. 70761 to 0. 70835, buried in both the level without pottery and the layer with pottery, possibly originated from the Santa Catarina Plateau, close to the municipality of Lages, or from the Curitiba Plateau. The occurrence of a slight difference between the isotope ratios of local individuals buried in the archeological layer without pottery, when compared to those in the layer with pottery, suggests a possible change in dietary patterns between these two moments in the site's occupationO presente estudo investigou isótopos de estrôncio em esmalte dentário de 32 remanescentes humanos do sambaqui do Forte Marechal Luz, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar indivíduos locais e não-locais. O sítio arqueológico apresenta fragmentos de cerâmica em suas camadas arqueológicas mais recentes. Além das amostras humanas, foram analisadas amostras de esmalte dentário de espécimes de fauna terrestre (87Sr/86Sr = 0,71046 a 0,71273 e fauna marinha (87Sr/86Sr = 0,70917. A razão 87Sr/86Sr dos indivíduos classificados como locais variou de 0,70905 a 0,71064, sendo próxima a razão de estrôncio existente nos oceanos e distante da razão obtida para a

  15. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  16. High-Throughput Method for Strontium Isotope Analysis by Multi-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Andrew J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Phan, Thai T. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Jain, Jinesh C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hakala, Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Guthrie, George D. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This technical report presents the details of the Sr column configuration and the high-throughput Sr separation protocol. Data showing the performance of the method as well as the best practices for optimizing Sr isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS is presented. Lastly, this report offers tools for data handling and data reduction of Sr isotope results from the Thermo Scientific Neptune software to assist in data quality assurance, which help avoid issues of data glut associated with high sample throughput rapid analysis.

  17. High-Throughput Method for Strontium Isotope Analysis by Multi-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, Jacqueline Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-11-22

    This technical report presents the details of the Sr column configuration and the high-throughput Sr separation protocol. Data showing the performance of the method as well as the best practices for optimizing Sr isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS is presented. Lastly, this report offers tools for data handling and data reduction of Sr isotope results from the Thermo Scientific Neptune software to assist in data quality assurance, which help avoid issues of data glut associated with high sample throughput rapid analysis.

  18. Provenancing of unidentified World War II casualties: Application of strontium and oxygen isotope analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Laura; Jonker, Geert; van Aalderen, Patric A; Schiltmans, Els F; Davies, Gareth R

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 and 2012 two sets of unidentified human remains of two World War II soldiers were recovered in the area where the 1944-1945 Kapelsche Veer bridgehead battle took place in The Netherlands. Soldiers of four Allied nations: British Royal Marine Commandos, Free Norwegian Commandos, Free Poles and Canadians, fought against the German Army in this battle. The identification of these two casualties could not be achieved using dental record information of DNA analysis. The dental records of Missing in Action soldiers of the Allied nations did not match with the dental records of the two casualties. A DNA profile was determined for the casualty found in 2010, but no match was found. Due to the lack of information on the identification of the casualties provided by routine methods, an isotope study was conducted in teeth from the soldiers to constrain their provenance. The isotope study concluded that the tooth enamel isotope composition for both casualties matched with an origin from the United Kingdom. For one of the casualties a probable origin from the United Kingdom was confirmed, after the isotope study was conducted, by the recognition of a characteristic belt buckle derived from a Royal Marine money belt, only issued to British Royal Marines, found with the remains of the soldier. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  20. Practical aspects of the environmental behavior of strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelmont, Claude; Bittel, Robert; Daburon, Francois.

    1977-03-01

    The practical aspects of contamination patterns of the food chain by strontium isotopes are reviewed - plants with special emphasis on the consequences of irrigation (contamination level at equilibrium); dairy products and the adjustement of a general model to regional conditions (a table of quantitative parameters for some French regions is included); marine and freshwater products. One should keep in mind that transfer parameters may change with time and cannot be assessed definitively [fr

  1. Source of Lake Vostok Cations Constrained with Strontium Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berry Lyons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Vostok is the largest sub-glacial lake in Antarctica. The primary source of our current knowledge regarding the geochemistry and biology of the lake comes from the analysis of refrozen lake water associated with ice core drilling. Several sources of dissolved ions and particulate matter to the lake have been proposed, including materials from the melted glacier ice, the weathering of underlying geological materials, hydrothermal activity and underlying, ancient evaporitic deposits. A sample of Lake Vostok Type 1 accretion ice has been analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr signature as well as its major cation and anion and Sr concentrations. The strontium isotope ratio of 0.71655 and the Ca/Sr ratio in the sample strongly indicate that the major source of the Sr is from aluminosilicate minerals from the continental crust. These data imply that at least a portion of the other cations in the Type 1 ice also are derived from continental crustal materials and not hydrothermal activity, the melted glacier ice, or evaporitic sources.

  2. Isotope ratios of strontium and neodymium for characterizing earth mantle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, S.B.; Lepin, V.S.; Maslovskaja, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the shares of mantle, crustal and sedimentary materials in rocks and ore deposits can be determined by isotope methods. Using Yakutian kimberlites as an example, mixing processes of mantle and crustal materials are illustrated with the aid of strontium isotopes. Due to the high sensitivity of strontium to hydrothermal effects, the combined use of neodymium and strontium isotopes is considered more appropriate to solve the problem of determining the share of mantle materials. This is demonstrated for rare earth minerals and alkaline rocks of Eastern Siberia and Mongolia. (author)

  3. Early African Diaspora in colonial Campeche, Mexico: strontium isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T Douglas; Tiesler, Vera; Burton, James H

    2006-08-01

    Construction activities around Campeche's central park led to the discovery of an early colonial church and an associated burial ground, in use from the mid-16th century AD to the late 17th century. Remains of some individuals revealed dental mutilations characteristic of West Africa. Analyses of strontium isotopes of dental enamel from these individuals yielded unusually high (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, inconsistent with an origin in Mesoamerica, but consistent with an origin in West Africa in terrain underlain by the West Africa Craton, perhaps near the port of Elmina, a principal source of slaves for the New World during the 16th century. These individuals likely represent some of the earliest representatives of the African Diaspora in the Americas.

  4. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and eolian material has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain

  5. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement samples near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Strontium isotope fractionation in soils and pedogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalev, Netta [Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhe Israel Street, 95501 Jerusalem (Israel); Lazar, Boaz [Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Halicz, Ludwik; Stein, Mordechai; Gavrieli, Ittai; Sandler, Amir; Segal, Irena [Geological Survey of Israel, 30 Malkhe Israel Street, 95501 Jerusalem (Israel)

    2013-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of strontium (the ratio {sup 88}Sr/{sup 86}Sr expressed as δ{sup 88/86}Sr) showed significant fractionation in mountain soils of the Judea Highland. In order to understand this phenomenon, we studied the elemental composition and the stable and radiogenic Sr isotopic composition in soil transects conducted from semi-arid (desert fringe) to wetter (Mediterranean) climate zones. These transects were selected because the degree of soil leaching depends on the amount of precipitation and the permeability of the underlying bedrock. These soils are the pedogenic products of leaching of the accumulated desert dust and the underlying carbonate bed-rocks resulting in, among others, enrichment of the residual soils in Al-clays. A clear negative correlation was found between the δ{sup 88/86}Sr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Al-clay content) values of the soils, the high δ{sup 88/86}Sr-low Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} being the dust end-member. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using stable {sup 88}Sr-{sup 86}Sr isotopes as tracers of terrestrial weathering processes. (authors)

  7. Sea water strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the cretaceous-tertiary boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in sea water at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the sea water strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes. 17 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  8. Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougall, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

  9. Strontium isotope geochemistry of soil and playa deposits near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic composition of strontium contained in the carbonate fractions of soils provides an excellent tracer which can be used to test models for their origin. This paper reports data on surface coatings and cements, eolian sediments, playas and alluvial fan soils which help to constrain a model for formation of the extensive calcretes and fault infillings in the Yucca Mountain region. The playas contain carbonate with a wide range of strontium compositions; further work will be required to fully understand their possible contributions to the pedogenic carbonate system. Soils from an alluvial fan to the west of Yucca Mountain show that only small amounts of strontium are derived from a fan draining a carbonate terrane have strontium component. Although much evidence points to an eolian source for at least some of the strontium in the pedogenic carbonates near Yucca Mountain, an additional component or past variation of strontium composition in the eolian source is required to model the pedogenic carbonate system

  10. Strontium isotope evidence for a highly mobile population on the Pamir Plateau 2500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueye; Tang, Zihua; Wu, Jing; Wu, Xinhua; Wu, Yiqun; Zhou, Xinying

    2016-10-01

    Archeological researches have proposed arguments for human mobility and long-distance trading over the Eurasia before the Silk Roads. Here we utilize biologically available strontium isotope analysis to assess the extent of pre-Silk Road population movements and cultural communications across the Asian interior. From an early Iron Age cemetery (ca. 2500 yr B.P.) on the eastern Pamir Plateau, mean 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 34 individuals display considerable isotopic variability, and 10 individuals are distinguished as migrants based on the local strontium isotope range of 0.710296-0.710572 defined by 12 ovicaprine bones. Comparison of the proportion (10/34) with the regional census data completed in 1909 A.D. (3% non-locals) suggests a highly migratory behavior on the plateau 2500 years ago. Furthermore, exotic mortuary objects, such as silk fabrics from eastern China and angular harp originated from the Near East, clearly demonstrate an interaction between different cultures on the plateau before the establishment of the Silk Road.

  11. Stable and strontium isotopic records of molluscan shells, lower jurassic, Cuenca Neuquina, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnoni, M.C.; Valencio, S.A.; Ramos, A.M; Riccardi, A.C; Panarello, H.O

    2001-01-01

    The strontium, carbon and oxygen isotopic signal of the past oceans is accurately recorded by authigenic marine minerals such as carbonates, sulfates and phosphates. The variation of these isotope ratios through the geological time is used as a tool in correlating and dating marine sedimentary rocks. Many works have been done concerning to the changes in carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope ratios of different marine successions in the world. These allow the construction of curves of secular variations of the isotope signals with geological time (Jones et al., 1994a, 1994b; Veizer et al., 1999; Jacobsen and Kaufman, 1999). This work presents strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Early Jurassic biogenic marine carbonates of Cuenca Neuquina in southwestern Mendoza (au)

  12. Scale of human mobility in the southern Andes (Argentina and Chile): A new framework based on strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberena, Ramiro; Durán, Víctor A; Novellino, Paula; Winocur, Diego; Benítez, Anahí; Tessone, Augusto; Quiroga, María N; Marsh, Erik J; Gasco, Alejandra; Cortegoso, Valeria; Lucero, Gustavo; Llano, Carina; Knudson, Kelly J

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the scale of human paleomobility and ecological complementarity between the lowlands and highlands in the southern Andes during the last 2,300 years. By providing isotope results for human bone and teeth samples, we assess a hypothesis of "high residential mobility" suggested on the basis of oxygen isotopes from human remains. We develop an isotopic assessment of human mobility in a mountain landscape combining strontium and oxygen isotopes. We analyze bone and teeth samples as an approach to life-history changes in spatial residence. Human samples from the main geological units and periods within the last two millennia are selected. We present a framework for the analysis of bioavailable strontium based on the combination of the geological data with isotope results for rodent samples. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values from human samples indicate residential stability within geological regions along life history. When comparing strontium and oxygen values for the same human samples, we record a divergent pattern: while δ 18 O values for samples from distant regions overlap widely, there are important differences in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values. Despite the large socio-economic changes recorded, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values indicate a persisting scenario of low systematic mobility between the different geological regions. Our results suggest that strontium isotope values provide the most germane means to track patterns of human occupation of distinct regions in complex geological landscapes, offering a much higher spatial resolution than oxygen isotopes in the southern Andes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Hydrologic inferences from strontium isotopes in pore water from the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1997-01-01

    Calcite is ubiquitous at Yucca Mountain, occurring in the soils and as fracture and cavity coatings within the volcanic tuff section. Strontium is a trace element in calcite, generally at the tens to hundreds of ppm level. Because calcite contains very little rubidium and the half-life of the 87 Rb parent is billions of years, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the calcite record the ratio in the water from which the calcite precipitated. Dissolution and reprecipitation does not alter these compositions so that, in the absence of other sources of strontium, one would expect the strontium ratios along a flow path to preserve variations inherited from strontium in the soil zone. Strontium isotope compositions of calcites from various settings in the Yucca Mountain region have contributed to the understanding of the unsaturated zone (UZ), especially in distinguishing unsaturated zone calcite from saturated zone calcite. Different populations of calcite have been compared, either to group them together or distinguish them from each other in terms of their strontium isotope compositions. Ground water and perched water have also been analyzed; this paper presents strontium isotope data obtained on pore water

  14. Strontium isotopic study of sediment from the Ross Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.; Faure, G.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report summarizing the results of a study of the strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and of the rubidium and strontium concentrations of the fine-grained (less than 150 microns) noncarbonate fractions of sediment samples from core E32-25 raised from a depth of 327 fathoms in the Ross Sea at 78 0 31.0'S 164 0 24.7'W was presented. The strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios of the samples analyzed range from 0.7119 to 0.7220. Rubidium and strontium concentrations range, respectively, from 126 to 164 parts per million and from 113 to 174 parts per million. The observed strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios and strontium concentrations in sediment samples from core E32-25 fit a hyperbolic curve. These ratios can be used to estimate the concentrations of volcanogenic detritus in the sediment samples. The results of this study provide additional baseline data for anticipated future studies of sediment cores to be recovered from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf by the Ross Ice Shelf Project. 1 figure

  15. Strontium isotope geochemistry of soil and playa a deposits near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Mahan, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic composition of strontium contained in the carbonate fractions of soils provides an excellent tracer which can be used to test models for their origin. This paper reports data on surface coatings and cements, eolian sediments, playas and alluvial fan soils which help to constrain a model for formation of the extensive calcretes and fault infilling in the Yucca Mountain region. The playas contain carbonate with a wide range of strontium compositions; further work will be required to fully understand their possible contributions to the pedogenic carbonate system. Soils from an alluvial fan to the west of Yucca Mountain show that only small amounts of strontium are derived from weathering of silicate detritus. However, calcretes from a fan draining a carbonate terrane have strontium compositions dominated locally by the limestone strontium component. Although much evidence points to an eolian source for at least some of the strontium in the pedogenic carbonates near Yucca Mountain, an additional component or past variation of strontium composition in the eolian source is required to model the pedogenic carbonate system

  16. Strontium isotopes as an indicator for groundwater salinity sources in the Kirkuk region, Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahib, Layth Y. [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Geology Department, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Jadreya, Baghdad (Iraq); Marandi, Andres; Schüth, Christoph [Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstraße 9, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The Kirkuk region in northern Iraq hosts some of the largest oil fields in the Middle East. Several anticline structures enabled vertical migration and entrapment of the oil. Frequently, complex fracture systems and faults cut across the Eocene and middle Oligocene reservoirs and the cap rock, the Fatha Formation of Miocene age. Seepage of crude oil and oil field brines are therefore a common observation in the anticline axes and contamination of shallow groundwater resources is a major concern. In this study, 65 water samples were collected in the Kirkuk region to analyze and distinguish mixing processes between shallow groundwater resources, uprising oil field brines, and dissolution of gypsum and halite from the Fatha Formation. Hydrochemical analyses of the water samples included general hydrochemistry, stable water isotopes, as well as strontium concentrations and for 22 of the samples strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr). Strontium concentrations increased close to the anticline axes with highest concentrations in the oil field brines (300 mg/l). Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes as isotope signatures of the oil field brines and of waters from the Fatha Formation are significantly different. It could be shown, that mixing of shallow groundwater with oil field brines is occurring close to the major fault zones in the anticlines but high concentrations of strontium in the water samples are mainly due to dissolution from the Fatha Formation. - Highlights: • This field study evaluates the salinity sources in the groundwater in Kirkuk region. • Salinity is related to evaporates dissolving and/or mixing with oil field brine. • Strontium isotopes proved to be a valuable tool to distinguish mixing processes.

  17. Study on strontium isotope abundance-ratio measurements by using a 13-MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ki; Jang, Han; Lee, Goung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The Rb-Sr dating method is used in dating Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks. This method measures the 87Rb and the 87Sr concentrations by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) [J. Hefne et al., Inter. J. Phys. Sci. 3(1), 28 (2008)]. In addition, it calculates the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio to increase the reliability of Rb-Sr dating. In this study, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was measured by using a 13-MeV proton accelerator. Proton kinetic energies are in the range of tens of megaelectronvolts, and protons have large absorption cross-sections for ( p, n) reactions with most substances. After absorbing a proton with such a high kinetic energy, an element is converted into a nuclide with its atomic number increased by one via nuclear transmutation. These nuclides usually have short half-lives and return to the original state through radioactive decay. When a strontium sample is irradiated with protons, nuclear transmutation occurs; thus, the strontium isotope present in the sample changes to a yttrium isotope, which is an activated radioisotope. Based on this, the 87Sr/86Sr ratio was calculated by analyzing the gamma-rays emitted by each yttrium isotope. The KIRAMS-13 cyclotron at the Cyclotron Center of Chosun University, where 13-MeV protons can be extracted, was utilized in our experiment. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio was computed for samples irradiated with these protons, and the result was similar to the isotope ratio for the Standard Reference Material, i.e., 98.2 ± 3.4%. As part of the analysis, proton activation analyses were performed using 13-MeV protons, and the experimental results of this research suggest a possible approach for measuring the strontium-isotope abundance ratio of samples.

  18. Determination of strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with single collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Miyuki; Ariyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Akira; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains was developed. The samples investigated in this study were rice, barley and wheat. The samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and heated in a heating block. Strontium and lead were separated from the matrix by adding an acid digested solution into a column packed with Sr resin, which has selectivity for the absorption of strontium and lead. Strontium and lead isotope ratios were determined using a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) with a single collector. The intraday relative standard deviations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) by HR-ICP-MS measurements were < 0.06% and around 0.1%, respectively. This method enabled us to determine strontium and lead isotope ratios in two days. (author)

  19. The determination of initial ratio of strontium isotope in rocks and its geological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Junlong; Zhao Puyun; Lin Xiulan

    1989-04-01

    The method to determine the initial ratio of strontium isotopes existed in rocks of poor rubidium and rich strontium and main carrier minerals is introduced. The initial ratio obtained from this method is equivalent to that acquired by Rb-Sr isochrone. Based on this result, information on regional rock genesis and mineralization regularities can be provided. It has great significance in the research on activities of ancient continental margin and material sources as well as their evolution. The migration of rock, and ore-forming materials, matallogenetic mechanism and its distribution in the space and time evolution are studied by using these data. In conclusion, the determination of strontium isotopes has broad prospects in the geological research

  20. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium whole rock isochron ages and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and uranium-lead ages on zircon from suites of samples selected from localities across Canada are presented. Descriptions of the geological probelms and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced. (auth)

  1. The strontium isotopic composition of seawater, and seawater-oceanic crust interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, E.T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium (0.7091) is less than the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of dissolved strontium delivered to the oceans by continental run-off (approximately 0.716). Isotope exchange with strontium isotopically lighter oceanic crust during hydrothermal convection within spreading oceanic ridges can explain this observation. In quantitative terms, the current 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater (0.7091) may be maintained by balancing the continental run-off flux of strontium (0.59 x 10 12 g/yr) against a hydrothermal recirculation flux of 3.6 x 10 12 g/yr, during which the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater drops by 0.0011. A concomitant mean increase in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the upper 4.5 km of oceanic crust of 0.0010 (0.7029-0.7039) should be produced. This required 87 Sr enrichment has been observed in hydrothermally metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks from the Troodos Massif, Cyprus. The post-Upper Cretaceous increase in the strontium isotopic composition of seawater (approximately 0.7075-0.7091) covaries smoothly with inferred increase in land area. This suggests that during this period the main factor which has caused variability in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of seawater strontium could have been variation in the magnitude of the continental run-off flux caused by variation in land area. Variations in land area may themselves have been partly a consequence of variations in global mean sea-floor spreading rate. (Auth.)

  2. Strontium isotopes and the reconstruction of the Chaco regional system: evaluating uncertainty with Bayesian mixing models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Lee Drake

    Full Text Available Strontium isotope sourcing has become a common and useful method for assigning sources to archaeological artifacts.In Chaco Canyon, an Ancestral Pueblo regional center in New Mexico, previous studiesusing these methods have suggested that significant portion of maize and wood originate in the Chuska Mountains region, 75 km to the West [corrected]. In the present manuscript, these results were tested using both frequentist methods (to determine if geochemical sources can truly be differentiated and Bayesian methods (to address uncertainty in geochemical source attribution. It was found that Chaco Canyon and the Chuska Mountain region are not easily distinguishable based on radiogenic strontium isotope values. The strontium profiles of many geochemical sources in the region overlap, making it difficult to definitively identify any one particular geochemical source for the canyon's pre-historic maize. Bayesian mixing models support the argument that some spruce and fir wood originated in the San Mateo Mountains, but that this cannot explain all 87Sr/86Sr values in Chaco timber. Overall radiogenic strontium isotope data do not clearly identify a single major geochemical source for maize, ponderosa, and most spruce/fir timber. As such, the degree to which Chaco Canyon relied upon outside support for both food and construction material is still ambiguous.

  3. Elemental geochemistry and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Cenomanian to Santonian neritic carbonates in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidtalab, Amin; Rahimpour-Bonab, Hossain; Huck, Stefan; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    A Neo-Tethyan upper Cenomanian-Santonian neritic carbonate ramp succession (Sarvak and Ilam formations), drilled in the Zagros Basin in southwest Iran, was investigated via detailed sedimentology, microfacies analysis, elemental geochemistry and Sr-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). The succession contains two exposure surfaces, which are known as the CT-ES and mT-ES (Cenomanian-Turonian and middle Turonian, respectively), and associated prominent negative carbon-isotope excursions that represent important regional stratigraphic marker horizons. Precise knowledge about the onset of platform exposure and the duration of the exposure-related hiatus, however, is currently lacking due to a rather low-resolved shallow-water biostratigraphic framework and a bulk carbonate carbon-isotope pattern that clearly differs from global Late Cretaceous reference curves. Therefore, the existing bio-chemostratigraphic framework was complemented by bulk carbonate strontium-isotope stratigraphy (SIS). As bulk carbonate material is in particular prone to diagenetic alteration, a careful selection of least altered samples has been carried out by means of elemental geochemistry and petrography. In contrast to what could be expected, the meteoric alteration of limestones beneath both exposure surfaces is not clearly expressed by increasing iron and manganese and coeval decreasing strontium contents. On the contrary, the impact of meteoric diagenesis is well illustrated via pronounced increases in Rb concentrations and concomitant prominent positive shifts to radiogenic strontium-isotope values, an observation that clearly reflects the decay of continentally derived 87Rb into 87Sr. Rubidium corrected strontium-isotope values place the CT-ES around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary and point to an exposure duration of less than 0.4 Myr. This rather short-term CT-ES related hiatus is supported by petrographic evidence, which indicates a youth karstification stage of strata beneath the CT

  4. Verification of strontium isotopes and its possible source in Indian basmati rice for geographical authentication study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Rai, Vinai K.; Singh, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to globalization of food and agriculture product's market, there is increasing awareness of safety and authenticity of the food products. Consumers continuously demand the reassurance of origin and content of their foods. Hence safety and authenticity of food has been a growing analytical challenge. Basmati rice, the unique aromatic quality rice and a nature's gift to Indian sub-continent is produced and consumed on a large scale. Due to its profitable market as well as great demand overseas true Basmati rice market is facing unfair competition by unscrupulous producers for profit. Very few researches for geographical authentication are available for Indian basmati rice. Sr isotope composition of rice could be used as a geographical source indicator; however, little information is available on the possible source (lithogenic, biogenic, silicate, carbonate) of Sr in Rice or any other food stuff for tracing the geographical origin using Strontium isotopes as tracer. Hence in order to determine suitability of strontium isotopes as tracer and its possible source in rice for geographical authentication study, strontium isotope signature study of authentic Indian Basmati rice along with in situ soil and water of that region have been carried out

  5. Strontium isotope systematics of scheelite and apatite from the Felbertal tungsten deposit, Austria - results of in-situ LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Michael; Gerdes, Axel; Raith, Johann G.

    2016-02-01

    The in-situ Sr isotopic systematics of scheelite and apatite from the Felbertal W deposit and a few regional Variscan orthogneisses ("Zentralgneise") have been determined by LA-MC-ICP-MS. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of scheelite and apatite from the deposit are highly radiogenic and remarkably scattering. In the early magmatic-hydrothermal scheelite generations (Scheelite 1 and 2) the 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.72078 to 0.76417 and from 0.70724 to 0.76832, respectively. Metamorphic Scheelite 3, formed by recrystallisation and local mobilisation of older scheelite, is characterised by even higher 87Sr/86Sr values between 0.74331 and 0.80689. Statistics allows discriminating the three scheelite generations although there is considerable overlap between Scheelite 1 and 2; they could be mixtures of the same isotopic reservoirs. The heterogeneous and scattering 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the two primary scheelite generations suggest modification of the Sr isotope system due to fluid-rock interaction and isotopic disequilibrium. Incongruent release of 87Sr from micas in the Early Palaeozoic host rocks of the Habach Complex contributed to the solute budget of the hydrothermal fluids and may explain the radiogenic Sr isotope signature of scheelite. Spatially resolved analyses revealed isotopic disequilibrium even on a sub-mm scale within zoned Scheelite 2 crystals indicating scheelite growth in an isotopic dynamical hydrothermal system. Zoned apatite from the W mineralised Early Carboniferous K1-K3 orthogneiss in the western ore field yielded 87Sr/86Sr of 0.72044-0.74514 for the cores and 0.74535-0.77937 for the rims. Values of magmatic apatite cores from the K1-K3 orthogneiss are comparable to those of primary Scheelite 1; they are too radiogenic to be magmatic. The Sr isotopic composition of apatite cores was therefore equally modified during the hydrothermal mineralisation processes, therefore supporting the single-stage genetic model in which W mineralisation is associated with

  6. Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Kirby, Carl S; Hammack, Richard W; Schroeder, Karl T; Edenborn, Harry M

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ~375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε(Sr)(SW) = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε(Sr) (SW) is the deviation of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10(4)); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  7. Generator coordinate method for triaxial quadrupole collective dynamics in strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Flocard, H.; Heenen, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the algebraic structure of the generator coordinate method for triaxial quadrupole collective motion. The collective solutions are classified according to the representations of the permutation group of the intrinsic axes. Our method amounts to an approximate angular momentum projection. We apply it to a study of the spherical to deformed shape transition in light even strontium isotopes 78-88 Sr. We find that triaxial configurations play a significant role in explaining the structure of the transitional isotopes 80-82 Sr

  8. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive barium and strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    An atomic beam system and a high resolution computer controlled dye laser system were developed to perform isotope shift measurements on accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes. Two different techniques were used to transport the radioactive isotopes to the laser interaction region. The first technique was based on the thermalization and deionization of the nuclear reaction products in a helium buffer gas. The reaction products were subsequently transported in the gas to the laser beam along a capillary tube. This technique suffered from problems with chemical reactions between impurities in the buffer gas and the reaction products and proved to be unsuccessful. The second technique was based on the implantation of the reaction products into a metal lattice. Subsequent heating of the metal lattice released the implanted ions from which an atomic beam was formed. The photon burst technique was used to enable detection of the extremely weak atomic beams formed in this manner. Measurements were performed of the known isotope shifts of radioactive 128 Ba and 126 Ba to test the sensitivity of the system. The previously unmeasured isotope shift of radioactive 82 Sr also was determined, and the result obtained was compared to predictions using the droplet model

  9. Rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead isotopic age studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveridge, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of five Rb-Sr isotopic age studies predominantly on whole-rock samples, and six U-Pb studies on zircon monazite concentrates are presented. Descriptions of the geological problems and interpretations of the measured ages are included. Laboratory age determination methods and techniques are described or referenced

  10. Isotopic composition of strontium in three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedge, C.E.; Lewis, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    Si87/Sr86 ratios have been determined for lavas and py lastic rocks from three basalt-andesite centers along the Lesser Antilles arc-Mt. Misery on the island of St. Kitts, Soufriere on the island of St. Vincent, and Carriacou, an island of The Grenadines. The average Si87/Sr86 content of these rocks is 0.7038 for Mt. Misery, 0.7041 for Soufriere, and 0.7053 for Carriacou. All the Sr87/Sr86 values from each center are the same within analytical uncertainty (??0.0002). The constancy of strontium isotopic data within each center supports the hypothesis that basalts and andesites for each specific center investigated are generated from the same source - in agreement with petrographic and major- and minor-element data. Strontium isotopic compositions and elemental concentrations, particularly of strontium and nickel, indicate that this source was mantle peridotite and that the relationship between the respective basalts and andesites is probably fractional crystallization. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Rubidium-strontium method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubansky, A.

    1980-01-01

    The rubidium-strontium geological dating method is based on the determination of the Rb and Sr isotope ratio in rocks, mainly using mass spectrometry. The method is only practical for silicate minerals and rocks, potassium feldspars and slates. Also described is the rubidium-strontium isochrone method. This, however, requires a significant amount of experimental data and an analysis of large quantities of samples, often of the order of tons. The results are tabulated of rubidium-strontium dating of geological formations in the Czech Socialist Republic. (M.S.)

  12. Nuclear charge radii of proton-rich strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Smith, J.R.H.; Warner, D.D.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Wells, S.A.; Fawcett, M.J.; Grant, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique of atom-photon coincidence laser spectroscopy has been developed and used to study the isotope shifts of /sup 78-84/Sr. The results show that neither the droplet model nor existing interacting boson model calculations can adequately describe the rapid onset of nuclear deformation below N = 50. The odd-even staggering of the charge radius is found to be opposite to that normally encountered, indicating the possible existence of permanent octupole distortions

  13. Strontium isotope study of coal utilization by-products interacting with environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2012-01-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements-including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc-during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-(87)Sr/(86)Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB-water interaction. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Strontium isotope detection of brine contamination in the East Poplar oil field, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Brine contamination of groundwater in the East Poplar oil field was first documented in the mid-1980s by the U.S. Geological Survey by using hydrochemistry, with an emphasis on chloride (Cl) and total dissolved solids concentrations. Supply wells for the City of Poplar are located downgradient from the oil field, are completed in the same shallow aquifers that are documented as contaminated, and therefore are potentially at risk of being contaminated. In cooperation with the Office of Environmental Protection of the Fort Peck Tribes, groundwater samples were collected in 2009 and 2010 from supply wells, monitor wells, and the Poplar River for analyses of major and trace elements, including strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotopic compositions. The ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 (87Sr/86Sr) is used extensively as a natural tracer in groundwater to detect mixing among waters from different sources and to study the effects of water/rock interaction. On a plot of the reciprocal strontium concentration against the 87Sr/86Sr ratio, mixtures of two end members will produce a linear array. Using this plotting method, data for samples from most of the wells, including the City of Poplar wells, define an array with reciprocal strontium values ranging from 0.08 to 4.15 and 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70811 to 0.70828. This array is composed of a brine end member with an average 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70822, strontium concentrations in excess of 12.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and chloride concentrations exceeding 8,000 mg/L mixing with uncontaminated water similar to that in USGS06-08 with 18.0 mg/L chloride, 0.24 mg/L strontium, and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70811. The position of samples from the City of Poplar public-water supply wells within this array indicates that brine contamination has reached all three wells. Outliers from this array are EPU-4G (groundwater from the Cretaceous Judith River Formation), brine samples from disposal wells (Huber 5-D and EPU 1-D

  15. Strontium isotope model of formation of Blatna granodiorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendl, J.; Vokurka, K.

    1989-01-01

    The Blatna granodiorite is the second most abundant rock type of the Central Bohemian pluton. It belongs to the tonalite group. The Rb-Sr isochrone was constructed from granodiorite and mixed aplopegmatite-granodiorite whole rock samples. The age of final Sr isotopic homogenisation was found to be 331±9 Ma and the initial ratio of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr 0.7072±0.0015. The solidification temperature of the granodiorite (Whitney -Stormer, 1977) is 550±50 degC and that of the aplopegmatite 460±50 degC. The average Sr concentration in granodiorite is 331 ppm, that of Rb is 186 ppm. Values of 170 and 14 were found for the ratios K/Rb and Srx10 3 /Ca, respectively. REE patterns reveal a crustal component overprint. Mass balance calculations based on Sr isotopes, its concentration and on the overall geochemistry of the pluton and of the Moldanubian rock show that magma might have been generated as a mixture of about 30-50% of mantle and of 50-70% of upper crust materials. A certain part of the mantle component was brought to the region in the form of volcanics. The precursors of the crustal component might have been represented by recycled previous volcanosedimentary material with complex crustal history. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs

  16. Lithostratigraphy, petrography, biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of the surficial aquifer system of western Collier County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.E.; Weedman, S.D.; Simmons, R.; Scott, T.M.; Brewster-Wingard, G. L.; Ishman, S.E.; Carlin, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, seven cores were recovered in western Collier County, southwestern Florida, to acquire subsurface geologic and hydrologic data to support ground-water modeling efforts. This report presents the lithostratigraphy, X-ray diffraction analyses, petrography, biostratigraphy, and strontium-isotope stratigraphy of these cores. The oldest unit encountered in the study cores is an unnamed formation that is late Miocene. At least four depositional sequences are present within this formation. Calculated age of the formation, based on strontium-isotope stratigraphy, ranges from 9.5 to 5.7 Ma (million years ago). An unconformity within this formation that represents a hiatus of at least 2 million years is indicated in the Old Pump Road core. In two cores, Collier-Seminole and Old Pump Road, the uppermost sediments of the unnamed formation are not dated by strontium isotopes, and, based on the fossils present, these sediments could be as young as Pliocene. In another core (Fakahatchee Strand-Ranger Station), the upper part of the unnamed formation is dated by mollusks as Pliocene. The Tamiami Formation overlies the unnamed formation throughout the study area and is represented by the Ochopee Limestone Member. The unit is Pliocene and probably includes the interval of time near the early/late Pliocene boundary. Strontium-isotope analysis indicates an early Pliocene age (calculated ages range from 5.1 to 3.5 Ma), but the margin of error includes the latest Miocene and the late Pliocene. The dinocyst assemblages in the Ochopee typically are not age-diagnostic, but, near the base of the unit in the Collier-Seminole, Jones Grade, and Fakahatchee Strand State Forest cores, they indicate an age of late Miocene or Pliocene. The molluscan assemblages indicate a Pliocene age for the Ochopee, and a distinctive assemblage of Carditimera arata and Chione cortinaria in several of the cores specifically indicates an age near the early/late Pliocene boundary. Undifferentiated sands

  17. Strontium-isotope composition in the Tethys Sea, Euboea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremba, E.L.; Faure, G.; Summerson, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    The 37 Sr/ 36 Sr ratios of the Tethys Sea have been determined by analyzing limestones of Permian to Late Cretaceous age from the overthrusted sequence of central and northern Euboea. The results are in satisfactory agreement with ratios obtained by other investigators on unreplaced fossil shells of similar age collected elsewhere. The 37 Sr/ 36 Sr ratios of Mesozoic marbles from the autochtone metamorphic rocks of southern Euboea are more variable, perhaps because of increases in this ratio during regional metamorphism. Nevertheless, the lowest values of suites of isochronous samples may approach the correct ratio. Four samples of the Argyron Marble taken at different localities in southern Euboea and on the Attic peninsula have a concordant 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.70688+-0.00006 relative to 0.7080 for the Eimer and Amend isotope standard. This value indicates a Jurassic age for this formation even though the fragmentary fossil evidence favors a Late Cretaceous (Turonian) age

  18. A new method of accurate determination of isotopic composition and concentration of strontium in a spike solution used for geochronological works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Takeru

    1990-01-01

    A new method of accurate determination of isotopic composition and concentration of a strontium-84 spike solution was devised for simultaneous determination of strontium contents and isotopic compositions in rocks and minerals by measuring strontium isotopic ratios in spiked samples. In this method, the isotopic composition of strontium in the spike were determined so as to minimize the sum of squares of deviations of spike strontium-84 concentrations which were calculated from measured isotopic ratios of strontium in five different mixtures of the spike and the standard solution. The method can eliminate all mass discriminations occurred during the measurements on a surface ionization mass spectrometer. The results were tested by measuring 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of Eimer and Amend SrCO 3 and JB-1 geochemical reference material, and by determining the strontium content in JB-1. The measurements of strontium isotope ratios in spiked samples give average values of 0.708007±0.000052 and 0.70417±0.00004 for 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of E and A SrCO 3 and JB-1, respectively. The strontium content in JB-1 was estimated at 457.1±1.3 ppm. These values are very close to reported respective values. (author)

  19. Strontium and neodymium isotopic compositions in sediments from Godavari, Krishna and Pennar rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood Ahmad, S.; Padmakumari, V.M.; Anil Babu, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report here strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopic compositions in bed sediments from the Godavari, Krishna and Pennar rivers, draining into the Bay of Bengal. The isotopic compositions of these sediments range from 0.7190 to 0.7610 for 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and -12.04 to -23.68 for ε Nd . This wide range in Sr and Nd isotopes is derived from variable proportions of sediments from different rock types in their drainage basins. All the three rivers have their characteristic isotopic signatures. The results display highest 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.7610) and most negative ε Nd values (-23.68) for the sediments of Pennar river. This is attributed to the chemical weathering of gneisses and granites in its drainage basin. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and ε Nd values for the Godavari river sediments range from 0.7196 to 0.7210 and -15.31 to -18.22 respectively. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and ε Nd values in Krishna river sediments lie from 0.7217 to 0.7301 and -12.04 to -12.78 respectively. Our results show that the sedimentary load from the Godavari and Krishna rivers is primarily derived from the older rocks in their drainage basins. It is possible that the sediments transported through peninsular Indian rivers predominantly control Sr and Nd isotope sedimentary budget in the western Bay of Bengal. (author)

  20. Dendritic network models: Improving isoscapes and quantifying influence of landscape and in-stream processes on strontium isotopes in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Jensen, Carrie K.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    A critical challenge for the Earth sciences is to trace the transport and flux of matter within and among aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric systems. Robust descriptions of isotopic patterns across space and time, called "isoscapes," form the basis of a rapidly growing and wide-ranging body of research aimed at quantifying connectivity within and among Earth's systems. However, isoscapes of rivers have been limited by conventional Euclidean approaches in geostatistics and the lack of a quantitative framework to apportion the influence of processes driven by landscape features versus in-stream phenomena. Here we demonstrate how dendritic network models substantially improve the accuracy of isoscapes of strontium isotopes and partition the influence of hydrologic transport versus local geologic features on strontium isotope ratios in a large Alaska river. This work illustrates the analytical power of dendritic network models for the field of isotope biogeochemistry, particularly for provenance studies of modern and ancient animals.

  1. Nannofossil biostratigraphy, strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy, cyclostratigraphy and an astronomically calibrated duration of the Late Campanian Radotruncana calcarata Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagreich, Michael; Hohenegger, Johann; Neuhuber, Stephanie

    2012-12-01

    A section from the southern (Austro-Alpine Northern Calcareous Alps) margin of the Penninic Ocean in the NW Tethys realm of Late Campanian age is investigated stratigraphically. Plankton foraminifer and nannofossil biostratigraphy designate the presence of the Globotruncana ventricosa Zone and the Radotruncana ( Globotruncanita ) calcarata Zone, and standard nannofossil zones CC21-UC15c TP and CC22ab-UC15de TP . The combination of carbon isotope stratigraphy, strontium isotopes, and cyclostratigraphy allows a detailed chronostratigraphic correlation. Periodicity was obtained by power spectral analysis, sinusoidal regression, and Morlet wavelets. The duration of the calcarata Total Range Zone is calculated by orbital cyclicity expressed in thickness data of limestone-marl rhythmites and stable carbon isotope data. Precessional, obliquity, and short and long eccentricity cycles are identified and give an extent of c. 806 kyr for the zone. Mean sediment accumulation rates are as low as 1.99 cm/kyr and correspond well to sediment accumulation rates in similar settings. We further discuss chronostratigraphic implications of our data.

  2. Strontium isotopes as natural tracers in reservoir oilfield and in groundwater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcos E.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2009-01-01

    The radioactive beta (β - ) decay of 87 Rb to 87 Sr is an important isotope system that has been widely applied for geochronological purposes and in identifying ground water sources, aquifer interactions and as a tracer for a secondary recovery process in offshore oilfields via seawater injection. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of present seawater is constant worldwide, while formation waters in hydrocarbon reservoirs have various values are in most cases higher than modern seawater. This can be the basis for a natural tracer technique aiming at evaluating the performance of seawater injection processes by evaluating the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio and the total Sr content of formation waters in the reservoir prior to injection, followed by monitoring these values in the produced water as injection proceeds. Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS is a technique that has potential to be used in studies with tracers in the environment in the determination of isotope ratios and element traces in a sample. This work describes the methodology that will be used for the determination of variations in the isotopic composition of Sr and presents the preliminary results obtained determination of the strontium isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). (author)

  3. Strontium isotope geochemistry of alluvial groundwater: a tracer for groundwater resources characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Négrel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents strontium isotope and major ion data of shallow groundwater and river water from the Ile du Chambon catchment, located on the Allier river in the Massif Central (France. There are large variations in the major-element contents in the surface- and groundwater. Plotting of Na vs. Cl contents and Ca, Mg, NO3, K, SO4, HCO3, Sr concentrations reflect water–rock interaction (carbonate dissolution for Ca, Mg, HCO3 and Sr because the bedrock contains marly limestones, agricultural input (farming and fertilising and sewage effluents (for NO3, K, SO4, although some water samples are unpolluted. Sr contents and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr vary from 0.70892 to 0.71180 along the hydrological cycle in the groundwater agree with previous work on groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Loire catchment. The data plot along three directions in a 87Sr/86Sr v. 1/Sr diagram as a result of mixing, involving at least three geochemical signatures–Allier river water, and two distinct signatures that might be related to different water-rock interactions in the catchment. Mixing proportions are calculated and discussed. The alluvial aquifer of the Ile du Chambon catchment is considered, within the Sr isotope systematic, in a larger scheme that includes several alluvial aquifers of the Loire Allier catchment. Keywords: : Loire river, major and trace elements, Sr isotopic ratio, alluvial aquifer, hydrology

  4. Paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies of estuarine and marine sediments using strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium isotopic ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) measurements in fossil carbonates and phosphates are used to evaluate paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic environments in Quaternary, Pliocene-Pleistocene, and mid-Cretaceous estuarine and marine sediments. The use of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr measurements as an estuarine paleosalinity and paleoclimatic indicator is developed and applied to San Francisco Bay. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr measurements of foraminifer and molluscan fossils contained in estuarine sediments of late Pleistocene (ca 115 to 125 ka) and late Holocene (4.5 ka) age show cyclic variations indicating that salinity fluctuated with periods of several hundred years, probably reflecting wet-dry cycles associated with fluctuations in solar irradiance caused by sunspot cycles. The average salinity in San Pablo and Richardson bays was significantly lower (by 6 to 8%) over much of the past 4.5 ka than at present, reflecting a combination of decreased freshwater inflow at present associated with water diversion and wetter climatic conditions prior to 2000 years ago. Salinity data are converted to river discharge using salinity-delta flow relations derived from historical records for San Francisco Bay. The data indicate that annual freshwater inflow was at least twice the modern pre-diversion average between 2.5 and 3.0 Ka; this time period is also identified as one of wetter climatic conditions by lake level and treeline records from the Sierra Nevada. Strontium isotopic measurements of marine carbonate and fish teeth to middle Cretaceous age are used to increase the resolution of the existing seawater Sr isotope versus time curve and to assess models for global oceanic anoxic events. The new data using fish teeth show less scatter and variability than previous data. Negative excursions in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 7-14 parts in 10 -5 during Aptian anoxic events suggest a link between increased submarine volcanism and oceanic anoxia

  5. Determining the sources of calcium for migratory songbirds using stable strontium isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Joel D; Taliaferro, E Hank; Holmes, Richard T

    2001-02-01

    We investigated natural variations in the stable isotopic composition of strontium (a surrogate for calcium) in the bones of a single species of breeding migratory songbird, as well as in their eggshells, egg contents, and food sources. We use this information to determine the sources of calcium to these migratory songbirds and their offspring. Samples were collected from two locations in the northeastern USA (Hubbard Brook, NH, and Downer Forest, VT.) that differed in soil geochemistry. The mean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of food items (caterpillars and snails), eggshells, and egg contents were indistinguishable within each site, but significantly different between the two sites. Mean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the bones of adult females were significantly different between the two sites, but values were significantly lower than those of food items and eggshells at each site. Two of four adult individuals studied at each site had 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios lower than the entire range of values for local food sources. Mixing calculations indicate that up to 60% of skeletal strontium and calcium was derived from foods consumed in the winter grounds where lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios predominate. At each study site, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of eggshells differed significantly between clutches, but the mean clutch 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios were unrelated to the skeletal 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the laying adult. These findings suggest that strontium (and hence calcium) for eggshell production in this species is derived predominantly from local food sources in breeding areas. Thus, reductions in available calcium in northern temperate ecosystems due to the influences of acid deposition could be potentially harmful to this and other species of migratory bird.

  6. Geographic variation of strontium and hydrogen isotopes in avian tissue: implications for tracking migration and dispersal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J Sellick

    Full Text Available Isotopes can provide unique solutions to fundamental problems related to the ecology and evolution of migration and dispersal because prior movements of individuals can theoretically be tracked from tissues collected from a single capture. However, there is still remarkably little information available about how and why isotopes vary in wild animal tissues, especially over large spatial scales.Here, we describe variation in both stable-hydrogen (deltaD(F and strontium ((87Sr/(86Sr(F isotopic compositions in the feathers of a migratory songbird, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor, across 18 sampling sites in North America and then examine potential mechanisms driving this variation. We found that deltaD(F was correlated with latitude of the sampling site, whereas (87Sr/(86Sr(F was correlated with longitude. deltaD(F was related to deltaD of meteoric waters where molting occurred and (87Sr/(86Sr(F was influenced primarily by the geology in the area where feathers were grown. Using simulation models, we then assessed the utility of combining both markers to estimate the origin of individuals. Using 13 geographic regions, we found that the number of individuals correctly assigned to their site of origin increased from less than 40% using either deltaD or (87Sr/(86Sr alone to 74% using both isotopes.Our results suggest that these isotopes have the potential to provide predictable and complementary markers for estimating long-distance animal movements. Combining isotopes influenced by different global-scale processes may allow researchers to link the population dynamics of animals across large geographic ranges.

  7. Strontium isotope evolution of pore water and calcite in the Topopah Spring Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Brian D.; Futa, Kiyoto

    2001-01-01

    Pore water in the Topopah Spring Tuff has a narrow range of (delta) 87 Sr values that can be calculated from the (delta) 87 Sr values of the rock considering advection through and reaction with the overlying nonwelded tuffs of the PTn. This model can be extended to estimate the variation of (delta) 87 Sr in the pore water through time; this approximates the variation of (delta) 87 Sr measured in calcite fracture coatings. In samples of calcite where no silica can be dated by other methods, strontium isotope data may be the only method to determine ages. In addition, other Sr-bearing minerals in the calcite and opal coatings, such as fluorite, may be dated using the same model

  8. Nuclear moments and isotopic variation of the mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei by atomic beam laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1987-10-01

    Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 10 11 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.) [de

  9. The temperature dependent strontium isotope fractionation (δ88/86Sr) during calcium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietzke, J.; Eisenhauer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In order to study the influence of stable isotope fractionation during inorganic and biologically controlled CaCO 3 precipitation we have developed the analytical principles for the measurement of strontium (Sr) isotope fractionation. We have established a measurement protocol for the application on a MC-ICP-MS (AXIOM) using the common bracketing standard technique. The Sr-standard CRM NBS987 was used as reference material for all measurements and to calculate the Sr fractionation. Latter value is expressed by the δ-notation defined as: δ 88/86 Sr = [( 88 Sr/ 86 Sr)sample / ( 88 Sr/ 86 Sr)standard ] * 1000 -1. A first set of experiments focused on the temperature dependency of Sr-isotope fractionation. For this purpose inorganically precipitated aragonite and calcite was prepared under controlled conditions in a temperature range from 10 to 50 o C. In addition, cultured and naturally grown corals were analyzed for their δ 88/86 Sr values. Repeated measurements of IAPSO seawater standard showed a mean δ 88/86 Sr value of 0.383 ± 0.008 (2 SEM) being the isotopically heaviest material measured so far. The first results of the inorganically precipitated aragonite and the natural corals revealed a clear temperature dependency of the δ 88/86 Sr values. For inorganic aragonite the slope of this correlation is about 0.0055 permil/ o C. However, for naturally grown corals (Pavona clavus) a 6 fold steeper slope of 0.033 permil/ o C was determined. This strong temperature dependency implies the potential to use stable Sr isotopes as a new marine (paleo)temperature proxy. (author)

  10. Summary of theory and techniques, sample selection and project organization for potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium and fission track dating and strontium isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Graham, I.J.; Seward, D.

    1987-02-01

    A brief outline is given of the theory and techniques of the potassium-argon, rubidium-strontium and fission-track dating methods and related isotope studies which are currently in use at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, DSIR. Some limitations of each technique are set out in terms of age range and materials for dating, and the appropriate choice of various mineral and rock types and subsequent age interpretations are discussed. The organisation of project proposals and categories is described and procedures for sample submission and documentation are given

  11. Strontium isotopes provide clues for a process shift in base cation dynamics in young volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, N.; Jackson, M. G.; Bookhagen, B.; Maher, K.; Chadwick, O.

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in soil development theory based on studies of old soils or over long timescales, little is known about soil thresholds (dramatic changes in soil properties associated with only small shifts in external forcing factors) that might be expressed in young soils (less than 10 kyr). Therefore, we seek to understand infant soil development in a tropical environment through the sourcing of plant available base cations by measuring the strontium (Sr) isotopic composition of the soil exchange complex. Our sampling strategy spans soils in three different precipitation ranges (950-1060 mm, 1180-1210 mm, and 1450-1500) and an array of soil ages from 500 to 7500 years in the Kona region on the island of Hawaii. In Hawaiian soils, 87Sr/86Sr values are determined by a mixture of three components: a mantle-derived component from the lava (0.7034), a rainfall component (0.7093) and a component from continental dust (0.720). Elevation-controlled leaching intensity in the wettest localities produces a decline in the concentration of base cations supplied by basalt and a dilute resupply by rainfall. In the driest sites, where leaching intensity is dramatically reduced, there is a buildup of rainfall-derived extractable Sr in the soil over time. Slow rock weathering rates produce a small rock-derived cation input to the soil. Thus, Sr isotope signatures reflect both the input of rainfall-derived cations and rock-derived cations with values that fall between rainfall and basaltic signatures. Soils in the intermediate precipitation range have Sr isotopic signatures consistent with both the wet and dry trends; suggesting that they lie close to the critical precipitation amount that marks a shift between these two processes. For the Kona region, this transition seems to occur at 1200 mm /yr. In contrast to the clear-cut differentiation in strontium isotopes with precipitation shifts observed in older soils, patterns on these young soils in Kona are complicated by low soil

  12. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  13. STRONTIUM ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY AS A CONTRIBUTION FOR DATING MIOCENE SHELF CARBONATES (S. MARINO FM., NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO ARGENTINO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides new data on strontium isotope stratigraphy applied to the Miocene heterozoan shelfal carbonates of the S. Marino Fm. (Marecchia Valley, northern Apennines. Sr isotopic analyses were carried out on oyster shells, bryozoans and bulk-rocks from the lower-middle carbonate portion of the section. In the upper part of the succession that shows evidence of detrital influx,87Sr/86Sr analyses were performed on foraminifera tests, separating planktonic and benthic forms. Results were compared with calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic data from the same levels, in order to test the reliability of Sr dating in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sediments. Mean ages obtained from oysters range between 16.9 Ma and 16.3 Ma. Very similar results are obtained using bryozoans (16.5 Ma to 16.1 Ma and bulk-rocks (16.8 Ma to 16.2 Ma. These results allow to better constrain the age of the massive carbonate shelf, referable to the upper Burdigalian. In the upper carbonate-siliciclastic portion of the shelf, numerical ages obtained from planktonic and benthic foraminifera are in good agreement with nannofossil biozones (mean ages respectively around 15.3 Ma and 14.5 Ma although they display wide confidence intervals. These wide age uncertainties depend on the slow rate of change of marine 87Sr/86Sr through time that characterizes the interval between ~15 and ~13.5 Ma.

  14. Strontium isotope evidence on the history of oilfield brines, Mediterranean Coastal Plain, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, A.; Bielski, M.; Lazar, B.; Steinitz, G.; Raab, M.

    1983-01-01

    The isotopic composition of Sr in oil field brines from the Mediterranean Coastal Plain was determined in 18 drillholes. The brines are characterized by salinities ranging from 35 to 93 g/l (TDS), Sr from 28 to 350 mg/l, Sr/Ca molar ratios from 0.011 to 0.053 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios from 0.7075 to 0.7090. E and A = 0.7081 +- 0.0004 (2σ). The brines are classified into two groups: (a) Mavqi'im group - brines with relatively high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from clastics, dolomites and anhydrites of Upper Miocene age. (b) Heletz group - brines with relatively low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, sampled from sandstones and dolomites of Lower Cretaceous age. Equations were derived to show the relations between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of the brines and the processes through which they evolved. It is suggested that both groups of brines originated from Mediterranean evaporated seawater during the Messinian desiccation. The strontium isotope composition of the seawater is reflected in that of both groups of brines, the Mavqi'im group containing the original 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The Heletz group evolved later on, through exchange reactions of those primary brines with a carbonate sequence of Cretaceous age and consequently new 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios could have been developed. (author)

  15. Synopsis of strontium isotope variations in groundwater at Aspo, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Wallin, B.

    1999-01-01

    Strontium isotope ratios are used to identify end-member ground-water compositions at Aspo in southeastern Sweden where the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) has been constructed to evaluate the suitability of crystalline rock for the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The Hard Rock Laboratory is a decline (tunnel) constructed in 1.8 Ga-old granitic rock that forms islands in an archipelago along the Swedish coast. Ground-water samples were obtained for isotopic analyses from boreholes drilled from the surface and from side boreholes drilled within the HRL. Infiltration at Aspo occurs primarily through fractures zones in the granitic bedrock beneath thin soils throughout the area. Because of extremely low Sr concentrations, rain and snow are not important contributors to the Sr isotope budget of the ground-water system. At shallow levels, water percolating downward along fractures and fracture zones acquires a ??87Sr between +9.5 and +10.0??? and maintains this value downward while Sr concentrations increase by two orders of magnitude. Ground-water samples from both boreholes and from in the HRL show the effects of mixing with saline waters containing as much as 59 mg/L Sr and ??87Sr values as large as +13.92%, Baltic Sea water is a potential component of the groundwater system with ??87Sr values only slightly larger than modern marine values (+0.3???) but with much lower concentrations (1.5 mg/L) than ocean water (8 mg/L). However, because of large Sr concentration differences between the saline groundwater (59 mg/L) and Baltic Sea water (1.5 rag/L), ??87Sr values are not particularly sensitive indicators of sea-water intrusion even though their ??87Sr values differ substantially.

  16. Strontium isotopic signatures of oil-field waters: Applications for reservoir characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Oetting, G.C.; Gao, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr compositions of formation waters that were collected from 71 wells producing from a Pennsylvanian carbonate reservoir in New Mexico display a well-defined distribution, with radiogenic waters (up to 0.710129) at the updip western part of the reservoir, grading downdip to less radiogenic waters (as low as 0.708903 to the east. Salinity (2800-50,000 mg/L) displays a parallel trend; saline waters to the west pass downdip to brackish waters. Elemental and isotopic data indicate that the waters originated as meteoric precipitation and acquired their salinity and radiogenic 87Sr through dissolution of Upper Permian evaporites. These meteoric-derived waters descended, perhaps along deeply penetrating faults, driven by gravity and density, to depths of more than 7000 ft (2100 m). The 87 Sr/86Sr and salinity trends record influx of these waters along the western field margin and downdip flow across the field, consistent with the strong water drive, potentiometric gradient, and tilted gas-oil-water contacts. The formation water 87Sr/86Sr composition can be useful to evaluate subsurface flow and reservoir behavior, especially in immature fields with scarce pressure and production data. In mature reservoirs, Sr Sr isotopes can be used to differentiate original formation water from injected water for waterflood surveillance. Strontium isotopes thus provide a valuable tool for both static and dynamic reservoir characterization in conjunction with conventional studies using seismic, log, core, engineering, and production data. Copyright ??2004. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist. All rights reserved.

  17. Mobility and diet in Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age Germany : evidence from multiple isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelze, Viktoria Martha

    2012-01-01

    Prehistoric human diet can be reconstructed by the analysis of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) stable isotopes in bone, whereas ancient mobility and provenance can be studied using the isotopes of strontium (Sr) and oxygen (O) in tooth enamel, and of sulphur in bone. Although thirty years

  18. Mapping and defining sources of variability in bioavailable strontium isotope ratios in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Gideon; Richards, Mike

    2014-02-01

    The relative contributions of bedrock and atmospheric sources to bioavailable strontium (Sr) pools in local soils was studied in Northern Israel and the Golan regions through intensive systematic sampling of modern plants and invertebrates, to produce a map of modern bioavailable strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) for regional reconstructions of human and animal mobility patterns. The study investigates sources of variability in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios, in particular the intra-and inter-site range of variation in plant 87Sr/86Sr ratios, the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios of plants growing on marine sedimentary versus volcanic geologies, the differences between ligneous and non-ligneous plants with varying growth and water utilization strategies, and the relative contribution of atmospheric Sr sources from different soil and vegetation types and climatic zones. Results indicate predictable variation in 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Inter- and intra-site differences in bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios average of 0.00025, while the range of 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured regionally in plants and invertebrates is 0.7090 in Pleistocene calcareous sandstone and 0.7074 in mid-Pleistocene volcanic pyroclast. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on volcanic bedrock show time dependent increases in atmospheric deposition relative to bedrock weathering. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on renzina soils depends on precipitation. The spacing between bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios and plants is highest in wet conditions and decreases in dry conditions. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios measured in plants growing on terra rossa soils is relatively constant (0.7085) regardless of precipitation. Ligneous plants are typically closer to bedrock 87Sr/86Sr ratios than non-ligneous plants. Since the bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios currently measured in the region reflect a mix of both exogenous and endogenous sources, changes in the relative contribution of exogenous sources can cause variation

  19. Development of precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    We have developed precise analytical methods for strontium and lanthanide isotopic ratios using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) for experimental and environmental studies of their behavior. In order to obtain precise isotopic data using MC-ICP-MS, the mass discrimination effect was corrected by an exponential law correction method. The resulting isotopic data demonstrated that highly precise isotopic analyses (better than 0.1 per mille as 2SD) could be achieved. We also adopted a de-solvating nebulizer system to improve the sensitivity. This system could minimize the water load into the plasma and provided about five times larger intensity of analyte than a conventional nebulizer system did. (author)

  20. Strontium and oxygen isotopic variations in mesozoic and tertiary plutons of central Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, R.J.; Criss, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Regional variations in initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios (rsub(i)) of Mesozoic plutons in central Idaho locate the edge of Precambrian continental crust at the boundary between the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted terranes and Precambrian sialic crust in western Idaho. The rsub(i) values increase abruptly but continuously from less than 0.704 in the accreted terranes to greater than 0.708 across a narrow, 5 to 15 km zone, characterized by elongate, lens-shaped, highly deformed plutons and schistose metasedimentary and metavolcanic units. The chemical and petrologic character of the plutons changes concomitantly from ocean-arc-type units to a weakly peraluminous, calcit to calcalkalic suite. Plutons in both suites yield Late Cretaceous ages, but Permian through Early Cretaceous bodies are confined to the accreted terranes and early Tertiary intrusions are restricted to areas underlain by Precambrian crust. The two major terranes were juxtaposed between 75 and 130 m.y. ago, probably between 80 and 95 m.y. Oxygen and strontium isotopic ratios and Rb and Sr concentrations of the plutonic rocks document a significant upper-crustal contribution to the magmas that intrude Precambrian crust. Magmas intruding the arc terranes were derived from the upper mantle/subducted oceanic lithosphere and may have been modified by anatexis of earlier island-arc volcanic and sedimentary units. (orig./PW)

  1. Decorporation of mixture of strontium and cesium isotopes with domestic mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavov, S.; Filev, G.; Kiradzhiev, G.

    1990-01-01

    The possibilities of Bulgarian mineral waters to decorporate mixtures of strontium and cesium radioisotopes, simultaneous entering the body, were studied. A modified effect in respect to radioactive strontium was found. Modification of the effect of mixing two diferent types of mineral waters was not proven. No effect was found of potassium-containing mineral water on radioactive cesium kinetics. 1 tab., 7 refs

  2. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  3. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  4. Isotopic strontium, carbon and oxygen study on neoproterozoic marbles from Sierra de Umango, Andean Foreland, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, R; Valencio, S.; Ramos, A; Sato, K; Gonzalez, P; Panarello, H; Roverano, D

    2001-01-01

    The Umango Hill (La Rioja Province, 29 o 00'S-68 o 40'W) is one of the mountain blocks of Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales (Caminos, 1979), bounded by thrust faults and surrounded by Upper Devonian to Tertiary marine and continental sedimentites. The exposed crystalline basement is composed of basic igneous rocks and a siliciclastic-limestone sequence, both affected by amphibolite facies metamorphic peak. In the southern area (Juchi creek), the metamorphic complex carries relics of granitic orthogneisses, with Rb/Sr and U/Pb dates of ∼1000 Ma (Varela et al., 1996). These ancient inliers were asigned to a Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogenic Cycle. Granitic bodies, intrusives at different ages in the Metamorphic Complex, have also been distinguished. The most ancient is El Penon Granite, with 469±9 Ma Rb/Sr age (Varela et al., 2000) and 523±26 Ma U/Pb zircon age (unpublished data). In this way it is possible to point out broadly that the siliciclastic-limestone sequence belongs to the Neoproterozoic-Early Palaeozoic times. It was a platform cover over grenvillian cratonic basement. The metamorphism and deformation, we understand, took place in the Early Palaeozoic, related to the Pampean-Famatinian Orogenic Cycle. In this work, compositional and isotopic data of Strontium ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr), Carbon (δ 13 Cv PDB ) and Oxygen (δ 18 Ov PDB ) of the marbles derived from the siliciclastic-limestone sequence are presented. The results are interpreted and correlated with the temporal variation curves of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and δ 13 C from Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (Jacobsen and Kaufman, 1999) (au)

  5. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  6. Analysis of leachants from strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.; Annapoorani, S.; Sriram, S.; Uma Maheshwari, R.; Deivanayaki, R.; Sekar, J.K.; Sankaran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics is being tried out as one of the candidate matrices for immobilizing pyrochemical salt waste produced in the nuclear industry. To find-out the suitability of such material for immobilising the waste, leaching of various constituents of the ceramics in water is required. Therefore, in Chemistry Group of IGCAR experiments are being carried out with simulated salt waste (chlorides of Li, Na, K, Cs, Ba, Nd and Ce) of pyrochemical reprocessing method for studying the utilisation of strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics towards the immobilization of radioactive waste. Leaching behaviour study requires the determination of alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth elements in the leachant solutions of the glass ceramic material. Apart from cations, leaching study of anions especially chloride is required as the chloride salts are used in pyrochemical experiments. Considering the good sensitivity of alkali elements in Flame-AES method, all the alkali elements were determined by flame-AES. Ba, Sr and rare earth elements in the leachant solutions were determined using ICP-OES. Chloride was determined using ISE and IC. Standardisation of instrumental techniques and the application of various techniques for the sample analysis will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. Hydrologic and environmental controls on uranium-series and strontium isotope ratios in a natural weathering environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. M.; Ma, L.; Moravec, B. G.; McIntosh, J. C.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    In a remote, volcanic headwater catchment of the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (JRB-CZO) in NM, stable water isotopes and solute chemistry have shown that snowmelt infiltrates and is stored before later discharging into springs and streams via subsurface flowpaths that vary seasonally. Therefore, water-rock reactions are also expected to change with season as hydrologic flowpaths transport water, gases and solutes through different biogeochemical conditions, rock types and fracture networks. Uranium-series isotopes have been shown to be a novel tracer of water-rock reactions and source water contributions while strontium isotopes are frequently used as indicators of chemical weathering and bedrock geology. This study combines both isotopes to understand how U and Sr isotope signatures evolve through the Critical Zone (CZ). More specifically, this work examines the relationship between seasonality, water transit time (WTT), and U-series and Sr isotopes in stream and spring waters from three catchments within the JRB-CZO, as well as lithology, rock type and CZ structure in solid phase cores. Samples from ten springs with known WTTs were analyzed for U and Sr isotopes to determine the effect of WTT on the isotopic composition of natural waters. Results suggest that WTT alone cannot explain the variability of U and Sr isotopes in JRB-CZO springs. Stream samples were also collected across two water years to establish how seasonality controls surface water isotopic composition. U and Sr isotope values vary with season, consistent with a previous study from the La Jara catchment; however, this study revealed that these changes do not show a systematic pattern among the three catchments suggesting that differences in the mineralogy and structure of the deep CZ in individual catchments, and partitioning of water along deep vs surficial and fracture vs matrix flow paths, likely also control isotopic variability. The distribution of U-series and Sr isotopes in

  8. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type

  9. Effects of diagenesis on strontium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen concentration and isotopic composition of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bruce K.; Deniro, Michael J.; Schoeninger, Margaret J.; De Paolo, Donald J.; Hare, P. E.

    1986-09-01

    Paleodietary analysis based on variations in the trace element and stable isotopic composition of inorganic and organic phases in fossil bone depends on the assumption that measured values reflect in vivo values. To test for postmortem alteration, we measured 87Sr /86Sr , 13C /12C , 18O /16O and 15N /14N ratios and Sr concentrations in modern and prehistoric (610 to 5470 yr old) bones of animals with marine or terrestrial diets from Greenland. Bones from modern terrestrial feeders have substantially lower Sr concentrations and more radiogenic 87Sr /86Sr ratios than those from modern marine feeders. This contrast was not preserved in the prehistoric samples, which showed almost complete overlap for both Sr concentration and isotopic composition in bones from the two types of animals. Leaching experiments, X-ray diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy indicate that alteration of the Sr concentration and isotopic composition in prehistoric bone probably results from nearly complete exchange with groundwater. Oxygen isotope ratios in fossil apatite carbonate also failed to preserve the original discrimination between modern terrestrial and marine feeders. The C isotope ratio of apatite carbonate did not discriminate between animals with marine or terrestrial diets in the modern samples. Even so, the ranges of apatite δ 13C values in prehistoric bone are more scattered than in modern samples for both groups, suggesting alteration had occurred. δ 13C and δ 15N values of collagen in modern bone are distinctly different for the two feeding types, and this distinction is preserved in most of the prehistoric samples. Our results suggest that postmortem alteration of dietary tracers in the inorganic phases of bone may be a problem at all archaeological sites and must be evaluated in each case. While collagen analyzed in this study was resistant to alteration, evaluation of the possibility of diagenetic alteration of its isotopic composition in bones from other

  10. Clay mineralogy, strontium and neodymium isotope ratios in the sediments of two High Arctic catchments (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindshaw, Ruth S.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Piotrowski, Alexander M.; Tipper, Edward T.

    2018-03-01

    The identification of sediment sources to the ocean is a prerequisite to using marine sediment cores to extract information on past climate and ocean circulation. Sr and Nd isotopes are classical tools with which to trace source provenance. Despite considerable interest in the Arctic Ocean, the circum-Arctic source regions are poorly characterised in terms of their Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. In this study we present Sr and Nd isotope data from the Paleogene Central Basin sediments of Svalbard, including the first published data of stream suspended sediments from Svalbard. The stream suspended sediments exhibit considerable isotopic variation (ɛNd = -20.6 to -13.4; 87Sr / 86Sr = 0.73421 to 0.74704) which can be related to the depositional history of the sedimentary formations from which they are derived. In combination with analysis of the clay mineralogy of catchment rocks and sediments, we suggest that the Central Basin sedimentary rocks were derived from two sources. One source is Proterozoic sediments derived from Greenlandic basement rocks which are rich in illite and have high 87Sr / 86Sr and low ɛNd values. The second source is Carboniferous to Jurassic sediments derived from Siberian basalts which are rich in smectite and have low 87Sr / 86Sr and high ɛNd values. Due to a change in depositional conditions throughout the Paleogene (from deep sea to continental) the relative proportions of these two sources vary in the Central Basin formations. The modern stream suspended sediment isotopic composition is then controlled by modern processes, in particular glaciation, which determines the present-day exposure of the formations and therefore the relative contribution of each formation to the stream suspended sediment load. This study demonstrates that the Nd isotopic composition of stream suspended sediments exhibits seasonal variation, which likely mirrors longer-term hydrological changes, with implications for source provenance studies based on fixed

  11. Evaluating the use of strontium isotopes in tree rings to record the isotopic signal of dust deposited on the Wasatch Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Olivia L.; Solomon, Douglas Kip; Fernandez, Diego P.; Cerling, Thure E.; Bowling, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dust was a major contributor of Sr to soil and tree rings over Sr poor bedrocks. • Tree rings were evaluated for their use as a record of dust strontium isotope history. • The isotopic signal of dust deposited on the Wasatch Mountains changed over the past ∼75 years. - Abstract: Dust cycling from the Great Basin to the Rocky Mountains is an important component of ecological and hydrological processes. We investigated the use of strontium (Sr) concentrations and isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) in tree rings as a proxy for dust deposition. We report Sr concentrations and isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) from atmospherically deposited dust, soil, bedrock, and tree rings from the Wasatch Mountains to investigate provenance of dust landing on the Wasatch Mountains and to determine if a dust Sr record is preserved in tree rings. Trees obtained a majority of their Sr from dust, making them a useful record of dust source and deposition. Dust contributions of Sr to soils were more than 94% over quartzite, 63% over granodiorite, and 50% over limestone. Dust contributions of Sr to trees were more than 85% in trees growing over quartzite, 55% over granodiorite, and between 0% and 92% over limestone. These findings demonstrate that a dust signal was preserved in some tree rings and reflects how Sr from dust and bedrock mixes within the soil. Trees growing over quartzite were most sensitive to dust. Changes in Sr isotope ratios for a tree growing over quartzite were interpreted as changes in dust source over time. This work has laid the foundation for using tree rings as a proxy for dust deposition over time

  12. A study on characteristic of selective membrane for strontium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seung Hyun; Choi, Young Woo [Kwang-ju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this study, supported liquid membranes (SLMs) using crown ether were prepared in order to separate strontium ion selectively from a calcium contained solution However, at the higher than 3 N nitric acid concentration of a strip solution, stability of a SLM was declined remarkably owing to the hasty loss of carrier impregnated in supporter and, on account of this phenomena, facilitated transports were not accomplished. And DC18C6 as a neutral carrier affected remarkably the selectivity of strontium and the factor determining permeabilities of metal ions was as a role of DNNS. Consequently, in order to be a optimal SLM for the high permeability and the stable selectivity of strontium, concentration of DC18C6 and DNNS should be 0.1 M and 25 mM, respectively and, at this condition, the relative removal ratio of strontium to calcium was 93.3%. And the change of calcium concentration in the feed solution affected the permeability of strontium. In particular, when the ratio of strontium to calcium concentration in the feed solution was in the range of 1/5 - 1/50, strontium could be separated selectively at stable permeabilities. (author). 17 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Analyses and quantitative determination of the strontium radioisotopes 89 and 90 in milk powder; Recherche et dosage des isotopes radioactifs 89 et 90 du strontium dans le lait en poudre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Michon, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The authors describe a procedure for the determination of the strontium radioisotopes 89 and 90. The concentration of strontium is made possible by the insolubility of its nitrate salt in strong nitric acid which allows the removal of greatest part of calcium. The purification is performed on a cation exchange column. The amount of radioisotope 90 is determined by means of its daughter product yttrium 90 necessary calibrations and computations are treated in special paragraphs. With regard to the reproducibility of the measurements, the fluctuations are less than 20 per cent. This seems satisfaction for such a technique which have great sensibility while being long and necessitative great carefulness. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une technique de dosage des isotopes 89 et 90 du strontium. La concentration du strontium est assuree grace a l'insolubilite de son nitrate dans l'acide nitrique concentre, ce qui permet d'eliminer la plus grande partie du Ca. La purification se fait sur une colonne echangeuse de cations. L'isotope 90 est dose grace a son descendant l'yttrium 90. Les etalonnages et calculs necessaires font l'objet de paragraphes detailles. En ce qui concerne la reproductibilite des mesures, les fluctuations sont inferieures a 20 pour cent, ce qui semble satisfaisant devant la grande sensibilite de la methode qui reste cependant longue et delicate. (auteur)

  14. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23 0 C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  15. Strontium concentrations and isotope ratios in a forest-river system in the South Qinling Mts., China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Hongmei; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa; Burford, Michele A

    2016-04-15

    The concentrations of dissolved strontium (Sr) and isotope ratios ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in rainwater, river water, and water from forest soil are measured to investigate the contributions of these sources to a river during base flow conditions in the relatively pristine South Qinling Mountains, China. Dissolved Sr concentrations and (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios vary significantly between different water types (p water samples including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), EC, and TDS (p water chemistry in the river water. Using the three-source mixing model, atmospheric inputs, carbonate, and silicate weathering contribute 74%, 20%, and 6% respectively to the dissolved Sr in the river water. This research has provided new insights into the contribution of sources of Sr to a river system in a mountainous catchment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Karin M.; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. → Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. → Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. → Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 ± 0.0016; 2σ). This average value lies above the range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures >∼0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use and application of commercial fertilizers. It is demonstrated that

  17. Variation of strontium stable isotope ratios and origins of strontium in Japanese vegetables and comparison with Chinese vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Keisuke; Nakano, Takanori; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Izawa, Atsunobu; Morita, Sakie

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate the utility of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio for determining the geographical provenance of vegetables, we compared 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in five vegetable species grown in Japan and China, and we also examined the relationships between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in vegetables, the soil-exchangeable pool, irrigation water, and fertilizer from 20 Japanese agricultural areas. The vegetable 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in Japan were similar for all species within a given agricultural area, but tended to be low in northeast Japan and high in southwest Japan. The median 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in Japanese vegetables was similar to that in fertilizer, suggesting that in addition to rock-derived Sr, vegetables contain Sr derived from fertilizers. In most cases, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for the Japanese and Chinese vegetables differed by approximately 0.710. Linear discriminant analysis using both 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and the Sr concentration allowed more accurate discrimination between vegetables from the two countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basic methods of isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochkin, A.V.; Rozenkevich, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered [ru

  19. Different contamination styles of prehistoric human teeth at a Swiss necropolis (Sion, Valais) inferred from lead and strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaradia, M.; Gallay, A.; Todt, W.

    2003-01-01

    Separate fractions of dentine and enamel of 12 individuals from the necropolis of Sion (Valais, Switzerland) have been analyzed for Pb and Sr isotope compositions. The individuals span a time period of more than 1 ka from ∼5.2 ka B.P. to ∼4.1 ka B.P. and include Middle Neolithic, Upper Neolithic, Bell Beaker and Old Bronze age civilizations. Individuals were buried either into or close to dolmens or into soil at 4 different sites on the alluvial fan of the Sionne stream, a tributary of the Rhone river. Isotopic composition of dentine and enamel pairs of the individuals indicate that teeth underwent post mortem contamination. Lead contamination is due to two different sources, petrol and natural Pb from soils. The preponderance of either petrol or natural Pb contamination in teeth depends on the burial sites. Differences in the content of Pb-retaining particles (organic matter, Fe-hydroxides, clay minerals), that depend largely on soil grain size, are suggested to be responsible for the differential Pb contamination at the investigated burial sites. Strontium contamination is stronger in individuals buried into or close to dolmens, which are made of calc-schist slabs. Despite post mortem contamination, both Pb and Sr isotopes have allowed the identification of an individual's enamel with isotopic compositions significantly different from those of the local substratum, suggesting his immigration to the Sion area from a geologically different region. This individual belongs to the Bell Beaker civilization, which is considered to have immigrated into Western Europe and the Mediterranean basin at the end of the Neolithic. Systematic differences between enamel and dentine isotopic compositions of all other individuals analyzed suggest that they assimilated in vivo Pb and Sr from an area nearby to that in which they were buried

  20. Comment on: 'The strontium isotopic composition of seawater and seawater-oceanic crust interaction' by E.T.C. Spooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brass, G.W.; Turekian, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various processes have been proposed as the source of strontium to the oceans but there is no evidence to support the mechanism of release of relatively unradiogenic strontium from deep dea basalts to sea-water. (B.D.)

  1. Strontium geochemistry and carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of Lower Proterozoic dolomite and calcite marbles from the Marmorilik Formation, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Marmorilik Formation, Rinkian mobile belt, West Greenland, is a large, Lower Proterozoic carbonate-rock sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions. The pre-deformation thickness of the sequence is at least 2000 m, with about 1400 m of dolomite marble and 350 m of calcite marble. Strontium contents of forty-two dolomite and calcite marbles range from 30 to 100 ppm and 300 to 800 ppm, respectively, whereas samples with calcite of secondary origin have strontium contents between 80 ppm and 200 ppm. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were determined for forty calcite and dolomite marbles as -0.2+-1.0 per 1000 delta 13 C and -9.9+-1.5 per 1000 delta 18 O (vs. PDB) and are compatible with the isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed carbonates of similar age. Calcite from eight calciumsilicate rocks, breccias and calcite veins is significantly more negative in delta 13 C and delta 18 O. Five 13 C analyses of graphite in marble range from -9.6 to -14 per 1000. Possible post-depositional changes in the strontium content and carbon and oxygen isotope compositions are discussed. It is concluded that (a) the calcite marbles are not dedolomites and are therefore of primary origin, (b) the delta 13 C and delta 18 O values of the marbles are primary or diagenetic (i.e., pre-metamorphic), and (c) the isotopic composition of the graphite is compatible with, though not necessarily evidence for, a biogenic origin. (Auth.)

  2. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    English, Nathan B.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Dean, Jeffrey S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75–100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams fr...

  3. Do Strontium Isotope Ratios of Animal Bone and Teeth Really Reflect the Isotope Ratios of its birth- and growth-places?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, M.; Goto, A.; Suzuki, K.; Kato, T.; Watanabe, K.; Hasegawa, T.

    2007-12-01

    Strontium enters the human body through the food chain as nutrients pass from bedrock through soil and water to plants and animals. Strontium substitutes for calcium in the hydroxyapatite mineral of skeletal tissue, and is stored there. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in an individual's bone and teeth could directly reflect the isotopic ratios found in the plants and animals that she or he consumed, which reflect the isotope ratios found in the soil and bedrock of that geologic region. Therefore, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of human skeletons could be useful tools for assessing human residential mobility in prehistory, and many studies on them have been often made. In this study, to evaluate whether the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a bone or teeth really reflects the isotopic ratios of its birth and growth places, several bone and teeth samples were measured for 87Sr/86Sr ratios, compared with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of geological samples in their growth-places. Bone and teeth samples were leached with 5% acetic acid. After drying, samples were ashed in a muffle furnace at 825°C for 8h, and then digested in nitric acid, followed by cation exchange chromatography with 2.4M hydrochloric acid. 87Sr/86Sr ratios were measured using a thermal ionization mass Spectrometer (VG Sector 54) or an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Finnigan ELEMENT2). A modern boar bone collected at Asuke, Toyota City, Aichi prefecture, Japan showed a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.71001±0.00002 (2 σ), while stream sediments in the Asuke area showed around 0.710 (Asahara et al., 2006). The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of a modern black bass bone collected from Lake Biwa, Shiga prefecture, Japan was 0.71215±0.00002, while those of surface water in Lake Biwa was 0.71233±0.00002. The similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios between bone and its provenance geology could indicate that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of bones reflect the isotopic ratios of the birth- and growth-places. The more results of modern and fossil skeletons will be shown in our presentation.

  4. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  5. Strontium isotopic ratios of Tertiary volcanic rocks of northeastern Honshu, Japan: implication for the spreading of the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, Hajime; Konda, Tadashi.

    1986-01-01

    Strontium isotopic ratios of sixty-seven Tertiary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, Japan, were determined for the purpose of examining the genesis among the volcanic rocks. Two distince suites of volcanic rocks occur in the northeastern Honshu; the rocks older than 16 Ma (Monzen-Daijima Stege) of predominantly intermediate composition and the rocks younger than 16 Ma (Nishikurosawa-Funakawa Stege) with bimodal suite of mafic and felsic composition. Initial values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Teriary volcanic rocks from the northeastern Honshu, lie in the range from 0.7033 to 0.7068. High ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios are observed for the rocks older than 16 Ma from the Japan Sea side (H zone). It is noteworthy that the rocks younger than 16 Ma show significantly lower ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) I ratios in the Dewa Hill, Japan Sea coast and North Akita areas in the northeastern Honshu (L zone). The rocks younger than 16 Ma from the L zone can also be interpreted as having been originated as a mantle-diapir associated with the spreading of the Japan Sea basin. If the basaltic magma was formed from the diapir, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio would be close to the range from 0.7033 to 0.7037 as the low-Sr isotopic ratio zone (L zone) in the northeastern Honshu, Japan. (author)

  6. Determining flow, recharge, and vadose zone drainage in an unconfined aquifer from groundwater strontium isotope measurements, Pasco Basin, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) measured in groundwater samples from 273 wells in the Pasco Basin unconfined aquifer below the Hanford Site show large and systematic variations that provide constraints on groundwater recharge, weathering rates of the aquifer host rocks, communication between unconfined and deeper confined aquifers, and vadose zone-groundwater interaction. The impact of millions of cubic meters of wastewater discharged to the vadose zone (103-105 times higher than ambient drainage) shows up strikingly on maps of groundwater 87Sr/86Sr. Extensive access through the many groundwater monitoring wells at the site allows for an unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the strontium geochemistry of a major aquifer, hosted primarily in unconsolidated sediments, and relate it to both long term properties and recent disturbances. Groundwater 87Sr/86Sr increases systematically from 0.707 to 0.712 from west to east across the Hanford Site, in the general direction of groundwater flow, as a result of addition of Sr from the weathering of aquifer sediments and from diffuse drainage through the vadose zone. The lower 87Sr/86Sr groundwater reflects recharge waters that have acquired Sr from Columbia River Basalts. Based on a steady-state model of Sr reactive transport and drainage, there is an average natural drainage flux of 0-1.4 mm/yr near the western margin of the Hanford Site, and ambient drainage may be up to 30 mm/yr in the center of the site assuming an average bulk rock weathering rate of 10-7.5 g/g/yr

  7. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  8. Strontium isotope fractionation during strontianite (SrCO3) dissolution, precipitation and at equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Harrison, Anna L.; Eisenhauer, Anton; Dietzel, Martin

    2017-12-01

    In this study we examine the behavior of stable Sr isotopes between strontianite [SrCO3] and reactive fluid during mineral dissolution, precipitation, and at chemical equilibrium. Experiments were performed in batch reactors at 25 °C in 0.01 M NaCl solutions wherein the pH was adjusted by bubbling of a water saturated gas phase of pure CO2 or atmospheric air. The equilibrium Sr isotope fractionation between strontianite and fluid after dissolution of the solid under 1 atm CO2 atmosphere was estimated as Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = δ88/86Sr SrCO3 - δ88/86Srfluid = -0.05 ± 0.01‰. On the other hand, during strontianite precipitation, an enrichment of the fluid phase in 88Sr, the heavy isotopomer, was observed. The evolution of the δ88/86Srfluid during strontianite precipitation can be modeled using a Rayleigh distillation approach and the estimated, kinetically driven, fractionation factor αSrCO3-fluid between solid and fluid is calculated to be 0.99985 ± 0.00003 corresponding to Δ88/86SrSrCO3-fluid = -0.15‰. The obtained results further support that under chemical equilibrium conditions between solid and fluid a continuous exchange of isotopes occurs until the system approaches isotopic equilibrium. This isotopic exchange is not limited to the outer surface layer of the strontianite crystal, but extends to ∼7-8 unit cells below the crystal surface. The behavior of Sr isotopes in this study is in excellent agreement with the concept of dynamic equilibrium and it suggests that the time needed for achievement of chemical equilibrium is generally shorter compared to that for isotopic equilibrium. Thus it is suggested that in natural Sr-bearing carbonates an isotopic change may still occur close to thermodynamic equilibrium, despite no observable change in aqueous elemental concentrations. As such, a secondary and ongoing change of Sr isotope signals in carbonate minerals caused by isotopic re-equilibration with fluids has to be considered in order to use Sr

  9. Literature survey of strontium-89/90 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwakman, P.J.M.

    1994-08-01

    At the RIVM Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO), the determination of strontium-89/90 in grass and milk samples using fuming nitric acid is a bottle neck in the routine monitoring programme, mainly due to the use of hazardous chemicals. In recent scientific articles, a number of alternatives have been described. This report gives an overview of the latest developments in this field and compares the pros and cons of these methods. The most promising method appears to be the 'Sr-spec' method developed by EIChrom Industries. In this method, an ion-exchanger is used for sorption of cations from the sample solution and, subsequently, a crown ether on a polymer support is applied for the selective complexation of bivalent strontium ions in the presence of other interfering bivalent ions. An important advantage is that the hazardous fuming nitric acid can be omitted and that the total number of chemical separation steps can be largely reduced. The possibility of a routine application of the 'Sr-spec' method for the determination of strontium-89/90 in grass and milk at RIVM/LSO is proposed. 2 tabs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of strontium in environmental water by using barium carbonate coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Akio; Maeda, Yoshimichi; Azumi, Takatugu

    1986-01-01

    Determination of strontium in environmental water was studied by a coprecipitation method with barium carbonate and the subsequent X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fifty mg of barium ion and 1 g of sodium carbonate were added to sample water, which was then mixed for one hour by a magnetic stirrer. Precipitate was gathered onto a membrane filter paper to measure its XF intensity. The amount of strontium from 2 to 150 μg could be repeatedly determined by means of the calibration curve method, and the limit of detection was found to be 0.6 μg of strontium. A large amount of calcium and magnesium ions was found to interfere with the coprecipitation of strontium ion. However, this interference could be eliminated by using a small amount of sample water. Strontium in several environmental waters was determined by the above method. The results obtained from the calibration curve method and the standard addition method agreed with each other, and also agreed with those from the atomic absorption spectrometry. (author)

  11. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China), were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils). Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations) are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern China presented the

  12. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    Full Text Available The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China, were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils. Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern

  13. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, David C.; Edwin Harvey, F.; Frost, Carol; Stotler, Randy; Allen Macfarlane, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist

  14. Isotopic dependence of photoneutron cross sections around Strontium (Z=38) and Cesium (Z=55) nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Uno, Y.; Yamadera, A.; Kase, T.

    1992-01-01

    We measured the average cross sections of (γ,n) reactions for 84 Sr, 86 Sr, 88 Sr, 85 Rb, 87 Rb, 98 Ru and 104 Ru isotopes in giant resonance region (9 to 25 MeV) using Bremsstrahlung radiation of 60 MeV maximum energy. We investigated the isotopic dependence of the average (γ,n) cross sections in giant resonance region from our experimental data and those estimated from other experimental data for Ge, Se, Zr, Mo, Sn, Te, Ce, Nd and Sm isotopes. As a result, we found that the average cross section data become highest for nuclei of neutron magic number of N = 50 and 82 except for Mo nucleus

  15. Strontium and argon isotopes in naturally weathered biotites, muscovites and feldspars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.

    1981-01-01

    A Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopical study on progressively weathered biotites, muscovites and feldspars from plutonic and eruptive rocks shows that their continental weathering is a complex phenomenon controlled by environmental conditions. During weathering of biotites, the K-Ar couple often mimics the Rb-Sr couple. The radiogenic Sr and Ar isotopes are systematically leached out, but the behaviour of the elemental Rb, K, Sr and Ar depends upon the environment. In contrast, the Sr and Ar balances of muscovites are maintained, even during very intensive weathering. In mixtures of feldspars, the common Sr seems to be leached out preferentially to the radiogenic isotope, while the K-Ar balance is maintained. (Auth.)

  16. Use of strontium isotopes to identify buried water main leakage into groundwater in a highly urbanized coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Man; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the local aquifer systems in the Mid-Levels, a highly urbanized coastal area in Hong Kong, have commonly been affected by leakage from water mains. The identification of leakage locations was done by conventional water quality parameters including major and trace elements. However, these parameters may lead to ambiguous results and fail to identify leakage locations especially where the leakage is from drinking water mains because the chemical composition of drinking water is similar to that of natural groundwater. In this study, natural groundwater, seepage in the developed spaces, leakage from water mains, and parent aquifer materials were measured for strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) compositions to explore the feasibility of using these ratios to better constrain the seepage sources. The results show that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of natural groundwater and leakage from water mains are distinctly different and thus, they can provide additional information on the sources of seepage in developed spaces. A classification system based on the aqueous 87Sr/86Sr ratio is proposed for seepage source identification.

  17. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  18. The spatial patterns of water management practices are reflected in the strontium isotope ratios of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Valenzuela, L. O.; Ehleringer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Element concentrations and isotopes of human tissues are commonly used to understand how emissions and processes within urban ecosystems affect health. Thus, it is important to understand how these elements are incorporated and flow through the urban environment and are ultimately incorporated into human tissues. Here, we designed an experiment to identify the relative importance of strontium (Sr) sources (bedrock, dust, food, and water) to hair Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). To understand the contribution of Sr to human hair, we collected hair from individuals living in Salt Lake City, Utah. In addition to sample location, we compiled information regarding age, sex, ethnicity, and dietary habits. We found a significant association between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and collection location. There were no significant relationships between 87Sr/86Sr value of hair and age, ethnicity, or sex. We had not predicted a relationship between 87Sr/86Sr values and collection location, because of the close proximities of sites to one another (all within an 8-km radius). We found that tap water 87Sr/86Sr values across the Salt Lake Valley varied with water management practice and this variation corresponded to hair 87Sr/86Sr value. These data suggest an additional geographically controlled source of Sr may be an important contributor to the 87Sr/86Sr value of hair. These findings suggest that local water is an important source of Sr in human hair and that hair is a sensitive temporal carrier of this environmental information. These observations have important implications to future studies of humans with regard to urban ecology, human health, forensic sciences, and anthropology.

  19. Reduced population variance in strontium isotope values informs domesticated turkey use at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimstead, Deanna N; Reynolds, Amanda C; Hudson, Adam M; Akins, Nancy J; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) have been used as a sourcing tool in numerous archaeological artifact classes. The research presented here demonstrates that 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios also can be used at a population level to investigate the presence of domesticated animals and methods of management. The proposed methodology combines ecology, isotope geochemistry, and behavioral ecology to assess the presence and nature of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) domestication. This case study utilizes 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios from teeth and bones of archaeological turkey, deer (Odocoileus sp.), lagomorph (Lepus sp. and Sylvilagus sp.), and prairie-dog (Cynomys sp.) from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, U.S.A. (ca. A.D. 800 – 1250). Wild deer and turkey from the southwestern U.S.A. have much larger home ranges and dispersal behaviors (measured in kilometers) when compared to lagomorphs and prairie dogs (measured in meters). Hunted deer and wild turkey from archaeological contexts at Chaco Canyon are expected to have a higher variance in their 87Sr/86Srbioapatite ratios, when compared to small range taxa (lagomorphs and prairie dogs). Contrary to this expectation, 87Sr/86Srbioapatite values of turkey bones from Chacoan assemblages have a much lower variance than deer and are similar to that of smaller mammals. The sampled turkey values show variability most similar to lagomorphs and prairie dogs, suggesting the turkeys from Chaco Canyon were consuming a uniform diet and/or were constrained within a limited home range, indicating at least proto-domestication. The population approach has wide applicability for evaluating the presence and nature of domestication when combined with paleoecology and behavioral ecology in a variety of animals and environments.

  20. Lead and strontium isotopes as monitors of anthropogenic contaminants in the surficial environment: Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2018-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, Pennsylvania, United States, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb and Sr isotopic data and REE data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed, together with locally used Pb-As pesticide. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to Pb in groundwater accumulating in sediment in the residential water tanks. The Pb isotope features of waters in underlying shallow aquifers that supply residential wells in the region are best interpreted as reflecting a legacy of anthropogenic Pb rather than geogenic Pb.

  1. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, N B; Betancourt, J L; Dean, J S; Quade, J

    2001-10-09

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75-100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time.

  2. Strontium Isotopes in Pore Water as an Indicator of Water Flux at the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.; Futa, K.

    2004-01-01

    The proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, would be constructed in the high-silica rhyolite (Tptp) member of the Miocene-age Topopah Spring Tuff, a mostly welded ash-flow tuff in the ∼500-m-thick unsaturated zone. Strontium isotope compositions have been measured in pore water centrifuged from preserved core samples and in leachates of pore-water salts from dried core samples, both from boreholes in the Tptp. Strontium isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) vary systematically with depth in the surface-based boreholes. Ratios in pore water near the surface (0.7114 to 0.7124) reflect the range of ratios in soil carbonate (0.7112 to 0.7125) collected near the boreholes, but ratios in the Tptp (0.7122 to 0.7127) at depths of 150 to 370 m have a narrower range and are more radiogenic due to interaction with the volcanic rocks (primarily non-welded tuffs) above the Tptp. An advection-reaction model relates the rate of strontium dissolution from the rocks with flow velocity. The model results agree with the low transport velocity (∼2 cm per year) calculated from carbon-14 data by I.C. Yang (2002, App. Geochem., v. 17, no. 6, p. 807-817). Strontium isotope ratios in pore water from Tptp samples from horizontal boreholes collared in tunnels at the proposed repository horizon have a similar range (0.7121 to 0.7127), also indicating a low transport velocity. Strontium isotope compositions of pore water below the proposed repository in core samples from boreholes drilled vertically downward from tunnel floors are more varied, ranging from 0.7112 to 0.7127. The lower ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of 0.7115. Ratios lower than 0.7115 likely reflect interaction of construction water with concrete in the tunnel inverts, which had an 87 Sr/ 86 Sr < 0.709. These low Sr ratios indicate penetration of construction water to depths of ∼20 m below the tunnels within three years after construction, a transport velocity of ∼7 m per year. These studies show that

  3. Neodymium and strontium isotope study of ophiolite and orogenic lherzolite petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, P.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1980-01-01

    Neodymium isotopic analyses have been measured on nine ophiolites and four orogenic lherzolites. Epsilonsub(Nd) varies from +12 to +3 in the ophiolites and from +18 to +2 in the orogenic lherzolites. The majority of the analyses plot on a epsilonsub(Nd)-epsilonsub(Sr) correlation line as defined by Nd and Sr isotopic analyses of oceanic basalts. However, certain ophiolitic and lherzolitic samples exhibit high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and as such lie to the right of the correlation line towards seawater compositions. From these data one can postulate several origins for ophiolites including that of mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands. If the orogenic lherzolites are interpreted as representative of the mantle occurring below active ridges a more complex model is required involving mantle heterogeneity and multi-episodic chemical fractionation starting prior to 2 Ga ago. (orig.)

  4. Strontium isotope data for recent andesites in Ecuador and North Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.W.; Thorpe, R.S.; Moorbath, S.

    1977-01-01

    New Sr isotope data are presented for andesite lavas from active volcanoes in Ecuador and North Chile. Twenty-three samples from five Ecuadorian volcanoes have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios most of which are essentially within analytical error, and average 0.7044. In contrast, 16 samples from the San Pedro-San Pablo volcano complex in North Chile have 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios between 0.7058 and 0.7072. These samples show no correlation between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 87 Rb/ 86 Sr, nor between 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and other elements or ratios. The major difference in setting between the two volcanic provinces lies in the thickness of the continental crust; 40-50 km beneath Ecuador, 70 km beneath North Chile. Andesites from both areas are derived primarily from the mantle, but those from North Chile show evidence of a significant Sr isotopic contribution from the continental crust. (Auth.)

  5. Contribution of isotopic and geochemical tracers to the administration of water resources: the strontium case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdoux, P.; Lancelot, J.; Faillat, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    A better understanding of groundwater origin(s) and a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of exploited resources is a preliminary condition for rational administration and preventive actions. The determination of Sr contents and isotopic compositions associated or not to other elements is a new method applied in underground domains which has proven to be effective for example in Languedoc-Rousillon, particularly in areas where classical natural and even artificial tracers are unreliable. The use of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr tracer is based on the condition that each analysed rock-system is defined by a typical isotopic composition. In the Cevennes and Lozere, sedimentary carbonate rocks display 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios ranging from 0.707 to 0.709, similar to those of seawater,while silicate rocks exhibit values from 0.710 to 0.750, depending on Rb/Sr ratios, ages and resistance of the different minerals to weathering processes. Sr data obtained in the Lozere suggest important binary mixing of water between an homogeneous end member representing the composition of water flowing on the crystalline basement and a second component corresponding to water from karstic springs and to captive waters of the lower aquifer reached at 200 m in depth by borehole. Calculated mixing curves between the basement and the karstic water end members would allow to define the nature and volumetric importance of storage and to evaluate pollution risks. (J.S.). 17 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater affected by human activities in Nandong underground river system, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yongjun, E-mail: jiangjyj@swu.edu.cn [School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)] [Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Spatio-temporal variations of Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition of groundwater were investigated in a karst underground river system. {yields} Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural Sr isotopic signature of karst groundwater. {yields} Sr in the carbonate aquifers was relatively non-radiogenic, with low Sr concentrations, while anthropogenic Sr correlated with agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents was relatively radiogenic, with higher Sr concentrations. {yields} {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios can provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. - Abstract: The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic {sup 87

  7. Environmental controls on the boron and strontium isotopic composition of aragonite shell material of cultured Arctica islandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-W. Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, is likely to impact marine organisms, particularly those that produce carbonate skeletons or shells. Therefore, it is important to investigate how environmental factors (seawater pH, temperature and salinity influence the chemical compositions in biogenic carbonates. In this study we report the first high-resolution strontium (87Sr / 86Sr and δ88 / 86Sr and boron (δ11B isotopic values in the aragonite shell of cultured Arctica islandica (A. islandica. The 87Sr / 86Sr ratios from both tank water and shell samples show ratios nearly identical to the open ocean, which suggests that the shell material reflects ambient ocean chemistry without terrestrial influence. The 84Sr–87Sr double-spike-resolved shell δ88 / 86Sr and Sr concentration data show no resolvable change throughout the culture period and reflect no theoretical kinetic mass fractionation throughout the experiment despite a temperature change of more than 15 °C. The δ11B records from the experiment show at least a 5‰ increase through the 29-week culture season (January 2010–August 2010, with low values from the beginning to week 19 and higher values thereafter. The larger range in δ11B in this experiment compared to predictions based on other carbonate organisms (2–3‰ suggests that a species-specific fractionation factor may be required. A significant correlation between the ΔpH (pHshell − pHsw and seawater pH (pHsw was observed (R2 = 0.35, where the pHshell is the calcification pH of the shell calculated from boron isotopic composition. This negative correlation suggests that A. islandica partly regulates the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, this proposed mechanism only explains approximately 35% of the variance in the δ11B data. Instead, a rapid rise in δ11B of the shell material after week 19, during the summer, suggests that the boron uptake changes when a thermal

  8. Strontium isotope ratios - a possible tool to study the authenticity of Indian tea using MC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Singh, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an analytical procedure based on determination of the Sr isotope ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Indian tea samples by MC-ICP-MS was developed and applied to 28 tea samples from four different Indian regions. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotope ratio of the tea samples in different Indian regions is strongly dependent on the soil and growth environment condition. The analysis results of 28 Indian tea samples revealed that 87 Sr/ 86 Sr atom ratio follows the order Darjeeling > Kangra > Assam > Munnar

  9. Gamow-Teller decay and nuclear deformation: implementing of a new total absorption spectrometer, study of isotopes N ≅ Z krypton and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.

    2002-12-01

    Nuclei with A ∼ 70 along the N=Z line are known to be the scene of phenomena closely related to the nuclear deformation and are of particular interest since theoretical mean field calculations predict that a large part of the Gamow-Teller resonance might be located below the ground state of the mother nucleus and then be accessible through β-decay studies. These results have shown the effect of the shape of the ground state on the intensity of the Gamow-Teller strength. Thus, the experimental determination, through δ-decay, of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the comparison to the theoretical predictions allow to pin down the quadrupolar deformation parameter of the ground state of the parent nucleus. In order to study the neutron deficient isotopes of krypton (A=72,73,74,75) and strontium (A=76,77,78) and to establish the β-strength on the full energy range, a new total absorption spectrometer (TAgS) has been built in the frame of an international collaboration and installed at the (SOLDE/CERN mass separator. For the data analysis, the response function R of the spectrometer has been calculated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations, based on the GEANT4 code, and of a statistical description of the level scheme in the daughter nucleus. The β-feeding distribution has been obtained from experimental spectra through a method based on Bayes theorem and then converted into Gamow-Teller strength. The results coming from the 74 Kr decay analysis allow to describe the ground state of such a nucleus as the coexistence of an oblate shape and of a prolate shape. In the case of 76 Sr, the experimental Gamow-Teller strength distribution strongly indicates a prolate deformation. (author)

  10. Calcium Isotope Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, S.; Richter, S.

    2010-12-01

    The variations in the isotopic composition of calcium caused by fractionation in heterogeneous systems and by nuclear reactions can provide insight into numerous biological, geological, and cosmic processes, and therefore isotopic analysis finds a wide spectrum of applications in cosmo- and geochemistry, paleoclimatic, nutritional, and biomedical studies. The measurement of calcium isotopic abundances in natural samples has challenged the analysts for more than three decades. Practically all Ca isotopes suffer from significant isobaric interferences, whereas low-abundant isotopes can be particularly affected by neighboring major isotopes. The extent of natural variations of stable isotopes appears to be relatively limited, and highly precise techniques are required to resolve isotopic effects. Isotope fractionation during sample preparation and measurements and instrumental mass bias can significantly exceed small isotope abundance variations in samples, which have to be investigated. Not surprisingly, a TIMS procedure developed by Russell et al. (Russell et al., 1978. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 1075-1090) for Ca isotope measurements was considered as revolutionary for isotopic measurements in general, and that approach is used nowadays (with small modifications) for practically all isotopic systems and with different mass spectrometric techniques. Nevertheless, despite several decades of calcium research and corresponding development of mass spectrometers, the available precision and accuracy is still not always sufficient to achieve the challenging goals. This presentation discusses figures of merits of presently used analytical methods and instrumentation, and attempts to critically assess their limitations. Additionally, the availability of Ca isotope reference materials will be discussed.

  11. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88

    OpenAIRE

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 (88Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 (90Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water co...

  12. Mass measurements of neutron-rich strontium and rubidium isotopes in the region $A \\approx 100$ and development of an electrospray ionization ion source

    CERN Document Server

    de Roubin, Antoine

    An extension of the atomic mass surface in the region $A \\approx 100$ is performed via mass measurements of the $^{100−102}$Sr and $^{100−102}$Rb isotopes with the ion-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE. The first direct mass measurements of $^{102}$Sr and $^{101,102}$Rb are reported here. These measurements confirm the continuation of the region of nuclear deformation with the increase of neutron number, at least as far as $N = 65$. In order to interpret the deformation in the strontium isotopic chain and to determine whether an onset of deformation is present in heavier krypton isotopes, a comparison is made between experimental values and theoretical calculations available in the literature. To complete this comparison, Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations for even and odd isotopes are also presented, illustrating the competition of nuclear shapes in the region. The development of an electrospray ionization ion source is presented. This source can deliver a large range of isobaric masses ...

  13. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company's (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP

  14. Experimental evidence shows no fractionation of strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) among soil, plants, and herbivores: implications for tracking wildlife and forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Kyser, T Kurt; Chipley, Don; Miller, Nathan G; Norris, D Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) can be useful biological markers for a wide range of forensic science applications, including wildlife tracking. However, one of the main advantages of using (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, that there is no fractionation from geological bedrock sources through the food web, also happens to be a critical assumption that has never been tested experimentally. We test this assumption by measuring (87)Sr/(86)Sr values across three trophic levels in a controlled greenhouse experiment. Adult monarch butterflies were raised on obligate larval host milkweed plants that were, in turn, grown on seven different soil types collected across Canada. We found no significant differences between (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in leachable Sr from soil minerals, organic soil, milkweed leaves, and monarch butterfly wings. Our results suggest that strontium isoscapes developed from (87)Sr/(86)Sr values in bedrock or soil may serve as a reliable biological marker in forensic science for a range of taxa and across large geographic areas.

  15. Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Para, BR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordalo, Adriana Oliveira; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; Scheller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Para. Coastal plateau waters have δ 87 Sr between 1.51 and 6.26 per mille and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show δ 87 Sr between 0.55 and 0.90 per mille and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have δ 87 Sr per mille around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal plateau waters. (author)

  16. Gamow-Teller decay and nuclear deformation: implementing of a new total absorption spectrometer, study of isotopes N {approx_equal} Z krypton and strontium; Decroissance Gamow-Teller et deformation nucleaire: mise en oeuvre d'un nouveau spectrometre a absorption totale, etude d'isotopes N {approx_equal} Z de krypton et strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E

    2002-12-01

    Nuclei with A {approx} 70 along the N=Z line are known to be the scene of phenomena closely related to the nuclear deformation and are of particular interest since theoretical mean field calculations predict that a large part of the Gamow-Teller resonance might be located below the ground state of the mother nucleus and then be accessible through {beta}-decay studies. These results have shown the effect of the shape of the ground state on the intensity of the Gamow-Teller strength. Thus, the experimental determination, through {delta}-decay, of the Gamow-Teller strength distribution and the comparison to the theoretical predictions allow to pin down the quadrupolar deformation parameter of the ground state of the parent nucleus. In order to study the neutron deficient isotopes of krypton (A=72,73,74,75) and strontium (A=76,77,78) and to establish the {beta}-strength on the full energy range, a new total absorption spectrometer (TAgS) has been built in the frame of an international collaboration and installed at the (SOLDE/CERN mass separator. For the data analysis, the response function R of the spectrometer has been calculated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations, based on the GEANT4 code, and of a statistical description of the level scheme in the daughter nucleus. The {beta}-feeding distribution has been obtained from experimental spectra through a method based on Bayes theorem and then converted into Gamow-Teller strength. The results coming from the {sup 74}Kr decay analysis allow to describe the ground state of such a nucleus as the coexistence of an oblate shape and of a prolate shape. In the case of {sup 76}Sr, the experimental Gamow-Teller strength distribution strongly indicates a prolate deformation. (author)

  17. Seawater strontium isotope curve at the Silurian/Devonian boundary: a study of the global Silurian/Devonian boundary stratotype

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýda, J.; Hladil, Jindřich; Vokurka, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2002), s. 21-28 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/98/0454; GA ČR GA205/01/0143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : strontium chemostratigraphy * Silurian/Devonian * Barrandian area Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2002

  18. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  19. Effect of strontium ranelate on bone mineral: Analysis of nanoscale compositional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, André L; Moldovan, Simona; Querido, William; Rossi, Alexandre; Werckmann, Jacques; Ersen, Ovidiu; Farina, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Strontium ranelate has been used to prevent bone loss and stimulate bone regeneration. Although strontium may integrate into the bone crystal lattice, the chemical and structural modifications of the bone when strontium interacts with the mineral phase are not completely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate apatite from the mandibles of rats treated with strontium ranelate in the drinking water and compare its characteristics with those from untreated rats and synthetic apatites with and without strontium. Electron energy loss near edge structures from phosphorus, carbon, calcium and strontium were obtained by electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The strontium signal was detected in the biological and synthetic samples containing strontium. The relative quantification of carbon by analyzing the CK edge at an energy loss of ΔE = 284 eV showed an increase in the number of carbonate groups in the bone mineral of treated rats. A synthetic strontium-containing sample used as control did not exhibit a carbon signal. This study showed physicochemical modifications in the bone mineral at the nanoscale caused by the systemic administration of strontium ranelate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural uranium and strontium isotope tracers of water sources and surface water-groundwater interactions in arid wetlands: Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Wurster, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    Near-surface physical and chemical process can strongly affect dissolved-ion concentrations and stable isotope compositions of water in wetland settings, especially under arid climate conditions. In contrast, heavy radiogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) remain largely unaffected and can be used to help identify unique signatures from different sources and quantify end-member mixing that would otherwise be difficult to determine. The utility of combined Sr and U isotopes are demonstrated in this study of wetland habitats on the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, which depend on supply from large-volume springs north of the Refuge, and from small-volume springs and seeps within the Refuge. Water budgets from these sources have not been quantified previously. Evaporation, transpiration, seasonally variable surface flow, and water management practices complicate the use of conventional methods for determining source contributions and mixing relations. In contrast, 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U remain unfractionated under these conditions, and compositions at a given site remain constant. Differences in Sr- and U-isotopic signatures between individual sites can be related by simple two- or three-component mixing models. Results indicate that surface flow constituting the Refuge’s irrigation source consists of a 65:25:10 mixture of water from two distinct regionally sourced carbonate aquifer springs, and groundwater from locally sourced volcanic aquifers. Within the Refuge, contributions from the irrigation source and local groundwater are readily determined and depend on proximity to those sources as well as water management practices.

  1. Prediction of strontium bromide laser efficiency using cluster and decision tree analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Iliycho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of investigation is a new high-powered strontium bromide (SrBr2 vapor laser emitting in multiline region of wavelengths. The laser is an alternative to the atom strontium lasers and electron free lasers, especially at the line 6.45 μm which line is used in surgery for medical processing of biological tissues and bones with minimal damage. In this paper the experimental data from measurements of operational and output characteristics of the laser are statistically processed by means of cluster analysis and tree-based regression techniques. The aim is to extract the more important relationships and dependences from the available data which influence the increase of the overall laser efficiency. There are constructed and analyzed a set of cluster models. It is shown by using different cluster methods that the seven investigated operational characteristics (laser tube diameter, length, supplied electrical power, and others and laser efficiency are combined in 2 clusters. By the built regression tree models using Classification and Regression Trees (CART technique there are obtained dependences to predict the values of efficiency, and especially the maximum efficiency with over 95% accuracy.

  2. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and European Union [2011].

  3. A normalised seawater strontium isotope curve. Possible implications for Neoproterozoic-Cambrian weathering rates and the further oxygenation of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The strontium isotope composition of seawater is strongly influenced on geological time scales by changes in the rates of continental weathering relative to ocean crust alteration. However, the potential of the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to trace globally integrated chemical weathering rates has not been fully realised because ocean 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is also influenced by the isotopic evolution of Sr sources to the ocean. A preliminary attempt is made here to normalise the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve to plausible trends in the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the three major Sr sources: carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering and submarine hydrothermal exchange. The normalised curve highlights the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic transition as a period of exceptionally high continental influence, indicating that this interval was characterised by a transient increase in global weathering rates and/or by the weathering of unusually radiogenic crustal rocks. Close correlation between the normalised 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve, a published seawater δ 34 S curve and atmospheric pCO 2 models is used here to argue that elevated chemical weathering rates were a major contributing factor to the steep rise in seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr from 650 Ma to 500 Ma. Elevated weathering rates during the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian interval led to increased nutrient availability, organic burial and to the further oxygenation of Earth's surface environment. Use of normalised seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curves will, it is hoped, help to improve future geochemical models of Earth System dynamics. (orig.)

  4. The strontium isotopic composition of interstitial waters from sites 245 and 336 of the deep sea drilling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkesworth, C.J.; Elderfield, H.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of interstitial waters from leg 25, site 245 and leg 38, site 336 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project show that the enrichment of Sr 2+ with depth is caused both by the alteration of volcanic material and by the introduction of strontium derived from calcium carbonate. 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios range from 0.70913 to 0.70794 at site 245 and from 0.70916 to 0.70694 at site 336. The low ratios compared with contemporaneous seawater reflect the release of Sr from a volcanic source having, according to material-balance calculations, a 87 Se/ 86 Sr ratio of about 0.7034 at site 336. At this site the source appears to be volcanic ash and not basaltic basement which acts as a sink for Sr 2+ during in situ low-temperature weathering. The volcanic contribution to the strontium enrichment in the basal interstitial waters varies from 50% at site 336. The remaining Sr 2+ is derived from Sr-rich biogenic carbonate during diagenetic recrystallization to form Sr-poor calcite. (Auth.)

  5. Lead-strontium isotopic variations along the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelin, B.; Dupre, B.; Allegre, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    We have determined the Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in a number of fresh young oceanic basalts from the East Pacific Rise (between 20 0 N and 21 0 S latitudes), and from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (between 65 0 N and 10 0 N). A comparison between the Atlantic and Pacific results reveals that there is a wider range of values for the Atlantic than for the Pacific. After filtering the short wavelengths, a good correlation is obtained between long-wavelength bathymetric and isotopic variations for the Atlantic. The preferred model proposed to explain these differences involves the constant presence of hot spots under ridges. On slow-spreading ridges like the Atlantic, the host spots signature is clearly visible in both bathymetry and isotopic ratios. On fast-spreading centres, the hot spot signature in both the bathymetry and isotopic signature may be diluted by the rapid supply of material coming from the asthenosphere. However, an alternative explanation for which no hot spot influence is found on the East Pacific Rise cannot be definitely ruled out. In two occurrences, south of the Hayes fracture zone (Atlantic), large isotopic heterogeneities are observed within a single dredge. This does not contradict the concept of regional isotopic regularities, but suggests that blob injection and source mixing may be observed at very different scales under the ridges. (orig./WB)

  6. Adaptation of the ICRP models for the Techa River populations to estimate in utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses from ingested strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shagina, Natalia; Tolstykh, Evgenia; Degteva, Marina; Fell, Tim; Harrison, John

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Reliable estimation of tissue doses for exposed individuals is very important in epidemiological studies. Long-term cohort studies of the Techa River populations exposed in the early 1950s due to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Southern Urals, Russia) are unique in allowing the quantification of risks from low-level chronic exposure of the general population and providing information on risks for persons exposed in utero. Strontium isotopes were the most important contributors to haemopoietic tissue doses for people living in the riverside settlements. Large-scale monitoring of the exposed population has provided a comprehensive database, including post mortem and in vivo measurements of 90 Sr in bones and whole body, for use in the estimation of doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to members of the public, including doses from in utero exposures and from intakes with breast milk. However, the ICRP models as applied to Sr required modification to provide best estimates of doses to Techa River residents. Adaptations were made to the ICRP model for Sr in children and adults to take account of population-specific features relating to bone mineral turnover and to model age and gender differences in strontium retention. Refinements in the ICRP model for Sr uptake and retention in the fetus were made to improve the treatment of discrimination against Sr, relative to Ca, in transfer from maternal to foetal blood and to take account of population-specific data on the calcium content of the maternal and fetal skeleton. Modification of the ICRP model for Sr transfer in breast-milk included adaptations relating to changes in maternal mineral metabolism during lactation and consideration of population-specific features of breast feeding in the rural population. The improved models were successfully

  7. Application of empore TM strontium rad disks to the analysis of radiostrontium in environmental water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.L.; Seely, D.C.; Shannon, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    A solid phase extraction method for analyzing radioactive strontium in surface, ground, and drinking waters is presented. Strontium is simply isolated by pulling an acidified sample aliquot through an Empore TM strontium rad disk with a vacuum, and the disk is subsequently assayed for beta activity. The method is efficient, safe, reliable, and potentially field deployable. Sample preparation and counting source preparation may be condensed into a single procedure, thereby improving efficiency and eliminating many potential sources of laboratory error. Moreover, many of the hazardous chemicals associated with traditional strontium procedures are eliminated. Samples are easily batched, and a one-liter sample may be prepared with as little as 20 min of effort. For a one-liter aqueous sample, up to 3 mg of strontium can be retained by the disks. Chemical and radiometric interferences are discussed. (orig.)

  8. 'Applications of stable isotopes in life sciences'. Lead and strontium stable isotope measurements by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    The method of Pb and Sr isotope measurements at about 5 μm resolution was developed by using a high lateral resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer (NanoSIMS NS50). Since the both elements have radiogenic nuclides such as 206 Pb, 207 Pb, and 87 Sr, natural variations of isotopic ratios are large. It is possible to detect a meaningful variation in a terrestrial sample, even though the experimental error is relatively large. In the case of monazite U-Pb dating, a 4 nA O - primary beam was used to sputter the sample and secondary positive ions were extracted for mass analysis using a Mattauch-Herzog geometry. The multi-collector system was modified to detect 140 Ce + , 204 Pb + , 206 Pb + , 238 U 16 O + , and 238 U 16 O 2 + ions simultaneously. Based on the monazite standard from North-Central Madagascar, we have determined the 206 Pb/ 238 U ratios of samples. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were measured by a magnet scanning with a single collector mode. 44 monazite grains extracted from a sedimentary rock in Taiwan were analyzed. Observed ages were consistent with the U-Th-Pb chemical ages by EPMA. Then NanoSIMS has been used to measure 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in natural calcium carbonate samples. Multi-collector system was adjusted to detect 43 Ca + , 80 Ca 2 + , 86 Sr + , and 87 Sr + ions at the same time. Magnetic field was scanning for the EM no.4 counter to detect 85 Rb + , 86 Sr + and 87 Sr + , while the EM no.4b can measure 86 Sr + , 87 Sr + , and 88 Sr + , respectively. Repeated analyses of a coral skeleton standard (JCp-1) show that 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio agrees well with the seawater signature, after the series of corrections such as Ca dimer, 87 Rb, and a mass bias estimated by 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. The method is applied to an otolith from ayu (Pleco-glossus altivelis altivelis) collected from the Yodo river, Japan. The spatial variation of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios was consistent with amphidromous migration of the fish, namely, born in the lake and grown in the coastal sea

  9. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ``milked`` from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country.

  10. Hanford isotope project strategic business analysis yttrium-90 (Y-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to address the short-term direction for the Hanford yttrium-90 (Y-90) project. Hanford is the sole DOE producer of Y-90, and is the largest repository for its source in this country. The production of Y-90 is part of the DOE Isotope Production and Distribution (IP and D) mission. The Y-90 is ''milked'' from strontium-90 (Sr-90), a byproduct of the previous Hanford missions. The use of Sr-90 to produce Y-90 could help reduce the amount of waste material processed and the related costs incurred by the clean-up mission, while providing medical and economic benefits. The cost of producing Y-90 is being subsidized by DOE-IP and D due to its use for research, and resultant low production level. It is possible that the sales of Y-90 could produce full cost recovery within two to three years, at two curies per week. Preliminary projections place the demand at between 20,000 and 50,000 curies per year within the next ten years, assuming FDA approval of one or more of the current therapies now in clinical trials. This level of production would incentivize private firms to commercialize the operation, and allow the government to recover some of its sunk costs. There are a number of potential barriers to the success of the Y-90 project, outside the control of the Hanford Site. The key issues include: efficacy, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and medical community acceptance. There are at least three other sources for Y-90 available to the US users, but they appear to have limited resources to produce the isotope. Several companies have communicated interest in entering into agreements with Hanford for the processing and distribution of Y-90, including some of the major pharmaceutical firms in this country

  11. Analysis of barium by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Kaiming; Jia Baoting; Liu Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios for barium at sub-microgram level are analyzed by thermal surface ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Rhenium trips used for sample preparation are firstly treated to eliminate possible barium background interference. During the preparation of barium samples phosphoric acid is added as an emitting and stabilizing reagent. The addition of phosphoric acid increases the collection efficiency and ion current strength and stability for barium. A relative standard deviation of 0.02% for the isotopic abundance ratio of 137 Ba to 138 Ba is achieved when the 138 Ba ion current is (1-3) x 10 -12 A. The experimental results also demonstrate that the isotope fractionation effect is negligibly small in the isotopic analysis of barium

  12. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betton, P.J.; Civetta, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform 143 Nd/ 144 Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio. (orig.)

  13. Paleoenvironmental conditions and strontium isotope stratigraphy in the Paleogene Gafsa Basin (Tunisia) deduced from geochemical analyses of phosphatic fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, László; Ounis, Anouar; Chaabani, Fredj; Salah, Neili Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Fossil shark teeth and coprolites from three major phosphorite occurrences in the Gafsa Basin (southwestern Tunisia) were investigated for their geochemical compositions to improve local stratigraphy and to better assess paleoenvironmental conditions. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios of shark teeth from the Early Maastrichtian El Haria Formation and from the Early Eocene Métlaoui s.s. Formation yielded Sr isotope ages of 68 ± 1 and 47.9 ± 1.3 Ma, respectively, which accord with the expected stratigraphic positions of these sediments. Conversely, shark teeth from the Paleocene-Eocene Chouabine Formation have large variation in Sr isotope ratios even within individual layers. After statistical treatment and then elimination of certain outlier samples, three age-models are proposed and discussed. The most reasonable solution includes three subsequent Sr ages of 61.8 ± 2.2 Ma, 57.2 ± 1.8 and 54.6 ± 1.6 for layer IX, layers VIII-V and layers IV-0, respectively. Three scenarios are discussed for explanation of the presence of the outliers: (1) diagenesis, (2) re-working and (3) locally controlled seawater Sr isotope ratio. The most plausible account for the higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios relative to the global ocean in some fossils is enhanced intrabasinal re-working due to low sea level. Conversely, the sample with lower 87Sr/86Sr than the global seawater may link to diagenesis or to seawater influenced by weathering of Late Cretaceous marine carbonates, which latter is supported by model calculation as well. The ɛNd values of these fossils are very similar to those reported for Paleogene and Late Cretaceous Tethyan seawater and are compatible with the above interpretations. The relatively low oxygen isotope values in shark teeth from the topmost phosphate bed of the Chouabine Formation, together with the Sr isotope results, point toward recovering better connections with the open sea. These δ18O data reflect elevated ambient temperature, which may link to the Early Eocene

  14. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation.

  15. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  16. Strontium and neodymium isotopic evidence for the heterogeneous nature and development of the mantle beneath Afar (Ethiopia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betton, P.J. (Leeds Univ. (UK). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Civetta, L. (Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia)

    1984-11-01

    Neodymium isotope and REE analyses of recent volcanic rocks and spinel lherzolite nodules from the Afar area are reported. The /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios of the volcanic rocks range from 0.51286 to 0.51304, similar to the range recorded from Iceland. However, the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios display a distinctly greater range (0.70328-0.70410) than those reported from the primitive rocks of Iceland. Whole rock samples and mineral separates from the spinel lherzolite nodules exhibit uniform /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd ratios (ca. 0.5129) but varied /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.70427-0.70528. The Sr-Nd isotope variations suggest that the volcanic rocks may have been produced by mixing between two reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions. Two possible magma reservoirs in this area are the source which produced the 'MORB-type' volcanics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden and the anomalous source represented by the nodule suite. The isotopic composition of the volcanics is compatible with mixing between these two reservoirs. It is shown that the anomalous source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio cannot have been produced by simple processes of partial melting and mixing within normal mantle. Instead the high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr is equated with a fluid phase. A primitive cognate fluid, subducted seawater or altered oceanic lithosphere may have been responsible for the generation of the source with a high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratio.

  17. Si-metasomatism in serpentinized peridotite: The effects of talc-alteration on strontium and boron isotopes in abyssal serpentinites from Hole 1268a, ODP Leg 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Savov, Ivan P.; Agostini, Samuele; Cliff, Robert A.; Walshaw, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks recovered from Hole 1268a, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 209, to the south of the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic ridge have experienced a complex history of melt depletion and subsequent interaction with a series of fluids under varying temperature and pH conditions. After intense melt depletion, varying degrees of serpentinization at 100-200 °C took place, initially under seawater-like pH conditions. Subsequently, interaction with a higher temperature (300-350 °C) fluid with low (4-5) pH and low MgO/SiO2 resulted in the heterogeneous alteration of these serpentinites to talc-bearing ultramafic lithologies. The proximity of the currently active, high temperature Logatchev hydrothermal field, located on the opposite flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, suggests that unlike more distal localities sampled during ODP Leg 209, Hole 1268a has experienced Si-metasomatism (i.e. talc-alteration) by a Logatchev-like hydrothermal fluid. Serpentinite strontium isotope ratios were not materially shifted by interaction with the subsequent high-T fluid, despite the likelihood that this fluid had locally interacted with mid-ocean ridge gabbro. 87Sr/86Sr in the ultramafic lithologies of Hole 1268a are close to that of seawater (c.0.709) and even acid leached serpentinites retain 87Sr/86Sr in excess of 0.707, indistinguishable from Logatchev hydrothermal fluid. On the other hand, boron isotope ratios appear to have been shifted from seawater-like values in the serpentinites (δ11B = c.+40‰) to much lighter values in talc-altered serpentinites (δ11B = +9 to +20‰). This is likely a consequence of the effects of changing ambient pH and temperature during the mineralogical transition from serpentine to talc. Heterogeneous boron isotope systematics have consequences for the composition of ultramafic portions of the lithosphere returned to the convecting mantle by subduction. Inhomogeneities in δ11B, [B] and mineralogy introduce significant uncertainties in

  18. Real-Time Chord Length Analysis of Strontium and Manganese Precipitates Formed from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 Simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KING, WILLIAMD

    2004-01-01

    Removal of radioactive strontium and transuranic elements from Hanford Envelope C waste solutions can be accomplished by the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide, strontium nitrate, and sodium permanganate solutions. This multistep precipitation process is the baseline technology in the River Protection Project -Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) for the removal of these radioactive species from Hanford Waste Tanks. Decontamination targets are easily met using these precipitation technologies and current work in this area focuses on optimization to minimize reagent levels. Downstream treatment processes require filtration of the precipitate slurry. In order to avoid further precipitation after filtration, it is necessary to know the precipitation reaction time-scale. In addition, precipitate slurry filter flux is a primary parameter of interest to plant design personnel. Optimization of the filtration process is benefited by an understanding of the parameters that impact particle size distribution. Filter cake packing and, hence, filter flux are often sensitive to small changes in the particle size distribution. However, traditional methods of particle size analysis often are not sufficiently sensitive to develop correlations to filterability. Focused Beam Reflectance Measurements (FBRM) are a relatively new chord length analysis method with extremely high sensitivity. The method is suited for continuous monitoring of chord length distributions in the process medium. The instrument is equipped with statistical data analysis software for the identification of small shifts in the population. Reported herein are the results of FBRM analysis of strontium and manganese precipitation tests with Hanford AN-107 simulant. The objectives of the testing were to: (1) evaluate the impacts of precipitation parameters (temperature and reagent levels) upon the strontium and manganese particle chord length distributions; (2) evaluate the stability of the particles under shear; (3

  19. A study on the variation of strontium isotopic ratio in Darjeeling tea using MC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Alamelu, D.; Jagadish Kumar, S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Rai, Vinai; Singh, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an analytical procedure based on the determination of the Sr isotope ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the Darjeeling tea samples by MC-ICP-MS was developed and applied to 15 green tea samples obtained from different tea gardens in Darjeeling. Variation in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio was observed among eleven different tea gardens fro different geographical locations. The obtained data on 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ration in authentic tea leaves samples can be useful while comparing it with processed tea samples from respective regions

  20. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Karin Margarita; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    is consequently not readily transferred into the shallow-rooting plants and into small herbivores feeding on them. Since drinking water is a likely important source of Sr uptake of humans and larger animals, the contention is that a surface water isotopic composition can potentially characterize the bio...... some notable exceptions) neither mirror the pre-Quarternary bedrock geology nor a (Pleistocene) soil-type distribution map of Denmark. As a conservative suggestion, the use of the average 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7096 ± 0.0015 (2r) is recommended as an average for bio-available Sr from within Denmark...

  1. Simulating the Transfer of Strontium-90 from Soil to Leafy Vegetables by Using Strontium-88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuke, Ding; Shujuan, Liu; Yingxue, He; Dong, Yan; Fengshou, Zhang; Shuifeng, Wang; Jinghua, Guo; Wei, Zhang; Xin, Wang; Xiaoyan, Jiang

    The transfer, from soil to Chinese cabbage and spinach, of radioactive strontium-90 released as a result of accidents in nuclear power stations was studied using a stable isotope of strontium, namely nuclide strontium-88 ( 88 Sr). The study led to an experimental model for assessing the hazard of radionuclide strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) entering the food chain and for predicting the risk to food safety. Chinese cabbage and spinach were grown in pots in a greenhouse and irrigated with deionized water containing known quantities of strontium. Based on the strontium content of that water, the plants were divided into five groups (treatments) and strontium content of the soil, and 30-day-old plants were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy instrument (ICP-AES). Data on the strontium content of soil and plants enabled the development of a model using MATLAB, a mathematical software package, which included curve fitting and problem solving using regression equations and differential equations. Although strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of Chinese cabbage were not exactly the same, all showed a non-linear increase when compared with the increase in the content of strontium in soil. Strontium curves for leaves, stems, and roots of spinach were very similar and showed an initial increase followed by a decrease. Strontium concentrations in both Chinese cabbage and spinach were initially related to the concentrations of sodium and sulfur, the next two relevant nuclides being calcium and magnesium. The relationship between calcium and strontium in Chinese cabbage was different from that in spinach. By using 88 Sr to simulate the transfer of radionuclide 90 Sr from soil to a crop, the relevant data required to deal with accidental release of strontium can be obtained using a fitting curve and regression equations, thereby providing some experimental basis for evaluating the potential hazards posed by such accidents to the food chain.

  2. Principles of isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    The use of magnetic sector field mass spectrometers in isotopic analysis, especially for nitrogen gas, is outlined. Two measuring methods are pointed out: the scanning mode for significantly enriched samples and the double collector method for samples near the natural abundance of 15 N. The calculation formulas are derived and advice is given for corrections. (author)

  3. Isotopic neutron sources for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoste, J.

    1988-06-01

    This User's Manual is an attempt to provide for teaching and training purposes, a series of well thought out demonstrative experiments in neutron activation analysis based on the utilization of an isotopic neutron source. In some cases, these ideas can be applied to solve practical analytical problems. 19 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Fit for purpose validated method for the determination of the strontium isotopic signature in mineral water samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brach-Papa, Christophe; Van Bocxstaele, Marleen; Ponzevera, Emmanuel [European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111 - 2440 Geel (Belgium); Quetel, Christophe R. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre - Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111 - 2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: christophe.quetel@ec.europa.eu

    2009-03-15

    A robust method allowing the routine determination of n({sup 87}Sr)/n({sup 86}Sr) with at least five significant decimal digits for large sets of mineral water samples is described. It is based on 2 consecutive chromatographic separations of Sr associated to multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) measurements. Separations are performed using commercial pre-packed columns filled with 'Sr resin' to overcome isobaric interferences affecting the determination of strontium isotope ratios. The careful method validation scheme applied is described. It included investigations on all parameters influencing both chromatographic separations and MC-ICPMS measurements, and also the test on a synthetic sample made of an aliquot of the NIST SRM 987 certified reference material dispersed in a saline matrix to mimic complex samples. Correction for mass discrimination was done internally using the n({sup 88}Sr)/n({sup 86}Sr) ratio. For comparing mineral waters originating from different geological backgrounds or identifying counterfeits, calculations involved the well known consensus value (1/0.1194) {+-} 0 as reference. The typical uncertainty budget estimated for these results was 40 'ppm' relative (k = 2). It increased to 150 'ppm' (k = 2) for the establishment of stand alone results, taking into account a relative difference of about 126 'ppm' systematically observed between measured and certified values of the NIST SRM 987. In case there was suspicion of a deviation of the n({sup 88}Sr)/n({sup 86}Sr) ratio (worst case scenario) our proposal was to use the NIST SRM 987 value 8.37861 {+-} 0.00325 (k = 2) as reference, and assign a typical relative uncertainty budget of 300 'ppm' (k = 2). This method is thus fit for purpose and was applied to eleven French samples.

  5. Strontium isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the saddle mountains and Grande Ronde Basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt (CRB) group displays significant variations in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions. These compositions reflect complex and variable origins for the CRB magmas. Among the most varied is the Saddle Mountains Basalt (SMB) in which Sr ratios vary from 0.7078 to 0.7147 +- 0.002. The higher ratios reflect contamination through consistent correlations with major element compositions. Modeling suggests contamination by assimilation of 4.4 to 9.4 wt % of radiogenic crustal rocks. High delta 18 O values (up to +7.68 per mil) support the model. Age and field relations suggest that the contamination flowrocks are not the result of progressive contamination of a single magma, but rather reflect the contamination of independent magmas during this ascent

  6. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  7. Production of strontium-82 for the Cardiogen trademark PET generator: a project of the Department of Energy Virtual Isotope Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Peterson, E.J.; Taylor, W.A.; Jamriska, D.J.; Hamilton, V.T.; Kitten, J.J.; Valdez, F.O.; Salazar, L.L.; Pitt, L.R.; Heaton, R.C.; Kolsky, K.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Kurczak, S.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Konyakhin, N.A.; Nortier, F.M.; Walt, T.N. van der; Hanekom, J.; Sosnowski, K.M.; Carty, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    In December of 1989, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved 82 Rb chloride in saline solution for cardiological perfusion imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The solution is derived from a 82 Sr generator system that is presently manufactured by Bristol Myers Squibb and distributed for clinical application in the United States by Bracco Diagnostics, Inc. Many years of research and development by people in several institutions led up to the approval for clinical use. Currently, there are about 15 sites in the U.S. that perform clinical myocardial perfusion imaging by PET using 82 Rb chloride from the generator. In order to manufacture the generators, Bristol Myers Squibb requires about 1600 mCi of 82 Sr every 30 days. The United States Department of Energy and MDS Nordion, Canada are the current suppliers with qualified Drug Master Files for the production and distribution of this nuclide for the Cardiogen trademark generator. These two entities have worked together over the years to assure the regular, reliable supply of the 82 Sr. Here we describe the facilities and methods used by the Department of Energy in its Virtual Isotope Center to make and distribute the nuclide. (orig.)

  8. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  9. Hydrogen isotope analysis by quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, R.E.; Moddeman, W.E.; Dylla, H.F.

    1981-03-01

    The analysis of isotopes of hydrogen (H, D, T) and helium ( 3 He, 4 He) and selected impurities using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been investigated as a method of measuring the purity of tritium gas for injection into the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A QMS was used at low resolution, m/Δm 3 He, and 4 He in HT/D 2

  10. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values

  11. Cost benefit analysis of remediation alternatives for controlling the flux of strontium-90 into the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.; Todd, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    The release of large volumes of water to waste disposal cribs at the Hanford Site's 100-N Area caused contaminants, principally strontium-90, to be carried toward the Columbia River through the groundwater. Since shutdown of the N Reactor, these releases have been discontinued, although small water flows continue to be discharged to the 1325-N crib. Most of the contamination which is now transported to the river is occurring as a result of the natural groundwater movement. The contaminated groundwater at N Springs flows into the river through seeps and springs along the river's edge. An expedited response action (ERA) has been proposed to eliminate or restrict the flux of strontium-90 into the river. A cost benefit analysis of potential remedial alternatives was completed that recommends the alternative which best meets given selection criteria prescribed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The methodology used for evaluation, cost analysis, and alternative recommendation is the engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA). Complete remediation of the contaminated groundwater beneath 100-N Area was not a principal objective of the analysis. The objective of the cost benefit analysis was to identify a remedial alternative that optimizes the degree of benefit produced for the costs incurred

  12. Impact analysis of a hydrogen isotopes container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Jeong, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    The container used for the radioactive materials, containing hydrogen isotopes is evaluated in a view of hypothetical accident. The computational analysis is a cost effective tool to minimize testing and streamline the regulatory procedures, and supports experimental programs to qualify the container for the safe transport of radioactive materials. The numerical analysis of 9m free-drop onto a flat unyielding, horizontal surface has been performed using the explicit finite element computer program ABAQUS. Especially free-drop simulations for 30 .deg. C tilted condition are precisely estimated

  13. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  14. Investigation of a dynamic seawater intrusion event using strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Andersen, Martin S.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2008-01-01

    groundwater and deep groundwater from the underlying limestone aquifer as end-members. A mixing analysis is performed using the Cl contents and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The mixing analysis indicates a zone with leakage of deep groundwater from the limestone aquifer into the lower part of the shallow sandy...... and lower part of the water body in the shallow sandy aquifer. The leakage of deep groundwater increased during the intrusion experiment as a result of the large abstraction of groundwater. Following the ceasing of the groundwater pumping, the interface went from being vertical to being predominantly......A seawater intrusion experiment was carried out in a shallow coastal unconfined aquifer at Skansehage, Denmark. The aquifer consists of 6-10 m of postglacial (Holocene) eolian and marine sands and gravels resting on Pleistocene glacial sequence of tills and glacio-fluviatile sediments on a basement...

  15. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

    2013-04-02

    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  16. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measurement of strontium isotope ratio in nitric acid extract of peanut testa by ICP-Q-MS after removal of Rb by extraction with pure water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    The difference in the distributions of Sr and Rb in peanut seeds was utilized to develop a precise method for Sr isotope ratio measurement by inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS). The testa instead of the whole peanut seed was selected as the sample because apparent enrichment of Sr in comparison to Rb was found in the testa. Furthermore, Rb in the testa was removed by pure water extraction with the aid of sonication to remove the isobaric interference in Sr isotope ratio measurement. The testa taken from one peanut seed was treated as one sample for the analysis. After optimization of the operating conditions, pure water (10 mL for each sample) extraction in 30 min with sonication was able to remove over 95% of Rb in the testa, while after the Rb removal Sr could be completely extracted using 10 mL of 0.3 mol L(-1) HNO3 for each sample. The integration time in ICP-Q-MS measurement was optimized to achieve a lower measurement uncertainty in a shorter time; the results showed that 1s was required and enough for the precise measurement of Sr isotope ratios giving a relative standard uncertainty (n=10) of ca. 0.1%. The present method was applied to peanut seeds grown in Japan, China, USA, India, and South Africa. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David; Kurle, Carolyn M; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, we provide a brief introduction and summarize the 10 research articles included in this Special Issue on Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology. The first three articles report correction and discrimination factors that can be used to more accurately estimate the diets of extinct and extant mammals using stable isotope analysis. The remaining seven applied research articles use stable isotope analysis to address a variety of wildlife conservation and management questions from the oceans to the mountains.

  19. PIXE analysis on the absorption of strontium by plants under hydroponic culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Kondo, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    90 Sr is one of the most toxic radioactive nuclides emitted from nuclear disasters. By experiments using the compounds of stable isotopes of Sr, the behavior of this nuclide in plants can be simulated very well (R. S. Russell and H. M. Squire: J. Exp. Bot., Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 262-276 (1958)). In this paper, we present an application of PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) analysis (S. A. E. Johansson, et al.: Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission Spectrometry (PIXE), Wiley-Interscience, New York, ISBN-13: 978-0471589440 (1995)) in the study of Sr absorption by a herbal plant grown in a compact hydroponic setup. (J.P.N.)

  20. Carbon isotope analysis in apple nectar beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to use the isotope analysis method to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in commercial apple nectars and to determine the legal limit to identify the beverages that do not conform to the safety standards established by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. These beverages (apple nectars were produced in the laboratory according to the Brazilian legislation. Adulterated nectars were also produced with an amount of pulp juice below the permitted threshold limit value. The δ13C values of the apple nectars and their fractions (pulp and purified sugar were measured to quantify the C3 source percentage. In order to demonstrate the existence of adulteration, the values found were compared to the limit values established by the Brazilian Law. All commercial apple nectars analyzed were within the legal limits, which enabled to identify the nectars that were in conformity with the Brazilian Law. The isotopic methodology developed proved efficient to quantify the carbon of C3 origin in commercial apple nectars.

  1. Innovation in metrology: fast automated radiochemical separation and measurement for strontium 89 and 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augeray, C.; Galliez, K.; Mouton, M.; Tarlette, L.; Loyen, J.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Measuring radioactivity in the food and for radiological monitoring of the environment around Nuclear Facilities or mining sites requires the quantification of the radioactive isotopes present in the different compartments (liquids or solids), especially of the beta emitters. Strontium 89 and 90, both pure beta emitters are radioactive isotopes of interest. Because of their toxicity and the similarity of their chemical and physical behavior with calcium, these elements may be found through the food chain. After the Fukushima accident, the necessity of quantifying quickly radioactive isotopes such as strontium 89 and 90 appeared. The technique we are going to present concerns the determination of the activity concentration of strontium 89 and 90 in water, according to the {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr ratio. It consists of two stages: the chemical separation by ionic chromatography and the measurement of the activity concentration of strontium 89 and 90 by Cerenkov Effect. The automated separation has been developed and allows isolating the isotopes of strontium in particular the radioactive ones: strontium 89 and 90. The separation can be done within one hour. It was realized from the adaptation of existing analytical chemistry equipments with on-line couplings. The protocol of separation is based on the use of ions exchange columns of Ionic chromatography not as a separation and measurement technique of the cation but only as a separation technique. At the release time of the ion to be quantified, a fraction collector allows its recovery. The test portion is then analyzed with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The activity concentration is measured by Cerenkov Effect on a quenched sample. The quenching is realized by applying a thin colored film on the sample vial. This color quench is used to make strontium 90 counts disappear on the LS spectrum. This way, only yttrium 90 ingrowth and strontium 89 decay are measured (E{sup 90}Sr < E{sup 89}Sr < E{sup 90}Y

  2. Determination of rare earth elements, thorium and uranium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and strontium isotopes by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2001-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) determination of rare earth elements (REEs), thorium and uranium in forest, pasture, field and kitchen garden soils from a Russian territory and in certified reference materials (JLK-1, JSD-2 and BCR-1) is described. In addition to concentration data, strontium isotopic composition of the soil samples were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The measurements contributed to the understanding of the background levels of these elements in an area contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. There was not a significant variation in the concentration of REEs at different depth levels in forest soil samples, however, the ratio of Th/U varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varied to some extent, the ratio did not show much variation. The value of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, was in the top layer soil sample relatively higher than in the lower layers. (author)

  3. Removal of cesium and separation of strontium the analysis of the leachate of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2002-01-01

    The selective removal of cesium by ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) was studied in order to reduce an interference by high radioactivity of cesium on the determination of low radioactive elements in leachate of spent fuel. The removal of Cs, U, Ce, La, Co, Na Sr and K was investigated for the leachate and the bentonite in contact with a spent fuel. More than 90% of cesium was removed by AMP and Ca, Na, Co and Sr was remained in 0.1M HNO 3 . However, three valence elements such as La and Ce were also removed by AMP. Though a little of potassium of the bentonite components was adsorbed on AMP, the potassium in the bentonite solution diluted to its concentration in a real sample would not affect the capacity of AMP greatly. From another experiment for the separation of strontium as a leaching indicator of spent fuel, the recovery of strontium in 8.0 M HNO 3 solution by using Sr-resin (Eichrom, P/N SR-B50-A) was more than 95% by eluting with 0.05 M HNO 3

  4. Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and U-Pb mineral ages, and strontium, lead, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions for granitic rocks from the Salinian Composite Terrane, California:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Champion, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes new and published age and isotopic data for whole-rocks and minerals from granitic rocks in the Salinian composite terrane, California. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of plutons are in two groups, Early Cretaceous (122 to 100 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (95 to 82 Ma). Early Cretaceous plutons occur in all granitic rock exposures from Bodega Head in the north to those from the Santa Lucia and Gabilan Ranges in the central part of the terrane. Late Cretaceous plutons have been identified in the Point Reyes Peninsula, the Santa Lucia and the Gabilan Ranges, and in the La Panza Range in the southern part of the terrane. Ranges of initial values of isotopic compositions are 87Sr/86Sr, 0.7046-0.7147, δ18O, +8.5 to +12.5 per mil, 206Pb/204Pb, 18.901-19.860, 207Pb/204Pb, 15.618-15.814, 208Pb/204Pb, 38.569- 39.493, and εNd, +0.9 to -8.6. The initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.706 isopleth is identified in the northern Gabilan Range and in the Ben Lomond area of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in Montara Mountain, in Bodega Head, and to the west of the Farallon Islands on the Cordell Bank. This isotopic boundary is offset about 95 miles (160km) by right-lateral displacements along the San Gregorio-Hosgri and San Andreas fault systems.

  5. Rubidium-strontium isotoppe study of Muruntan deposit. 1.Ore vien dating by isochrone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostitsyn, Yu.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrothermal viens of Muruntau gold-ore deposit (Central Kyzylkum) have been studies by the isochrone technique. The ages obtained for the quartz-tourmaline (257+13 Ma), quartz-arsenopyrite (230.3+-3.5 Ma) and quartz-adularia (219.4+-4.2 Ma) hydrothermal viens reflect the different stages of the deposit evolution: gold-ore and gold-silver one. Strontium isotope analysis reveals that the matter of hydrothermal viens is originated from the surrounding black schists

  6. Basic methods of isotope analysis; Osnovnye metody analiza izotopov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochkin, A V; Rozenkevich, M B

    2000-07-01

    The bases of the most applied methods of the isotope analysis are briefly presented. The possibilities and analytical characteristics of the mass-spectrometric, spectral, radiochemical and special methods of the isotope analysis, including application of the magnetic resonance, chromatography and refractometry, are considered.

  7. Isotope analysis of closely adjacent minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development. It comprises: searching for a class of minerals in a mineral specimen comprising more than one class of minerals; identifying in the mineral specimen a target sample of the thus searched for class; directing thermally pyrolyzing laser beam radiation onto surface mineral substance of the target sample in the mineral specimen releasing surface mineral substance pyrolysate gases therefrom; and determining isotope composition essentially of the surface mineral substance from analyzing the pyrolysate gases released from the thus pyrolyzed target sample, the isotope composition including isotope(s) selected from the group consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopes; determining an indicator of at least one of hydrocarbon formation, migration, and accumulation during mineral development of the target mineral from thus determined isotope composition of surface mineral substance pyrolysate

  8. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  9. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    The continuous and growing demand of crops and cattle for the domestic inhabitants, forces the search of technical solutions in agriculture. One of the solutions able to be covered in a near future it is the escalation of agricultural production in lands already being cultivated, either by means of an intensification of cultivation and / or increasing the unitary yields. In the intensive cropping systems, the crops extract substantial quantities of nutriments that is recovered by means of the application of fertilizers. Due to the lack of resources and to the increase of commercial inputs prices, it has been necessary to pay attention to the analysis and improvement of low inputs cropping systems and to the effective use of resources. Everything has made to establish a concept of plant nutrition focused system, which integrate the sources of nutriments for plants and the production factors of crops in a productive cropping system, to improve the fertility of soils, the agricultural productivity and profitability. This system includes the biggest efficiency of chemical fertilizers as the maximum profit of alternative sources of nutriments, such as organic fertilizers, citrate-phosphate rocks and biological nitrogen fixation. By means of field experiments under different environmental conditions (soils and climate) it can be determined the best combination of fertilizers practice (dose, placement, opportunity and source) for selected cropping systems. The experimentation with fertilizer, marked with stable and radioactive isotopes, provides a direct and express method to obtain conclusive answers to the questions: where, when and how should be applied. The fertilizers marked with N 1 5 have been used to understand the application of marked fertilizer to the cultivations, and the determination of the proportion of crops nutritious element derived from fertilizer. The isotopic techniques offer a fast and reliable mean to obtain information about the distribution of

  10. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B L; Eberhardt, L E; Poston, T M

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed {sup 90}Sr concentrations. {sup 90}Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention.

  11. Analysis of strontium metabolism in humans on the basis of the Techa river data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, E.I.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vyushkova, O.V.; Degteva, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    Age and sex features of strontium metabolism have been analyzed based on studies of the population residing on the banks of the Techa river which was contaminated by fission products during the years 1949-1956. Measurements of 90 Sr body burden have been performed since 1974 using a whole-body counter, and these have made it possible to estimate age-specific long-term retention and elimination rates for men and women. Regarding the retention that correlated with the respective maturation ages, distinct sex differences have been observed for adolescents, whereas only postmenopausal women showed a sharp increase of their elimination rates. There were no differences concerning the reproductive ages. Our experimental findings have a clear physiological interpretation and can be used to develop metabolic models for bone-seeking radionuclides. (orig.). With 6 figs

  12. Location analysis and strontium-90 concentrations in deer antlers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, B.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Poston, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the levels of strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) in deer antlers collected from near previously active reactor sites and distant from the reactor sites along that portion of the Columbia River which borders the Hanford Site. A second objective was to analyze the movements and home-ranges of mule deer residing within these areas and determine to what extent this information contributes to the observed 90 Sr concentrations. 90 Sr is a long-lived radionuclide (29.1 year half life) produced by fission in irradiated fuel in plutonium production reactors on the Hanford Site. It is also a major component of atmospheric fallout from weapons testing. Concentrations of radionuclides found in the developed environment onsite do not pose a health concern to humans or various wildlife routinely monitored. However, elevated levels of radionuclides in found biota may indicate routes of exposure requiring attention

  13. ATTA - A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.; Chen, C.Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T.P.; Young, L.

    2000-01-01

    A new method of ultrasensitive isotope trace analysis has been developed. This method, based on the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms, has been used to count individual 85 Kr and 81 Kr atoms present in a natural krypton gas sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10 -11 and 10 -13 , respectively. This method is free of contamination from other isotopes and elements and can be applied to various different isotope tracers for a wide range of applications. The demonstrated detection efficiency is 1x10 -7 . System improvements could increase the efficiency by many orders of magnitude

  14. Rapid determination of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in food and environmental samples by Cerenkov counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, Judith; Suomela, Jorma

    1995-01-01

    The method has been developed for emergency situations. Minimum detectable concentrations of 5 Bq/liter, kilogram of strontium-89 and strontium-90 respectively is achievable in the presence of nuclides considered to be released under accidental conditions. Result on the strontium-89 and strontium-90 content in a sample can be obtained within 12 hours. One technician can easily handle 8-10 samples during a working day of eight hours. The determination of the strontium isotopes is accomplished by monitoring the Cerenkov radiation from strontium-89 and yttrium-90 in a liquid scintillation counter. The latter is the daughter product of strontium-90. Prior to the Cerenkov counting the sample is separated from interfering nuclides by oxalate precipitation, chromate precipitation and HDEHP-extraction. The method has to be further improved and evaluated with respect to different soil types such as forest mineral soil layers, agricultural soils and pastures. Furthermore, the decontamination procedure should be evaluated for a sample containing freshly irradiated uranium. (author)

  15. Isotopic Abundance and Chemical Purity Analysis of Stable Isotope Deuterium Labeled Sudan I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Yin-ping;LEI Wen;ZHENG Bo;DU Xiao-ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important that to analysis of the isotopic abundance and chemical purity of Sudan I-D5, which is the internal standard of isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The isotopic abundance of Sudan I-D5 is detected by “mass cluster” classification method and LC-MS. The repeatability and reproducibility experiments were carried out by using different mass spectrometers and different operators. The RSD was less than 0.1%, so the repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory. The accuracy and precision of the isotopic abundance analysis method was good with the results of F test and t test. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC had been used for detecting the chemical purity of Sudan I-D5 as external standard method.

  16. Isotopic analysis of plutonium by computer controlled mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of plutonium chemically purified by ion exchange is achieved using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer. Data acquisition from and control of the instrument is done automatically with a dedicated system computer in real time with subsequent automatic data reduction and reporting. Separation of isotopes is achieved by varying the ion accelerating high voltage with accurate computer control

  17. A method of uranium isotopes concentration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuangen; Jiang Meng; Wu Changli; Duan Zhanyuan; Guo Chunying

    2010-01-01

    A basic method of uranium isotopes concentration is described in this paper. The iteration method is used to calculate the relative efficiency curve, by analyzing the characteristic γ energy spectrum of 235 U, 232 U and the daughter nuclide of 238 U, then the relative activity can be calculated, at last the uranium isotopes concentration can be worked out, and the result is validated by the experimentation. (authors)

  18. Isotopic analysis of radioactive waste packages (an inexpensive approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, D.A.; Richmond, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer printout of the isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages containing resins, or other aqueous filter media is now required at the disposal sites at Barnwell, South Carolina, and Beatty, Nevada. Richland, Washington requires an isotopic analysis for all radioactive waste packages. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission), through 10 CFR 61, will require shippers of radioactive waste to classify and label for disposal all radioactive waste forms. These forms include resins, filters, sludges, and dry active waste (trash). The waste classification is to be based upon 10 CFR 61 (Section 1-7). The isotopes upon which waste classification is to be based are tabulated. 7 references, 8 tables

  19. Selective laser ionization for mass-spectral isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.; Downey, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    Resonant enhancement of the ionization process can provide a high degree of elemental selectivity, thus eliminating or drastically reducing the interference problem. In addition, extension of this method to isotopically selective ionization has the potential for greatly increasing the range of isotope ratios that can be determined experimentally. This gain can be realized by reducing or eliminating the tailing of the signal from the high-abundance isotope into that of the low-abundance isotope, augmenting the dispersion of the mass spectrometer. We briefly discuss the hardware and techniques used in both our pulsed and cw RIMS experiments. Results are presented for both cw ionization experiments on Lu/Yb mixtures, and spectroscopic studies of multicolor RIMS of Tc. Lastly, we discuss practical limits of cw RIMS analysis in terms of detection limits and measurable isotope ratios

  20. Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Sokol'nitskaya, T.A.; Yukhkam, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater is considered and prospects of use of selective adsorbents for purification of seawater or liquid radioactive wastes mixed with seawater from 90 Sr are discussed. Comparative analysis of sorptive properties of adsorbents of different nature is done. It is shown that sorption-reagent materials developed by authors can to afford effective separation of 90 Sr from seawater. Possible mechanism of strontium sorption by these adsorbents is considered. The prospect of their use for purification of liquid radioactive wastes from strontium is shown [ru

  1. Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenkorn, S.

    1963-01-01

    The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author) [fr

  2. Isotope analysis in the transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Hofer, Christoph; Argentero, Giacomo; Leuthner, Gregor T; Pennycook, Timothy J; Mangler, Clemens; Meyer, Jannik C; Kotakoski, Jani

    2016-10-10

    The Ångström-sized probe of the scanning transmission electron microscope can visualize and collect spectra from single atoms. This can unambiguously resolve the chemical structure of materials, but not their isotopic composition. Here we differentiate between two isotopes of the same element by quantifying how likely the energetic imaging electrons are to eject atoms. First, we measure the displacement probability in graphene grown from either 12 C or 13 C and describe the process using a quantum mechanical model of lattice vibrations coupled with density functional theory simulations. We then test our spatial resolution in a mixed sample by ejecting individual atoms from nanoscale areas spanning an interface region that is far from atomically sharp, mapping the isotope concentration with a precision better than 20%. Although we use a scanning instrument, our method may be applicable to any atomic resolution transmission electron microscope and to other low-dimensional materials.

  3. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  4. Isotope analysis of lithium by thermionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, M.H.; Sarkis, J.E.S.

    1991-04-01

    An analytical mass spectrometric method for the isotope analysis of lithium has been studied. The analysis were carried out by using a single focusing thermoionic mass spectrometer Varian Mat TH5 with 90 sup(0) magnetic sector field and 21.4 cm deflection radius, equipped with a dual Re-filament thermal ionization ion source. The effect of different lithium chemical forms, such as, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and sulfate upon the isotopic ratios sup(6)Li/ sup(7)Li has been studied. Isotopic fractionation of lithium was studied in terms of the time of analysis. The results obtained with lithium carbonate yielded a precision of ±0.1% and an accuracy of ± 0.6%, whereas with other chemical forms yielded precisions of ±0.5% and accuracies of ±2%. A fractionation correction factor, K=1.005, was obtained for different samples of lithium carbonate isotopic standard CBNM IRM 016, which has been considered constant. (author)

  5. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  6. New Isotope Analysis Method: Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young

    2011-01-01

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Some fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of artificially produced radioactive isotopes has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10 -10 . In general, radio-chemical method has been applied to detect ultra-trace radio isotopes. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The Accelerator Mass Spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and its selectivity is affected by isobars. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) has the advantage of isobar-effect free characteristics. But the system size is still huge for high isotope selective system. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis) has been successfully applied to detect ultra-trace isotope, Kr-81 and Kr-85. ATTA is the isobar-effect free detection with high isotope selectivity and the system size is small. However, it requires steady atomic beam source during detection, and is not allowed simultaneous detection of several isotopes. In this presentation, we introduce new isotope detection method which is a coupled method of Atom Trap Mass Spectrometry (ATMS). We expect that it can overcome the disadvantage of ATTA while it has both advantages of ATTA and mass spectrometer. The basic concept and the system design will be presented. In addition, the experimental status of ATMS will also be presented

  7. Measurement of strontium-89 and strontium-90 in environmental waters. A tentative reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of 89 Sr and 90 Sr in environmental waters is described. Samples of environmental water sources are collected, preserved with acid-strontium carrier, and analyzed for 89 Sr and/or 90 Sr. The isotopes are separated from the sample water by precipitating with stable strontium carrier as carbonate. The strontium carbonate is dissolved, 90 Sr separated, the strontium reprecipitated as carbonate, filtered, and counted for the combined 89 Sr and 90 Sr activity. The 90 y is allowed to grow in from the 90 y activity; the strontium carbonate is redissolved; the 90 y is separated, precipitated, and counted for the 90 Sr determination. The 89 Sr activity is then determined by difference of the total 89 Sr and 90 y and the separate 90 Sr activities. Recoveries are determined from the added and found (recovered) strontium carrier. Counting efficiencies are determined with prepared standard reference samples. Results are reported in pCi/liter

  8. Measurement system analysis (MSA) of the isotopic ratio for uranium isotope enrichment process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Josue C. de; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail: josue@inb.gov.br, E-mail: rodrigobarbosa@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rezende, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, one of the stages in nuclear fuel cycle development is the process of uranium isotope enrichment, which will provide the amount of low enriched uranium for the nuclear fuel production to supply 100% Angra 1 and 20% Angra 2 demands. Determination of isotopic ration n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6} - used as process gas) is essential in order to control of enrichment process of isotopic separation by gaseous centrifugation cascades. The uranium hexafluoride process is performed by gas continuous feeding in separation unit which uses the centrifuge force principle, establishing a density gradient in a gas containing components of different molecular weights. The elemental separation effect occurs in a single ultracentrifuge that results in a partial separation of the feed in two fractions: an enriched on (product) and another depleted (waste) in the desired isotope ({sup 235}UF{sub 6}). Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) has used quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) by electron impact (EI) to perform isotopic ratio n({sup 235}U)/n({sup 238}U) analysis in the process. The decision of adjustments and change te input variables are based on the results presented in these analysis. A study of stability, bias and linearity determination has been performed in order to evaluate the applied method, variations and systematic errors in the measurement system. The software used to analyze the techniques above was the Minitab 15. (author)

  9. Determination of marble provenance: limits of isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, K.; Holzmann, G.; Winkler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Provenance determination of Thessalian stelae marbles using the C/O isotopic analysis proved to be misleading, as the isotopic composition even in very small quarrying areas is heterogeneous and isotopic coincidence of marbles from very distant sources occurs. Therefore additional geological features must be taken into consideration and preference should be given to combinations of both petrographical and geochemical properties. Geological field work to establish the range of possible marble sources and the variability within these sources is one of the prerequisites of provenance studies. (author)

  10. Ion sources for solids isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, A.C.

    Of the dozen or so methods of producing ions from solid samples only the surface or thermal ionisation method has found general application for precise measurement of isotopic ratios. The author discusses the principal variables affecting the performance of the thermal source; sample preparation, loading onto the filament, sample pre-treatment, filament material. (Auth.)

  11. Ion sources for solids isotopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, A. C. [Ministry of Defence, Foulness (UK). Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    1978-12-15

    Of the dozen or so methods of producing ions from solid samples only the surface or thermal ionisation method has found general application for precise measurement of isotopic ratios. The author discusses the principal variables affecting the performance of the thermal source; sample preparation, loading onto the filament, sample pre-treatment, filament material.

  12. Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This is a short chapter to be included in the next edition of the Encyclopedia of Soil Science. The work here describes techniques being developed at PNNL for investigating organic carbon in soils. Techniques discussed include: laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry, laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometry, and nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  13. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Neodymium and strontium isotopic stratigraphy of the neo-archean Rio Jacare Sill-Bahia, Brazil and its relation to PGE mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Reinaldo S.C de; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Nilson, Ariplinio A.; Gioia, Simone M

    2001-01-01

    Platinum-Group Elements (PGE) deposition in magma chambers is generally accepted as being triggered by sulphur immiscibility via sulfidasation and/or felsification of magmas. These processes can be related to fractional crystallization, and mixing of batches of magmas, crustal contamination or by the combination of these process. Important isotopic studies have been carried out by many authors such as Lambert (1989) and Marcantonio (1995) in the Stillwater Complex, Kruger and Marsh (1989) and Cawthorn (1996) in the Bushveld Complex. Those works set out to understand the role of isotopic changes in the genesis of PGE deposits from JM and Merensky Reefs, respectively. They attributed those PGE mineralizations to isotopically constrained mixing/contamination episodes associated to subtle changes in steady vertical fractionation trends. This work presents stratigraphycally-plotted Nd and Sr isotopic data together with evidence of mineral and whole rock geochemistry disturbance in smooth fractionations trends of the Rio Jacare Sill. Data interpretation suggest the sill was formed via fractional crystallisation and mixing of at least three magma batches, combined with some degree of host rocks assimilation. Isotopic changes were also related to PGE anomalies associated with transitional facies formed during such mixing episodes (au)

  15. Development of a code for the isotopic analysis of Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Kang, M. Y.; Kim, Jinhyeong; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    To strengthen the national nuclear nonproliferation regime by an establishment of nuclear forensic system, the techniques for nuclear material analysis and the categorization of important domestic nuclear materials are being developed. MGAU and FRAM are commercial software for the isotopic analysis of Uranium by using γ-spectroscopy, but the diversity of detection geometry and some effects - self attenuation, coincidence summing, etc. - suggest an analysis tool under continual improvement and modification. Hence, developing another code for HPGe γ- and x-ray spectrum analysis is started in this study. The analysis of the 87-101 keV region of Uranium spectrum is attempted based on the isotopic responses similar to those developed in MGAU. The code for isotopic analysis of Uranium is started from a fitting.

  16. Oxygen isotope analysis of plant water without extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Farquhar, G.D.; Yong, J.W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of plant water (mainly xylem, phloem and leaf water) are gaming importance as the isotopic signals reflect plant-environment interactions, affect the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric O 2 and CO 2 and are eventually incorporated into plant organic matter. Conventionally, such isotopic measurements require a time-consuming process of isolating the plant water by azeotropic distillation or vacuum extraction, which would not complement the speed of isotope analysis provided by continuous-flow IRMS (Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry), especially when large data sets are needed for statistical calculations in biological studies. Further, a substantial amount of plant material is needed for water extraction and leaf samples would invariably include unenriched water from the fine veins. To measure sub-microlitre amount of leaf mesophyll water, a new approach is undertaken where a small disc of fresh leaf is cut using a specially designed leaf punch, and pyrolysed directly in an IRMS. By comparing with results from pyrolysis of the dry matter of the same leaf, the 18 O content of leaf water can be determined without extraction from fresh leaves. This method is validated using a range of cellulose-water mixtures to simulate the constituents of fresh leaf. Cotton leaf water δ 18 O obtained from both methods of fresh leaf pyrolysis and azeotropic distillation will be compared. The pyrolysis technique provides a robust approach to measure the isotopic content of water or any volatile present in a homogeneous solution or solid hydrous substance

  17. Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs) with adjustable mass accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present Molecular Isotopic Distribution Analysis (MIDAs), a new software tool designed to compute molecular isotopic distributions with adjustable accuracies. MIDAs offers two algorithms, one polynomial-based and one Fourier-transform-based, both of which compute molecular isotopic distributions accurately and efficiently. The polynomial-based algorithm contains few novel aspects, whereas the Fourier-transform-based algorithm consists mainly of improvements to other existing Fourier-transform-based algorithms. We have benchmarked the performance of the two algorithms implemented in MIDAs with that of eight software packages (BRAIN, Emass, Mercury, Mercury5, NeutronCluster, Qmass, JFC, IC) using a consensus set of benchmark molecules. Under the proposed evaluation criteria, MIDAs's algorithms, JFC, and Emass compute with comparable accuracy the coarse-grained (low-resolution) isotopic distributions and are more accurate than the other software packages. For fine-grained isotopic distributions, we compared IC, MIDAs's polynomial algorithm, and MIDAs's Fourier transform algorithm. Among the three, IC and MIDAs's polynomial algorithm compute isotopic distributions that better resemble their corresponding exact fine-grained (high-resolution) isotopic distributions. MIDAs can be accessed freely through a user-friendly web-interface at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/midas/index.html.

  18. Water-hydrogen isotope exchange process analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchenko, O.; Alekseev, I.; Uborsky, V.

    2008-01-01

    The use of a numerical method is needed to find a solution to the equation system describing a general case of heterogeneous isotope exchange between gaseous hydrogen and liquid water in a column. A computer model of the column merely outputting the isotope compositions in the flows leaving the column, like the experimental column itself, is a 'black box' to a certain extent: the solution is not transparent and occasionally not fully comprehended. The approximate analytical solution was derived from the ZXY-diagram (McCabe-Thiele diagram), which illustrates the solution of the renewed computer model called 'EVIO-4.2' Several 'unusual' results and dependences have been analyzed and explained. (authors)

  19. Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

  20. NAC, Neutron Activation Analysis and Isotope Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NAC was designed to predict the neutron-induced gamma-ray radioactivity for a wide variety of composite materials. The NAC output includes the input data, a list of all reactions for each constituent element, and the end-of-irradiation disintegration rates for each reaction. NAC also compiles a product isotope inventory containing the isotope name, the disintegration rate, the gamma-ray source strength and the absorbed dose rate at 1 meter from an unshielded point source. The induced activity is calculated as a function of irradiation and decay times; the effect of cyclic irradiation can also be calculated. 2 - Method of solution: The standard neutron activation and decay equations are programmed. A data library is supplied which contains target element names, atomic densities, reaction indices, individual reactions and reaction parameters, and product isotopes and gamma energy yields. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Each composite material may consist of up to 20 different elements and up to 20 different decay times may be included. Both limits may be increased by the user by increasing the appropriate items in the dimension statement

  1. Niobium-Thorium-Strontium-Rare Earth Element Mineralogy and Preliminary Sulphur Isotope Geochemistry of the Eaglet Property, East-Central British Columbia (NTS 093A/10W)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hora, Z. D.; Langrová, Anna; Pivec, Edvín; Žák, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 1 (2010), s. 93-96 ISSN 0381-243X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fluorite * celestite * pyrochlore * thorite * titanbetafite * bastnaesite * sulphur isotopes * Eaglet deposit * MINFILE 093A46 Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry http://www.empr.gov.bc.ca/Mining/Geoscience/PublicationsCatalogue/Fieldwork/Documents/2009/08_Hora_2009.pdf

  2. Impacts of Dust on Tropical Volcanic Soil Formation: Insights from Strontium and Uranium-Series Isotopes in Soils from Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Y.; Ma, L.; Sak, P. B.; Gaillardet, J.; Buss, H. L.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dust inputs play an important role in soil formation, especially for thick soils developed on tropical volcanic islands. In these regions, soils are highly depleted due to intensive chemical weathering, and mineral nutrients from dusts have been known to be important in sustaining soil fertility and productivity. Tropical volcanic soils are an ideal system to study the impacts of dust inputs on the ecosystem. Sr and U-series isotopes are excellent tracers to identify sources of materials in an open system if the end-members have distinctive isotope signatures. These two isotope systems are particularly useful to trace the origin of atmospheric inputs into soils and to determine rates and timescales of soil formation. This study analyzes major elemental concentrations, Sr and U-series isotope ratios in highly depleted soils in the tropical volcanic island of Basse-Terre in French Guadeloupe to determine atmospheric input sources and identify key soil formation processes. We focus on three soil profiles (8 to 12 m thick) from the Bras-David, Moustique Petit-Bourg, and Deshaies watersheds; and on the adjacent rivers to these sites. Results have shown a significant depletion of U, Sr, and major elements in the deep profile (12 to 4 m) attributed to rapid chemical weathering. The top soil profiles (4 m to the surface) all show addition of elements such as Ca, Mg, U, and Sr due to atmospheric dust. More importantly, the topsoil profiles have distinct Sr and U-series isotope compositions from the deep soils. Sr and U-series isotope ratios of the top soils and sequential extraction fractions confirm that the sources of the dust are from the Saharan dessert, through long distance transport from Africa to the Caribbean region across the Atlantic Ocean. During the transport, some dust isotope signatures may also have been modified by local volcanic ashes and marine aerosols. Our study highlights that dusts and marine aerosols play important roles in element cycles and

  3. Isotopic analysis of boron by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, M.H.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Souza, I.M.S.

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for isotopic analysis of boron by thermal ionization mass spectrometry technique through the ion intensity measurement of Na 2 BO + 2 in H 3 BO 3 , B o and B 4 C. The samples were loaded on single tantalum filaments by different methods. In the case of H 3 BO 3 , the method of neutralization with NaOH was used. For B 4 C the alcaline fusion with Na 2 CO 3 and for B o dissolution with 1:1 nitric sulfuric acid mixture followed by neutralization with NaOH was used. The isotopic ratio measurements were obtained by the use of s Faraday cup detector with external precision of ±0,4% and accuracy of ±0,1%, relative to H 3 BO 3 isotopic standard NBS 951. The effects of isotopic fractionation was studied in function of the time during the analyses and the different chemical forms of deposition. (author)

  4. Isotopic analysis of uranium by thermoionic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium isotopic ratio measurements by thermoionic spectrometry are presented. Emphasis is given upon the investigation of the parameters that directly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Optimized procedures, namely, chemical processing, sample loading on the filaments, vaporization, ionization and measurements of ionic currents, are established. Adequate statistical analysis of the data for the calculation of the internal and external variances and mean standard deviation are presented. These procedures are applied to natural and NBS isotopic standard uranium samples. The results obtained agree with the certified values within specified limits. 235 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios values determined for NBS-U500, and a series of standard samples with variable isotopic compositon, are used to calculate mass discrimination factor [pt

  5. The status of isotopic investigations of the Limpopo mobile belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.M. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Limpopo Belt is a zone of multiple deformed metamorphic rocks situated between the Rhodesian and Kaapvaal Cratons of Southern Africa. During the duration of the International Geodynamics Project, geochronologic and isotopic investigations were undertaken in the nothern Transvaal of rocks of the Central Zone, Southern Marginal Zone and Soutpansberg Supergroup. Strontium 86, strontium 87 and lead isotopes were used in the isotopic investigations

  6. Rapid column extraction method for actinides and strontium in fish and other animal tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell III, S.L.; Faison, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of actinides and radiostrontium in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes and strontium with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid separation method has been developed that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin R , TRU Resin R and DGA Resin R cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alphaspectrometry. Strontium is collected on Sr Resin R from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and 89/90 Sr are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. Vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates is used to minimize sample preparation time. (author)

  7. Romanian wines characterization with CF-IRMS (Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Wine growing has been known for centuries long in Romania. The country has been favored by its geographical position in south-eastern Europe, by its proximity to the Black Sea, as well as by the specificity of the local soil and climate. Alongside France, Italy, Spain, Germany, countries in this area like Romania could also be called 'a vine homeland' in Europe. High quality wines produced in this region were object of trade ever since ancient times. Under current EU research projects, it is necessary to develop new methods of evidencing wine adulteration and safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratios of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the botanical and geographical origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to authenticate and eliminate fraud. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of wine. Adulteration of wine can happen in many ways, e.g. addition of non-grape ethanol, addition of non-grape sugar, water or other unauthorized substances, undeclared mixing of wines from different wards, geographical areas or countries, mislabelling of variety and age. The present paper emphasize the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18 O/ 16 O, 13 C/ 12 C from wines, using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupling with a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GC-C/TC). Therefore authentication of wines is an important problem to which isotopic analysis has made a significant contribution. (authors)

  8. Rapid method for the radioactive strontium determination in natural samples; Brza metoda za odredjivanje radioaktivnog stroncija u prirodnim uzorcima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahek, Z; Kosutic, K; Lulic, S [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    Radioactive strontium isotopes belong to the group of isotopes that are very dangerous for human health. Therefore radioactive strontium is regularly determined in natural samples. When determining strontium isotopes in natural samples, it is necessary to isolate strontium from the sample because strontium isotopes are pure {beta}-emitters. As natural samples contain much more calcium and sodium than strontium it is necessary to isolate a small quantity of strontium from large sample with simultaneous separation of calcium and other interfering elements. For this purposes an elegant method based on ion exchange chromatography has been developed. Namely, examinations with model system have shown that strontium may be separated from calcium on the column filled with anion exchanger and the mixture of the methanol and nitric acid as eluent. It was also shown that yttrium does not separate from strontium but elutes almost simultaneously with it. Yttrium may be separated from strontium on the column filled with cation exchanger DOWEX 50X8 and nitric acid as eluent. According to the above examinations, the procedure of isolation of strontium and yttrium from natural sample has been created (on assumption that {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium in sample). Strontium and yttrium have been isolated from natural sample (standard IAEA A-7) on the column filled with the exchanger AMBERLITE CG-400 and the mixture of methanol and nitric acid as eluent. Strontium and yttrium have been separated on the column with cation exchanger. {sup 90}Sr has been determined through {sup 90}Y by counting the solid yttrium oxalate immediately upon isolation and separation from strontium. {sup 90}Sr has also been determined by counting {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium after 15 days. The obtained results of determination of {sup 90}Sr through {sup 90}Y and through secular equilibrium {sup 90}Sr-{sup 90}Y correspond to the declared values of standard. (author). 2 figs., 1

  9. Determination of isotopic composition of strontium in black tea samples from India by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Lagad, R.A.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Fang, Kuo Huang; You, Chen-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Identification of geographical origins of food materials is of great importance due to rampant mislabeling that is usually done for getting a higher market price for the agricultural produce. Several works have been undertaken to identify the provenance of tea (Camellia Sinensis). The geographical identification is based on trace elemental profiling of the samples as well as stable isotope ratio signatures. Significant amount of work is also reported for a wide range of food samples such as Coffee, honey, rice etc.

  10. SIMS analysis of isotopic impurities in ion implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.E.; Blunt, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    The n-type dopant species Si and Se used for ion implantation in GaAs are multi-isotopic with the most abundant isotope not chosen because of potential interferences with residual gases. SIMS analysis of a range of 29 Si implants produced by several designs of ion implanter all showed significant 28 Si impurity with a different depth distribution from that of the deliberately implanted 29 Si isotope. This effect was observed to varying degrees with all fifteen implanters examined and in every 29 Si implant analysed to date 29 Si + , 29 Si ++ and 30 Si implants all show the same effect. In the case of Se implantation, poor mass resolution results in the implantation of all isotopes with the same implant distribution (i.e. energy), whilst implants carried out with good mass resolution show the implantation of all isotopes with the characteristic lower depth distribution of the impurity isotopes as found in the Si implants. This effect has also been observed in p-type implants into GaAs (Mg) and for Ga implanted in Si. A tentative explanation of the effect is proposed. (author)

  11. Band structure of even-even selenium isotopes in the proton-neutron interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, U.; Moenkemeyer, C.; Brentano, P. von

    1983-01-01

    Available systematic IBM calculations [1-6] for Krypton and Strontium isotopes have been extended to Selenium. The analysis in terms of the IBM is complicated by the interplay of collective and noncollective degrees of freedom. However, satisfactory agreement has been obtained for N>=42. (orig.)

  12. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and cesium-137 content in powdered milk. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 content was carried out using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  13. Potential of isotope analysis (C, Cl) to identify dechlorination mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretnik, Stefan; Thoreson, Kristen; Bernstein, Anat; Ebert, Karin; Buchner, Daniel; Laskov, Christine; Haderlein, Stefan; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Kliegman, Sarah; McNeill, Kristopher; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Chloroethenes are commonly used in industrial applications, and detected as carcinogenic contaminants in the environment. Their dehalogenation is of environmental importance in remediation processes. However, a detailed understanding frequently accounted problem is the accumulation of toxic degradation products such as cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE) at contaminated sites. Several studies have addressed the reductive dehalogenation reactions using biotic and abiotic model systems, but a crucial question in this context has remained open: Do environmental transformations occur by the same mechanism as in their corresponding in vitro model systems? The presented study shows the potential to close this research gap using the latest developments in compound specific chlorine isotope analysis, which make it possible to routinely measure chlorine isotope fractionation of chloroethenes in environmental samples and complex reaction mixtures.1,2 In particular, such chlorine isotope analysis enables the measurement of isotope fractionation for two elements (i.e., C and Cl) in chloroethenes. When isotope values of both elements are plotted against each other, different slopes reflect different underlying mechanisms and are remarkably insensitive towards masking. Our results suggest that different microbial strains (G. lovleyi strain SZ, D. hafniense Y51) and the isolated cofactor cobalamin employ similar mechanisms of reductive dechlorination of TCE. In contrast, evidence for a different mechanism was obtained with cobaloxime cautioning its use as a model for biodegradation. The study shows the potential of the dual isotope approach as a tool to directly compare transformation mechanisms of environmental scenarios, biotic transformations, and their putative chemical lab scale systems. Furthermore, it serves as an essential reference when using the dual isotope approach to assess the fate of chlorinated compounds in the environment.

  14. Advanced concepts for gamma-ray isotopic analysis and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    The Safeguards Technology Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing actinide isotopic analysis technologies in response to needs that address issues of flexibility of analysis, robustness of analysis, ease-of-use, automation and portability. Recent developments such as the Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS), begin to address these issues. We are continuing to develop enhancements on this and other instruments that improve ease-of-use, automation and portability. Requests to analyze samples with unusual isotopics, contamination, or containers have made us aware of the need for more flexible and robust analysis. We have modified the MGA program to extend its plutonium isotopic analysis capability to samples with greater 241 Am content or U isotopics. We are looking at methods for dealing with tantalum or lead contamination and contamination with high-energy gamma emitters, such as 233 U. We are looking at ways to allow the program to use additional information about the sample to further extend the domain of analyzable samples. These unusual analyses will come from the domain of samples that need to be measured because of complex reconfiguration or environmental cleanup

  15. Advances in isotopic analysis for food authenticity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Bontempo, L.; Camin, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stable isotope analysis has been used for food authenticity testing for more than 30 years and is today being utilized on a routine basis for a wide variety of food commodities. During the past decade, major analytical method developments have been made and the fundamental understanding...... authenticity testing is currently developing even further. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview of the latest developments in stable isotope analysis for food authenticity testing. As several review articles and book chapters have recently addressed this topic, we will primarily focus on relevant...... literature from the past 5 years. We will focus on well-established methods for food authenticity testing using stable isotopes but will also include recent methodological developments, new applications, and current and future challenges....

  16. Multicomponent isotopic separation and recirculation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Maroni, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    A digital computer program for design of multicomponent distillation columns has been developed based on an exact method of solution of the governing equations. Although this computer program was developed for enrichment of the spent fuels from presently conceived tokamak-type fusion power reactors by cryogenic distillation, the program can be used for the design of any multicomponent distillation column, provided, of course, the necessary thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data are available. To prove the versatility of the computer program, parametric investigations to study the effect of design and operating variables on the composition of the product streams was carried out for the case of separating hydrogen isotopes. The computer program is very efficient; hence, a number of parametric investigations can be carried out with limited resources. The program does, however, require a fairly large computer storage space

  17. Results of Am isotopic ratio analysis in irradiated MOX fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Mitsugashira, Toshiaki; Konno, Koichi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kajitani, Mikio

    1997-04-01

    For analysis of a small quantity of americium, it is necessary to separate from curium which has similar chemical property. As a chemical separation method for americium and curium, the oxidation of americium with pentavalent bismuth and subsequent co-precipitation of trivalent curium with BIP O{sub 4} were applied to analyze americium in irradiated MOX fuels which contained about 30wt% plutonium and 0.9wt% {sup 241}Am before irradiation and were irradiated up to 26.2GWd/t in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. The purpose of this study is to measure isotopic ratio of americium and to evaluate the change of isotopic ratio with irradiation. Following results are obtained in this study. (1) The isotopic ratio of americium ({sup 241}Am, {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am) can be analyzed in the MOX fuels by isolating americium. The isotopic ratio of {sup 242m}Am and {sup 243}Am increases up to 0.62at% and 0.82at% at maximum burnup, respectively, (2) The results of isotopic analysis indicates that the contents of {sup 241}Am decreases, whereas {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243}Am increase linearly with increasing burnup. (author)

  18. Hg stable isotope analysis by the double-spike method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Chris; Johnson, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    Recent publications suggest great potential for analysis of Hg stable isotope abundances to elucidate sources and/or chemical processes that control the environmental impact of mercury. We have developed a new MC-ICP-MS method for analysis of mercury isotope ratios using the double-spike approach, in which a solution containing enriched (196)Hg and (204)Hg is mixed with samples and provides a means to correct for instrumental mass bias and most isotopic fractionation that may occur during sample preparation and introduction into the instrument. Large amounts of isotopic fractionation induced by sample preparation and introduction into the instrument (e.g., by batch reactors) are corrected for. This may greatly enhance various Hg pre-concentration methods by correcting for minor fractionation that may occur during preparation and removing the need to demonstrate 100% recovery. Current precision, when ratios are normalized to the daily average, is 0.06 per thousand, 0.06 per thousand, 0.05 per thousand, and 0.05 per thousand (2sigma) for (202)Hg/(198)Hg, (201)Hg/(198)Hg, (200)Hg/(198)Hg, and (199)Hg/(198)Hg, respectively. This is slightly better than previously published methods. Additionally, this precision was attained despite the presence of large amounts of other Hg isotopes (e.g., 5.0% atom percent (198)Hg) in the spike solution; substantially better precision could be achieved if purer (196)Hg were used.

  19. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  20. Behaviour of rare earth elements, thorium, uranium and strontium isotopes in soil samples of Bryansk region contaminated due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Yonehara, H.; Kurotaki, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Ramzaev, V.; Barkovski, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the processes which control retention of rare earth elements, U and Th in soil samples of Bryansk region in one of Russian territory contaminated due to Chernobyl accident. Acid sandy and loam sand podzolic soils are typical of this area. We have classified soil samples into forest, pasture, field, yard and kitchen garden. Rare earth elements, U and Th concentrations were measured by digestion soil samples using acid digestion and microwave digestion method followed by ICP-MS whereas Sr isotope ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) was determined by using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS). In case of forest soil samples, ratio of U/Th varied from 3.32 to 3.60. Though concentration of U and Th varies, ratio does not show much variation. Pasture soil showed higher concentration of REEs, U and Th. Chondrite normalized pattern of soil samples did not differ much from one another excep Ce and Eu and were similar to that for average concentration of continental crust. In case of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio, top layer soil sample shows a relatively higher isotope ratio than lower layers. These data, within the study area, may be reflective of variations in the concentration of elements in reservoir rocks at depth. (author)

  1. Krypton isotope analysis using near-resonant stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, C.A.; Cannon, B.D.; Wacker, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A method for measuring low relative abundances of 85 Kr in one liter or less samples of air has been under development here at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The goal of the Krypton Isotope Laser Analysis (KILA) method is to measure ratios of 10 -10 or less of 85 Kr to more abundant stable krypton. Mass spectrometry and beta counting are the main competing technologies used in rare-gas trace analysis and are limited in application by such factors as sample size, counting times, and selectivity. The use of high-resolution lasers to probe hyperfine levels to determine isotopic abundance has received much attention recently. In this study, we report our progress on identifying and implementing techniques for trace 85 Kr analysis on small gas samples in a static cell as well as limitations on sensitivity and selectivity for the technique. High-resolution pulsed and cw lasers are employed in a laser-induced fluorescence technique that preserves the original sample. This technique, is based on resonant isotopic depletion spectroscopy (RIDS) in which one isotope is optically depleted while preserving the population of a less abundant isotope. The KILA method consists of three steps. In the first step, the 1s 5 metastable level of krypton is populated via radiative cascade following two-photon excitation of the 2p 6 energy level. Next, using RBDS, the stable krypton isotopes are optically depleted to the ground state through the 1s 4 level with the bulk of the 85 Kr population being preserved. Finally, the remaining metastable population is probed to determine 85 Kr concentration. The experimental requirements for each of these steps are outlined below

  2. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  3. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of d13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although

  4. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, T.C.W.; Schierbeek, H.; Houtekamer, M.; van Engeland, T.; Derrien, D.; Stal, L.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ13C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence,

  5. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immediate need to perform treatment studies. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional and lime-soda ash softening treatments to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Conventional drinking water treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve 12% and 5.9% strontium removal at best, while lime softening removed as much as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Systematic fundamental experiments showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was related to pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. Final strontium concentration was also directly associated with initial strontium concentration. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium likely replaced calcium inside the crystal lattice and was likely mainly responsible for removal during lime softening. To inform the public.

  6. ISODEP, A Fuel Depletion Analysis Code for Predicting Isotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trend of results was found to be consistent with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 13 no. 3/4 December (2001) pp. 184-195. KEY WORDS: depletion analysis, code, research reactor, simultaneous equations, decay of nuclides, radionuclitides, isotope. Résumé

  7. Hydrology of Bishop Creek, California: An Isotopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Space; John W. Hess; Stanley D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Five power generation plants along an eleven kilometer stretch divert Bishop Creek water for hydro-electric power. Stream diversion may be adversely affecting the riparian vegetation. Stable isotopic analysis is employed to determine surface water/ground-water interactions along the creek. surface water originates primarily from three headwater lakes. Discharge into...

  8. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Heng-Jui; Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Ke, Jr-Jian; Wu, Chung-Lun; Yin, Yu-Peng; Zhan, Qian; Lin, Gong-Ru; Chu, Ying-Hao; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice

  9. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical procedures for determining Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in water samples by ID-TIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Few articles deal with lead and strontium isotopic analysis of water samples. The aim of this study was to define the chemical procedures for Pb and Sr isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from an urban sedimentary aquifer. Thirty lead and fourteen strontium isotopic analyses were performed to test different analytical procedures. Pb and Sr isotopic ratios as well as Sr concentration did not vary using different chemical procedures. However, the Pb concentrations were very dependent on the different procedures. Therefore, the choice of the best analytical procedure was based on the Pb results, which indicated a higher reproducibility from samples that had been filtered and acidified before the evaporation, had their residues totally dissolved, and were purified by ion chromatography using the Biorad® column. Our results showed no changes in Pb ratios with the storage time.

  11. Strontium and argon isotopic homogenization of pelitic sediments during low-grade regional metamorphism: the Pan-African Upper Damara Sequence of northern Namibia (South West Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauer, N.

    1979-01-01

    The fine mineral fractions 0 C and pressures up to 2 kbar. These events are dated at about 535 m.y. and 455 m.y. respectively (with lambda( 87 Rb) = 1.42 X 10 -11 yr -1 ). Anomalously high K-Ar ages on samples from specific stratigraphic horizons can be related to open system behaviour and K migration during the formation of stilpnomelane from ferromagnesian illites. This study shows that age dating of sedimentary rocks subjected to low-grade regional metamorphism can only yield meaningful results if the interpretation of isotopic analyses is based on a clear understanding of the mineralogical processes that led to the formation of these parageneses which characterize the rock unit dated. (Auth.)

  12. Spectroscopic Quadrupole Moments in {96,98}Sr: Evidence for Shape Coexistence in Neutron-Rich Strontium Isotopes at N=60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, E; Zielińska, M; Görgen, A; Korten, W; Péru, S; Libert, J; Goutte, H; Hilaire, S; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bree, N; Bruyneel, B; Butler, P A; Butterworth, J; Delahaye, P; Dijon, A; Doherty, D T; Ekström, A; Fitzpatrick, C; Fransen, C; Georgiev, G; Gernhäuser, R; Hess, H; Iwanicki, J; Jenkins, D G; Larsen, A C; Ljungvall, J; Lutter, R; Marley, P; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P J; Pakarinen, J; Petts, A; Reiter, P; Renstrøm, T; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Sotty, C; Srebrny, J; Stefanescu, I; Tveten, G M; Van de Walle, J; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F; Wiens, A; De Witte, H; Wrzosek-Lipska, K

    2016-01-15

    Neutron-rich {96,98}Sr isotopes have been investigated by safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility. Reduced transition probabilities and spectroscopic quadrupole moments have been extracted from the differential Coulomb excitation cross sections. These results allow, for the first time, the drawing of definite conclusions about the shape coexistence of highly deformed prolate and spherical configurations. In particular, a very small mixing between the coexisting states is observed, contrary to other mass regions where strong mixing is present. Experimental results have been compared to beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction in a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian formalism, which reproduce the shape change at N=60.

  13. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Direct Isotope Abundance Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manard, Manuel J.; Weeks, Stephan; Kyle, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear forensics community is currently engaged in the analysis of illicit nuclear or radioactive material for the purposes of non-proliferations and attribution. One technique commonly employed for gathering nuclear forensics information is isotope analysis. At present, the state-of-the-art methodology for obtaining isotopic distributions is thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Although TIMS is highly accurate at determining isotope distributions, the technique requires an elementally pure sample to perform the measurement. The required radiochemical separations give rise to sample preparation times that can be in excess of one to two weeks. Clearly, the nuclear forensics community is in need of instrumentation and methods that can expedite their decision making process in the event of a radiological release or nuclear detonation. Accordingly, we are developing instrumentation that couples a high resolution IM drift cell to the front end of a MS. The IM cell provides a means of separating ions based upon their collision cross-section and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Two analytes with the same m/z, but with different collision cross-sections (shapes) would exit the cell at different times, essentially enabling the cell to function in a similar manner to a gas chromatography (GC) column. Thus, molecular and atomic isobaric interferences can be effectively removed from the ion beam. The mobility selected chemical species could then be introduced to a MS for high-resolution mass analysis to generate isotopic distributions of the target analytes. The outcome would be an IM/MS system capable of accurately measuring isotopic distributions while concurrently eliminating isobaric interferences and laboratory radiochemical sample preparation. The overall objective of this project is developing instrumentation and methods to produce near real-time isotope distributions with a modular mass spectrometric system that performs the required gas-phase chemistry and

  14. Studies on the ageing of a magnesium-strontium nitrate pyrotechnic composition using isothermal microcalorimetry and thermal analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuukkanen, I.; Brown, S.D.; Charsley, E.L.; Goodall, S.J.; Rooney, J.J.; Griffiths, T.T.; Lemmetyinen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The ageing behaviour of a pyrotechnic composition containing equal parts by mass of magnesium and strontium nitrate has been followed by isothermal microcalorimetry. The measurements were carried out on the samples at 50 deg. C and 65% relative humidity in air using closed ampoules. The results have been compared to those obtained for magnesium powder under the same conditions. Following an initial induction period, the pyrotechnic compositions reacted at a much faster rate than magnesium powder alone. The main reaction products were found to be magnesium hydroxide and strontium nitrite; the amounts formed have been correlated with the cumulative heats of ageing. In addition, the influence of the ageing process on the pyrotechnic reaction has been studied by high temperature differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and by modulated temperature DSC

  15. The origin and crust/mantle mass balance of Central Andean ignimbrite magmatism constrained by oxygen and strontium isotopes and erupted volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymuth, Heye; Brandmeier, Melanie; Wörner, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Volcanism during the Neogene in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes produced (1) stratovolcanoes, (2) rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites which reach volumes of generally less than 300 km3 and (3) large-volume monotonous dacitic ignimbrites of up to several thousand cubic kilometres. We present models for the origin of these magma types using O and Sr isotopes to constrain crust/mantle proportions for the large-volume ignimbrites and explore the relationship to the evolution of the Andean crust. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on phenocrysts in order to avoid the effects of secondary alteration. Our results show a complete overlap in the Sr-O isotope compositions of lavas from stratovolcanoes and low-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites as well as older (>9 Ma) large-volume dacitic ignimbrites. This suggests that the mass balance of crustal and mantle components are largely similar. By contrast, younger (estimated the volume of these ignimbrite deposits throughout the Central Andes during the Neogene and examined the spatiotemporal pattern of so-called ignimbrite flare-ups. We observe a N-S migration of maximum ages of the onset of large-volume "ignimbrite pulses" through time: Major pulses occurred at 19-24 Ma (e.g. Oxaya, Nazca Group), 13-14 Ma (e.g. Huaylillas and Altos de Pica ignimbrites) and 70 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (assuming plutonic/volcanic ratios of 1:5) which are additional to, but within the order of, the arc background magmatic flux. Comparing our results to average shortening rates observed in the Andes, we observe a "lag-time" with large-volume eruptions occurring after accelerated shortening. A similar delay exists between the ignimbrite pulses and the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge. This is consistent with the idea that large-volume ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of the N-S passage of the ridge after slab steepening has allowed hot asthenospheric mantle to ascend into and cause the melting of the mantle wedge. In our model, the

  16. Isotope analysis reveals foraging area dichotomy for atlantic leatherback turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Caut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea has undergone a dramatic decline over the last 25 years, and this is believed to be primarily the result of mortality associated with fisheries bycatch followed by egg and nesting female harvest. Atlantic leatherback turtles undertake long migrations across ocean basins from subtropical and tropical nesting beaches to productive frontal areas. Migration between two nesting seasons can last 2 or 3 years, a time period termed the remigration interval (RI. Recent satellite transmitter data revealed that Atlantic leatherbacks follow two major dispersion patterns after nesting season, through the North Gulf Stream area or more eastward across the North Equatorial Current. However, information on the whole RI is lacking, precluding the accurate identification of feeding areas where conservation measures may need to be applied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using stable isotopes as dietary tracers we determined the characteristics of feeding grounds of leatherback females nesting in French Guiana. During migration, 3-year RI females differed from 2-year RI females in their isotope values, implying differences in their choice of feeding habitats (offshore vs. more coastal and foraging latitude (North Atlantic vs. West African coasts, respectively. Egg-yolk and blood isotope values are correlated in nesting females, indicating that egg analysis is a useful tool for assessing isotope values in these turtles, including adults when not available. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results complement previous data on turtle movements during the first year following the nesting season, integrating the diet consumed during the year before nesting. We suggest that the French Guiana leatherback population segregates into two distinct isotopic groupings, and highlight the urgent need to determine the feeding habitats of the turtle in the Atlantic in order to protect this species from incidental take by

  17. Analysis on decontamination of contaminated soil with strontium using electrorestoration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The electrokinetic apparatus for remediation of the soil contaminated with Sr 2+ was designed. After kaolin clay compulsorily contaminated by Sr 2+ solution, the remediation characteristics by electrokinetic method were analyzed. Meanwhile, the numerical code for analysis of electrokinetic migration was developed for modelling of the soil remediation. And the input parameters needed for modelling were measured by laboratory experiment, or taken from literature. Experimental results are as follows : After 6 day remediation under 40 V, the front part of experimental cell was almost decontaminated, but the back part didn't almost be decontaminated. Consequently, the total remediation ratio of Sr 2+ from cell soil was about 84.8 %. The values calculated by the developed code almost agreed with experimental values. When voltages of electrode were increased by 10, 20, 40V, the total Sr 2+ remediation ratios were about 21.9%. 43.3%, 84.8 % , respectively, after 6 days

  18. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  19. Stable Isotope Group 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    The work of the group in 1984 is described and includes studies in isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation. Geothermal studies have decreased compared to other years, but major data summaries were made for Wairakei and Ngawha. The hydrology of Whakarewarewa and Rotorua is being elucidated using water isotopes. Models of the subsurface flows at Kawerau and Ngawha are being made to relate fluid to mineral isotope compositions. A study of the δ 13 C and δ 34 S compositions of New Zealand oils has been started. Groups of oils of related origin are being defined, and compositions will be compared with those of potential source rocks. A method was developed for isotope analysis of sulphur in rocks. The isotopic composition of water is being used to identify and characterise groundwater aquifers in the Wairarapa and at Poverty Bay. Stable carbon isotopes have been used to identify food sources for invertebrates, and to show biochemical pathways in lactation by cows. The geochronology group is involved in major studies in Antarctica, using U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. Rocks from North Victoria Land, Marie Byrd Land and the USARP mountains are being compared with possible correlatives in New Zealand and Argentina. Strontium isotope data is being applied to the origin of magmas in several regions of New Zealand. The K-Ar data is being stored on computer files. Fission track measurements are being applied to unravel uplift histories in Westland and Taranaki

  20. Water-Rock Interactions in the Peridotite Aquifer of the Oman-UAE Ophiolite: Strontium Isotopic Ratio and Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, Nicolas; Matter, Juerg; Teagle, Damon

    2016-04-01

    The peridotite aquifer in Wadi Tayin, Sultanate of Oman, is a perfect example of natural carbonation of ultramafic rocks. In situ mineral carbonation is considered the most safest and permanent option of CO2 Capture and Sequestration (CCS). However, the process itself is yet to be characterised and a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in natural mineral carbonation is needed before geo-engineering it. We used the 87Sr/86Sr system to follow the water-rock interactions along the groundwater flowpath in the peridotite aquifer and to determine the sources of divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+) required for mineral carbonation. The Sr-isotope data of groundwater show that the aquifer rocks are the main source for divalent cations (Mg2+, Ca2+ and Sr2+) and secondary carbonates are their main sink. The groundwater 87Sr/86Sr ratio evolves with its pH: from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7087 (n=3) to 0.7082 (n=8) between pH 7 and 8, and from 0.7086 (n=6) at pH 9 to 0.07075 (n=9) at pH 11. This evolution seems to support a two-step model for the water-rock interactions in the peridotite aquifer. From pH 7 to 8, secondary Ca-carbonate precipitation buffers the pH rise resulting from peridotite serpentinisation. From pH 9 to 11, peridotite serpentinisation drives the pH to alkaline condition. The change from a Mg-rich to a Ca-rich groundwater at pH 9 seems to confirm the two-step model.

  1. Isotope analysis (δ13C of pulpy whole apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop the method of isotope analysis to quantify the carbon of C3 photosynthetic cycle in pulpy whole apple juice and to measure the legal limits based on Brazilian legislation in order to identify the beverages that do not conform to the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MAPA. This beverage was produced in a laboratory according to the Brazilian law. Pulpy juices adulterated by the addition of sugarcane were also produced. The isotope analyses measured the relative isotope enrichment of the juices, their pulpy fractions (internal standard and purified sugar. From those results, the quantity of C3 source was estimated by means of the isotope dilution equation. To determine the existence of adulteration in commercial juices, it was necessary to create a legal limit according to the Brazilian law. Three brands of commercial juices were analyzed. One was classified as adulterated. The legal limit enabled to clearly identify the juice that was not in conformity with the Brazilian law. The methodology developed proved efficient for quantifying the carbon of C3 origin in commercial pulpy apple juices.

  2. Tritium conductivity and isotope effect in proton-conducting perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukundan, R.; Brosha, E.L.; Birdsell, S.A.; Costello, A.L.; Garzon, F.H.; Willms, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The tritium ion conductivities of SrZr 0.9 Yb 0.1 O 2.95 and BaCe 0.9 Yb 0.1 O 2.95 have been measured by ac impedance analysis. The high tritium conductivity of these perovskites could potentially lead to their application as an electrochemical membrane for the recovery of tritium from tritiated gas streams. The conductivities of these perovskites, along with SrCe 0.95 Yb 0.05 O 2.975 , were also measured in hydrogen- and deuterium-containing atmospheres to illustrate the isotope effect. For the strontium zirconate and barium cerate samples, the impedance plot consists of two clearly resolved arcs, a bulk and a grain boundary arc, in the temperature range 50--350 C. However, for the strontium cerate sample, the clear resolution of the bulk conductivity was not possible and only the total conductivity was measurable. Thus, the isotope effect was clearly established only for the strontium zirconate and barium cerate samples. The decrease in bulk conductivity with increasing isotope mass was found to be a result of an increase in the activation energy for conduction accompanied by a decrease in the pre-exponential factor. Since the concentration of the mobile species (H+, D+, or T+) should remain relatively constant at T < 350 C, this increase in activation energy is directly attributable to the increased activation energy for the isotope mobility

  3. Optical lattice clock with strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X.; Le Targat, R.; Fouche, M.; Brusch, A.; Westergaard, Ph.G.; Lecallier, A.; Lodewyck, J.; Lemonde, P. [Observatoire de Paris, LNE-SYRTE, Systemes de Reference Temps Espace, 75 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Optical lattice clocks, which were first imagined in 2000, should allow one to achieve unprecedented performances in the domain of atomic clocks. We present here the Strontium lattice clock, developed at LNE-SYRTE. The principle, in particular trapping atoms in the Lamb-Dicke regime and the notion of magic wavelength, is first explained. We then present the results obtained for the {sup 87}Sr isotope, with a frequency accuracy of 2,6.10{sup -15}, and the {sup 88}Sr isotope, with. which we perform the first frequency measurement of an optical lattice clock with bosonic atoms. (authors)

  4. Strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennaro, G.P.; Haney, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxylapatite, a compound having the formula: M 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 wherein M is calcium, strontium, barium, lead, iron, sodium, potassium, zinc, cadmium, magnesium, aluminium or a rare earth metal, is provided as a support medium for strontium-82 in a strontium-82/rubidium-82 parent-daughter radionuclide generator

  5. Identifying the sources of produced water in the oil field by isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Minh Quy; Hoang Long; Le Thi Thu Huong; Luong Van Huan; Vo Thi Tuong Hanh

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the sources of the formation water in the Southwest Su-Tu-Den (STD SW) basement reservoir. To achieve the objective, isotopic techniques along with geochemical analysis for chloride, bromide, strontium dissolved in the water were applied. The isotopic techniques used in this study were the determination of water stable isotopes signatures (δ 2 H and (δ 18 O) and of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of strontium in rock cutting sample and that dissolved in the formation water. The obtained results showed that the stable isotopes compositions of water in the Lower Miocene was -3‰ and -23‰ for (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H, respectively indicating the primeval nature of seawater in the reservoir. Meanwhile, the isotopic composition of water in the basement was clustered in a range of alternated freshwater with (δ 18 O and (δ 2 H being -(3-4)‰ and -(54-60)‰, respectively). The strontium isotopes ratio for water in the Lower Miocene reservoir was lower compared to that for water in the basement confirming the different natures of the water in the two reservoirs. The obtained results are assured for the techniques applicability, and it is recommended that studies on identification of the flow-path of the formation water in the STD SW basement reservoir should be continued. (author)

  6. Strontium-90 accumulation in fowl and its migration into egg following chromic intake with forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldaeva, K.A.; Sarapul'tsev, I.A.

    1975-01-01

    Accumulation of strontium-90 in different organs of hens and its transfer ot eggs have been studied at chronic feeding with the isotope. The feed consisted of potato and wheat grown on plots artificially contaminated with strontium-90. The duration of the experiment is 30 days during which the hens lay 35 eggs. Strontium-90 and calcium are determined in the femur, shoulder, breastbone, skull, rib, vertebrae, and muscles. Determination errors do not exceed 10 and 5% for the isotope and calcium respectively. Concentration of stronium-90 and calcium in different bones and in muscles of laying hens and roosters after a month's feeding with the isotope presented. The isotope concentration in bones of hens 3 to 4 times higher than in bones of roosters while the muscle concentration is similar in both cases. The higher content of strontium-90 per g of bone tissue calcium in hens can be explained by a higher level of calcium metabolism during the laying period. Data on strontium-90 and calcium concentration in eggs are also presented. The bulk of the isotope accumulates in the eggshell (96.4%). One egg contains an average of 31% of the daily strontium intake

  7. Strontium Promotes Cementoblasts Differentiation through Inhibiting Sclerostin Expression In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingfu Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cementogenesis, performed by cementoblasts, is important for the repair of root resorption caused by orthodontic treatment. Based on recent studies, strontium has been applied for osteoporosis treatment due to its positive effect on osteoblasts. Although promising, the effect of strontium on cementoblasts is still unclear. So the aim of this research was to clarify and investigate the effect of strontium on cementogenesis via employing cementoblasts as model. A series of experiments including MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene analysis, alizarin red staining, and western blot were carried out to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of cementoblasts. In addition, expression of sclerostin was checked to analyze the possible mechanism. Our results show that strontium inhibits the proliferation of cementoblasts with a dose dependent manner; however, it can promote the differentiation of cementoblasts via downregulating sclerostin expression. Taking together, strontium may facilitate cementogenesis and benefit the treatment of root resorption at a low dose.

  8. Strontium-90 (90Sr) determination using liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheberle, L.T.V.; Rosa, M.M.L.; Ferreira, M.T.; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This procedure describes a method for separation and measurement of strontium 90 Sr in water, soils, and biological samples. Water samples may be concentrated using evaporation or calcium phosphate coprecipitation. Soils and biological materials must be dissolved using wet digestion. Tracers and carriers must be added before the attack. Radioactive strontium is separated employing a specific resin before determination by liquid scintillation counting using the double energetic window method. The resin is used to concentrate strontium from samples. Stable strontium is used to monitor method yields and correct results to improve precision and accuracy. The presence of elemental strontium in the sample may bias the gravimetric yield determination. If it is suspected that natural strontium is present in the sample, its concentration should be determined by a suitable means (ICP), and the yield calculation properly modified. Sr-Spec resin with an 8M HNO 3 load solution is used to effectively remove 140 Ba and 40 K isotopes, as well as other interferences from the matrix. Tetravalent plutonium, neptunium, cerium and ruthenium, however, are not removed using nitric acid. The radiochemical procedure was tested using PROCORAD intercomparison exercises and PNI samples. (author)

  9. Quantitative mass-spectrometric analysis of hydrogen helium isotope mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, U.

    1998-12-01

    This work deals with the mass-spectrometric method for the quantitative analysis of hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures, with special attention to fusion plasma diagnostics. The aim was to use the low-resolution mass spectrometry, a standard measuring method which is well established in science and industry. This task is solved by means of the vector mass spectrometry, where a mass spectrum is repeatedly measured, but with stepwise variation of the parameter settings of a quadruple mass spectrometer. In this way, interfering mass spectra can be decomposed and, moreover, it is possible to analyze underestimated mass spectra of complex hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures. In this work experimental investigations are presented which show that there are different parameters which are suitable for the UMS-method. With an optimal choice of the parameter settings hydrogen-helium-isotope mixtures can be analyzed with an accuracy of 1-3 %. In practice, a low sensitivity for small helium concentration has to be noted. To cope with this task, a method for selective hydrogen pressure reduction has been developed. Experimental investigations and calculations show that small helium amounts (about 1 %) in a hydrogen atmosphere can be analyzed with an accuracy of 3 - 10 %. Finally, this work deals with the effects of the measuring and calibration error on the resulting error in spectrum decomposition. This aspect has been investigated both in general mass-spectrometric gas analysis and in the analysis of hydrogen-helium-mixtures by means of the vector mass spectrometry. (author)

  10. Accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some hydrobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Keslev, D.; Kerteva, A.; Novakova, E.

    1974-01-01

    Factors responsible for the accumulation of strontium 90 and cesium 137 in some plant organisms, characteristic for fishes in Bulgarian fresh-water reservoirs and in Black Seawater, were examined. The investigated samples were taken during spring, summer and autumn-winter seasons 1967/1968. Each sample burnt to ashes at 450 0 C was examined for strontium 90 and cesium 137 content as well as stable isotopes of calcuim and potassium. Accumulation factors for strontium 90 and cesium 137 were significantly higher in freshwater hydrobionts than in seawater hydrobionts. This could be explained by variations in the concentration of stable isotopes of calcium and potassium from freshwater reservoirs and from seawater. Potassium and calcium concentrations were relatively constant in seawater while in freshwater they were significantly variable. Accumulation factors for these radionuclides increased according to the amount of rain and the altitude above sea level. Strontium 90 was deposited mostly in fins, less in scales and least in the meat of fishes; cesium 137 was mainly deposited in the meat and less in the other parts of fishes. The highest accumulation factors for strontium 90 were determined in fishes and for cesium 137 in plant organisms. The most convenient plant and fish species for tracing radioactive contamination of freshwater reservoirs and in the Black Sea were indicated. (A.B.)

  11. Carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric methane by isotope-ratio-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dawn A.; Hayes, J. M.; Des Marais, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Less than 15 min are required for the determination of delta C(sub PDB)-13 with a precision of 0.2 ppt(1 sigma, single measurement) in 5-mL samples of air containing CH4 at natural levels (1.7 ppm). An analytical system including a sample-introduction unit incorporating a preparative gas chromatograph (GC) column for separation of CH4 from N2, O2, and Ar is described. The 15-min procedure includes time for operation of that system, high-resolution chromatographic separation of the CH4, on-line combustion and purification of the products, and isotopic calibration. Analyses of standards demonstrate that systematic errors are absent and that there is no dependence of observed values of delta on sample size. For samples containing 100 ppm or more CH4, preconcentration is not required and the analysis time is less than 5 min. The system utilizes a commercially available, high-sensitivity isotope-ratio mass spectrometer. For optimal conditions of smaple handling and combustion, performance of the system is within a factor of 2 of the shot-noise limit. The potential exists therefore for analysis of samples as small as 15 pmol CH4 with a standard deviation of less than 1 ppt.

  12. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxue [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Dong, Faqin, E-mail: fqdong@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Nie, Xiaoqin [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Sun, Shiyong [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A programmed gradient descent biosorption process was designed. • The adsorption and bioaccumulation quantity of strontium ions by yeast cell were measured. • The decrement of biosorbents after biosorption by ashing was analyzed. • A technological flow process of decrement solution for waste disposal was proposed. - Abstract: One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO{sub 4} existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields.

  13. Cavity Ring-down Spectroscopy for Carbon Isotope Analysis with 2 μm Diode Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, K.; Tomita, H.; Watanabe, K.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Iguchi, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have made a prototype based on CRDS with 2 μm diode laser for carbon isotope analysis of CO 2 in air. The carbon isotope ratio was obtained to be (1.085±0.012)x10 -2 which shows good agreement with the isotope ratio measured by the magnetic sector-type mass spectrometer within uncertainty. Hence, we demonstrated the carbon isotope analysis based on CRDS with 2 μm tunable diode laser.

  14. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  15. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department's mission as stated in that document. ''The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.''

  16. Isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride highly enriched in U-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussy, L.; Boyer, R.

    1968-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of uranium in the form of the hexafluoride by mass-spectrometry gives gross results which are not very accurate. Using a linear interpolation method applied to two standards it is possible to correct for this inaccuracy as long as the isotopic concentrations are less than about 10 per cent in U-235. Above this level, the interpolations formula overestimates the results, especially if the enrichment of the analyzed samples is higher than 1.3 with respect to the standards. A formula is proposed for correcting the interpolation equation and for the extending its field of application to high values of the enrichment (≅2) and of the concentration. It is shown that by using this correction the results obtained have an accuracy which depends practically only on that of the standards, taking into account the dispersion in the measurements. (authors) [fr

  17. Stable isotope analysis of Dacryoconarid carbonate microfossils: a new tool for Devonian oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Lindemann, Richard H; Frappier, Brian R

    2015-04-30

    Dacryoconarids are extinct marine zooplankton known from abundant, globally distributed calcite microfossils in the Devonian, but their shell stable isotope composition has not been previously explored. Devonian stable isotope stratigraphy is currently limited to less common invertebrates or bulk rock analyses of uncertain provenance. As with Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera, isotopic analysis of dacryoconarid shells could facilitate higher-resolution, geographically widespread stable isotope records of paleoenvironmental change, including marine hypoxia events, climate changes, and biocrises. We explored the use of Dacryoconarid isotope stratigraphy as a viable method in interpreting paleoenvironments. We applied an established method for determining stable isotope ratios (δ(13) C, δ(18) O values) of small carbonate microfossils to very well-preserved dacryoconarid shells. We analyzed individual calcite shells representing five common genera using a Kiel carbonate device coupled to a MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Calcite shell δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were compared by taxonomic group, rock unit, and locality. Single dacryoconarid calcite shells are suitable for stable isotope analysis using a Kiel-IRMS setup. The dacryoconarid shell δ(13) C values (-4.7 to 2.3‰) and δ(18) O values (-10.3 to -4.8‰) were consistent across taxa, independent of shell size or part, but varied systematically through time. Lower fossil δ(18) O values were associated with warmer water temperature and more variable δ(13) C values were associated with major bioevents. Dacryoconarid δ(13) C and δ(18) O values differed from bulk rock carbonate values. Dacryoconarid individual microfossil δ(13) C and δ(18) O values are highly sensitive to paleoenvironmental changes, thus providing a promising avenue for stable isotope chemostratigraphy to better resolve regional to global paleoceanographic changes throughout the upper Silurian to the upper Devonian. Our results

  18. Geochemistry, age and strontium isotope composition of late tertiary and quaternary basalts and andesites in western Nevada and their relation to geothermal potential. Final report, October 1, 1982-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, L.A.; Bell, E.J.; Trexler, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    This research was undertaken to characterize the late Cenozoic volcanic rocks associated with active geothermal systems in west-central Nevada. Petrographic and microprobe, geochemical and isotopic analysis and age dating techniques were used to characterize these young volcanic rocks. These data were combined with the limited data previously reported in the literature on these same volcanic areas to interpret their petrogenesis. The overall characterization resulted from integrating the petrogenesis with a structural-tectonic model of the region. Potassium-argon isotopic ages ranging up to 14 million years were determined for eight localities within the Reno 1 x 2/sup 0/ study region. These ages are consistent with the morphology of the volcanic landforms, the active geothermal systems associated with them, and with other isotopic ages reported in the literature for these and similar rocks within the study region. Petrographic analysis of hand specimens and thin-sections indicated mineralogic assemblages of the respective rock types and specific mineral textures and phenocryst compositions and characteristics. These identifications were further substantiated by microprobe analysis of selected phenocrysts and groundmass phases. Classification of the respective rock types was also based on chemical composition and normative calculations using the program PETCAL. Basaltic andesites are identified and described for Steamboat Hills, Table Mountain, Silver Springs, Churchill Butte, Cleaver Peak, Desert Peak and Carson City sites.

  19. Pressurizer pump reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    During a prolonged outage from November 1986 to May 1990, numerous changes were made at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Some of these changes involved the pressurizer pumps. An analysis was performed to calculate the impact of these changes on the pressurizer system availability. The analysis showed that the availability of the pressurizer system dropped from essentially 100% to approximately 96%. The primary reason for the decrease in availability comes because off-site power grid disturbances sometimes result in a reactor trip with the present pressurizer pump configuration. Changes are being made to the present pressurizer pump configuration to regain some of the lost availability

  20. Optimization and Validation of the Developed Uranium Isotopic Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. H.; Kang, M. Y.; Kim, Jinhyeong; Choi, H. D. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    γ-ray spectroscopy is a representative non-destructive assay for nuclear material, and less time-consuming and less expensive than the destructive analysis method. The destructive technique is more precise than NDA technique, however, there is some correction algorithm which can improve the performance of γ-spectroscopy. For this reason, an analysis code for uranium isotopic analysis is developed by Applied Nuclear Physics Group in Seoul National University. Overlapped γ- and x-ray peaks in the 89-101 keV X{sub α}-region are fitted with Gaussian and Lorentzian distribution peak functions, tail and background functions. In this study, optimizations for the full-energy peak efficiency calibration and fitting parameters of peak tail and background are performed, and validated with 24 hour acquisition of CRM uranium samples. The optimization of peak tail and background parameters are performed with the validation by using CRM uranium samples. The analysis performance is improved in HEU samples, but more optimization of fitting parameters is required in LEU sample analysis. In the future, the optimization research about the fitting parameters with various type of uranium samples will be performed. {sup 234}U isotopic analysis algorithms and correction algorithms (coincidence effect, self-attenuation effect) will be developed.

  1. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided

  2. Calcium Isotope Analysis with "Peak Cut" Method on Column Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, F.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    To eliminate isobaric interferences from elemental and molecular isobars (e.g., 40K+, 48Ti+, 88Sr2+, 24Mg16O+, 27Al16O+) on Ca isotopes during mass determination, samples should be purified through ion-exchange column chemistry before analysis. However, large Ca isotopic fractionation has been observed during column chemistry (Russell and Papanastassiou, 1978; Zhu et al., 2016). Therefore, full recovery during column chemistry is greatly needed, otherwise uncertainties would be caused by poor recovery (Zhu et al., 2016). Generally, matrix effects could be enhanced by full recovery, as other elements might overlap with Ca cut during column chemistry. Matrix effects and full recovery are difficult to balance and both need to be considered for high-precision analysis of stable Ca isotopes. Here, we investigate the influence of poor recovery on δ44/40Ca using TIMS with the double spike technique. The δ44/40Ca values of IAPSO seawater, ML3B-G and BHVO-2 in different Ca subcats (e.g., 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100%) with 20% Ca recovery on column chemistry display limited variation after correction by the 42Ca-43Ca double spike technique with the exponential law. Notably, δ44/40Ca of each Ca subcut is quite consistent with δ44/40Ca of Ca cut with full recovery within error. Our results indicate that the 42Ca-43Ca double spike technique can simultaneously correct both of the Ca isotopic fractionation that occurred during column chemistry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) determination properly, because both of the isotopic fractionation occurred during analysis follow the exponential law well. Therefore, we propose the "peak cut" method on Ca column chemistry for samples with complex matrix effects. Briefly, for samples with low Ca contents, we can add the double spike before column chemistry, and only collect the middle of the Ca eluate and abandon the both sides of Ca eluate that might overlap with other elements (e.g., K, Sr). This method would

  3. Thermoluminescence of strontium tetraborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.; Caselli, E.; Lester, M.

    1999-01-01

    The thermoluminescent properties of crystalline strontium tetraborate are reported. Without activators it has an efficiency comparable to that of TLD-700 powder. Its fading after 40 days amount to less than 2%. The isometric plot shows that most of the emitted light is concentrated at wavelengths ranging from 350 to 450 nm, which accounts partially for the high efficiency. (author)

  4. Crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite in the presence of strontium ranelate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, R. R.; Golovanova, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of strontium ranelate on the crystallization of carbonate hydroxyapatite from a prototype of synovial fluid of humans has been investigated. The synthesis products are studied by IR Fourier spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. The amount of strontium in the samples is determined by atomic emission analysis. The sizes of crystallites in the synthesized phases are calculated from the Selyakov-Scherrer formula; the lattice parameters are also determined. The phases obtained are found to be species of calcium-deficient strontium-containing carbonate hydroxyapatite of mixed A and B types. Schemes of chemical reactions occurring during heat treatment are proposed.

  5. Characterization of phenols biodegradation by compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Gilevska, Tetyana; Wenzig, Felix; Hans, Richnow; Vogt, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    -cresol degradation and 2.2±0.3‰ for m-cresol degradation, respectively. The carbon isotope fractionation patterns of phenol degradation differed more profoundly. Oxygen-dependent monooxygenation of phenol by A.calcoaceticus as the initial reaction yielded ƐC values of -1.5±0.02‰. In contrast, the anaerobic degradation initiated by ATP-dependent carboxylation performed by Thauera aromatia DSM 6984, produced no detectable fractionation (ƐC 0±0.1‰). D. cetonica showed a slight inverse carbon isotope fractionation (ƐC 0.4±0.1‰). In conclusion, a validated method for compound specific stable isotope analysis was developed for phenolic compounds, and the first data set of carbon enrichment factors upon the biodegradation of phenol and cresols with different activation mechanisms has been obtained in the present study. Carbon isotope fractionation analysis is a potentially powerful tool to monitor phenolic compounds degradation in the environment.

  6. Evaluation of Kilauea Eruptions By Using Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, K. E.; Bursik, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    Kilauea, on the island of Hawaii, is a large volcanic edifice with numerous named vents scattered across its surface. Halema`uma`u crater sits with Kilauea caldera, above the magma reservoir, which is the main source of lava feeding most vents on Kilauea volcano. Halema`uma`u crater produces basaltic explosive activity ranging from weak emission to sub-Plinian. Changes in the eruption style are thought to be due to the interplay between external water and magma (phreatomagmatic/ phreatic), or to segregation of gas from magma (magmatic) at shallow depths. Since there are three different eruption mechanisms (phreatomagmatic, phreatic, and magmatic), each eruption has its own isotope ratios. The aim of this study is to evaluate the eruption mechanism by using stable isotope analysis. Studying isotope ratios of D/H and δ18O within fluid inclusion and volcanic glass will provide an evidence of what driven the eruption. The results would be determined the source of water that drove an eruption by correlating the values with water sources (groundwater, rainwater, and magmatic water) since each water source has a diagnostic value of D/H and δ18O. These results will provide the roles of volatiles in eruptions. The broader application of this research is that these methods could help volcanologists forecasting and predicting the current volcanic activity by mentoring change in volatiles concentration within deposits.

  7. Analysis and separation of boron isotopes; Analyse et separation des isotopes du bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-01

    The nuclear applications of boron-10 justify the study of a method of measurement of its isotopic abundance as well as of very small traces of boron in different materials. A systematic study of thermionic emission of BO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}{sup +} has been carried out. In the presence of a slight excess of alkalis, the thermionic emission is considerably reduced. On the other hand, the addition of a mixture of sodium hydroxide-glycerol (or mannitol) to borax permits to obtain an intense and stable beam. These results have permitted to establish an operative method for the analysis of traces of boron by isotopic dilution. In other respects, the needs of boron-10 in nuclear industry Justify the study of procedures of separation of isotopes of boron. A considerable isotopic effect has been exhibited in the chemical exchange reaction between methyl borate and borate salt in solution. In the case of exchange between methyl borate and sodium borate, the elementary separation factor {alpha} is: {alpha}=(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)vap.)/(({sup 11}B/{sup 10}B)liq.)=1.03{sub 3}. The high value of this elementary effect has been multiplied in a distillation column in which the problem of regeneration of the reactive has been resolved. An alternative procedure replacing the alkali borate by a borate of volatile base, for example diethylamine, has also been studied ({alpha}=1,02{sub 5} in medium hydro-methanolic with 2,2 per cent water). (author) [French] Les applications nucleaires du bore 10 justifient l'etude d'une methode de mesure de son abondance isotopique dans divers materiaux ainsi que le dosage de tres faibles traces de bore. Une etude systematique de l'emission thermoionique de BO{sub 2} Na{sub 2}{sup +} a ete effectuee. En presence d'un leger exces d'alcalins, l'emission thermoionique est considerablement reduite. Par contre l'addition au borax d'un melange soude-glycerol (ou mannitol) permet d'obtenir un faisceau stable et intense. Ces resultats ont permis d'etablir un mode

  8. Precise isotope ratio and multielement determination in prehistoric and historic human skeletal remains by HR-ICPMS - a novel application to shed light onto anthropological and archaeological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.

    2000-12-01

    The primary aim of the presented work was the analytical setup for fast (including high sample throughput for statistical evaluation), precise and accurate measurement of strontium isotope ratios using HR-ICPMS (high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and their application to ancient human skeletal remains from different localities for the reconstruction of migration processes. Soils and plants are in isotopic equilibrium with local source rock and show therefore the same isotopic ratios for strontium (87Sr/86Sr). Dietary strontium incorporation varies for different body materials (teeth, muscle, bone, etc.) and repository periods depend on the different strontium turnover rates. Accordingly, strontium isotope analysis can provide important data for studying human or animal migration and mobility. An important issue will be addressed: the problem of strontium isotope ratio measurement reliability and the problem of post-mortem alterations. Thus a basic part of this interdisciplinary project is dealing with the systematic evaluation of diagenetic changes of the microstructure in human bone samples - including sample uptake and preparation. Different invasive histological techniques will be applied for further clarification. Newly developed chemical methods give us the opportunity to obtain details on ancient population mobility also in skeletal series of extreme fragmentary character, which usually restricts the macro-morphological approach. Since it is evident that strontium in teeth is only incorporated during childhood whereas strontium uptake in bones is constant, an intra-individual comparison of bone and teeth samples will answer the question whether teeth are indeed 'archives of the childhood'. The introduction of an analytical system allowing online matrix separation by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) and subsequent measurement of strontium isotope ratios by means of HR-ICPMS is presented, optimized and established as method

  9. Precise Isotope ratio and multielement determination in prehistoric and historic human skeletal remains by HR-ICPMS - a novel application to shed light onto anthropological and archaeological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, M.

    2000-12-01

    The primary aim of the presented work was the analytical setup for fast (including high sample throughput for statistical evaluation), precise and accurate measurement of strontium isotope ratios using HR-ICPMS (high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and their application to ancient human skeletal remains from different localities for the reconstruction of migration processes. Soils and plants are in isotopic equilibrium with local source rock and show therefore the same isotopic ratios for strontium (87Sr/86Sr). Dietary strontium incorporation varies for different body materials (teeth, muscle, bone, etc.) and repository periods depend on the different strontium turnover rates. Accordingly, strontium isotope analysis can provide important data for studying human or animal migration and mobility. An important issue will be addressed: the problem of strontium isotope ratio measurement reliability and the problem of post-mortem alterations. Thus a basic part of this interdisciplinary project is dealing with the systematic evaluation of diagenetic changes of the microstructure in human bone samples - including sample uptake and preparation. Different invasive histological techniques will be applied for further clarification. Newly developed chemical methods give us the opportunity to obtain details on ancient population mobility also in skeletal series of extreme fragmentary character, which usually restricts the macro-morphological approach. Since it is evident that strontium in teeth is only incorporated during childhood whereas strontium uptake in bones is constant, an intra-individual comparison of bone and teeth samples will answer the question whether teeth are indeed 'archives of the childhood'. The introduction of an analytical system allowing online matrix separation by High Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) and subsequent measurement of strontium isotope ratios by means of HR-ICPMS is presented, optimized and established as method

  10. Redox substoichiometry in isotope dilution analysis Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Ugai, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of antimony(III) with potassium dichromate has been investigated radiometrically. The quantitative oxidation of antimony(III) was found to be not disturbed even in large amounts of tin(IV). On the basis of these results the redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis using potassium dichromate as the oxidizing agent was proposed for the determination of antimony in metallic tin. An antimony content of 1.22+-0.05 μg in metallic tin (10 mg) was determined without separation of the matrix element. (author)

  11. Redox substoichiometry in isotope dilution analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Suzuki, J.; Yoshioka, H.; Nakajima, N.

    1978-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis using the redox substoichiometric principle has been applied to the determination of antimony content in metallic zinc. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of trivalent to pentavalent antimony with potassium permanganate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BHPA extraction of trivalent antimony. Determination of antimony contents less than 0.5 μg was found to be possible with good accuracy, without separation of zinc ions. The antimony content in a metallic zinc sample was determined to be 19.7+-0.8 ppm, in good agreement with the results obtained by the other analytical methods. (author)

  12. Gamma-ray isotopic analysis development at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Sampson

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the development history and characteristics of software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology group at Los Alamos for gamma-ray isotopic analysis. This software analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum from measurements performed on actinide samples (principally plutonium and uranium) of arbitrary size, geometry, and physical and chemical composition. The results are obtained without calibration using only fundamental tabulated nuclear constants. Characteristics of the current software versions are discussed in some detail and many examples of implemented measurement systems are shown.

  13. Applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenninkmeijer C. A.M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has become established as a useful method for tracing the budgets of atmospheric trace gases and even atmospheric oxygen. Several new developments are briefly discussed in a systematic way to give a practical guide to the scope of recent work. Emphasis is on applications and not on instrumental developments. Processes and reactions are less considered than applications to resolve trace gas budgets. Several new developments are promising and applications hitherto not considered to be possible may allow new uses.

  14. Leaching of strontium sulfide from produced clinker in conversion furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbanian, S. A.; Salehpour, A. R.; Radpour, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Iran is rich in mineral resources one of which is mineral Celestine. Basing on current estimations, the capacity of mineral Celestine is over two million tons, 75-95% of which is strontium sulfate. However; in industries such as Color cathode Ray Tubes, pyrochemical processes, ceramics, paint production, zinc purification processes; strontium sulfate is not a direct feed, rather it is largely consumed in the form of strontium carbonate. Two conventional methods are used to produce strontium carbonate from the sulfate; that is direct reaction and black ash methods. Strontium sulfide, as an intermediate component has a key role in black ash process including strontium sulfate reduction by coke, hence producing and leaching the strontium sulfide by hot water. Finally the reaction of strontium sulfate with sodium carbonate lead to strontium carbonate. In this paper, a system was designed to analyze and optimize the process parameters of strontium sulfide production which is less expensive and available solvent in water. Fundamentally, when strontium sulfide becomes in contact with strontium sulfate; Sr(SH) 2 , and Sr(OH) 2 , are produced. The solubility of strontium sulfide depends on water temperature and the maximum solubility achieved at 90 d egree C . The results showed that in the experimental scale, at water to SrS ratio of 6; they sediment for 45 minutes at 95 d egree C in five operational stages; the separation of 95 and 97.1 percent of imported SrS is possible in effluent of fourth and fifth stages, respectively. Thus; four leaching stages could be recommended for pilot scale plants. Also, the results show that at water to SrS ratio of 8, 40 minutes sedimentation at 85-95 d egree C in one operational stage, the separation of 95 percent separation of inputted SrS, is possible. Solvent leaching process is continued till no smell of sulfur components is felt. It could be used as a key role to determine the number of leaching stages in experiments. Finally, the

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater from May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in freshwater measured in May 1984 are given in pCi/l. The sampling point is 1, Kasumigaura-Lake (Ibaraki). Collection and pretreatment of samples, preparation of samples for analysis, separation of strontium-90 and cesium-137, determination of stable strontium, calcium and potassium, and counting are described. The sample was passed through a cation exchange column. After the radiochemical separation, the mounted precipitates were counted for activity using low background beta counters normally for 60 minutes. (Mori, K.)

  16. Sample preparation techniques of biological material for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, H.; Sebastianelli, A.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in all isotope-aided experiments but often it is not given enough attention. The methods of sample preparation are very important to obtain reliable and precise analytical data and for further interpretation of results. The size of a sample required for chemical analysis is usually very small (10mg-1500mg). On the other hand the amount of harvested plant material from plots in a field experiment is often bulky (several kilograms) and the entire sample is too large for processing. In addition, while approaching maturity many crops show not only differences in physical consistency but also a non-uniformity in 15 N content among plant parts, requiring a plant fractionation or separation into parts (vegetative and reproductive) e.g. shoots and spikes, in case of small grain cereals, shoots and pods in case of grain legumes and tops and roots or beets (including crown) in case of sugar beet, etc. In any case the ultimate goal of these procedures is to obtain representative subsample harvested from greenhouse or field experiments for chemical analysis. Before harvesting an isotopic-aided experiment the method of sampling has to be selected. It should be based on the type of information required in relation to the objectives of the research and the availability of resources (staff, sample preparation equipment, analytical facilities, chemicals and supplies, etc.). 10 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Existing and emerging technologies for measuring stable isotope labelled retinol in biological samples: isotope dilution analysis of body retinol stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the recent improvements in instrumentation used for stable isotope tracer measurements in the context of measuring retinol stores, in vivo. Tracer costs, together with concerns that larger tracer doses may perturb the parameter under study, demand that ever more sensitive mass spectrometric techniques are developed. GCMS is the most widely used technique. It has high sensitivity in terms of sample amount and uses high resolution GC, yet its ability to detect low isotope ratios is limited by background noise. LCMSMS may become more accessible for tracer studies. Its ability to measure low level stable isotope tracers may prove superior to GCMS, but it is isotope ratio MS (IRMS) that has been designed specifically for low level stable isotope analysis through accurate analysis of tracer:tracee ratios (the tracee being the unlabelled species). Compound-specific isotope analysis, where GC is interfaced to IRMS, is gaining popularity. Here, individual 13C-labelled compounds are separated by GC, combusted to CO2 and transferred on-line for ratiometric analysis by IRMS at the ppm level. However, commercially-available 13C-labelled retinol tracers are 2 - 4 times more expensive than deuterated tracers. For 2H-labelled compounds, GC-pyrolysis-IRMS has now become more generally available as an operating mode on the same IRMS instrument. Here, individual compounds are separated by GC and pyrolysed to H2 at high temperature for analysis by IRMS. It is predicted that GC-pyrolysis-IRMS will facilitate low level tracer procedures to measure body retinol stores, as has been accomplished in the case of fatty acids and amino acids. Sample size requirements for GC-P-IRMS may exceed those of GCMS, but this paper discusses sample preparation procedures and predicts improvements, particularly in the efficiency of sample introduction.

  18. Novel Pharmaceutical Strontium Malonate Influence on Calcium and Strontium Adsorption by Dog Femur and by Dog Teeth in a Four-Week Toxicity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Anders Christer; Christgau, Stephan; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    of osteoporosis. As part of this development the compound was administered in doses of 0 (placebo), 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day to beagle dogs for a period of 4 weeks. We measured the incorporation of strontium in bone, marrow and teeth in this study. Analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...... marginally higher incorporation of strontium suggesting that saturation levels were reached with the lowest dose level. There was no gender difference in strontium incorporation. Correlations of strontium levels with Sr/Ca-ratio and other important biological parameters were investigated....

  19. Automatic measurement system for light element isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Kouichi.

    1990-01-01

    The automatic measurement system for the light element isotope analysis was developed by installing the specially designed inlet system which was controlled by a computer. The microcomputer system contains specific interface boards for the inlet system and the mass spectrometer, Micromass 602 E. All the components of the inlet and the computer system installed are easily available in Japan. Ten samples can be automatically measured as a maximum of. About 160 minutes are required for 10 measurements of δ 18 O values of CO 2 . Thus four samples can be measured per an hour using this system, while usually three samples for an hour using the manual operation. The automatized analysis system clearly has an advantage over the conventional method. This paper describes the details of this automated system, such as apparatuses used, the control procedure and the correction for reliable measurement. (author)

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Strontium in Water Sample Using a Sr2+ Selective Polymer as the Absorbent Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjian Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of Sr2+ selective resin was applied as an absorption phase to extract Sr2+ ion from an aqueous solution, and the amount of Sr2+ was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Factors, including absorption time, temperature, stirring rate, salt-out effect, desorption, and the pH of the aqueous solution, were investigated to optimize the absorption efficiency of Sr2+. Foreign ions were examined to observe their effects on the absorption behavior of Sr2+. The optimum condition was absorption time at 20 min, pH of aqueous solution 7, temperature of 35°C, and 600 rpm stirring rate. A 10 mL solution of 0.1 mol/L HCl is used as the desorption agent. The linear range of Sr2+ concentrations from 50 to 1200 μg/L was investigated with the slope of 183 μg/L. The limit of detection was 21 μg/L with 4.23% relative standard deviation. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9947. Under the optimized conditions, the concentrations of Sr2+ in four water samples were detected by the developed method. We propose that this method effectively extracts strontium ion from environmental water samples.

  1. XRD and SEM/EDS characterization of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms used in the treatment of strontium in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Silva, Flavia R.O.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K., E-mail: sksakata@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    {sup 90}Sr, a radioactive isotope of strontium, is one of the fission products and quite often present in the radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants. Recently, the removal efficiency of strontium by treated coconut fibers was evaluated and reached up to 95% in an aqueous solution. This work presents the characterization of raw and treated coconut fibers with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in basic medium using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS). The analysis of X-ray diffraction shows a crystallinity of 37.6% for raw coconut fiber and crystallinity of 45.4% and 50.6% for coconut fibers 1 and 2, respectively. These results showed that the different degrees of degradation of organic matter can affect the crystallinity of the treated. This study of morphology and crystallinity of theses biosorbent materials with strontium will help in comprehension of the effects of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment and it will demonstrate the potential of strontium uptake by coconut fibers. (author)

  2. XRD and SEM/EDS characterization of coconut fibers in raw and treated forms used in the treatment of strontium in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Heverton C.O.; Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Ferreira, Robson J.; Silva, Flavia R.O.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Sakata, Solange K.

    2015-01-01

    90 Sr, a radioactive isotope of strontium, is one of the fission products and quite often present in the radioactive waste produced by nuclear power plants. Recently, the removal efficiency of strontium by treated coconut fibers was evaluated and reached up to 95% in an aqueous solution. This work presents the characterization of raw and treated coconut fibers with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in basic medium using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM / EDS). The analysis of X-ray diffraction shows a crystallinity of 37.6% for raw coconut fiber and crystallinity of 45.4% and 50.6% for coconut fibers 1 and 2, respectively. These results showed that the different degrees of degradation of organic matter can affect the crystallinity of the treated. This study of morphology and crystallinity of theses biosorbent materials with strontium will help in comprehension of the effects of alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment and it will demonstrate the potential of strontium uptake by coconut fibers. (author)

  3. Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Para, BR; Determinacao da composicao isotopica de estroncio em aguas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicacao em aguas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na regiao Bragantina-PA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Adriana Oliveira; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso; Scheller, Thomas [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail: adriana@ufpa.br

    2007-07-15

    Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Para. Coastal plateau waters have {delta}{sup 87}Sr between 1.51 and 6.26 per mille and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show {delta}{sup 87}Sr between 0.55 and 0.90 per mille and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have {delta}{sup 87}Sr per mille around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal plateau waters. (author)

  4. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  5. Structural and physico-chemical analysis of calcium/strontium substituted, near-invert phosphate based glasses for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, U; Moss, R M; Hossain, K M Z; Kennedy, A R; Barney, E R; Ahmed, I; Hannon, A C

    2017-09-15

    Neutron diffraction, 23 Na and 31 P NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy have been used to investigate the structural effects of substituting CaO with SrO in a 40P 2 O 5 ·(16-x)CaO·20Na 2 O·24MgO·xSrO glass, where x is 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16mol%. The 31 P solid-state NMR results showed similar amounts of Q 1 and Q 2 units for all of the multicomponent glasses investigated, showing that the substitution of Sr for Ca has no effect on the phosphate network. The M-O coordinations (M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Na) were determined for binary alkali and alkaline earth metaphosphates using neutron diffraction and broad asymmetric distributions of bond length were observed, with coordination numbers that were smaller and bond lengths that were shorter than in corresponding crystals. The Mg-O coordination number was determined most reliably as 5.0(2). The neutron diffraction results for the multicomponent glasses are consistent with a structural model in which the coordination of Ca, Sr and Na is the same as in the binary metaphosphate glass, whereas there is a definite shift of Mg-O bonds to longer distance. There is also a small but consistent increase in the Mg-O coordination number and the width of the distribution of Mg-O bond lengths, as Sr substitutes for Ca. Functional properties, including glass transition temperatures, thermal processing windows, dissolution rates and ion release profiles were also investigated. Dissolution studies showed a decrease in dissolution rate with initial addition of 4mol% SrO, but further addition of SrO showed little change. The ion release profiles followed a similar trend to the observed dissolution rates. The limited changes in structure and dissolution rates observed for substitution of Ca with Sr in these fixed 40mol% P 2 O 5 glasses were attributed to their similarities in terms of ionic size and charge. Phosphate based glasses are extremely well suited for the delivery of therapeutic ions in biomedical applications, and in particular strontium plays an

  6. Redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of metallic arsenic for antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Tomihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroe; Suzuki, Junsuke; Shibata, Yasue.

    1979-01-01

    In 1 M HCl solution Sb(III) reacts with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) to form a complex extractable into chloroform while the extraction of Sb(V) is negligible. The redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis based on this reaction was applied to the determination of antimony in metallic arsenic. After the dissolution of metallic arsenic, Sb(V) was separated from As(V) by a tribenzylamine extraction from 8 M HCl solution and the extracted Sb(V) was stripped into 0.5 M NaOH solution. Thereafter, all the Sb(V) were completely reduced to Sb(III) by bubbling SO 2 gas through 3 M HCl solution. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by a substoichiometric amount of potassium dichromate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BPHA extraction of Sb(III). The substoichiometric oxidation of Sb(III) was found to be quantitative over HCl concentration range from 0.8 to 1.2 M. The amount of antimony was determined by isotope dilution analysis using the method of carrier amount variation. By the present method the determination of as small as 0.36 μg antimony was accomplished with a good accuracy (relative error; 5.6%) and also the method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in arsenic samples containing known amounts of Sb(III) and in metallic arsenic. The present method gives reliable results with the good accuracy and precision. (author)

  7. Multivariate Stable Isotope Analysis to Determine Linkages between Benzocaine Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, H. F.; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Collins, M.; Salouros, H.; Cunningham, A.; Harrison, M.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2010, a woman was jailed for nine years in the UK after the prosecution successfully argued that attempting to import a cutting agent was proof of involvement in a conspiracy to supply Cocaine. That landmark ruling provided law enforcement agencies with much greater scope to tackle those involved in this aspect of the drug trade, specifically targeting those importing the likes of benzocaine or lidocaine. Huge quantities of these compounds are imported into the UK and between May and August 2010, four shipments of Benzocaine amounting to more then 4 tons had been seized as part of Operation Kitley, a joint initiative between the UK Border Agency and the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA). By diluting cocaine, traffickers can make it go a lot further for very little cost, leading to huge profits. In recent years, dealers have moved away from inert substances, like sugar and baby milk powder, in favour of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including anaesthetics like Benzocaine and Lidocaine. Both these mimic the numbing effect of cocaine, and resemble it closely in colour, texture and some chemical behaviours, making it easier to conceal the fact that the drug has been diluted. API cutting agents have helped traffickers to maintain steady supplies in the face of successful interdiction and even expand the market in the UK, particularly to young people aged from their mid teens to early twenties. From importation to street-level, the purity of the drug can be reduced up to a factor of 80 and street level cocaine can have a cocaine content as low as 1%. In view of the increasing use of Benzocaine as cutting agent for Cocaine, a study was carried out to investigate if 2H, 13C, 15N and 18O stable isotope signatures could be used in conjunction with multivariate chemometric data analysis to determine potential linkage between benzocaine exhibits seized from different locations or individuals to assist with investigation and prosecution of drug

  8. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  9. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  10. System of lithium, sodium, and strontium bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, G.N.; Yagub'yan, E.S.; Bukhalova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The visual-polythermal and partially differential thermal methods of analysis have been applied to investigate the meltability diagram of the Li 2 Br 2 -Na 2 Br 2 -SrBr 2 ternary system. Three fields of crystallization belonging to strontium bromide, to the compound LiSr 2 Br 5 and solid solutions of lithium and sodium bromides are found. Two points complying with nonvariant equilibria are discovered

  11. Strontium-90 - ED 4309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.; Frot, P.; Gambini, D.; Gauron, C.; Moureaux, P.; Herbelet, G.; Lahaye, T.; Le Guen, B.; Pihet, P.; Rannou, A.; Vidal, E.

    2012-12-01

    This sheet presents the characteristics of strontium-90, its origin, and its radio-physical and biological properties. It briefly describes its use in nuclear medicine. It indicates its dosimetric parameters for external exposure, cutaneous contamination, and internal exposure due to acute contamination or to chronic contamination. It indicates and comments the various exposure control techniques: ambient dose rate measurement, surface contamination measurement, atmosphere contamination. It addresses the means of protection: premise design, protection against external exposure and against internal exposure. It describes how areas are delimited and controlled within the premises: regulatory areas, controls to be performed. It addresses the personnel classification, training and medical survey. It addresses the issue of wastes and effluents. It briefly recalls the administrative procedures related to the authorization and declaration of possession and use of sealed and unsealed sources. It indicates regulatory aspects related to the transport of strontium-90, describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (for the different types of contamination or exposure)

  12. Biometrics from the carbon isotope ratio analysis of amino acids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Glen P; An, Yan; Konstantynova, Kateryna I; Rashaid, Ayat H B

    2015-01-01

    This study compares and contrasts the ability to classify individuals into different grouping factors through either bulk isotope ratio analysis or amino-acid-specific isotope ratio analysis of human hair. Using LC-IRMS, we measured the isotope ratios of 14 amino acids in hair proteins independently, and leucine/isoleucine as a co-eluting pair, to provide 15 variables for classification. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were mostly independent variables in the classification rules, thereby enabling the separation of dietary factors of isotope intake from intrinsic or phenotypic factors of isotope fractionation. Multivariate analysis revealed at least two potential sources of non-dietary factors influencing the carbon isotope ratio values of the amino acids in human hair: body mass index (BMI) and age. These results provide evidence that compound-specific isotope ratio analysis has the potential to go beyond region-of-origin or geospatial movements of individuals-obtainable through bulk isotope measurements-to the provision of physical and characteristic traits about the individuals, such as age and BMI. Further development and refinement, for example to genetic, metabolic, disease and hormonal factors could ultimately be of great assistance in forensic and clinical casework. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical spectroscopy versus mass spectrometry: The race for fieldable isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshick, C.M.; Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several techniques have been developed to provide on-site isotopic analyses, including decay-counting and mass spectrometry, as well as methods that rely on the accessibility of optical transitions for isotopic selectivity (e.g., laser-induced fluorescence and optogalvanic spectroscopy). The authors have been investigating both mass spectrometry and optogalvanic spectroscopy for several years. Although others have considered these techniques for isotopic analysis, the authors have focussed on the use of a dc glow discharge for atomization and ionization, and a demountable discharge cell for rapid sample exchange. The authors' goal is a fieldable instrument that provides useful uranium isotope ratio information

  14. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2018-04-20

    This review article covers the present status of isotope detection through emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy of atoms and molecules in a laser-produced plasma formed from a solid sample. A description of the physics behind isotope shifts in atoms and molecules is presented, followed by the physics behind solid sampling of laser ablation plumes, optical methods for isotope measurements, the suitable physical conditions of laser-produced plasma plumes for isotopic analysis, and the current status. Finally, concluding remarks will be made on the existing gaps between previous works in the literature and suggestions for future work.

  15. High burn-up plutonium isotopic compositions recommended for use in shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, M.G.

    1977-06-01

    Isotopic compositions for plutonium generated and recycled in LWR's were estimated for use in shielding calculations. The values were obtained by averaging isotopic values from many sources in the literature. These isotopic values should provide the basis for a reasonable prediction of exposure rates from the range of LWR fuel expected in the future. The isotopic compositions given are meant to be used for shielding calculations, and the values are not necessarily applicable to other forms of analysis, such as inventory assessment or criticality safety. 11 tables, 2 figs

  16. Lead isotopic compositions of environmental certified reference materials for an inter-laboratory comparison of lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Nyein Nyein; Uryu, Tsutomu; Yoshinaga, Jun

    2004-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios, viz. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, of the commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) issued in Japan are presented with an objective to provide a data set, which will be useful for the quality assurance of analytical procedures, instrumental performance and method validation of the laboratories involved in environmental lead isotope ratio analysis. The analytical method used in the present study was inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) presented by acid digestion and with/without chemical separation of lead from the matrix. The precision of the measurements in terms of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of triplicated analyses was 0.19% and 0.14%, for 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, respectively. The trueness of lead isotope ratio measurements of the present study was tested with a few CRMs, which have been analyzed by other analytical methods and reported in various literature. The lead isotopic ratios of 18 environmental matrix CRMs (including 6 CRMs analyzed for our method validation) are presented and the distribution of their ratios is briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  18. Potential application of gas chromatography to the analysis of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.K.; Sprague, R.E.; Bohl, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Gas chromatography is used at Mound Laboratory for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic impurities in gas mixtures. This instrumentation was used to study the applicability of the gas chromatography technique to the determination of the major components of hydrogen isotopic gas mixtures. The results of this study, including chromatograms and precision data, are presented

  19. The diffusivity of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel in concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Penttilae-Hiltunen, P.; Rantanen, J.

    1986-07-01

    The engineering barriers suggested to be used for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes in Finland are concrete and crushed rock or mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite. In the repository the barriers are saturated by groundwater and radionuclides may be released by diffusion through the barries. For safety analysis, the mechanisms by which the nuclides migrate and corresponding parameters should be known. In this study diffusion measurements on different types of concrete and mixtures of sodium bentonite and crushed rock were carried out. Radioactive isotopes of cesium, strontium, carbon and nickel were used as tracers. The apparent diffusivities (Dsub(a)) were evaluated on the basis of the measurements. The apparent diffusivity of cesium in concretes was 10 -14 ...10 -15 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on cement where it diffuses slowly. Part of strontium propably penetrates in the rock ballast by diffusion. The diffusivities of carbon and nickel in the concrete was low. The upper limit was evaluated to be Dsub(a) -14 m 2 /s. The diffusivity of cesium in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite varies between 0.5x10 -12 and 7x10 -12 m 2 /s. Cesium was mainly sorbed on the rock. The diffusivity of strontium was 2x10 -11 ...2x10 -12 m 2 /s. Strontium was mainly sorbed on bentonite. The diffusion of the sorbed ions (surface diffusion) seems to be a additional migration mechanism in the case of cesium and strontium in the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. The diffusivity of carbon in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 6x10 -11 ...4x10 -12 m 2 /s. No sorption was found in the case of carbon. The measured Dsub(a) of nickel in the mixtures of crushed rock and bentonite was 4x10 -14 ...2x10 -15 m 2 /s. The experimental arrangement was not, however, in the stationary state and the more correct values would propably be 10 -13 ...10 -14 m 2 /s. No surface diffusion was found in the case of nickel. (author)

  20. Strontium eluting graphene hybrid nanoparticles augment osteogenesis in a 3D tissue scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium particles. Thermal gravimetric analysis further confirmed the composition of the hybrid particles as 22 wt% of strontium. Macroporous tissue scaffolds were prepared by incorporating RGO_Sr particles in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL/RGO_Sr scaffolds were found to elute strontium ions in aqueous medium. Osteoblast proliferation and differentiation was significantly higher in the PCL scaffolds containing the RGO_Sr particles in contrast to neat PCL and PCL/RGO scaffolds. The increased biological activity can be attributed to the release of strontium ions from the hybrid nanoparticles. This study demonstrates that composites prepared using hybrid nanoparticles that elute strontium ions can be used to prepare multifunctional scaffolds with good mechanical and osteoinductive properties. These findings have important implications for designing the next generation of biomaterials for use in tissue regeneration.The objective of this work was to prepare hybrid nanoparticles of graphene sheets decorated with strontium metallic nanoparticles and demonstrate their advantages in bone tissue engineering. Strontium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO_Sr) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized by the facile reduction of graphene oxide and strontium nitrate. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the hybrid particles were composed of RGO sheets decorated with 200-300 nm metallic strontium

  1. Double photoionization of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, Emma; Grimm, Michael; Sheridan, Paul, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements have been used to study the double photoionization process in strontium. Two sets of measurements were made at the photon energy of the 4p {yields} 4d resonance. The coplanar geometry was used and the fixed analyser, positioned at -90{sup 0} to the main axis of polarization of the photons, detected electrons with {approx}65% of the available excess energy. The mutual angle between the two electrons had a range just short of 90 {yields} 270{sup 0}. The TDCS exhibit unexpected lobes at a mutual angle of 180{sup 0}. Comparison with other measurements made with the same geometry but with different sharings of the available energy indicate that these TDCS all show the unexpected lobe. Some possible explanations for the lobe are considered.

  2. A distribution of adsorbed forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in flood-plain formations of Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of strontium 90 and cesium 137 forms in flood-plain geochemical system 'alluvial deposits - flood-plain turf - humus horizon - soil-source rock', where sorption and colloidal processes play main role in the isotopes migration, was studied. The bulk amount of strontium 90 is presented in adsorbed form in all investigated objects, whereas only 6% of cesium 137 amount in alluvial deposits, flood-plain turf and humus horizon is in adsorbed form. The content of exchange forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 increases with the depth of the layer. The race of this increase for strontium 90 is large than for cesium 137. The distribution of radionuclides through the different parts of flood-plain of Sozh river has some distinctions due to more lability of adsorbed strontium 90 forms in comparison with cesium 137 ones

  3. Disposal criticality analysis methodology's principal isotope burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, T.W.; Thomas, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the burnup credit aspects of the United States Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project's methodology for performing criticality analyses for commercial light-water-reactor fuel. The disposal burnup credit methodology uses a 'principal isotope' model, which takes credit for the reduced reactivity associated with the build-up of the primary principal actinides and fission products in irradiated fuel. Burnup credit is important to the disposal criticality analysis methodology and to the design of commercial fuel waste packages. The burnup credit methodology developed for disposal of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel can also be applied to storage and transportation of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel. For all applications a series of loading curves are developed using a best estimate methodology and depending on the application, an additional administrative safety margin may be applied. The burnup credit methodology better represents the 'true' reactivity of the irradiated fuel configuration, and hence the real safety margin, than do evaluations using the 'fresh fuel' assumption. (author)

  4. Paradigms in isotope dilution mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry currently stands out as the method providing results with unchallenged precision and accuracy in elemental speciation. However, recent history of isotope dilution mass spectrometry has shown that the extent to which this primary ratio measurement method can deliver accurate results is still subject of active research. In this review, we will summarize the fundamental prerequisites behind isotope dilution mass spectrometry and discuss their practical limits of validity and effects on the accuracy of the obtained results. This review is not to be viewed as a critique of isotope dilution; rather its purpose is to highlight the lesser studied aspects that will ensure and elevate current supremacy of the results obtained from this method

  5. Isotope dilution analysis for urinary fentanyl and its main metabolite, norfentanyl, in patients by isotopic fractionation using capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi [Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-07-01

    Isotope dilution analysis was applied to determine urinary excretion of fentanyl (FT) and its main metabolite, norfentanyl (Nor-FT), by isotopic fractionation using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector (SID). Urinary FT was determined quantitatively in the range of 0.4-40 ng/ml using deuterium labeled FT (FT-{sup 2}H{sub 19}), as an internal standard. We also performed isotope dilution analysis of Nor-FT in urine. N-Alkylation was necessary to sensitively detect Nor-FT with SID. Methyl derivative was selected from 3 kinds of N-alkyl derivatives to increase sensitivity and peak resolution, and to prevent interference with urinary compound. Nor-FT concentration was quantitatively determined in the range of 10-400 ng/ml using deuterium labeled Nor-FT (Nor-FT-{sup 2}H{sub 10}). No endogenous compounds or concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT and Nor-FT in the urine of patients. The present method will be useful for pharmacokinetic studies and the evaluation of drug interactions in FT metabolism. (author)

  6. Isotope dilution analysis for urinary fentanyl and its main metabolite, norfentanyl, in patients by isotopic fractionation using capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Shoji; Goromaru, Tsuyoshi; Sameshima, Teruko; Kawasaki, Koichi; Oda, Toshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis was applied to determine urinary excretion of fentanyl (FT) and its main metabolite, norfentanyl (Nor-FT), by isotopic fractionation using a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a surface ionization detector (SID). Urinary FT was determined quantitatively in the range of 0.4-40 ng/ml using deuterium labeled FT (FT- 2 H 19 ), as an internal standard. We also performed isotope dilution analysis of Nor-FT in urine. N-Alkylation was necessary to sensitively detect Nor-FT with SID. Methyl derivative was selected from 3 kinds of N-alkyl derivatives to increase sensitivity and peak resolution, and to prevent interference with urinary compound. Nor-FT concentration was quantitatively determined in the range of 10-400 ng/ml using deuterium labeled Nor-FT (Nor-FT- 2 H 10 ). No endogenous compounds or concomitant drugs interfered with the detection of FT and Nor-FT in the urine of patients. The present method will be useful for pharmacokinetic studies and the evaluation of drug interactions in FT metabolism. (author)

  7. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  8. Marking pike fry otoliths with alizarin complexone and strontium : an evaluation of methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Grønkjær, P.; Nielsen, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated that both alizarin complexone and strontium are useful in mass marking of pike Esox lucius fry otoliths. Visual detection of alizarin complexone marks was considered more reliable than the quantitative analysis of strontium for differentiating marked and unmarked...

  9. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15 percentage Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results. (author)

  10. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N; Fayyaz, M; Iqbal, W; Irfan, M; Alam, S

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr 2 + into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results

  11. A process for the development of strontium hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, N.; Fayyaz, M.; Iqbal, W.; Irfan, M.; Alam, S.

    2014-06-01

    A procedure for the preparation of Strontium Hydroxyapatite is adapted to produce high purity and better homogeneity ceramic with good Crystallinity. The strontium substituted bone cement has potential for use in orthopedic surgeries. Ionic Strontium (Sr) in humans shares the same physiological pathway as calcium and can be deposited in the mineral structure of the bone. In the present study, a novel concept of preparing Sr-contained Hydroxyapatite bone cement by using a precipitation method is proposed to get an ideal biomaterial that possesses potential degradability and more excellent pharmacological effect. Chemical analysis, Fourier Transform Infra Red analysis and Thermogravimetric/ Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies were conducted on prepared Strontium Hydroxyapatite sample to characterize the incorporation of 15% Sr2+ into the crystal lattice of Hydroxyapatite. Strontium was quantitatively incorporated into Hydroxyapatite where its substitution for calcium provoked a linear shift of the infrared absorption bands of the hydroxyl and phosphate groups. Thus, the formation of Sr-HAp was confirmed by Chemical Analysis, FT-IR and TGA/DSC results.

  12. Simultaneous determination of actinide and strontium nuclides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively fast and simple separation procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and strontium radionuclides. Most of the isotopes of these elements are long-lived, pure alpha and beta emitters regarded as 'difficult to determine' ones in the literature. Our major goal was to develop a combined procedure capable for the analysis of all these nuclides in the same sample aliquot so that correlations can be revealed without the errors arising due to inhomogeneity of samples when the radionuclides are determined from different sub-samples. The combined procedure has the advantage that sample destruction becomes simpler and faster, too. The chemical procedure consists of co-precipitations for the pre-concentration of groups of chemically similar elements and extraction chromatographic separations for the purification of individual elements. By means of pre-concentration relatively big samples can be treated offering the possibility of low activity measurements that cannot be performed by analysing small sample amounts. Pre-concentration techniques were always chosen in order to improve the selectivity of the following separation steps. (authors)

  13. On the interference of Kr during carbon isotope analysis of methane using continuous-flow combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, J.; Seth, B.; Bock, M; van der Veen, C.; Möller, L.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Sowers, T.; Röckmann, T.; Fischer, H

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis of methane ( 13C of CH4) on atmospheric samples is one key method to constrain the current and past atmospheric CH4 budget. A frequently applied measurement technique is gas chromatography (GC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled to a

  14. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass ( Equus hemionus ) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being the result of temporal variations in available feeds, water supply and possibly physiological status. Thus stable isotope analysis shows promise to study the comparative ecology of the three autochthonous equid species in the Mongolian Gobi.

  15. Growth history of cultured pearl oysters based on stable oxygen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, R.; Furuta, N.; Suzuki, A.; Kawahata, H.; Shikazono, N.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the oxygen isotopic ratio in shells of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii cultivated in embayments in Mie Prefecture, central Japan, to evaluate the biomineralization of shell structures of the species and its pearls in response to environmental change. Microsamples for oxygen isotope analysis were collected from the surfaces of shells (outer, middle, and inner shell layers) and pearls. Water temperature variations were estimated from the oxygen isotope values of the carbonate. Oxygen isotope profiles of the prismatic calcite of the outer shell layer reflected seasonal variations of water temperature, whereas those of nacreous aragonites of the middle and inner shell layers and pearls recorded temperatures from April to November, June to September, and July to September, respectively. Lower temperatures in autumn and winter might slow the growth of nacreous aragonites. The oxygen isotope values are controlled by both variations of water temperature and shell structures; the prismatic calcite of this species is useful for reconstructing seasonal changes of calcification temperature.

  16. Development of isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry for plutonium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kurosawa, A.; Akiyama, T. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We are studying the feasibility of determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic distribution of highly radioactive, spent-fuel dissolver solutions by employing high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The study involves gamma-ray plutonium isotopic analysis for both dissolver and spiked dissolver solution samples, after plutonium is eluted through an ion-exchange column and absorbed in a small resin bead bag. The spike is well characterized, dry plutonium containing {approximately}98% of {sup 239}Pu. By using measured isotopic information, the concentration of elemental plutonium in the dissolver solution can be determined. Both the plutonium concentration and the isotopic composition of the dissolver solution obtained from this study agree well with values obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Because it is rapid, easy to operate and maintain, and costs less, this new technique could be an alternative method to IDMS for input accountability and verification measurements in reprocessing plants. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Effect of competing cations on strontium sorption to surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The following study was conducted to determine strontium distribution coefficients (K d 'S) of a surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine K d 's which describe the partitioning of a solute between the solution and solid phase. A surficial sediment was mixed with synthesized aqueous solutions designed to chemically simulate wastewater disposed to infiltrations ponds near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the INEL with respect to major ionic character and pH. The effects of variable concentrations of competing cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) on strontium sorption were investigated at a fixed pH of 8.00. The pH of the natural system shows no appreciable variation, whereas a marked variability in cation concentration has been noted. Strontium sorption was impacted to a greater degree by the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution than by the presence of sodium or potassium. However, extreme sodium solution concentrations of 1.0 to 5.0 g/L dramatically reduced strontium sorption. In all cases, strontium K d 's decreased as the concentration of calcium and magnesium in solution increased. Linear isotherm model K d 's ranged from 12.0 to 84.7 mL/g. Analysis of data from these experiments indicated that moderate concentrations of calcium and magnesium (less than 40 mg/L) and high concentrations of sodium (1.0 to 5.0 g/L) in wastewater increase strontium mobility by decreasing the sorption of strontium on surficial sediments beneath infiltration ponds at the INEL

  18. High precision analysis of trace lithium isotope by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Liu Xuemei; Long Kaiming; Liu Zhao; Yang Tianli

    2010-01-01

    High precision analysis method of ng lithium by thermal ionization mass spectrometry is developed. By double-filament measurement,phosphine acid ion enhancer and sample pre-baking technique,the precision of trace lithium analysis is improved. For 100 ng lithium isotope standard sample, relative standard deviation is better than 0.086%; for 10 ng lithium isotope standard sample, relative standard deviation is better than 0.90%. (authors)

  19. High Resolution Gamma Ray Analysis of Medical Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillery, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Compton-suppressed high-purity Germanium detectors at the University of Massachusetts Lowell have been used to study medical radioisotopes produced at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP), in particular isotopes such as Pt-191 used for cancer therapy in patients. The ability to precisely analyze the concentrations of such radio-isotopes is essential for both production facilities such as Brookhaven and consumer hospitals across the U.S. Without accurate knowledge of the quantities and strengths of these isotopes, it is possible for doctors to administer incorrect dosages to patients, thus leading to undesired results. Samples have been produced at Brookhaven and shipped to UML, and the advanced electronics and data acquisition capabilities at UML have been used to extract peak areas in the gamma decay spectra. Levels of Pt isotopes in diluted samples have been quantified, and reaction cross-sections deduced from the irradiation parameters. These provide both cross checks with published work, as well as a rigorous quantitative framework with high quality state-of-the-art detection apparatus in use in the experimental nuclear physics community.

  20. High precision isotopic ratio analysis of volatile metal chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachey, D.L.; Blais, J.C.; Klein, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    High precision isotope ratio measurements have been made for a series of volatile alkaline earth and transition metal chelates using conventional GC/MS instrumentation. Electron ionization was used for alkaline earth chelates, whereas isobutane chemical ionization was used for transition metal studies. Natural isotopic abundances were determined for a series of Mg, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn chelates. Absolute accuracy ranged between 0.01 and 1.19 at. %. Absolute precision ranged between +-0.01-0.27 at. % (RSD +- 0.07-10.26%) for elements that contained as many as eight natural isotopes. Calibration curves were prepared using natural abundance metals and their enriched 50 Cr, 60 Ni, and 65 Cu isotopes covering the range 0.1-1010.7 at. % excess. A separate multiple isotope calibration curve was similarly prepared using enriched 60 Ni (0.02-2.15 at. % excess) and 62 Ni (0.23-18.5 at. % excess). The samples were analyzed by GC/CI/MS. Human plasma, containing enriched 26 Mg and 44 Ca, was analyzed by EI/MS. 1 figure, 5 tables

  1. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate

  2. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear industry emissions of the four CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) relevant radioxenon isotopes are unavoidably detected by the IMS along with possible treaty violations. Another civil source of radioxenon emissions which contributes to the global background is radiopharmaceutical production companies. To better understand the source terms of these background emissions, a joint project between HC, ANSTO, PNNL and CRL was formed to install real-time detection systems to support 135Xe, 133Xe, 131mXe and 133mXe measurements at the ANSTO and CRL 99Mo production facility stacks as well as the CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) primary coolant monitoring system at CRL. At each site, high resolution gamma spectra were collected every 15 minutes using a HPGe detector to continuously monitor a bypass feed from the stack or CANDU primary coolant system as it passed through a sampling cell. HC also conducted atmospheric monitoring for radioxenon at approximately 200 km distant from CRL. A program was written to transfer each spectrum into a text file format suitable for the automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform and then email the file to a server. Once the email was received by the server, it was automatically analysed with the gamma-spectrum software UniSampo/Shaman to perform radionuclide identification and activity calculation for a large number of gamma-spectra in a short period of time (less than 10 seconds per spectrum). The results of nuclide activity together with other spectrum parameters were saved into the Linssi database. This database contains a large amount of radionuclide information which is a valuable resource for the analysis of radionuclide distribution within the noble gas fission product emissions. The results could be useful to identify the specific mechanisms of the activity release. The isotopic signatures of the various radioxenon species can be determined as a function of release time. Comparison of 133mXe and 133Xe activity

  3. Atomization of magnesium, strontium, barium and lead nitrates on surface of graphite atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagdaev, V.K.; Pupyshev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Modelling of the processes on graphite surface using differential-thermal analysis and graphite core with identification of decomposition products of magnesium, strontium, barium and lead nitrates by X-ray analysis has shown that carbon promotes the formation of strontium, barium and lead carbonates. The obtained temperatures of strontium and barium carbonate decomposition to oxides agree satisfactorily with calculation ones. Magnesium nitrate does not react with carbon. Formation of strontium and barium carbonates results in considerable slowing down of the process of gaseous oxide dissociation. Lead carbonate is unstable and rapidly decomposes to oxide with subsequent reduction to free metal. Formation of magnesium, strontium and barium free atoms is connected with appearance of gaseous oxides in analytical zone. Oxide and free metal lead are present on graphite surface simultaneously

  4. Greek marbles: determination of provenance by isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H; Craig, V

    1972-04-28

    A study has been made of carbon-13 and oxygen-18 variations in Greek marbles from the ancient quarry localities of Naxos, Paros, Mount Hymettus, and Mount Pentelikon. Parian, Hymettian, and Pentelic marbles can be clearly distinguished by the isotopic relationships; Naxian marbles fall into two groups characterized by different oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratios. Ten archeological samples were also analyzed; the isotopic data indicate that the "Theseion" is made of Pentelic marble and a block in the Treasury of Siphnos at Delphi is probably Parian marble.

  5. Strontium incorporates at sites critical for bone mineralization in rats with renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oste, Line; Verberckmoes, Steven C.; Behets, Geert J.; Dams, Geert; Bervoets, An R.; De Broe, Marc E.; D'Haese, Patrick C.; Van Hoof, Viviane O.; Bohic, Sylvain; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the development of a mineralization defect during strontium administration and its reversibility after withdrawal in rats with chronic renal failure. Recently, strontium ranelate has been introduced as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis. However, caution has to be taken, as this bone disorder mainly develops in elderly people who may present a moderately decreased renal function. In order to assess the ultra-structural localization of strontium in bone and thereby to get a better insight into the element's systemic effects on bone, synchrotron-based x-ray micro-fluorescence was applied, which showed that after 2 weeks of strontium loading (2 g l -1 in drinking water) in rats with renal failure, concomitant with the development of impaired mineralization, the element was localized mainly at the outer edge of the mineralized bone, while after longer loading periods, a more homogeneous distribution was found. After washout, strontium was found at sites deeper within the trabeculae, while newly deposited low-strontium-containing mineral was found at the outer edges. Synchrotron x-ray micro-diffraction analysis showed that strontium is incorporated in the apatite crystal lattice through exchange with calcium. The results show that strontium is initially incorporated in bone at sites of active bone mineralization, close to the osteoid/mineralization front.Most likely, strontium binds to matrix proteins serving as crystal nucleation points and by hetero-ionic substitution with calcium within the hydroxyapatite crystals, thereby impairing further hydroxyapatite formation. After withdrawal, strontium is released from these sites, by which mineralization is restored and the previously formed strontium-containing hydroxyapatite is buried under a new layer of mineralized bone. (authors)

  6. Depression Mechanism of Strontium Ions in Bastnaesite Flotation with Salicylhydroxamic Acid as Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Cao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal ions are widely present in flotation pulp. Metal ions change solution chemistry and mineral surface properties, consequently affecting mineral flotation. In this work, the effect of strontium ions on bastnaesite flotation with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA was investigated by microflotation tests, contact angle measurements, zeta-potential measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis. Microflotation tests confirmed that the addition of strontium ions decreased bastnaesite floatability, compared with that in the absence of strontium ions. Contact angle measurements suggested that the pretreatment of strontium ions decreased SHA adsorption. Zeta potential measurements confirmed that the bastnaesite was depressed by the adsorption of positively charged strontium species, and the lower adsorption capacity of SHA onto the bastnaesite surfaces was obtained after modifying with strontium ions. XPS analysis demonstrated that strontium ions adsorbed onto the bastnaesite surfaces through the interaction between strontium ions and oxygen atoms of surface ≡ CeOH 0 groups. This occurrence hindered surface Ce sites which chelated with SHA and therefore, decreased bastnaesite floatability.

  7. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H. [Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm (Sweden). Laboratory for Isotope Geology; Fayek, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite.

  8. U and Pb isotope analysis of uraninite and galena by ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evins, L.Z.; Sunde, T.; Schoeberg, H.; Fayek, M.

    2001-10-01

    Accurate isotopic analysis of minerals by ion microprobe, or SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) usually requires a standard to correct for instrumental mass bias effects that occur during analysis. We have calibrated two uraninite crystals and one galena crystal to be used as ion probe standards. As part of this study we describe the analytical procedures and problems encountered while trying to establish fractionation factors for U and Pb isotopes measured in galena and uraninite. Only the intra-element isotopic mass fractionation is considered and not the interelement fractionation. Galena and uraninite were analysed with TIMS (Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry) prior to SIMS. One uraninite crystal (P88) comes from Sweden and is ca 900 Ma old, the other from Maine, USA (LAMNH-30222) and is ca 350 Ma old. The galena sample comes from the Paleoproterozoic ore district Bergslagen in Sweden. SIMS analyses were performed at two different laboratories: the NORDSM facility in Stockholm, which has a high resolution Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee, which has a Cameca IMS 4f ion microprobe. The results show that during the analysis of galena, Pb isotopes fractionate in favour of the lighter isotope by as much as 0.5%/amu. A Pb isotope fractionation factor for uraninite was more difficult to calculate, probably due to the formation of hydride interferences encountered during analysis with the Cameca IMS 1270 ion microprobe. However, drying the sample in vacuum prior to analysis, and using high-energy filtering and a cold trap during analysis can minimise these hydride interferences. A large fractionation of U isotopes of ca 1.4%/amu in favour of the lighter isotope was calculated for uraninite

  9. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  10. Polymeric strontium ranelate nonahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Stahl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, poly[[μ-aqua-tetraaqua{μ-5-[bis(carboxylatomethylamino]-3-carboxylatomethyl-4-cyanothiophene-2-carboxylato}distrontium(II] tetrahydrate], [Sr2(C12H6N2O8S(H2O5]·3.79H2O, crystallizes with nine- and eight-coordinated Sr2+ cations. They are bound to seven of the eight ranelate O atoms and five of the water molecules. The SrO8 and SrO9 polyhedra are interconnected by edge-sharing, forming hollow layers parallel to (011. The layers are, in turn, interconnected by ranelate anions, forming a metal–organic framework (MOF structure with channels along the a axis. The four water molecules not coordinated to strontium are located in these channels and hydrogen bonded to each other and to the ranelates. Part of the water H atoms are disordered. The compound dehydrates very easily and 0.210 (4 water molecules out of nine were lost during crystal mounting causing additional disorder in the water structure.

  11. Photostriction of strontium ruthenate

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2017-04-24

    Transition metal oxides with a perovskite crystal structure exhibit a variety of physical properties associated with the lattice. Among these materials, strontium ruthenate (SrRuO3) displays unusually strong coupling of charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom that can give rise to the photostriction, that is, changes in the dimensions of material due to the absorption of light. In this study, we observe a photon-induced strain as high as 1.12% in single domain SrRuO3, which we attribute to a nonequilibrium of phonons that are a result of the strong interaction between the crystalline lattice and electrons excited by light. In addition, these light-induced changes in the SrRuO3 lattice affect its electrical resistance. The observation of both photostriction and photoresistance in SrRuO3 suggests the possibility of utilizing the mechanical and optical functionalities of the material for next-generation optoelectronics, such as remote switches, light-controlled elastic micromotors, microactuators and other optomechanical systems.

  12. Direct U isotope analysis in μm-sized particles by LA-MC-ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, S.; Boulyga, S.F.; Prohaska, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the isotopic composition of individual μm-sized hot particles is of great interest especially for strengthened nuclear safeguards in order to identify undeclared nuclear activities. We present the potential of a 'Nu Plasma HR' MC-ICPMS coupled to a New Wave 'UP 193' laser ablation (LA) system for the direct analysis of U isotope abundance ratios in individual μm-sized particles. The ability to determine 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was successfully demonstrated in the NUSIMEP-6 interlaboratory comparison, which was organized by the IRMM (Geel, Belgium). (author)

  13. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  14. Use of azeotropic distillation for isotopic analysis of deuterium in soil water and saturate saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Vieira dos.

    1995-05-01

    The azeotropic distillation technique was adapted to extract soil water and saturate saline solution, which is similar to the sea water for the Isotopic Determination of Deuterium (D). A soil test was used to determine the precision and the nature of the methodology to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis, using the azeotropic distillation and comparing with traditional methodology of heating under vacuum. This methodology has been very useful for several kinds of soil or saturate saline solution. The apparatus does not have a memory effect, and the chemical reagents do not affect the isotopic composition of soil water. (author). 43 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Spectroscopy and Laser-SNMS on stable and radioactive strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Hauke; Walther, Clemens [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Franzmann, Michael [Institut fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Kron, Tobias; Wendt, Klaus [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear accidents as experienced e.g. in Chernobyl or Fukushima and nuclear weapon tests released considerable activity levels and a variety of medium to long-lived radionuclides into the environment. Strontium-90 appears as a significant share of the fission products in spent nuclear fuel and correspondingly in any possible release. Due to its chemical properties it is subject to long range transport through the environment and can cause considerable dose to man when entering the food chain. Correspondingly, the investigation of speciation and migration channels is of major relevance. A radioanalytical approach is severely hampered by the low beta energy of the strontium-90 decay and the need to separate strontium-90 from the secular equilibrated daughter yttrium-90. Hence, application of a mass spectrometric method without chemical separation of the elements is a promising alternative for low-level investigation of strontium-90. Application of the new Laser-SNMS system at IRS Hannover could well suit those needs. It applies three Ti:Sa lasers for resonant ionization of neutral atoms produced by primary ion sputtering in a SIMS together with a time-of-flight mass analysis which provides high spatial resolution. The analytical measurements are preceded by spectroscopic studies on the level structure of strontium to develop a most efficient ionization scheme.

  16. Analysis of Stable Isotope Contents of Surface and Underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam Eshun

    (2H/1H) ratios relative to a standard called Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) ..... Hence, higher forest cover has greater influence on heavy isotope ... Accra Plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean where the relative humidity is higher ...

  17. Generator Coordinate Method Analysis of Xe and Ba Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Teruya, Eri

    Nuclear structure of Xe and Ba isotopes is studied in terms of the quantum-number projected generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM reproduces well the energy levels of high-spin states as well as low-lying states. The structure of the low-lying states is analyzed through the GCM wave functions.

  18. Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate single crystals grown in gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermal behaviour of strontium tartrate crystals grown with the aid of sodium metasilicate gel is investigated using thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Effect of magnetic field and dopant (Pb)2+ on the crystal stability is also studied using thermal analysis. This study reveals that water molecules are ...

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  20. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syahidah; Frew, Russell; Hayman, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ13C and δ2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  1. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahidah Akmal Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ13C and δ2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  2. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Syahidah A; Frew, Russell D; Hayman, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the δ(13)C and δ(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  3. Applications of stable isotope analysis in foodstuffs surveillance and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, F.

    1991-12-01

    The instrumental coupling of Elemental Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, constituting a convenient tool for isotope ratio measurements of the bioelements in solid or liquid samples is now well established. Advantages of this technique compared with the so far usual wet chemistry sample preparation are: speed of analysis, easy operation and minor sample consumption. The performance of the system is described and some applications are given. Detection of foodstuffs adulterations is mainly based on the natural carbon isotope differences between C 3 - and C 4 -plants. In the field of environmental research the existing small isotopic variations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in nature, which depend on substance origin and history, are used as intrinsic signature of the considered sample. Examples of source appointment or exclusion by help of this natural isotopic tracer method are dealt with. (authors)

  4. Comparison of gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry for carbon stable-isotope analysis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C W; Schierbeek, Henk; Houtekamer, Marco; van Engeland, Tom; Derrien, Delphine; Stal, Lucas J; Boschker, Henricus T S

    2015-07-15

    We compared gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) and liquid chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC/IRMS) for the measurement of δ(13)C values in carbohydrates. Contrary to GC/IRMS, no derivatisation is needed for LC/IRMS analysis of carbohydrates. Hence, although LC/IRMS is expected to be more accurate and precise, no direct comparison has been reported. GC/IRMS with the aldonitrile penta-acetate (ANPA) derivatisation method was compared with LC/IRMS without derivatisation. A large number of glucose standards and a variety of natural samples were analysed for five neutral carbohydrates at natural abundance as well as at (13)C-enriched levels. Gas chromatography/chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (GC/CIMS) was applied to check for incomplete derivatisation of the carbohydrate, which would impair the accuracy of the GC/IRMS method. The LC/IRMS technique provided excellent precision (±0.08‰ and ±3.1‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively) for the glucose standards and this technique proved to be superior to GC/IRMS (±0.62‰ and ±19.8‰ at natural abundance and enrichment levels, respectively). For GC/IRMS measurements the derivatisation correction and the conversion of carbohydrates into CO2 had a considerable effect on the measured δ(13)C values. However, we did not find any significant differences in the accuracy of the two techniques over the full range of natural δ(13)C abundances and (13)C-labelled glucose. The difference in the performance of GC/IRMS and LC/IRMS diminished when the δ(13)C values were measured in natural samples, because the chromatographic performance and background correction became critical factors, particularly for LC/IRMS. The derivatisation of carbohydrates for the GC/IRMS method was complete. Although both LC/IRMS and GC/IRMS are reliable techniques for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of carbohydrates (provided that derivatisation is complete and the

  5. An isotopic analysis process with optical emission spectrometry on a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauchien, P.; Pietsch, W.; Petit, A.; Briand, A.

    1994-01-01

    The sample that is to be analyzed is irradiated with a laser beam to produce a plasma at the sample surface; the spectrum of the light emitted by the plasma is analyzed and the isotope composition of the sample is derived from the spectrometry. The process is preferentially applied to uranium and plutonium; it is rapid, simpler and cheaper than previous methods, and may be applied to 'in-situ' isotopic analysis in nuclear industry. 2 figs

  6. Individual economical value of plutonium isotopes and analysis of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, I.C.; Rubini, L.A.; Barroso, D.E.G.

    1983-01-01

    An economical analysis of plutonium recycle in a PWR reactor, without any modification, is done, supposing an open market for the plutonium. The individual value of the plutonium isotopes is determined solving a system with four equations, which the unknow factors are the Pu-239, Pu-240, pu-241 and Pu-242 values. The equations are obtained equalizing the cost of plutonium fuel cycle of four different isotope mixture to the cost of the uranium fuel cycle. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strontium mono-chloride — A new molecule for the determination of chlorine using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard, E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Lopez, Alfredo H.D.; Gois, Jefferson S. de; Caramori, Giovanni F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Carasek, Eduardo [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chlorine in biological reference materials using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) of the strontium mono-chloride (SrCl) molecule and direct solid sample analysis. The use of the SrCl molecule for high-temperature MAS was not described up to now in the literature. Preliminary time-dependent density functional theory calculations of the SrCl structure were carried out in order to obtain reasonable estimates of the absorption spectrum of the target molecule. The calculations, which were carried out at BHandHLyp/def2-QZVP level of theory, proved a very accurate and inexpensive way to get information about the spectrum of the SrCl molecule, which enabled us to perform the Cl determination with good sensitivity and specificity. The molecular absorption of the SrCl molecule has been measured using the wavelength at 635.862 nm, and zirconium and palladium have been evaluated as the chemical modifiers in order to increase the sensitivity of the gaseous SrCl molecule generated in the graphite furnace. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using biological certified reference materials of both animal and plant origins, showing good agreement with the informed and certified values. Limit of detection and characteristic mass were 1.0 and 2.2 ng, respectively. The results found using HR-CS GF MAS were in agreement (95% confidence level) compared to those obtained by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • The spectrum of the SrCl molecule was calculated on a theoretical basis and found very close to the predicted wavelength. • It is the first time that the spectrum of the SrCl molecule is described and used analytically for the determination of Cl. • No spectral interferences were observed as the

  9. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material.

  10. Utility of stable isotope analysis in studying foraging ecology of herbivores: Examples from moose and caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Merav; Shochat, Einav; Adams, Layne G.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, researchers emphasized that patterns of stable isotope ratios observed at the individual level are a result of an interaction between ecological, physiological, and biochemical processes. Isotopic models for herbivores provide additional complications because those mammals consume foods that have high variability in nitrogen concentrations. In addition, distribution of amino acids in plants may differ greatly from that required by a herbivore. At northern latitudes, where the growing season of vegetation is short, isotope ratios in herbivore tissues are expected to differ between seasons. Summer ratios likely reflect diet composition, whereas winter ratios would reflect diet and nutrient recycling by the animals. We tested this hypothesis using data collected from blood samples of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and moose (Alces alces) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. Stable isotope ratios of moose and caribou were significantly different from each other in late summer-autumn and winter. Also, late summer-autumn and winter ratios differed significantly between seasons in both species. Nonetheless, we were unable to evaluate whether differences in seasonal isotopic ratios were a result of diet selection or a response to nutrient recycling. We believe that additional studies on plant isotopic ratios as related to ecological factors in conjunction with investigations of diet selection by the herbivores will enhance our understanding of those interactions. Also, controlled studies investigating the relation between diet and physiological responses in herbivores will increase the utility of isotopic analysis in studying foraging ecology of herbivores.

  11. In Situ Carbon Isotope Analysis by Laser Ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lu, Jue; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Duan, Deng-Fei

    2017-12-19

    Carbon isotopes have been widely used in tracing a wide variety of geological and environmental processes. The carbon isotope composition of bulk rocks and minerals was conventionally analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and, more recently, secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been widely used to determine carbon isotope composition of carbon-bearing solid materials with good spatial resolution. Here, we present a new method that couples a RESOlution S155 193 nm laser ablation system with a Nu Plasma II MC-ICP-MS, with the aim of measuring carbon isotopes in situ in carbonate minerals (i.e., calcite and aragonite). Under routine operating conditions for δ 13 C analysis, instrumental bias generally drifts by 0.8‰-2.0‰ in a typical analytical session of 2-3 h. Using a magmatic calcite as the standard, the carbon isotopic composition was determined for a suite of calcite samples with δ 13 C values in the range of -6.94‰ to 1.48‰. The obtained δ 13 C data are comparable to IRMS values. The combined standard uncertainty for magmatic calcite is ICP-MS can serve as an appropriate method to analyze carbon isotopes of carbonate minerals in situ.

  12. Bulgarian regional patterns of contamination by global fallout (strontium 90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, A.; Shopov, N.; Simova, G.; Andreev, E.; Mikha lov, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    For selected districts in the country, mean annual atmospheric precipitation rates were related to strontium-90 contents in milk over the period 1970-1977. Strontium-90 in milk was determined by the method of Popov, using Va-Z-310 counters for activity measurements. The impact of annual precipitation means was examined by monofactorial spread analysis, with sites distributed into three groups according to precipitation rates observed over longer time periods: up to 650 l/m 2 from 650 to 750 l/m 2 ; and above 750 L/M 2 . Values of coefficient F were estimated, representing the ratio of group to random spreads. These figures were compared with critical values in Student's tables for 0.05 significance level. The F data indicated a definite alternative relationship to exist between strontium-90 amounts in mils and annual precipitation rates, which is prognostically meaningful from the strandpoint of radiological protection of the population

  13. Strontium titanate thin film deposition - structural and electronical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzig, Florian; Hanzig, Juliane; Stoecker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Abendroth, Barbara; Meyer, Dirk C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik (Germany); Franke, Michael [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Elektronik- und Sensormaterialien (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Strontium titanate is on the one hand a widely-used model oxide for solids which crystallize in perovskite type of structure. On the other hand, with its large band-gap energy and its mixed ionic and electronic conductivity, SrTiO{sub 3} is a promising isolating material in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for resistive switching memory cells. Here, we used physical vapour deposition methods (e. g. electron-beam and sputtering) to produce strontium titanate layers. Sample thicknesses were probed with X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Additionally, layer densities and dielectric functions were quantified with XRR and SE, respectively. Using infrared spectroscopy free electron concentrations were obtained. Phase and element composition analysis was carried out with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequent temperature treatment of samples lead to crystallization of the initially amorphous strontium titanate.

  14. Food certification based on isotopic analysis, according to the European standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Vremera, Raluca; Stanciu, Vasile; Iordache, Andreea

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Under current EU research projects, several public research institutions, universities and private companies are collaborating to develop new methods of evidencing food adulteration and consequently assessing food safety. The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the ratio of stable isotopes in bio-molecules now provides the means to prove the natural origin of a wide variety of foodstuffs - and therefore, to identify the fraud and consequently to reject the improper products or certify the food quality. Isotope analysis has been officially adopted by the EU as a means of controlling adulteration of some food stuffs. A network of research organizations developed the use of isotopic analysis to support training and technology transfer to encourage uptake of the technique. There were also developed proficiency-testing schemes to ensure the correct use of isotopic techniques in national testing laboratories. In addition, ensuring the food quality and safety is a requirement, which must be fulfilled for the integration in EU. The present paper emphasizes the isotopic analysis for D/H, 18 O/ 16 O, 13 C/ 12 C from food (honey, juice, wines) using a new generation Isotope Ratio MS, Finnigan Delta V Plus, coupled to a three flexible continuous flow preparation device (GasBench II, TC Elemental Analyser and GC-C/TC). (authors)

  15. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  16. Conductivity and thermodynamic characteristic of superionic transition in strontium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, B.M.; Prisyazhnyj, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electric conductivity of strontium polycrystalline chloride in the wide temperature range including melting point is measured. Reciprocally caused anomalous behaviour of kinetic and thermodynamic properties, which relates to peculiarities of salt transition to a superionic state is established in the region of high temperatures. Thermodynamic functions corresponding to crystal anion sublattice disordering are determined and characterized. Comparative analysis of data on strontium chloride and other structural-like salts testifies about step-by-step washing-out character of superionic transition, and the depth of transition (the degree of disordering) reached at melting points relates regularly to relative sizes of cations and anions in the fluorite lattice

  17. Strontium 90 fallout prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Gwinn, E.

    1986-01-01

    An empirical formula is developed for predicting monthly sea level strontium 90 fallout (F) in the northern hemisphere as a function of time (t), precipitation rate (P), latitude (phi), longitude (lambda), and the sea level concentration of stronium 90 in air (C): F(lambda, phi, t) = C(t, phi)[v /sub d/(phi) + v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t)], where v/sub w/(lambda, phi, t) = a(phi)[P(lambda, phi, t)/P/sub o/]/sup b//sup (//sup phi//sup )/ is the wet removal, v/sub d/(phi) is the dry removal and P 0 is 1 cm/month. The constants v/sub d/, a, and b are determined as functions of latitude by fitting land based observations. The concentration of 90 Sr in air is calculated as a function of the deseasonalized concentration at a reference latitude (C-bar/sub r//sub e//sub f/), the ratio of the observations at the latitude of interest to the reference latitude (R), and a function representing the seasonal trend in the air concentration (1 + g): C-bar(t, phi) = C/sub r//sub e//sub f/(t)R(phi)[1 + g(m, phi)]; m is the month. Zonal trends in C are shown to be relatively small. This formula can be used in conjuction with precipitation observations and/or estimates to predict fallout in the northern hemisphere for any month in the years 1954 to 1974. Error estimates are given; they do not include uncertainty due to errors in precipitation data

  18. Shell-model-based deformation analysis of light cadmium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Heyde, K. L. G.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale shell-model calculations for the even-even cadmium isotopes 98Cd-108Cd have been performed with the antoine code in the π (2 p1 /2;1 g9 /2) ν (2 d5 /2;3 s1 /2;2 d3 /2;1 g7 /2;1 h11 /2) model space without further truncation. Known experimental energy levels and B (E 2 ) values could be well reproduced. Taking these calculations as a starting ground we analyze the deformation parameters predicted for the Cd isotopes as a function of neutron number N and spin J using the methods of model independent invariants introduced by Kumar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 249 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.28.249] and Cline [Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 683 (1986), 10.1146/annurev.ns.36.120186.003343].

  19. Analysis and application of heavy isotopes in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, Peter; Dellinger, Franz; Forstner, Oliver; Golser, Robin; Knie, Klaus; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Quinto, Francesca; Srncik, Michaela; Terrasi, Filippo; Vockenhuber, Christof; Wallner, Anton; Wallner, Gabriele; Wild, Eva Maria

    2010-04-01

    A growing number of AMS laboratories are pursuing applications of actinides. We discuss the basic requirements of the AMS technique of heavy (i.e., above ˜150 amu) isotopes, present the setup at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) which is especially well suited for the isotope 236U, and give a comparison with other AMS facilities. Special emphasis will be put on elaborating the effective detection limits for environmental samples with respect to other mass spectrometric methods. At VERA, we have carried out measurements for radiation protection and environmental monitoring ( 236U, 239,240,241,242,244Pu), astrophysics ( 182Hf, 236U, 244Pu, 247Cm), nuclear physics, and a search for long-lived super-heavy elements ( Z > 100). We are pursuing the environmental distribution of 236U, as a basis for geological applications of natural 236U.

  20. Analysis and application of heavy isotopes in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, Peter; Dellinger, Franz; Forstner, Oliver; Golser, Robin; Knie, Klaus; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Quinto, Francesca; Srncik, Michaela; Terrasi, Filippo; Vockenhuber, Christof; Wallner, Anton; Wallner, Gabriele; Wild, Eva Maria

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of AMS laboratories are pursuing applications of actinides. We discuss the basic requirements of the AMS technique of heavy (i.e., above ∼150 amu) isotopes, present the setup at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) which is especially well suited for the isotope 236 U, and give a comparison with other AMS facilities. Special emphasis will be put on elaborating the effective detection limits for environmental samples with respect to other mass spectrometric methods. At VERA, we have carried out measurements for radiation protection and environmental monitoring ( 236 U, 239,240,241,242,244 Pu), astrophysics ( 182 Hf, 236 U, 244 Pu, 247 Cm), nuclear physics, and a search for long-lived super-heavy elements (Z > 100). We are pursuing the environmental distribution of 236 U, as a basis for geological applications of natural 236 U.

  1. Isotopic analysis of Bothrops atrox in Amazonian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. G.; Silva, A. M.; Chalkidis, H.; de Oliveira Júnior, R. C.; Camargo, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    The poisoning of snakes is considered a public health problem, especially in populations from rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. In Brazil, the 26,000 snakebites, 90% are of the genus Bothrops, and Bothrops atrox species predominant in the Amazon region including all the Brazilian Amazon. Research shows that using stable isotopes, we can verify the isotopic composition of tissues of animals that depend mainly on food, water ingested and inhaled gases. For this study, samples taken from Bothrops atrox (B. atrox), in forest using pitfall traps and fall ("Pitt-fall traps with drift fence"). The analyzes were performed by mass spectrometry, where the analytical error is 0.3‰ for carbon and 0.5‰ to nitrogen. The results of the forest animals are significantly different from results of animal vivarium. The average values of the tissues and venoms of snakes of the forest for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are: δ13C = -24.68‰ and δ15N = 14.22‰ and mean values of tissue and poisons snakes vivarium (Instituto Butantan) to carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are δ13C = -20.47‰ and δ15N = 8.36‰, with a significantly different due to different sources of food animals. Based on all results isotopic δ13C and δ15N, we can suggest that changes as the power of the serpent, (nature and captivity), changes occur in relation to diet and environment as the means of the isotopic data are quite distinct, showing that these changes can also cause metabolic changes in the body of the animal itself and the different periods of turnover of each tissue analyzed.

  2. Computer automated mass spectrometer for isotope analysis on gas samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamula, A.; Kaucsar, M.; Fatu, C.; Ursu, D.; Vonica, D.; Bendea, D.; Muntean, F.

    1998-01-01

    A low resolution, high precision instrument was designed and realized in the mass spectrometry laboratory of the Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca. The paper presents the vacuum system, the sample inlet system, the ion source, the magnetic analyzer and the ion collector. The instrument is almost completely automated. There are described the analog-to-digital conversion circuits, the local control microcomputer, the automation systems and the performance checking. (authors)

  3. Assessing connectivity of estuarine fishes based on stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Sharon Z.

    2005-07-01

    Assessing connectivity is fundamental to understanding the population dynamics of fishes. I propose that isotopic analyses can greatly contribute to studies of connectivity in estuarine fishes due to the high diversity of isotopic signatures found among estuarine habitats and the fact that variations in isotopic composition at the base of a food web are reflected in the tissues of consumers. Isotopic analysis can be used for identifying nursery habitats and estimating their contribution to adult populations. If movement to a new habitat is accompanied by a shift to foods of distinct isotopic composition, recent immigrants and residents can be distinguished based on their isotopic ratios. Movement patterns thus can be reconstructed based on information obtained from individuals. A key consideration is the rate of isotopic turnover, which determines the length of time that an immigrant to a given habitat will be distinguishable from a longtime resident. A literature survey indicated that few studies have measured turnover rates in fishes and that these have focused on larvae and juveniles. These studies reveal that biomass gain is the primary process driving turnover rates, while metabolic turnover is either minimal or undetectable. Using a simple dilution model and biomass-specific growth rates, I estimated that young fishes with fast growth rates will reflect the isotopic composition of a new diet within days or weeks. Older or slower-growing individuals may take years or never fully equilibrate. Future studies should evaluate the factors that influence turnover rates in fishes during various stages of the life cycle and in different tissues, as well as explore the potential for combining stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses to examine the relationship between demographic parameters, movement and connectivity.

  4. The conflict between cheetahs and humans on Namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Voigt

    Full Text Available Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog, and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare. We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰ but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21 and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11 fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9 predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food.

  5. The Conflict between Cheetahs and Humans on Namibian Farmland Elucidated by Stable Isotope Diet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Blanc, Anne-Sophie; Jago, Mark; Wachter, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl) and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog), and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare). We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰) but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21) and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11) fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9) predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food. PMID:25162403

  6. Determination of strontium in drinking water and consequences of radioactive elements present in drinking water for human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M.B.; Stojanovic, M.D.; Pantelic, G.K.; Vuletic, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analysis of strontium and uranium content in drinking water has been done, indirectly, according to the scale which originates from drinking water in water-supply system of the city of Belgrade. Gamaspectrometric analysis showed the presence of free natural radionuclide in low activities. The activity of 90Sr in scale which is 0.72±0.11 Bq/kg was determined by radiochemical. Because of the small quantities of fur in the house heater this activity can be considered as irrelevant, but the accumulation of scale can have intensified influence. In this paper, the analysis of effects of the radioactive isotopes presence (first of all 238U and 235U) in drinking water on human health has been done

  7. Storm runoff analysis using environmental isotopes and major ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, P.; Cherry, J.A.; Sklash, M.; Weyer, K.U.

    1976-01-01

    At a given locality the oxygen-18 content of rainwater varies from storm to storm but within broad seasonal trends. Very frequently, especially during heavy summer storms, the stable isotope composition of rainwater differs from that of the groundwater in the area. This isotopic difference can be used to differentiate between 'prestorm' and 'rain' components in storm runoff. This approach to the use of natural 18 O was applied in four hydrogeologically very different basins in Canada. Their surface areas range from less than 2km 2 to more than 700km 2 . Before, during and after the storm events samples of stream water, groundwater and rain were analysed for 18 O and in some cases for deuterium, major ions and electrical conductance. The 18 O hydrograph separations show that groundwater was a major component of the runoff in each of the basins, and usually exceeded 50% of the total water discharged. Even at peak stream flow most of discharge was subsurface water. The identification of geographic sources rather than time sources appears possible if isotope techniques are used in conjunction with chemical analyses, hydrological data - such as flow measurements - and visual observations. (author)

  8. 13C metabolic flux analysis: optimal design of isotopic labeling experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2013-12-01

    Measuring fluxes by 13C metabolic flux analysis (13C-MFA) has become a key activity in chemical and pharmaceutical biotechnology. Optimal design of isotopic labeling experiments is of central importance to 13C-MFA as it determines the precision with which fluxes can be estimated. Traditional methods for selecting isotopic tracers and labeling measurements did not fully utilize the power of 13C-MFA. Recently, new approaches were developed for optimal design of isotopic labeling experiments based on parallel labeling experiments and algorithms for rational selection of tracers. In addition, advanced isotopic labeling measurements were developed based on tandem mass spectrometry. Combined, these approaches can dramatically improve the quality of 13C-MFA results with important applications in metabolic engineering and biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracking transformation processes of organic micropollutants in aquatic environments using multi-element isotope fractionation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, Thomas B.; Bolotin, Jakov; Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Wijker, Reto; Kurt, Zohre; Nishino, Shirley F.; Spain, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The quantitative description of enzymatic or abiotic transformations of man-made organic micropollutants in rivers, lakes, and groundwaters is one of the major challenges associated with the risk assessment of water resource contamination. Compound-specific isotope analysis enables one to identify (bio)degradation pathways based on changes in the contaminants' stable isotope ratios even if multiple reactive and non-reactive processes cause concentrations to decrease. Here, we investigated how the magnitude and variability of isotope fractionation in some priority pollutants is determined by the kinetics and mechanisms of important enzymatic and abiotic redox reactions. For nitroaromatic compounds and substituted anilines, we illustrate that competing transformation pathways can be assessed via trends of N and C isotope signatures.

  10. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236 U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ( 236 U)/( 238 U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10 -9 was demonstrated.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Brumfield, B. E.; LaHaye, N. L.; Hartig, K. C.; Phillips, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid materials is extremely important to a large number of applications, such as nuclear nonproliferation monitoring and forensics, geochemistry, archaeology, and biochemistry. Presently, isotopic measurements for these and many other fields are performed in laboratory settings. Rapid, in-field, and non-contact isotopic analysis of solid material is possible with optical spectroscopy tools when combined with laser ablation. Laser ablation generates a transient vapor of any solid material when a powerful laser interacts with a sample of interest. Analysis of atoms, ions, and molecules in a laser-produced plasma using optical spectroscopy tools can provide isotopic information with the advantages of real-time analysis, standoff capability, and no sample preparation requirement. Both emission and absorption spectroscopy methods can be used for isotopic analysis of solid materials. However, applying optical spectroscopy to the measurement of isotope ratios from solid materials presents numerous challenges. Isotope shifts arise primarily due to variation in nuclear charge distribution caused by different numbers of neutrons, but the small proportional nuclear mass differences between nuclei of various isotopes lead to correspondingly small differences in optical transition wavelengths. Along with this, various line broadening mechanisms in laser-produced plasmas and instrumental broadening generated by the detection system are technical challenges frequently encountered with emission-based optical diagnostics. These challenges can be overcome by measuring the isotope shifts associated with the vibronic emission bands from molecules or by using the techniques of laser-based absorption/fluorescence spectroscopy to marginalize the effect of instrumental broadening. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy probe the ground state atoms existing in the plasma when it is cooler, which inherently provides narrower

  12. Method of grass samples preparation for strontium-90 and cesium-137 analysis with the exception of ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.A.; Prokof'ev, O.N.; Khazina, M.A.; Bajkovskaya, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is proposed for the preparation of grass samples in the analysis for 90 Sr and 137 Cs, in which radionuclides are removed into solution as a result of the thermal treatment of samples in 0.01N solution of hydrochloric acid. A grass sample 0.8 kg in weight is covered with 8-10 l of 0.01 N solution of hydrochloric acid and boiled for 30 min, while being constantly stirred. The solution is filtered through cheese cloth, carriers for 90 Y and 137 Cs are introduced, and then oxalates are precipitated at pH=4. After the oxalates have been separated from the filtrate the 137 Cs content is determined using the antimonium-iodide technique. The oxalate precipitate is calcined, dissolved in 2N hydrochloric acid, while boiling, and precipitated by ammonia. The precipitate of hydrooxides is filtered. The solution is acidified by 2N hydrochloric acid up to pH 2-3, and the carrier for 90 Y is introduced. The 90 Sr content is determined by a conventional technique. The percentage of the transition of radionuclides from the grass samples into solution ammounts to: 88+-6% for 90 Sr, and 81+-7% for 137 Cs

  13. Suitability of selected free-gas and dissolved-gas sampling containers for carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, P; Gibson, J J; Yi, Y

    2015-07-15

    Storage trials were conducted for 2 to 3 months using a hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide gas mixture with known carbon isotopic composition to simulate typical hold times for gas samples prior to isotopic analysis. A range of containers (both pierced and unpierced) was periodically sampled to test for δ(13)C isotopic fractionation. Seventeen containers were tested for free-gas storage (20°C, 1 atm pressure) and 7 containers were tested for dissolved-gas storage, the latter prepared by bubbling free gas through tap water until saturated (20°C, 1 atm) and then preserved to avoid biological activity by acidifying to pH 2 with phosphoric acid and stored in the dark at 5°C. Samples were extracted using valves or by piercing septa, and then introduced into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer for compound-specific δ(13)C measurements. For free gas, stainless steel canisters and crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were most effective at preventing isotopic fractionation (pierced and unpierced), whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl septa allowed significant isotopic fractionation. FlexFoil and Tedlar bags were found to be effective only for storage of up to 1 month. For dissolved gas, crimp-top glass serum bottles with butyl septa were again effective, whereas silicone and PTFE-butyl were not. FlexFoil bags were reliable for up to 2 months. Our results suggest a range of preferred containers as well as several that did not perform very well for isotopic analysis. Overall, the results help establish better QA/QC procedures to avoid isotopic fractionation when storing environmental gas samples. Recommended containers for air transportation include steel canisters and glass serum bottles with butyl septa (pierced and unpierced). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  15. Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, S; Millen, J; Jones, M P A

    2007-01-01

    We report on the all-optical detection of Rydberg states in an effusive atomic beam of strontium atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using narrow-linewidth CW lasers we obtain an EIT linewidth of 5 MHz. To illustrate the high spectroscopic resolution offered by this method, we have measured isotope shifts of the 5s18d 1 D 2 and 5s19s 1 S 0 Rydberg states. This technique could be applied to high-resolution, non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold Rydberg gases and plasmas. (fast track communication)

  16. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksen, T E; Cui, Daqing [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs.

  17. Experimental study of strontium sorption on fissure filling material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daqing

    1994-12-01

    We have carried out a comparative study of sorption and desorption of strontium in groundwater on separated magnetic and size fractions of fissure filling material taken from natural fissures in granitic rock. Complete reversibility of the sorption process was demonstrated by identical Freundlich isotherms, isotopic exchangeability and pH dependence of the distribution coefficients Rd. The sorption was found to be strongly pH dependent in the range 3-11. The pH effect can be accommodated in the sorption model by considering the surface areas and surface charges of the minerals in the fissure filling material. 20 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Strontium effects on root dentin tubule occlusion and nanomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Kuniko; Marshall, Grayson W; Gansky, Stuart A; Parkinson, Charles R; Marshall, Sally J

    2016-02-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity often is treated by promotion of dentin tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study we evaluated nanomechanical properties and degree of tubule occlusion conferred to sound and demineralized human root dentin following treatment with a 10% (w/w) strontium acetate solution and its relation to the treatment duration and delivery method. 24 human cervical root dentin disks (8 groups of 3) were polished through 0.25 μm. 12 disks were subjected to an acid challenge (1% citric acid, pH 3.8) for 2 min. The specimens were incubated in artificial saliva, treated by soaking or brushing with deionized (DI) water or a solution of 10% strontium acetate for 2 min twice a day for 28 days. The occlusion percent and nanomechanical properties were determined at the baseline, 5, 14 and 28 days. Cross-sectioned specimens were prepared to evaluate the depth affected by strontium acetate / dentin interaction by SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed effects models. A 10% strontium acetate treatment over 5-28 days significantly increased tubule occlusion for normal root dentin and to a lesser extent for demineralized dentin and increased the AFM based nanomechanical properties of demineralized dentin. Brushing was more effective than soaking in recovery of properties of demineralized dentin when treated with strontium. No difference in tubuleocclusion was found between the two delivery methods. Strontium acetate itself proved to have the ability to occlude dentin tubules and result in small changes in the mechanical properties of dentin. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quaternary system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkushin, I.K.; Voronin, K.Yu.; Dibirov, M.A.; Miftakhov, T.T.

    1996-01-01

    Four-component system of lithium, potassium, calcium and strontium fluorides is studied by differential thermal analysis. A low-melting eutectic composition is revealed, specific fusion heat of the composition is experimentally determined, its thermal properties are calculated. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effects of strontium ranelate on spinal osteoarthritis progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruyere, O; Delferriere, D; Roux, C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether a 3-year treatment with strontium ranelate could delay the progression of spinal osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: This study was a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and TReatment...

  1. Analysis of carbon stable isotope to determine the origin and migration of gaseous hydrocarbon in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of natural gases to determine the origin and gaseous hydrocarbon migration of Brazilian sedimentar basins is analysed. The carbon isotopic ratio of methane from natural gases depends on the process of gas formation and stage of organic matter maturation. In the geochemical surface exploration the biogenic gases are differentiated from thermogenic gases, because the last one is isotopically heavier. As the isotopic composition of methane has not changed during migration, the migrated gases from deeper and more mature source rocks are identified by its relative 13 C enrichment. The methane was separated from chromatography and and the isotopic analysis was done with mass spectrometer. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  3. Stable Isotope Quantitative N-Glycan Analysis by Liquid Separation Techniques and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Stefan; Albrecht, Simone; Váradi, Csaba; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Liquid phase separation analysis and subsequent quantitation remains a challenging task for protein-derived oligosaccharides due to their inherent structural complexity and diversity. Incomplete resolution or co-detection of multiple glycan species complicates peak area-based quantitation and associated statistical analysis when optical detection methods are used. The approach outlined herein describes the utilization of stable isotope variants of commonly used fluorescent tags that allow for mass-based glycan identification and relative quantitation following separation by liquid chromatography (LC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Comparability assessment of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides is performed by derivatization with commercially available isotope variants of 2-aminobenzoic acid or aniline and analysis by LC- and CE-mass spectrometry. Quantitative information is attained from the extracted ion chromatogram/electropherogram ratios generated from the light and heavy isotope clusters.

  4. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios (i.e. 10 −5 ). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios. Experimental results obtained for 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios deviated by less than −2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U c (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U, respectively. - Highlights: ► LA-MC-ICP-MS was fully validated for the direct analysis of individual particles. ► Traceability was established by using an IRMM glass particle reference material. ► Measured U isotope ratios were in agreement with the certified range. ► A comprehensive total combined uncertainty evaluation was performed. ► The analysis of 236 U/ 238 U isotope ratios was improved by using a deceleration filter.

  5. Growth versus metabolic tissue replacement in mouse tissues determined by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Jamil, T.; Macko, S. A.; Arneson, L. S.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis is becoming an extensively used tool in animal ecology. The isotopes most commonly used for analysis in terrestrial systems are those of carbon and nitrogen, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and the approximately 3‰ enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although isotope signatures in animal tissues presumably reflect the local food web, analysis is often complicated by differential nutrient routing and fractionation by tissues, and by the possibility that large organisms are not in isotopic equilibrium with the foods available in their immediate environment. Additionally, the rate at which organisms incorporate the isotope signature of a food through both growth and metabolic tissue replacement is largely unknown. In this study we have assessed the rate of carbon and nitrogen isotopic turnover in liver, muscle and blood in mice following a diet change. By determining growth rates, we were able to determine the proportion of tissue turnover caused by growth versus that caused by metabolic tissue replacement. Growth was found to account for approximately 10% of observed tissue turnover in sexually mature mice (Mus musculus). Blood carbon was found to have the shortest half-life (16.9 days), followed by muscle (24.7 days). Liver carbon turnover was not as well described by the exponential decay equations as other tissues. However, substantial liver carbon turnover was observed by the 28th day after diet switch. Surprisingly, these tissues primarily reflect the carbon signature of the protein, rather than carbohydrate, source in their diet. The nitrogen signature in all tissues was enriched by 3 - 5‰ over their dietary protein source, depending on tissue type, and the isotopic turnover rates were comparable to those observed in carbon.

  6. Microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil by compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Zhang, Xi-Chang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Liu, Weiping [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CP) can be degraded by microorganisms in soil. • Biodegradation of α-CP resulted in carbon isotope fractionation. • A relationship was found between carbon isotope ratios and concentrations of α-CP. • An enrichment factor ϵ of α-CP was determined as −1.87‰. • CSIA is applicable to assess biodegradation of α-CP. - Abstract: To assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil, attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin was investigated by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The variations of the residual concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of alpha-cypermethrin were detected in unsterilized and sterilized soils spiked with alpha-cypermethrin. After an 80 days’ incubation, the concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin decreased to 0.47 and 3.41 mg/kg in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, while those decreased to 1.43 and 6.61 mg/kg in the sterilized soils. Meanwhile, the carbon isotope ratios shifted to −29.14 ± 0.22‰ and −29.86 ± 0.33‰ in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The results revealed that microbial degradation contributed to the attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin and induced the carbon isotope fractionation. In order to quantitatively assess microbial degradation, a relationship between carbon isotope ratios and residual concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin was established according to Rayleigh equation. An enrichment factor, ϵ = −1.87‰ was obtained, which can be employed to assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin. The significant carbon isotope fractionation during microbial degradation suggests that CSIA is a proper approach to qualitatively detect and quantitatively assess the biodegradation during attenuation process of alpha-cypermethrin in the field.

  7. Using Isotopes to Reconstruct Mammalian Diet, Migration and Paleoenvironment for Hominin Sites in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wershow, H.; Janssen, R.; Vonhof, H.; Lubbe, J. V. D.; Joordens, J. J.; Koutamanis, D. S.; Puspaningrum, M. R.; de Vos, J.; Reijmer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate plays a prominent role in ecosystem development in the biodiversity hotspot Sundaland (Malaysia and western Indonesia) throughout the Quaternary. Recurrent isolation and connection of the islands to mainland Asia due to sea level fluctuations has enabled repeated biotic migrations and encouraged genetic speciation. These migration waves also brought Homo erectus to Java. Together with extensive and well-documented collections of other terrestrial species, these hominin fossils form faunal assemblages of which the paleoenvironmental and paleogeographical background is poorly known. Using carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopes, we have reconstructed the paleoenvironmental and paleoecological conditions of several Holocene and Pleistocene fossil sites on Sumatra and Java, Indonesia. Carbon (∂13C) and oxygen (∂18O) isotope analysis of well-preserved herbivore teeth enamel reveals a marked contrast between C3-dominated diets in warmer periods, and C4-dominated diets in cooler periods, reflecting the distinct changes in Sundaland vegetation cover between glacials and interglacials. These isotope patterns allow us to assign the appropriate climatic background to some of the older fossil assemblages from Java, for which dating uncertainty does not allow direct assignment to glacial or interglacial conditions. The stable isotope signatures of herbivores from Trinil and Sangiran, sites well-known for the fossil occurrence of Homo erectus, indicate glacial conditions. The isotope data of several H. erectus fossils from these sites seem to be in line with such an interpretation. Furthermore, we applied strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analyses to a sample subset. The preliminary data show distinct Sr-isotope ratios for different sites, providing clues for the applicability of this isotope technique in detecting climate-related mobility of Sundaland fossil faunas.

  8. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio analysis by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS in scales, spines, and fin rays as a nonlethal alternative to otoliths for reconstructing fish life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, Malte; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Carleton, Scott A.; Gerrity, Paul C.; Hobbs, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in otoliths are a well-established tool to determine origins and movement patterns of fish. However, otolith extraction requires sacrificing fish, and when working with protected or endangered species, the use of nonlethal samples such as scales, spines, and fin rays is preferred. Unlike otoliths that are predominantly aragonite, these tissues are composed of biological apatite. Laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of biological apatite can induce significant interference on mass 87, causing inaccurate 87Sr/86Sr measurements. To quantify this interference, we applied LA-MC-ICP-MS to three marine samples (white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) otolith; green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) pectoral fin ray; salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) tooth), and freshwater walleye (Sander vitreus) otoliths, scales, and spines). Instrument conditions that maximize signal intensity resulted in elevated 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios in the bioapatite samples, related to a polyatomic interference (40Ca31P16O, 40Ar31P16O). Retuning instrument conditions to reduce oxide levels removed this interference, resulting in accurate 87Sr/86Sr ratios across all tissue samples. This method provides a novel, nonlethal alternative to otolith analysis to reconstruct fish life histories.

  9. Recent developments in application of stable isotope analysis on agro-product authenticity and traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Gang; Chen, Ailiang; Yang, Shuming; Ye, Zhihua

    2014-02-15

    With the globalisation of agro-product markets and convenient transportation of food across countries and continents, the potential for distribution of mis-labelled products increases accordingly, highlighting the need for measures to identify the origin of food. High quality food with identified geographic origin is a concern not only for consumers, but also for agriculture farmers, retailers and administrative authorities. Currently, stable isotope ratio analysis in combination with other chemical methods gradually becomes a promising approach for agro-product authenticity and traceability. In the last five years, a growing number of research papers have been published on tracing agro-products by stable isotope ratio analysis and techniques combining with other instruments. In these reports, the global variety of stable isotope compositions has been investigated, including light elements such as C, N, H, O and S, and heavy isotopes variation such as Sr and B. Several factors also have been considered, including the latitude, altitude, evaporation and climate conditions. In the present paper, an overview is provided on the authenticity and traceability of the agro-products from both animal and plant sources by stable isotope ratio analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinação da composição isotópica de estrôncio em águas naturais: exemplos de sua aplicação em águas subsuperficiais da zona costeira na região Bragantina-PA Determination of strontium isotopic composition in natural waters: examples of application in subsurface waters of the coastal zone of Bragantina region, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oliveira Bordalo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Analytical procedures used for determining the concentrations and isotope composition of strontium in subsurface waters, by mass spectrometry, are described. Sampling was performed in coastal plateaus, salt marsh and mangrove environments in the coastal region of Pará. Coastal plateau waters have delta87Sr between 1.51 and 6.26‰ and Sr concentration bellow 58 ppb. Salt marsh waters show delta87Sr between 0.55 and 0.90‰ and Sr concentration between 93 and 114 ppm, while mangrove waters have delta87Sr‰ around zero and Sr concentration above 15 ppm. Differences in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in these subsurface waters are detected, as well as seasonal variations in the coastal pleteau waters.

  11. pH-dependent equilibrium isotope fractionation associated with the compound specific nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis of substituted anilines by SPME-GC/IRMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Turgeon, Aurora; Garr, Ashley N; Arnold, William A; Cramer, Christopher J; Hofstetter, Thomas B

    2011-03-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was used to elucidate the effects of N-atom protonation on the analysis of N and C isotope signatures of selected aromatic amines. Precise and accurate isotope ratios were measured using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) as the SPME fiber material at solution pH-values that exceeded the pK(a) of the substituted aniline's conjugate acid by two pH-units. Deviations of δ(15)N and δ(13)C-values from reference measurements by elemental analyzer IRMS were small (IRMS. Under these conditions, the detection limits for accurate isotope ratio measurements were between 0.64 and 2.1 mg L(-1) for δ(15)N and between 0.13 and 0.54 mg L(-1) for δ(13)C, respectively. Substantial inverse N isotope fractionation was observed by SPME-GC/IRMS as the fraction of protonated species increased with decreasing pH leading to deviations of -20‰ while the corresponding δ(13)C-values were largely invariant. From isotope ratio analysis at different solution pHs and theoretical calculations by density functional theory, we derived equilibrium isotope effects, EIEs, pertinent to aromatic amine protonation of 0.980 and 1.001 for N and C, respectively, which were very similar for all compounds investigated. Our work shows that N-atom protonation can compromise accurate compound-specific N isotope analysis of aromatic amines.

  12. Ar39 Detection at the 10-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S.-M.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-03-01

    Atom trap trace analysis, a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar39 (half-life=269yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8×10-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, the counting rate and efficiency of atom trap trace analysis have been improved by 2 orders of magnitude over prior results. The significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the development of dark matter detectors.

  13. Field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) applied to tracer studies and isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbar, M.; Heck, H.d'A.; McReynolds, J.H.; St John, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The nonfragmenting nature of field ionization mass spectrometry makes it a preferred technique for the isotopic analysis of multilabeled organic compounds. The possibility of field ionization of nonvolatile thermolabile materials significantly extends the potential uses of this technique beyond those of conventional ionization methods. Multilabeled tracers may be studied in biological systems with a sensitivity comparable to that of radioactive tracers. Isotope dilution analysis may be performed reliably by this technique down to picogram levels. These techniques will be illustrated by a number of current studies using multilabeled metabolites and drugs. The scope and limitations of the methodology are discussed

  14. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, M.P., E-mail: mpcroce@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry.

  15. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, M.P.; Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry

  16. Essentials of iron, chromium, and calcium isotope analysis of natural materials by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantle, M.S.; Bullen, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of isotopes to understand the behavior of metals in geological, hydrological, and biological systems has rapidly expanded in recent years. One of the mass spectrometric techniques used to analyze metal isotopes is thermal ionization mass spectrometry, or TIMS. While TIMS has been a useful analytical technique for the measurement of isotopic composition for decades and TIMS instruments are widely distributed, there are significant difficulties associated with using TIMS to analyze isotopes of the lighter alkaline earth elements and transition metals. Overcoming these difficulties to produce relatively long-lived and stable ion beams from microgram-sized samples is a non-trivial task. We focus here on TIMS analysis of three geologically and environmentally important elements (Fe, Cr, and Ca) and present an in-depth look at several key aspects that we feel have the greatest potential to trouble new users. Our discussion includes accessible descriptions of different analytical approaches and issues, including filament loading procedures, collector cup configurations, peak shapes and interferences, and the use of isotopic double spikes and related error estimation. Building on previous work, we present quantitative simulations, applied specifically in this study to Fe and Ca, that explore the effects of (1) time-variable evaporation of isotopically homogeneous spots from a filament and (2) interferences on the isotope ratios derived from a double spike subtraction routine. We discuss how and to what extent interferences at spike masses, as well as at other measured masses, affect the double spike-subtracted isotope ratio of interest (44Ca/40Ca in the case presented, though a similar analysis can be used to evaluate 56Fe/54Fe and 53Cr/52Cr). The conclusions of these simulations are neither intuitive nor immediately obvious, making this examination useful for those who are developing new methodologies. While all simulations are carried out in the context of a

  17. Dissolved strontium and calcium levels in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Zvi; Sarkar, Amit; Turchyn, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of seawater alkalinity and dissolved calcium concentrations along oceanic transects are often used to calculate calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution rates. Given that the distribution coefficient of strontium in CaCO3 varies greatly between different groups of organisms, adding precise measurements of dissolved strontium concentrations provides opportunities to also track relative contributions of these different groups to the regional CaCO3 cycle. However, there are several obstacles to this approach. These obstacles include unresolved systematic discrepancies between seawater calcium and alkalinity data, very large analytical noise around the calcium concentration measurements and the unconstrained role of acantharia (radiolarian precipitating SrSO4 skeletons) in the marine strontium cycle. During the first cruise of the second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE-2) water samples were collected along 67°E from 9°N to 5°S to explore the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in the water. The dissolution rate can be calculated by combining measurements of water column potential alkalinity with calcium and strontium concentrations measured by ICP-OES and calcium concentration measurements using isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). CaCO3 mineral saturation state calculated using pH and total alkalinity suggests that along 67°E, the aragonite saturation horizon lays at depth of 500 m on both sides of the equator. Across the cruise transect, dissolved strontium concentrations increase by 2-3% along the thermocline suggesting rapid recycling of strontium rich phases. This is particularly evident just below the thermocline at 8-9°N and below 1000 m water depth, south of the equator. The deep, southern enrichment in strontium does not involve a change in the Sr/Ca ratio, suggesting that this strontium enrichment is related to CaCO3 dissolution. In contrast, in the intermediate waters of the northern part of

  18. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  19. Maintaining high precision of isotope ratio analysis over extended periods of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A

    2009-06-01

    Stable isotope ratios are reliable and long lasting process tracers. In order to compare data from different locations or different sampling times at a high level of precision, a measurement strategy must include reliable traceability to an international stable isotope scale via a reference material (RM). Since these international RMs are available in low quantities only, we have developed our own analysis schemes involving laboratory working RM. In addition, quality assurance RMs are used to control the long-term performance of the delta-value assignments. The analysis schemes allow the construction of quality assurance performance charts over years of operation. In this contribution, the performance of three typical techniques established in IsoLab at the MPI-BGC in Jena is discussed. The techniques are (1) isotope ratio mass spectrometry with an elemental analyser for delta(15)N and delta(13)C analysis of bulk (organic) material, (2) high precision delta(13)C and delta(18)O analysis of CO(2) in clean-air samples, and (3) stable isotope analysis of water samples using a high-temperature reaction with carbon. In addition, reference strategies on a laser ablation system for high spatial resolution delta(13)C analysis in tree rings is exemplified briefly.

  20. Isotope analysis by emission spectroscopy; Analyse isotopique par spectroscopie d'emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Gerstenkorn, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Blaise, J [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. Aime Cotton, 92 - Meudon-Bellevue (France)

    1959-07-01

    Quantitative analysis of isotope mixtures by emission spectroscopy is resulting from the phenomenon called 'isotope shift', say from the fact that spectral lines produced by a mixture of isotopes of a same element are complex. Every spectral line is, indeed, resulting from several lines respectively corresponding to each isotope. Then isotopic components are near one to others, and their separation is effected by means of Fabry-Perot calibration standard: the apparatus allowing to measure abundances is the Fabry-Perot photo-electric spectrometer, designed in 1948 by MM. JACQUINOT and DUFOUR. This method has been used to make abundance determination in the case of helium, lithium, lead and uranium. In the case of lithium, the utilised analysis line depends on the composition of examined isotopic mixture. For mixtures containing 7 to 93 pour cent of one of isotopes of lithium, this line is the lithium blue line: {lambda} = 4603 angstrom. In other cases the red line {lambda} = 6707 angstrom is preferable, though it allows to do easily nothing but relative determinations. Helium shows no particular difficulty and the analysis line selected was {lambda} = 6678 angstrom. For lead the line {lambda} = 5201 angstrom gives the possibility to determine the isotope abundance for the four isotopes of lead notwithstanding the presence of hyperfine structure of {sup 207}Pb. For uranium, line {lambda} 5027 angstrom is used, and this method allows to determine the composition of isotope mixtures, the content of which in {sup 235}U may shorten to 0,1 per cent. Relative precision is about 2 per cent for contents in {sup 235}U over 1 per cent. For lower contents, this line {lambda} = 5027 angstrom will allow relative measures when using previously dosed mixtures. (author) [French] L'analyse quantitative des melanges isotopiques par spectroscopie d'emission doit son existence au phenomene appele 'deplacement isotopique', c'est-a-dire au fait que les raies spectrales emises par un

  1. Rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for carbon isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Takiguchi, Yu; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of developing a portable system for an in field isotope analysis, we investigate an isotope analysis based on rapid-swept CW cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy, in which the concentration of a chemical species is derived from its photo absorbance. Such a system can identify the isotopomer and still be constructed as a quite compact system. We have made some basic experimental measurements of the overtone absorption lines of carbon dioxide ( 12 C 16 O 2 , 13 C 16 O 2 ) by rapid-swept cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a CW infrared diode laser at 6,200 cm -1 (1.6 μm). The isotopic ratio has been obtained as (1.07±0.13)x10 -2 , in good agreement with the natural abundance within experimental uncertainty. The detection sensitivity in absorbance has been estimated to be 3x10 -8 cm -1 . (author)

  2. Feasibility study of plutonium isotopic analysis of resin beads by nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.

    1985-01-01

    We have initiated a feasibility study on the use of nondestructive low-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy for plutonium isotopic analysis on resin beads. Seven resin bead samples were measured, with each sample containing an average of 9 μg of plutonium; the isotopic compositions of the samples varied over a wide range. The gamma-ray spectroscopy results, obtained from 4-h counting-time measurements, were compared with mass spectrometry results. The average ratios of gamma-ray spectroscopy to mass spectrometry were 1.014 +- 0.025 for 238 Pu/ 239 Pu, 0.996 +- 0.018 for 240 Pu/ 239 Pu, and 0.980 +- 0.038 for 241 Pu/ 239 Pu. The rapid, automated, and accurate nondestructive isotopic analysis of resin beads may be very useful to process technicians and International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Analytical developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of very small amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mialle, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the French transmutation project of nuclear wastes, experiments consisted in the irradiation in a fast neutron reactor of few milligrams of isotopically enriched powders. Hence, the isotopic analysis of very small amount of irradiation products is one of the main issues. The aim of this study was to achieve analytical developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometry in order to accurately analyze these samples. Several axes were studied including the new total evaporation method, deposition techniques, electron multiplier potentialities and comparison between different isotope measurement techniques. Results showed that it was possible to drastically decrease the amounts needed for analysis, especially with Eu and Nd, while maintaining an uncertainty level in agreement with the project requirements. (author) [fr

  4. Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol particles by dual carbon isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceburnis, D.; Garbaras, A.; Szidat, S.; Rinaldi, M.; Fahrni, S.; Perron, N.; Wacker, L.; Leinert, S.; Remeikis, V.; Facchini, M. C.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Dual carbon isotope analysis has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment between three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil) and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides a conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80% organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of fossil-fuel origin. By contrast, for polluted air advecting out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30% marine biogenic, 40% fossil fuel, and 30% continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

  5. Stable-isotope analysis: a neglected tool for placing parasites in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadel, A J M; Stumbo, A D; MacLeod, C D

    2018-02-28

    Parasites are often overlooked in the construction of food webs, despite their ubiquitous presence in almost every type of ecosystem. Researchers who do recognize their importance often struggle to include parasites using classical food-web theory, mainly due to the parasites' multiple hosts and life stages. A novel approach using compound-specific stable-isotope analysis promises to provide considerable insight into the energetic exchanges of parasite and host, which may solve some of the issues inherent in incorporating parasites using a classical approach. Understanding the role of parasites within food webs, and tracing the associated biomass transfers, are crucial to constructing new models that will expand our knowledge of food webs. This mini-review focuses on stable-isotope studies published in the past decade, and introduces compound-specific stable-isotope analysis as a powerful, but underutilized, newly developed tool that may answer many unresolved questions regarding the role of parasites in food webs.

  6. Emergency diesel generator reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program to apply some of the techniques of reliability engineering to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was started on August 8, 1992. Part of the program was to track the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators responding to a valid demand. This was done to determine if the performance of the emergency diesel generators (which are more than 25 years old) has deteriorated. The conditional probabilities of the diesel generators were computed and trended for the period from May 1990 to December 1992. The calculations indicate that the performance of the emergency diesel generators has not deteriorated in recent years, i.e., the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators have been fairly stable over the last few years. This information will be one factor than may be considered in the decision to replace the emergency diesel generators

  7. Studies of cesium and strontium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Lindsay, L.E.; Reynolds, W.D.; Kewen, T.J.; Cherry, J.A.; Reddy, M.R.

    1981-06-01

    Distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) were measured for cesium and strontium in 16 samples of Canadian unconsolidated geological materials. The samples were collected to cover a wide range of grain size, clay-mineral composition, cation exchange capacity and carbonate mineral content. Distribution coefficients ranged between 10 2 and 2.0 x 10 4 ml/g for cesium and between 2.5 and 10 2 ml/g for strontium, indicating that most unconsolidated geological materials have a substantial ability to retard the migration of cesium, while strontium could generally be expected to be somewhat more mobile. The measured K values were not significantly correlated with the measured soil properties, but appeared to be significantly affected by the background concentration of stable isotopes of the respective radionuclides

  8. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H 2 O and 82 Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  9. Monitoring of the aerobe biodegradation of chlorinated organic solvents by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Anikó; Futó, István; Palcsu, László

    2014-05-01

    Our chemical-biological basic research aims to eliminate chlorinated environmental contaminants from aquifers around industrial areas in the frame of research program supported by the European Social Fund (TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0043). The most careful and simplest way includes the in situ biodegradation with the help of cultured and compound specific strains. Numerous members of Pseudomonas bacteria are famous about function of bioremediation. They can metabolism the environmental hazardous chemicals like gas oils, dyes, and organic solvents. Our research based on the Pseudomonas putida F1 strain, because its ability to degrade halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene. Several methods were investigated to estimate the rate of biodegradation, such as the measurement of the concentration of the pollutant along the contamination pathway, the microcosm's studies or the compound specific stable isotope analysis. In this area in the Transcarpathian basin we are pioneers in the stable isotope monitoring of biodegradation. The main goal is to find stable isotope fractionation factors by stable isotope analysis, which can help us to estimate the rate and effectiveness of the biodegradation. The subsequent research period includes the investigation of the method, testing its feasibility and adaptation in the environment. Last but not least, the research gives an opportunity to identify the producer of the contaminant based on the stable isotope composition of the contaminant.

  10. Cl and C isotope analysis to assess the effectiveness of chlorinated ethene degradation by zero-valent iron: Evidence from dual element and product isotope values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audí-Miró, Carme; Cretnik, Stefan; Otero, Neus; Palau, Jordi; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Soler, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TCE and cis-DCE Cl isotope fractionation was investigated for the first time with ZVI. ► A C–Cl bond is broken in the rate-limiting step during ethylene ZVI dechlorination. ► Dual C/Cl isotope plot is a promising tool to discriminate abiotic degradation. ► Product-related carbon isotopic fractionation gives evidence of abiotic degradation. ► Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occur simultaneously. - Abstract: This study investigated C and, for the first time, Cl isotope fractionation of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) during reductive dechlorination by cast zero-valent iron (ZVI). Hydrogenolysis and β-dichloroelimination pathways occurred as parallel reactions, with ethene and ethane deriving from the β-dichloroelimination pathway. Carbon isotope fractionation of TCE and cis-DCE was consistent for different batches of Fe studied. Transformation of TCE and cis-DCE showed Cl isotopic enrichment factors (ε Cl ) of −2.6‰ ± 0.1‰ (TCE) and −6.2‰ ± 0.8‰ (cis-DCE), with Apparent Kinetic Isotope Effects (AKIE Cl ) for Cl of 1.008 ± 0.001 (TCE) and 1.013 ± 0.002 (cis-DCE). This indicates that a C–Cl bond breakage is rate-determining in TCE and cis-DCE transformation by ZVI. Two approaches were investigated to evaluate if isotope fractionation analysis can distinguish the effectiveness of transformation by ZVI as opposed to natural biodegradation. (i) Dual isotope plots. This study reports the first dual (C, Cl) element isotope plots for TCE and cis-DCE degradation by ZVI. The pattern for cis-DCE differs markedly from that reported for biodegradation of the same compound by KB-1, a commercially available Dehalococcoides-containing culture. The different trends suggest an expedient approach to distinguish abiotic and biotic transformation, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. (ii) Product-related isotope fractionation. Carbon isotope ratios of the hydrogenolysis product cis

  11. Analysis of transuranic isotopes in irradiated U3Si2-Al fuel by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian Anggraini; Aslina B Ginting; Arif Nugroho

    2011-01-01

    Separation and analysis of transuranic isotopes (uranium and plutonium) in irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al plate has been done. The analysis experiment includes sample preparation (i.e. cutting, dissolving, filtering, dilution), fission products separation from heavy elements, and analysis of transuranic isotopes content with alpha spectrometer. The separation of transuranic isotopes (U, Pu) was done by two methods, i.e. direct method and ion exchanger method with zeolite. Measurement of standard transuranic isotope (AMR 43) and standard U 3 O 8 was done in advance in order to determine percentage of 235 U recovery and detector efficiency. Recovery of 235 U isotope was obtained as much as 92,58%, which fulfills validation requirement, and the detector efficiency was 0.314. Based on the measured recovery and detector efficiency, the separation was done by direct electrodeposition method of 250 µL irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al solution. The deposited sample was subsequently analyzed with alpha spectrometer. The separation with ion exchanger was done by mixing and shaking of 300 µL irradiated U 3 Si 2 -Al solution and 0.5 gram zeolite to separate the liquid phase from the solid phase. The liquid phase was electrodeposited and analyzed with alpha spectrometer. The analysis of transuranic isotopes (U, Pu) by both methods shows different results. Heavy element ( 238 U, 236 U, 234 U, 239 Pu) content obtained by direct method was 0.0525 g/g and 235 U= 0.0076 g/g, while the separation using zeolite ion exchanger resulted in Heavy element = 0.0253 g/g and 235 U = 0.0092 g/g. (author)

  12. Isotope analysis of micro metal particles by adopting laser-ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyu Seok; Ha, Young Kyung; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho

    2005-01-01

    The isotope analysis of microparticles in environmental samples as well as laboratory samples is an important task. A special concern is necessary in particle analysis of swipe samples. Micro particles are normally analyzed either by dissolving particles in the solvents and adopting conventional analytical methods or direct analysis method such as a laser-ablation ICP mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), SIMS, and SNMS (sputtered neutral mass spectrometry). But the LA-ICPMS uses large amount of samples because normally laser beam is tightly focused on the target particle for the complete ablation. The SIMS and SNMS utilize ion beams for the generation of sample ions from the particle. But the number of ions generated by an ion beam is less than 5% of the total generated particles in SIMS. The SNMS is also an excellent analytical technique for particle analysis, however, ion beam and frequency tunable laser system are required for the analysis. Recently a direct analysis of elements as well as isotopes by using laser-ablation is recognized one of the most efficient detection technology for particle samples. The laser-ablation mass spectrometry requires only one laser source without frequency tuneability with no sample pretreatment. Therefore this technique is one of the simplest analysis techniques for solid samples as well as particles. In this study as a part of the development of the new isotope analysis techniques for particles samples, a direct laser-ablation is adopted with mass spectrometry. Zinc and gadolinium were chosen as target samples, since these elements have isotopes with minor abundance (0.62% for Zn, and 0.2% for Gd). The preliminary result indicates that isotopes of these two elements are analyzed within 10% of natural abundance with good mass resolution by using direct laser-ablation mass spectrometry

  13. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  14. Separation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish for compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Hua-Shan; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2012-05-15

    A separation and isotopic analysis method was developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) with three to six substituted bromine atoms in fish samples. Sample extracts were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove lipids, purified using complex silica gel column chromatography, and finally processed using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel column chromatography. The purities of extracts were verified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the full-scan mode. The average recoveries of all compounds across the purification method were between 60% and 110%, with the exception of BDE-154. The stable carbon isotopic compositions of PBDEs can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . No significant isotopic fraction was found during the purification of the main PBDE congeners. A significant change in the stable carbon isotope ratio of BDE-47 was observed in fish carcasses compared to the original isotopic signatures, implying that PBDE stable carbon isotopic compositions can be used to trace the biotransformation of PBDEs in biota. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for the purification of PBDEs for CSIA was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {delta}{sup 13}C of PBDE congeners can be measured with a standard deviation of less than 0.5 Per-Mille-Sign . Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common carp were exposed to a PBDE mixture to investigate debromination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of the {delta}{sup 13}C values can be used to trace the debromination of PBDE in fish.

  15. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  16. Ion exchange of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Adsorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using both batch and column methods. The apatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The experimental data for sorption of strontium can be very well fitted with Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. It was found that sorption occurs by an ion exchange reaction between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. (author) 14 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Progress in the analysis and interpretation of N2O isotopes: Potential and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Joachim; Tuzson, Béla; Zellweger, Christoph; Harris, Eliza; Ibraim, Erkan; Yu, Longfei; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, research on nitrous oxide (N2O) stable isotopes has significantly advanced, addressing an increasing number of research questions in biogeochemical and atmospheric sciences [1]. An important milestone was the development of quantum cascade laser based spectroscopic devices [2], which are inherently specific for structural isomers (15N14N16O vs. 14N15N16O) and capable to collect real-time data with high temporal resolution, complementary to the well-established isotope-ratio mass-spectrometry (IRMS) method. In combination with automated preconcentration, optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) has been applied to disentangle source processes in suburban, rural and pristine environments [e.g. 3, 4]. Within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) ENV52 project "Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases (HIGHGAS)", the quality of N2O stable isotope analysis by OIRS, the comparability between laboratories, and the traceability to the international isotope ratio scales have been addressed. An inter-laboratory comparison between eleven IRMS and OIRS laboratories, organised within HIGHGAS, indicated limited comparability for 15N site preference, i.e. the difference between 15N abundance in central (N*NO) and end (*NNO) position [5]. In addition, the accuracy of the NH4NO3 decomposition reaction, which provides the link between 15N site preference and the international 15N/14N scale, was found to be limited by non-quantitative NH4NO3 decomposition in combination with substantially different isotope enrichment factors for both nitrogen atoms [6]. Results of the HIGHGAS project indicate that the following research tasks have to be completed to foster research on N2O isotopes: 1) develop improved techniques to link the 15N and 18O abundance and the 15N site preference in N2O to the international stable isotope ratio scales; 2) provide N2O reference materials, pure and diluted in an air matrix, to improve inter-laboratory compatibility. These tasks

  18. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  19. Enhanced understanding of ectoparasite: host trophic linkages on coral reefs through stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Sikkel, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism, although the most common type of ecological interaction, is usually ignored in food web models and studies of trophic connectivity. Stable isotope analysis is widely used in assessing the flow of energy in ecological communities and thus is a potentially valuable tool in understanding the cryptic trophic relationships mediated by parasites. In an effort to assess the utility of stable isotope analysis in understanding the role of parasites in complex coral-reef trophic systems, we performed stable isotope analysis on three common Caribbean reef fish hosts and two kinds of ectoparasitic isopods: temporarily parasitic gnathiids (Gnathia marleyi) and permanently parasitic cymothoids (Anilocra). To further track the transfer of fish-derived carbon (energy) from parasites to parasite consumers, gnathiids from host fish were also fed to captive Pederson shrimp (Ancylomenes pedersoni) for at least 1 month. Parasitic isopods had δ13C and δ15N values similar to their host, comparable with results from the small number of other host–parasite studies that have employed stable isotopes. Adult gnathiids were enriched in 15N and depleted in13C relative to juvenile gnathiids, providing insights into the potential isotopic fractionation associated with blood-meal assimilation and subsequent metamorphosis. Gnathiid-fed Pedersen shrimp also had δ13C values consistent with their food source and enriched in 15N as predicted due to trophic fractionation. These results further indicate that stable isotopes can be an effective tool in deciphering cryptic feeding relationships involving parasites and their consumers, and the role of parasites and cleaners in carbon transfer in coral-reef ecosystems specifically.

  20. Enhanced understanding of ectoparasite–host trophic linkages on coral reefs through stable isotope analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda W.J. Demopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism, although the most common type of ecological interaction, is usually ignored in food web models and studies of trophic connectivity. Stable isotope analysis is widely used in assessing the flow of energy in ecological communities and thus is a potentially valuable tool in understanding the cryptic trophic relationships mediated by parasites. In an effort to assess the utility of stable isotope analysis in understanding the role of parasites in complex coral-reef trophic systems, we performed stable isotope analysis on three common Caribbean reef fish hosts and two kinds of ectoparasitic isopods: temporarily parasitic gnathiids (Gnathia marleyi and permanently parasitic cymothoids (Anilocra. To further track the transfer of fish-derived carbon (energy from parasites to parasite consumers, gnathiids from host fish were also fed to captive Pederson shrimp (Ancylomenes pedersoni for at least 1 month. Parasitic isopods had δ13C and δ15N values similar to their host, comparable with results from the small number of other host–parasite studies that have employed stable isotopes. Adult gnathiids were enriched in 15N and depleted in 13C relative to juvenile gnathiids, providing insights into the potential isotopic fractionation associated with blood-meal assimilation and subsequent metamorphosis. Gnathiid-fed Pedersen shrimp also had δ13C values consistent with their food source and enriched in 15N as predicted due to trophic fractionation. These results further indicate that stable isotopes can be an effective tool in deciphering cryptic feeding relationships involving parasites and their consumers, and the role of parasites and cleaners in carbon transfer in coral-reef ecosystems specifically.

  1. Mass spectrometric analysis of stable carbon isotopes in abiogenic and biogenic natural compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Ahmed, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.A.; Latif, Z.

    1989-07-01

    This report describes the general methodology of sup/13/ carbon analysis on mass spectrometer and various preparation systems developed for conversion of samples into isotopically non-fractionated and purified carbon dioxide. Laboratory standards required for sup/13/ C analysis have been calibrated against international standards. The reproducibility/accuracy of sample preparation and analysis on mass spectrometer for sup/13/ C or sup/12/ C measurement is well within the internationally acceptable limits. (author)

  2. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillard, X.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr 87 using the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr 87 atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10 -15 and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10 -15 level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr 88 by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10 -14 . (author)

  3. Determination of traces of iridium with thiodibenzoylmethane by substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebisch, G.; Bansse, W.; Ludwig, E.

    1980-01-01

    Iridium(III or IV) reacts with thiodibenzoylmethane on heating at pH 6 to form a 1:3 complex, which can be concentrated by extraction into chloroform. Based on this reaction, a reproducible, selective determination of iridium is achieved by means of substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis, based on 192 Ir. The linear range is 1-11 nmol of iridium. (Auth.)

  4. Isotopically nonstationary metabolic flux analysis (INST-MFA) of photosynthesis and photorespiration in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photorespiration is a central component of photosynthesis; however to better understand its role it should be viewed in the context of an integrated metabolic network rather than a series of individual reactions that operate independently. Isotopically nonstationary 13C metabolic flux analysis (INST...

  5. Satellite tracking and stable isotope analysis link wintering and feeding grounds of North Atlantic baleen whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    e Silva, Monica Almeida; Prieto, Rui; Gauffier, Pauline; Palsboll, Per; Bérubé, Martine; Colaco, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of baleen whales throughout their annual cycle is critical for understanding their ecology, life history and behavior, and for their effective conservation. We combined analysis of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and satellite tracking data of blue (Balaenoptera

  6. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of

  7. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F.; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a ‘Nu Plasma HR’ multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10–20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abu...

  8. Ar-39 Detection at the 10^-16 Isotopic Abundance Level with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, W.; Williams, W. D.; Bailey, K.; Davis, A. M.; Hu, S. -M.; Lu, Z. -T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Purtschert, R.; Sturchio, N. C.; Sun, Y. R.; Mueller, P.

    2011-01-01

    Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), a laser-based atom counting method, has been applied to analyze atmospheric Ar-39 (half-life = 269 yr), a cosmogenic isotope with an isotopic abundance of 8x10^-16. In addition to the superior selectivity demonstrated in this work, counting rate and efficiency of ATTA have been improved by two orders of magnitude over prior results. Significant applications of this new analytical capability lie in radioisotope dating of ice and water samples and in the develop...

  9. Error analysis of isotope dilution mass spectrometry method with internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizhinskii, M.W.; Vitinskii, M.Y.

    1989-02-01

    The computation algorithms of the normalized isotopic ratios and element concentration by isotope dilution mass spectrometry with internal standard are presented. A procedure based on the Monte-Carlo calculation is proposed for predicting the magnitude of the errors to be expected. The estimation of systematic and random errors is carried out in the case of the certification of uranium and plutonium reference materials as well as for the use of those reference materials in the analysis of irradiated nuclear fuels. 4 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Strontium sorption on Savannah River Plant soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    A laboratory study of strontium-85 sorption was conducted using Savannah River Plant soil and groundwater from the low-level waste burial ground. Systematic variation of soil and water composition indicates that strontium sorption is most strongly a function of pH. Changes in clay content and in K + , Ca 2+ , or Mg 2+ concentrations influence strontium sorption indirectly through the slight pH changes which result. The ions Na + , Cl - , and NO 3 - have no effect. Ferrous ion, added to groundwater to simulate the conditions of water at the bottom of waste trenches, did not account for low strontium sorption observed with some trench waters

  11. Optimization of a Strontium Aluminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Alexandria N. [Maryville College, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Strontium aluminate with Eu2+ and Dy3+ has been at the forefront of emerging applications for storage phosphors since its discovery in 1996. In this study, the emission intensity and luminescence lifetime of SrAl2O4: Eu2+, Dy3+ were enhanced by partial substitution of Ca2+ into Sr2+ sites in the matrix.

  12. Direct uranium isotope ratio analysis of single micrometer-sized glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Boulyga, Sergei F; Prohaska, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We present the application of nanosecond laser ablation (LA) coupled to a 'Nu Plasma HR' multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) for the direct analysis of U isotope ratios in single, 10-20 μm-sized, U-doped glass particles. Method development included studies with respect to (1) external correction of the measured U isotope ratios in glass particles, (2) the applied laser ablation carrier gas (i.e. Ar versus He) and (3) the accurate determination of lower abundant (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios (i.e. 10(-5)). In addition, a data processing procedure was developed for evaluation of transient signals, which is of potential use for routine application of the developed method. We demonstrate that the developed method is reliable and well suited for determining U isotope ratios of individual particles. Analyses of twenty-eight S1 glass particles, measured under optimized conditions, yielded average biases of less than 0.6% from the certified values for (234)U/(238)U and (235)U/(238)U ratios. Experimental results obtained for (236)U/(238)U isotope ratios deviated by less than -2.5% from the certified values. Expanded relative total combined standard uncertainties U(c) (k = 2) of 2.6%, 1.4% and 5.8% were calculated for (234)U/(238)U, (235)U/(238)U and (236)U/(238)U, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth Rates, Stable Oxygen Isotopes (18O), and Strontium (Sr/Ca) Composition in Two Species of Pacific Sclerosponges (Acanthocheatetes wellsi and Astrosclera willeyana) with 18O Calibration and Application to Paleoceanography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grottoli, A.; Adkins, J; Panero, W; Reaman, D; Moots, K

    2010-01-01

    The isotopic and elemental composition of sclerosponge skeletons is used to reconstruct paleoceanographic records. Yet few studies have systematically examined the natural variability in sclerosponge skeletal {delta}{sup 18}O, growth, and Sr/Ca, and how that may influence the interpretation of sclerosponge proxy records. Here, we analyzed short records in seven specimens of Acanthocheatetes wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Palau, four A. wellsi (high-Mg calcite, 21 mol% Mg) from Saipan, and three Astrosclera willeyana (aragonite) sclerosponges from Saipan, as well as one long record in an A. wellsi specimen from Palau spanning 1945-2001.5. In Saipan, species-specific and mineralogical effects appear to have a negligible effect on sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O, facilitating the direct comparison of {delta}{sup 18}O records between species at a given location. At both sites, A. wellsi {delta}{sup 18}O and growth rates were sensitive to environmental conditions, but Sr/Ca was not sensitive to the same conditions. High-resolution {delta}{sup 18}O analyses confirmed this finding as both A. wellsi and A. willeyana deposited their skeleton in accordance with the trends in isotopic equilibrium with seawater, though with a 0.27{per_thousand} offset in the case of A. willeyana. In the high-Mg-calcite species A. wellsi, Mg may be interfering with Sr incorporation into the skeleton. On multidecadal timescales, A. wellsi sclerosponge {delta}{sup 18}O in Palau tracked the Southern Oscillation Index variability post-1977, but not pre-1977, coincident with the switch in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at {approx}1976. This suggests that water mass circulation in the region is influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation variability during positive PDO phases, but not during negative ones.

  14. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift analysis of singly ionized titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2013-04-01

    The even-parity low configuration system of Ti II has been considered on the basis of the experimental data found in the literature, and its fine structure has been reanalyzed by simultaneous parameterization of one- and two-body interactions for the model space (3d + 4s)3. Furthermore, the main one-electron hyperfine structure parameters for these configurations have been evaluated. For instance, for 3d24s1, a_{3{\\rm{d}}}^{01} = - {\\rm{63}}.{\\rm{2}}\\left( {{\\rm{3}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} and a_{4{\\rm{s}}}^{10} = - {\\rm{984}}.{\\rm{1}}\\left( {{\\rm{7}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} . Field shifts (FS) and specific mass shifts (SMS) of the main Ti II configurations are deduced by means of ab initio estimates combined with a small quantity of experimental isotope shift data available in the literature: FS(3d3) = -63.3 MHz, FS(3d24p1) = -49.7 MHz, FS(3d14s2) = 98.2 MHz, FS(4s24P1) = 163.4 MHz and SMS(3d3) = 1453.3 MHz, SMS(3d14s2) = -2179.7 MHz, …, referred to 3d24s1 for the pair Ti46-Ti48.

  15. Research on the possibility of separation of the small amounts of calcium from strontium during crystallization of their nitrates in the system acetic acid-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubicki, W.; Piskorek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Co-crystallization of the calcium nitrate and strontium nitrate from solutions of acetic acid at room temperature and boiling point were investigated. The process of crystallization was studied, using radioactive calcium isotope Ca 45 of 153 day semi-stability period. The presented investigations show that high effects of purifying strontium nitrate from small amounts of calcium can be obtained during crystallization of these nitrates from the system CH 3 COOH-H 2 O. This method was applied for obtaining strontium nitrate of high purity. (author)

  16. Is it really organic? – Multi-isotopic analysis as a tool to discriminate between organic and conventional plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, K.H.; Mihailova, A.; Kelly, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    for discrimination of organically and conventionally grown plants. The study was based on wheat, barley, faba bean and potato produced in rigorously controlled long-term field trials comprising 144 experimental plots. Nitrogen isotope analysis revealed the use of animal manure, but was unable to discriminate between......Novel procedures for analytical authentication of organic plant products are urgently needed. Here we present the first study encompassing stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium and sulphur as well as compound-specific nitrogen and oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate...... plants that were fertilised with synthetic nitrogen fertilisers or green manures from atmospheric nitrogen fixing legumes. This limitation was bypassed using oxygen isotope analysis of nitrate in potato tubers, while hydrogen isotope analysis allowed complete discrimination of organic and conventional...

  17. A Practical Cryogen-Free CO2 Purification and Freezing Technique for Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Saburo; Matsuda, Shinichi

    2017-04-18

    Since isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry began in the early 1900s, sample gas for light-element isotopic measurements has been purified by the use of cryogens and vacuum-line systems. However, this conventional purification technique can achieve only certain temperatures that depend on the cryogens and can be sustained only as long as there is a continuous cryogen supply. Here, we demonstrate a practical cryogen-free CO 2 purification technique using an electrical operated cryocooler for stable isotope analysis. This approach is based on portable free-piston Stirling cooling technology and controls the temperature to an accuracy of 0.1 °C in a range from room temperature to -196 °C (liquid-nitrogen temperature). The lowest temperature can be achieved in as little as 10 min. We successfully purified CO 2 gas generated by carbonates and phosphoric acid reaction and found its sublimation point to be -155.6 °C at 0.1 Torr in the vacuum line. This means that the temperature required for CO 2 trapping is much higher than the liquid-nitrogen temperature. Our portable cooling system offers the ability to be free from the inconvenience of cryogen use for stable isotope analysis. It also offers a new cooling method applicable to a number of fields that use gas measurements.

  18. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have analysed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in service water under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. At each prefectural public health laboratories and institutes, 100 literes of service water (8 prefectures, water from the intake of each station of water works) and tap water (32 prefectures) were collected as sample twice a year. The samples were filtrated with large filter papers after addition and mixture of both some carries. The filtration was then applied on a column filled the sodium cation exchange resin, and all the cations were absorbed on it. These resin and filter papers were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method applied for the analysis of rain and dry fallout materials. (author)

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in total diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed total diet samples collected from 30 prefectures (2 times per year), and determined to content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in these samples. Each Prefectural public health laboratories and institutes have collected all the daily regular diet consumed for five persons, namely three meals and other eating between meals, for radiochemical analysis in polyethylene containers. These samples were collected to Japan Chemical Analysis Center after carbonization without smoke rising in the large stainless dish. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these samples were asked in an electric muffle furnance. And the ask to which both some carriers and hydrochloric acid were added, was destroyed under heating. The nuclides were dissolved into hydrochloric acid and filtrated, after it was added with nitric acid and heated to dryness. The filtrates was analysed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 using the method recommended by Science and Technology Agency. (author)

  20. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)

  1. Determination of geographic provenance of cotton fibres using multi-isotope profiles and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeid, N. Nic; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of cotton fibres can be particularly challenging within a forensic science context where discrimination of one fibre from another is of importance. Normally cotton fibre analysis examines the morphological structure of the recovered material and compares this with that of a known fibre from a particular source of interest. However, the conventional microscopic and chemical analysis of fibres and any associated dyes is generally unsuccessful because of the similar morphology of the fibres. Analysis of the dyes which may have been applied to the cotton fibre can also be undertaken though this can be difficult and unproductive in terms of discriminating one fibre from another. In the study presented here we have explored the potential for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to be utilised as an additional tool for cotton fibre analysis in an attempt to reveal further discriminatory information. This work has concentrated on un-dyed cotton fibres of known origin in order to expose the potential of the analytical technique. We report the results of a pilot study aimed at testing the hypothesis that multi-element stable isotope analysis of cotton fibres in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of the resulting isotopic abundance data using well established chemometric techniques permits sample provenancing based on the determination of where the cotton was grown and as such will facilitate sample discrimination. To date there is no recorded literature of this type of application of IRMS to cotton samples, which may be of forensic science relevance.

  2. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Vanderlinde, R

    2013-12-01

    We studied Brazilian wines produced by microvinification from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, vintages 2007 and 2008, from the Serra Gaúcha, Campanha and Serra do Sudeste regions, in order to differentiate them according to geographical origin by using isotope and mineral element analyses. In addition, the influence of vintage production in isotope values was verified. Isotope analysis was performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and the determination of minerals was by flame atomic absorption (FAA). The best parameters to classify the wines in the 2008 vintage were Rb and Li. The results of the δ(13)C of wine ethanol, Rb and Li showed a significant difference between the varieties regardless of the region studied. The δ(18)O values of water and δ(13)C of ethanol showed significant differences, regardless of the variety. Discriminant analysis of isotope and minerals values allowed to classify approximately 80% of the wines from the three regions studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Penguin Proxies: Deciphering Millennial-Scale Antarctic Ecosystem Change using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.; McMahon, K.; Emslie, S. D.; Patterson, W. P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid environmental change due to ongoing and historic anthropogenic impacts such as climate change and marine mammal harvesting. These disturbances may have cascading effects through the Antarctic food webs, resulting in profound shifts in the sources and cycling of organic matter supporting higher-trophic organisms, such as penguins. For example, bulk stable isotope analyses of modern and ancient preserved penguin tissues suggest variations in penguin feeding ecology throughout the Holocene with dramatic isotopic shifts in the last 200 years. However, it is not clear whether these isotopic shifts resulted from changes at the base of the food web, dietary shifts in penguins, or some combination of both factors. Newly developed compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) may provide a powerful new tool to tease apart these confounding variables. Stable nitrogen isotope values of trophic amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid) increase substantially with each trophic transfer in the food web, while source amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine) stable nitrogen isotope values remain relatively unchanged and reflect ecosystem baselines. As such, we can use this CSIA-AA approach to decipher between baseline and dietary shifts in penguins over time from modern and ancient eggshells of Pygoscelis penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea regions of Antarctica. In order to accurately apply this CSIA-AA approach, we first characterized the trophic fractionation factors of individual amino acids between diet and penguin consumers in a long-term controlled penguin feeding experiment. We then applied these values to modern and ancient eggshells from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ross Sea to evaluate shifts in penguin trophic dynamics as a function of climate and anthropogenic interaction throughout much of the Holocene. This work develops a cutting edge new molecular geochemistry approach

  5. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  6. Analysis of growth and tissue replacement rates by stable sulfur isotope turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, L. S.; Macko, S. A.; Macavoy, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study animal ecology. Analysis of stable isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and others have been used to trace migratory routes, reconstruct dietary sources and determine the physiological condition of individual animals. The isotopes most commonly used are carbon, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and nitrogen, due to the approximately 3% enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although all cells express sulfur-containing compounds, such as cysteine, methionine, and coenzyme A, the turnover rate of sulfur in tissues has not been examined in most studies, owing to the difficulty in determining the δ 34S signature. In this study, we have assessed the rate of sulfur isotopic turnover in mouse tissues following a diet change from terrestrial (7%) to marine (19%) source. Turnover models reflecting both growth rate and metabolic tissue replacement will be developed for blood, liver, fat and muscle tissues.

  7. Spectrum analysis in lead spectrometer for isotopic fissile assay in used fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.D.; Park, C.J.; Kim, H.D.; Song, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The LSDS system is under development for analyzing isotopic fissile content applicable in a hot cell for the pyro process. The fuel assay area and nuclear material composition were selected for simulation. The source mechanism for efficient neutron generation was also determined. A neutron is produced at the Ta target by hitting it from accelerated electron. The parameters for an electron accelerator are being researched for cost effectiveness, easy maintenance, and compact size. The basic principle of LSDS is that isotopic fissile has its own fission structure below the unresolved resonance region. The source neutron interacts with a lead medium and produces continuous neutron energy, which generates dominant fission at each fissile. Therefore, a spectrum analysis is very important at a lead medium and fuel area for system working. The energy spectrum with respect to slowing down energy and the energy resolution were investigated in lead. A spectrum analysis was done by the existence of surrounding detectors. In particular, high resonance energy was considered. The spectrum was well organized at each slowing down energy and the energy resolution was acceptable to distinguish isotopic fissile fissions. Additionally, LSDS is applicable for the optimum design of spent fuel storage and management.The isotopic fissile content assay will increase the transparency and credibility for spent fuel storage and its re-utilization, as demanded internationally. (author)

  8. Conditional CO2 flux analysis of a managed grassland with the aid of stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, M. J.; Tuzson, B.; Emmenegger, L.; Knohl, A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2009-04-01

    Short statured managed ecosystems, such as agricultural grasslands, exhibit high temporal changes in carbon dioxide assimilation and respiration fluxes for which measurements of the net CO2 flux, e.g. by using the eddy covariance (EC) method, give only limited insight. We have therefore adopted a recently proposed concept for conditional EC flux analysis of forest to grasslands, in order to identify and quantify daytime sub-canopy respiration fluxes. To validate the concept, high frequency (≈5 Hz) stable carbon isotope analyis of CO2 was used. We made eddy covariance measurements of CO2 and its isotopologues during four days in August 2007, using a novel quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer, capable of high time resolution stable isotope analysis. The effects of a grass cut during the measurement period could be detected and resulted in a sub-canopy source conditional flux classification, for which the isotope composition of the CO2 could be confirmed to be of a respiration source. However, the conditional flux method did not work for an undisturbed grassland canopy. We attribute this to the flux measurement height that was chosen well above the roughness sublayer, where the natural isotopic tracer (δ13C) of respiration was too well mixed with background air.

  9. In-situ Isotopic Analysis at Nanoscale using Parallel Ion Electron Spectrometry: A Powerful New Paradigm for Correlative Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedra, Lluís; Eswara, Santhana; Dowsett, David; Wirtz, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic analysis is of paramount importance across the entire gamut of scientific research. To advance the frontiers of knowledge, a technique for nanoscale isotopic analysis is indispensable. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is a well-established technique for analyzing isotopes, but its spatial-resolution is fundamentally limited. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is a well-known method for high-resolution imaging down to the atomic scale. However, isotopic analysis in TEM is not possible. Here, we introduce a powerful new paradigm for in-situ correlative microscopy called the Parallel Ion Electron Spectrometry by synergizing SIMS with TEM. We demonstrate this technique by distinguishing lithium carbonate nanoparticles according to the isotopic label of lithium, viz. 6Li and 7Li and imaging them at high-resolution by TEM, adding a new dimension to correlative microscopy. PMID:27350565

  10. Chronostatigraphy of limistone sequency of north Brazilian coast based on data from stronium isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, T.; Rodrigues, R.

    1987-01-01

    The strontium isotope composition of marine limestones can be a valuable tool for stratigraphic correlation, in addition to other techniques usually employed for this purpose. The technique can render particularly important in sequences where the fossil assemblage do not present good stratigraphic resolution. As examples, data from Mesozoic and Cenozoic limestone sequences of north Brazilian coast are here presented. Data on strontium isotope composition are compared to those obtained by De Paolo and Ingram in another geographic locations. (author) [pt

  11. Spatially resolved δ13C analysis using laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Riha, K. M.; Nims, M. K.; Linley, T. J.; Hess, N. J.; Nico, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Inherent geochemical, organic matter, and microbial heterogeneity over small spatial scales can complicate studies of carbon dynamics through soils. Stable isotope analysis has a strong history of helping track substrate turnover, delineate rhizosphere activity zones, and identifying transitions in vegetation cover, but most traditional isotope approaches are limited in spatial resolution by a combination of physical separation techniques (manual dissection) and IRMS instrument sensitivity. We coupled laser ablation sampling with isotope measurement via IRMS to enable spatially resolved analysis over solid surfaces. Once a targeted sample region is ablated the resulting particulates are entrained in a helium carrier gas and passed through a combustion reactor where carbon is converted to CO2. Cyrotrapping of the resulting CO2 enables a reduction in carrier gas flow which improves overall measurement sensitivity versus traditional, high flow sample introduction. Currently we are performing sample analysis at 50 μm resolution, require 65 ng C per analysis, and achieve measurement precision consistent with other continuous flow techniques. We will discuss applications of the laser ablation IRMS (LA-IRMS) system to microbial communities and fish ecology studies to demonstrate the merits of this technique and how similar analytical approaches can be transitioned to soil systems. Preliminary efforts at analyzing soil samples will be used to highlight strengths and limitations of the LA-IRMS approach, paying particular attention to sample preparation requirements, spatial resolution, sample analysis time, and the types of questions most conducive to analysis via LA-IRMS.

  12. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  13. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: Lorenzo.Torrisi@unime.it [Department of Physics Science - MIFT, Messina University, V.le F.S. d’Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Italiano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Gruppo collegato di Messina (Italy); Torrisi, A. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Surface and bulk compositional elements in ancient bronze coins were investigated using XRF analysis. • Lead stable isotope {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb were measured in ancient coins with LAMQS analysis. • Lead ratios {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, measured by LAMQS, were compared with Brettscaife.net geological database relative to the minerals in different mines of Mediterranean basin. • Bronze coins were correlated to possible ancient mining sites of minerals from which lead was extracted. - Abstract: Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II–X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a “fingerprint” depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  14. Calcium isotope effects in ion exchange electromigration and calcium isotope analysis by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.; Hoshi, J.; Iwamoto, H.; Okamoto, M.; Kakihana, H.

    1985-01-01

    Calcium ions were made to electromigrate along a cation exchange membrane. The abundance ratios of the calcium isotopes (Ca-40, 42, 43, 44, 48) in the migrated bands were measured by thermo-ionization mass spectrometry. The lighter isotopes were enriched in the front part of the migrated band. The increments in the isotope abundance ratios were found to be proportional to the mass difference of the isotopes. The observed epsilon-values per unit mass difference (epsilon/ΔM) were 1.26 x 10 -4 (at 20 0 C), 1.85 x 10 -4 (at 25 0 C) and 2.4 x 10 -4 (at 40 0 C). The mass spectrometry was improved by using a low temperature for the evaporation of CaI 2 . (orig.)

  15. Isotopic Analysis of Fingernails as a USGS Open House Demonstration of the Use of Stable Isotopes in Foodweb Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Young, M. B.; Choy, D.

    2011-12-01

    The USGS Isotope Tracers Project uses stable isotopes and tritium to add a unique dimension of chemical information to a wide range of environmental investigations. The use and application of isotopes is usually an unfamiliar and even esoteric topic to the general public. Therefore during three USGS open house events, as a public outreach effort, we demonstrated the use of stable isotopes by analyzing nitrogen and carbon isotopes from very small fragments of fingernail from willing participants. We titled the exhibit "You Are What You Eat". The results from all participants were plotted on a graph indicating the general influence of different food groups on the composition of body tissues as represented by fingernails. All participants were assigned a number and no personal-identification information was collected. A subset of participants provided us with an estimate of the number of days a week various foods were eaten and if they were vegetarians, vegans or non-vegetarians. Volunteers from our research group were on hand to explain and discuss fundamental concepts such as how foods attain their isotopic composition, the difference between C3 and C4 plants, the effects of assimilation, trophic enrichment, and the various uses of stable isotopes in environmental studies. The results of the fingernail analyses showed the variation of the range of isotopic compositions among about 400 people at each event, the distinct influence of C4 plants (mainly corn and cane sugar) on our carbon isotopic composition, and the isotopic differences between vegetarians and non vegetarians among other details (http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov/isoig/projects/fingernails/). A poll of visitors attending the open house event in 2006 indicated that "You Are What You Eat" was among the most popular exhibits. Following the first two open house events we were contacted by a group of researchers from Brazil who had completed a very similar study. Our collaboration resulted in a publication in

  16. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  17. Application of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 to selective extraction of radioactive strontium from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Vilkova, O.M.; Tuzova, A.M.; Fedorova, A.T.; Rodionova, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Influence of various factors on strontium extraction in the system nitric acid-dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 was studied to develop the technique for determining 89 Sr and 90 Sr content in natural waters and aqueous salt solutions. Conditions for selective strontium extraction from complex salt systems containing Ba, Cs, Ru, Ce and other radionuclides were found. It is shown that coefficient of strontium distribution is sufficiently higher, as compared to coefficients of Cs, Ru, Ce distribution. Extraction performance under chosen conditions enables to elevate sufficiently the distribution coefficient of these substances. The scheme of radiochemical analysis is given. Strontium content in natural waters and salt solutions was determined with the use of described radiochemical method

  18. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  19. Growth and characterization of magnesium chloride and lanthanum chloride doped strontium tartrate crystals - gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiarasi, S.; Jaikumar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Growth of single crystals of doped strontium tartrate by controlled diffusion of strontium chloride into the silica gel charged with tartaric acid at room temperature is narrated. In this study, we synthesized magnesium chloride (5% and 10%) doped strontium tartrate crystals and Lanthanum chloride (5%, 10% and 15%) doped strontium tartrate crystals are grown. The crystal structure of the compound crystals was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of pure and doped crystals are recorded and analyzed. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum analysis reveals that the optical study of the grown crystals. The second harmonic generation efficiency was measured by using Kurtz powder technique with Nd:YAG laser of wavelength 1064 nm. (author)

  20. Chromatographic speciation of Cr(III)-species, inter-species equilibrium isotope fractionation and improved chemical purification strategies for high-precision isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chromatographic purification of chromium (Cr), which is required for high-precision isotope analysis, is complicated by the presence of multiple Cr-species with different effective charges in the acid digested sample aliquots. The differing ion exchange selectivity and sluggish reaction rates of ...

  1. Chromatographic speciation of Cr(III)-species, inter-species equilibrium isotope fractionation and improved chemical purification strategies for high-precision isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K K; Wielandt, D; Schiller, M; Bizzarro, M

    2016-04-22

    Chromatographic purification of chromium (Cr), which is required for high-precision isotope analysis, is complicated by the presence of multiple Cr-species with different effective charges in the acid digested sample aliquots. The differing ion exchange selectivity and sluggish reaction rates of these species can result in incomplete Cr recovery during chromatographic purification. Because of large mass-dependent inter-species isotope fractionation, incomplete recovery can affect the accuracy of high-precision Cr isotope analysis. Here, we demonstrate widely differing cation distribution coefficients of Cr(III)-species (Cr(3+), CrCl(2+) and CrCl2(+)) with equilibrium mass-dependent isotope fractionation spanning a range of ∼1‰/amu and consistent with theory. The heaviest isotopes partition into Cr(3+), intermediates in CrCl(2+) and the lightest in CrCl2(+)/CrCl3°. Thus, for a typical reported loss of ∼25% Cr (in the form of Cr(3+)) through chromatographic purification, this translates into 185 ppm/amu offset in the stable Cr isotope ratio of the residual sample. Depending on the validity of the mass-bias correction during isotope analysis, this further results in artificial mass-independent effects in the mass-bias corrected (53)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(53)Cr* of 5.2 ppm) and (54)Cr/(52)Cr (μ(54)Cr* of 13.5 ppm) components used to infer chronometric and nucleosynthetic information in meteorites. To mitigate these fractionation effects, we developed strategic chemical sample pre-treatment procedures that ensure high and reproducible Cr recovery. This is achieved either through 1) effective promotion of Cr(3+) by >5 days exposure to HNO3H2O2 solutions at room temperature, resulting in >∼98% Cr recovery for most types of sample matrices tested using a cationic chromatographic retention strategy, or 2) formation of Cr(III)-Cl complexes through exposure to concentrated HCl at high temperature (>120 °C) for several hours, resulting in >97.5% Cr recovery using a

  2. Preservation of terrestrial plant biomarkers from Nachukui Formation sediments and their viability for stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, E.; Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Lepre, C. J.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary records from the Turkana Basin in eastern Africa provide a unique opportunity to compare a high-resolution record of climate and terrestrial vegetation with important changes in the record of human evolution. Molecular biomarkers from terrestrial vegetation can yield stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and carbon that reflect ancient climate and vegetation. However, the preservation of long-chain plant wax biomarkers in these paleosol, fluvial, and lacustrine sediments is not known, and this preservation must be studied to establish their utility for molecular stable isotope studies. We investigated leaf wax biomarkers in Nachukui Formation sediments deposited between 2.3 and 1.7 Ma to assess biomarker preservation. We analyzed n alkane and n alkanoic acid concentrations and, where suitable, molecular carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios. Molecular abundance distributions show a great deal of variance in biomarker preservation and plant-type source as indicated by the carbon preference index and average chain length. This variation suggests that some samples are suitable for isotopic analysis, while other samples lack primary terrestrial plant biomarker signatures. The biomarker signal in many samples contains significant additional material from unidentified sources. For example, the n-alkane distributions contain an unresolved complex mixture underlying the short and mid-chain n-alkanes. Samples from lacustrine intervals include long-chain diacids, hydroxy acids and (ω-1) ketoacids that suggest degradation of the original acids. Degradation of poorly preserved samples and the addition of non-terrestrial plant biomarkers may originate from a number of processes including forest fire or microbial alteration. Isotopic analysis of well-preserved terrestrial plant biomarkers will be presented along with examples where the original biomarker distribution has been altered.

  3. Chemically modified glasses for analysis of hydrogen isotopes by gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciu, Vasile; Stefanescu, Doina

    1999-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope separation process by such methods as cryogenic distillation or thermal diffusion method is one of the key technologies of the tritium separation from heavy water of CANDU reactors and in the tritium fuel cycle for a thermonuclear fusion reactor. In each process, the analytical techniques for measuring contents of hydrogen isotope mixture are necessary. An extensive experimental research has been carried out in order to produce the most suitable absorbent and define the best operating conditions for selective separation and analysis of hydrogen isotope by gas-chromatography. This paper describes the preparation of adsorbent materials utilised as stationary phase in the gas-chromatographic column for hydrogen isotope separation and treatment (activation) of stationary phase. Modified thermo-resisting glass with Fe(NH 4 ) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 6H 2 O and Cr 2 O 3 , respectively, have been experimentally investigated at 77 K for H 2 , HD and D 2 separation and the results of chromatographic runs are also reported and discussed. The gas-chromatographic apparatus used is composed of a Hewlett-Packard 7620A gas-chromatograph equipped with a gas carrier flow rate controller and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). The apparatus comprises also a Dewar vessel containing the separation column. The hydrogen isotopes H 2 , HD, D 2 and their mixture have been obtained in our laboratories. The best operating conditions of the adsorbent column Fe (III)/glass and Cr 2 O 3 /glass, i.e. granulometry, column length, pressure-drop along the column, carrier gas flow rate, sample volume have been studied by means of the analysis of the retention times, separation factors and HETP. (authors)

  4. Metal/glass composites for analysis of hydrogen isotopes by gas-chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolae, Constantin Adrian; Sisu, Claudia; Stefanescu, Doina; Stanciu, Vasile

    1999-01-01

    The separation process of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation or thermal diffusion is a key technology for tritium separation from heavy water in CANDU reactor and for tritium fuel cycle in thermonuclear fusion reactor. In each process, analytical techniques for analyzing the hydrogen isotope mixture are required. An extensive experimental research has been carried out in order to produce the most suitable adsorbents and to establish the best operating conditions for selective separation and analysis of hydrogen isotopes by gas-chromatography. This paper describes the preparation of adsorbent materials used as stationary phases in the gas-chromatographic column for hydrogen isotope separation and the treatment (activation) of stationary phases. Modified thermoresisting glass with Fe(NH 4 ) 2 (SO 4 ) 2 ·6H 2 O and Cr 2 O 3 respectively have been experimentally investigated at 77 K for H 2 , HD and D 2 separation and the results of chromatographic runs are reported and discussed. The gas-chromatographic apparatus used in this study is composed of a Hewlett-Packard 7620A gas-chromatograph equipped with a gas carrier flow rate controller and a thermal conductivity detector. The apparatus comprises also a Dewar vessel containing the separation column. The hydrogen isotopes, H 2 , HD, D 2 , and their mixture have been obtained in our laboratories. The best operating conditions and parameters of the Fe 3+ /glass adsorbent column , i.e. granulometry, column length, pressure-drop along the column, carrier gas flow rate and sample volume have been studied by means of the analysis of the retention times, separation factors and HETP. (authors)

  5. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Pestle

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond, the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a sample preparation, and b analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite

  6. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Crowley, Brooke E; Weirauch, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values

  7. [Trophic niche partitioning of pelagic sharks in Central Eastern Pacific inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun Kai; Gao, Xiao di; Wang, Lin Yu; Fang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    As the apex predators of the open ocean ecosystems, pelagic sharks play important roles in stabilizing the marine food web through top-down control. Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the feeding ecology. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios can be used to trace food source and evaluate the trophic position of marine organisms. In this study, the isotope values of 130 pelagic sharks from 8 species in Central Eastern Pacific were analyzed and their trophic position and niche were calculated to compare the intra/inter-specific resource partitioning in the Central Eastern Pacific ecosystem. The results exhibited significant differences in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values among the shark species. The trophic levels ranged from 4.3 to 5.4 in the Central Eastern Pacific shark community. The trophic niche of blue sharks and shortfin mako sharks showed no overlap with the other shark species, exhibiting unique ecological roles in the open ocean food web. These data highlighted the diverse roles among pelagic sharks, supporting previous findings that this species is not trophically redundant and the trophic niche of pelagic sharks can not be simply replaced by those of other top predator species.

  8. Strontium-90 measurements in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedli, C.; Geering, J.J.; Lerch, P.

    1988-01-01

    Strontium-90 contamination in Switzerland has been measured since the sixties. The determination of 90 Sr in human vertebrae, milk-teeth, milk and wine have shown a maximum activity between 1964 and 1966. Since 1976, the survey has been extended to the food chain. After the Chernobyl accident, the measurements indicated a significative 90 Sr contamination in the Tessin and the north-east of Switzerland. The partition of 90 Sr in wheat has been determined and transfer factors are given for the milk - cheese - whey chain

  9. Rare earth element and strontium isotopic study of seamount-type limestones in Mesozoic accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane, central Japan. Implication for incorporation process of seawater REE into limestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Miura, Noriko; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Kawabe, Iwao

    2003-01-01

    Ishimaki and Tahara limestones occur as exotic blocks juxtaposed in the Mesozoic (Jurassic) accretionary complex of Southern Chichibu Terrane in eastern Aichi Prefecture, central Japan. They are supposed to be of the seamount-type limestone, since they have no terrigenous materials and are intimately associated with greenstones. REE (rare earth elements) and Sr isotopic studies for the limestones have been made in order to know their geochemical characteristics, ages and origins. Their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, when referred to the seawater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr curve and relevant geological data, suggest that Ishimaki and Tahara limestones are the late Permian and the Carboniferous to the Early Permian, respectively. Two greenstone fragments found inside the Ishimaki limestone block and one greenstone sample associated with Tahara limestone block, resemble the Hawaiian alkali basalt in the their REE and Y patterns. This is supporting the idea that the limestone blocks may be parts of reef limestones on ancient volcanic seamounts. All the limestone samples, except three unusual Tahara ones, show seawater REE and Y signatures in their chondrite-normalized patterns. Their REE/Ca ratios, however, are 10 2 -10 4 times as high as those ratios of modern biogenic carbonates like corals and the seawater. Accordingly, seawater REE and Y were incorporated into the limestones, when originally biogenic carbonates transformed into inorganic calcite and its secondary growths occurred in diagenesis in contact with sufficient seawater. This view is favored by the reported REE partition experiment between calcite overgrowths and seawater solution. The seawater Ce anomaly as a function of water depth in the modern ocean is a key to infer the water depth of the REE and Y incorporation. The Ce anomalies given by log (Ce/Ce*) for about a half of Ishimaki samples and most of Tahara ones are between -0.5 and -0.2, which are compatible with the shallow water origin. Another half of Ishimaki samples

  10. Xe-135 and Sm-149 Isotopic Evolution Analysis Xesamo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Gallego, J.; Martinez Fanegas, R.

    1977-01-01

    In this report the time evolution analysis of the nuclides concentration Xe-135 and Sm-149 as a function of the neutron flux is carried out. The neutron flux may be any function of time. It is analyzed as well the reactivity changes associated with the xenon and samarium concentration variations. (Author) 5 refs

  11. Extermination Of Uranium Isotopes Composition Using A Micro Computer With An IEEE-488 Interface For Mass Spectrometer Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajitno; Taftazani, Agus; Yusuf

    1996-01-01

    A mass spectrometry method can be used to make qualitative or quantitative analysis. For qualitative analysis, identification of unknown materials by a Mass Spectrometer requires definite assignment of mass number to peak on chart. In quantitative analysis, a mass spectrometer is used to determine isotope composition material in the sample. Analysis system of a Mass Spectrometer possession of PPNY-BATAN based on comparison ion current intensity which enter the collector, and have been used to analyse isotope composition. Calculation of isotope composition have been manually done. To increase the performance and to avoid manual data processing, a micro computer and IEEE-488 interface have been installed, also software packaged has been made. So that the determination of the isotope composition of material in the sample will be faster and more efficient. Tile accuracy of analysis using this program on sample standard U 3 O 8 NBS 010 is between 93,87% - 99,98%

  12. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  13. Parasites in Myodes glareolus and their association with diet assessed by stable isotope analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Chris