Fast Semantic Segmentation of 3d Point Clouds with Strongly Varying Density
Hackel, Timo; Wegner, Jan D.; Schindler, Konrad
2016-06-01
We describe an effective and efficient method for point-wise semantic classification of 3D point clouds. The method can handle unstructured and inhomogeneous point clouds such as those derived from static terrestrial LiDAR or photogammetric reconstruction; and it is computationally efficient, making it possible to process point clouds with many millions of points in a matter of minutes. The key issue, both to cope with strong variations in point density and to bring down computation time, turns out to be careful handling of neighborhood relations. By choosing appropriate definitions of a point's (multi-scale) neighborhood, we obtain a feature set that is both expressive and fast to compute. We evaluate our classification method both on benchmark data from a mobile mapping platform and on a variety of large, terrestrial laser scans with greatly varying point density. The proposed feature set outperforms the state of the art with respect to per-point classification accuracy, while at the same time being much faster to compute.
Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions in simple spin-models with strongly varying vortex densities
Himbergen, J.E.J.M. van
1985-01-01
A generalized XY-model, consisting of a family of nearest neighbour potentials of varying shape, for classical planar spins on a two-dimensional square lattice is analysed by a combination of Migdal-Kadanoff real-space renormalization and Monte Carlo simulations on a sequence of finite lattices of
First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields
Khatsymovsky, V. M.
2017-11-01
We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.
Do plasma proteins distinguish between liposomes of varying charge density?
Capriotti, Anna Laura
2012-03-01
Cationic liposomes (CLs) are one of the most employed nonviral nanovector systems in gene therapy. However, their transfection efficiency is strongly affected by interactions with plasma components, that lead to the formation of a "protein corona" onto CL surface. The interactions between nanoparticles entering the body and biomolecules have an essential role for their biodistribution. Because the knowledge of proteins adsorbed onto vector surface could be useful in the screening of new, more efficient and more biocompatible liposomal formulations, the behavior of three CLs with different membrane charge densities was investigated. The proteins of the three coronas were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified with label-free spectral counting strategy. Fibrinogen displayed higher association with CLs with high membrane charge density, while apolipoproteins and C4b-binding protein with CLs with low membrane charge density. These results are discussed in terms of the different lipid compositions of CLs and may have a deep biological impact for in vivo applications. Surface charge of nanoparticles is emerging as a relevant factor determining the corona composition after interaction with plasma proteins. Remarkably, it is also shown that the charge of the protein corona formed around CLs is strongly related to their membrane charge density. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Strong Correlation in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory
Malet, F.; Gori Giorgi, P.
2012-01-01
We use the exact strong-interaction limit of the Hohenberg-Kohn energy density functional to approximate the exchange-correlation energy of the restricted Kohn-Sham scheme. Our approximation corresponds to a highly nonlocal density functional whose functional derivative can be easily constructed,
Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.
2003-01-01
We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique
Strong coupling QCD at finite baryon-number density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karsch, F.; Muetter, K.H.
1989-01-01
We present a new representation of the partition function for strong-coupling QCD which is suitable also for finite baryon-number-density simulations. This enables us to study the phase structure in the canonical formulation (with fixed baryon number B) as well as the grand canonical one (with fixed chemical potential μ). We find a clear signal for a first-order chiral phase transition at μ c a=0.63. The critical baryon-number density n c a 3 =0.045 is only slightly higher than the density of nuclear matter. (orig.)
Describing a Strongly Correlated Model System with Density Functional Theory.
Kong, Jing; Proynov, Emil; Yu, Jianguo; Pachter, Ruth
2017-07-06
The linear chain of hydrogen atoms, a basic prototype for the transition from a metal to Mott insulator, is studied with a recent density functional theory model functional for nondynamic and strong correlation. The computed cohesive energy curve for the transition agrees well with accurate literature results. The variation of the electronic structure in this transition is characterized with a density functional descriptor that yields the atomic population of effectively localized electrons. These new methods are also applied to the study of the Peierls dimerization of the stretched even-spaced Mott insulator to a chain of H 2 molecules, a different insulator. The transitions among the two insulating states and the metallic state of the hydrogen chain system are depicted in a semiquantitative phase diagram. Overall, we demonstrate the capability of studying strongly correlated materials with a mean-field model at the fundamental level, in contrast to the general pessimistic view on such a feasibility.
Positive streamers in air of varying density : experiments on the scaling of the excitation density
Dubrovin, D.; Nijdam, S.; Clevis, T.T.J.; Heijmans, L.C.J.; Ebert, U.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.
2015-01-01
Streamers are rapidly extending ionized finger-like structures that dominate the initial breakdown of large gas volumes in the presence of a sufficiently strong electric field. Their macroscopic parameters are described by simple scaling relations, where the densities of electrons and of excited
Improving experimental phases for strong reflections prior to density modification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.
2013-01-01
A genetic algorithm has been developed to optimize the phases of the strongest reflections in SIR/SAD data. This is shown to facilitate density modification and model building in several test cases. Experimental phasing of diffraction data from macromolecular crystals involves deriving phase probability distributions. These distributions are often bimodal, making their weighted average, the centroid phase, improbable, so that electron-density maps computed using centroid phases are often non-interpretable. Density modification brings in information about the characteristics of electron density in protein crystals. In successful cases, this allows a choice between the modes in the phase probability distributions, and the maps can cross the borderline between non-interpretable and interpretable. Based on the suggestions by Vekhter [Vekhter (2005 ▶), Acta Cryst. D61, 899–902], the impact of identifying optimized phases for a small number of strong reflections prior to the density-modification process was investigated while using the centroid phase as a starting point for the remaining reflections. A genetic algorithm was developed that optimizes the quality of such phases using the skewness of the density map as a target function. Phases optimized in this way are then used in density modification. In most of the tests, the resulting maps were of higher quality than maps generated from the original centroid phases. In one of the test cases, the new method sufficiently improved a marginal set of experimental SAD phases to enable successful map interpretation. A computer program, SISA, has been developed to apply this method for phase improvement in macromolecular crystallography
Influencing parameters and the behaviour of flows of varying density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plate, E.J.
1975-01-01
The contribution aims at presenting the principles of density flows in brief, and, if possible, in a non-mathematical way. This task is made difficult by the fact that there is no comprohensive work on the subject. For two-dimensional density flows, a brief communication has been published in German recently. This publication is referred to for details and literature references. The contribution is only concerned with demonstrating the difference between density flows and homogeneous fluid flows and with presenting the possibilities which exist to calculate density flows. In this context, the rendering restricts itself only to horizontal discharging processes. (orig.) [de
Do plasma proteins distinguish between liposomes of varying charge density?
Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà , Aldo
2012-01-01
efficient and more biocompatible liposomal formulations, the behavior of three CLs with different membrane charge densities was investigated. The proteins of the three coronas were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Density matrix of strongly coupled quantum dot - microcavity system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Hop
2009-01-01
Any two-level quantum system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) - the basic element of all devices and systems for quantum information and quantum computation. Recently it was proposed to study the strongly coupled system consisting of a two-level quantum dot and a monoenergetic photon gas in a microcavity-the strongly coupled quantum dot-microcavity (QD-MC) system for short, with the Jaynes-Cumming total Hamiltonian, for the application in the quantum information processing. Different approximations were applied in the theoretical study of this system. In this work, on the basis of the exact solution of the Schrodinger equation for this system without dissipation we derive the exact formulae for its density matrix. The realization of a qubit in this system is discussed. The solution of the system of rate equation for the strongly coupled QD-MC system in the presence of the interaction with the environment was also established in the first order approximation with respect to this interaction.
Williams, Jennifer L; Levine, Jonathan M
2018-04-01
Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when modeled populations are composed of discrete individuals, patchiness causes populations to build up to high density before dispersing past unsuitable habitat, introducing an important influence of density dependence on spread velocity. To test the hypothesized interaction between habitat patchiness and density dependence, we simultaneously manipulated these factors in a greenhouse system of annual plants spreading through replicated experimental landscapes. We found that increasing the size of gaps and amplifying the strength of density dependence both slowed spread velocity, but contrary to predictions, the effect of amplified density dependence was similar across all landscape types. Our results demonstrate that the discrete nature of individuals in spreading populations has a strong influence on how both landscape patchiness and density dependence influence spread through demographic and dispersal stochasticity. Both finiteness and landscape structure should be critical components to theoretical predictions of future spread for range expanding native species or invasive species colonizing new habitat. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.
On the evolution of the density probability density function in strongly self-gravitating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girichidis, Philipp; Konstandin, Lukas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whitworth, Anthony P.
2014-01-01
The time evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the mass density is formulated and solved for systems in free-fall using a simple approximate function for the collapse of a sphere. We demonstrate that a pressure-free collapse results in a power-law tail on the high-density side of the PDF. The slope quickly asymptotes to the functional form P V (ρ)∝ρ –1.54 for the (volume-weighted) PDF and P M (ρ)∝ρ –0.54 for the corresponding mass-weighted distribution. From the simple approximation of the PDF we derive analytic descriptions for mass accretion, finding that dynamically quiet systems with narrow density PDFs lead to retarded star formation and low star formation rates (SFRs). Conversely, strong turbulent motions that broaden the PDF accelerate the collapse causing a bursting mode of star formation. Finally, we compare our theoretical work with observations. The measured SFRs are consistent with our model during the early phases of the collapse. Comparison of observed column density PDFs with those derived from our model suggests that observed star-forming cores are roughly in free-fall.
Role of density modulation in the spatially resolved dynamics of strongly confined liquids.
Saw, Shibu; Dasgupta, Chandan
2016-08-07
Confinement by walls usually produces a strong modulation in the density of dense liquids near the walls. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the effects of the density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics of a liquid confined between two parallel walls, using a resolution of a fraction of the interparticle distance in the liquid. The local dynamics is quantified by the relaxation time associated with the temporal autocorrelation function of the local density. We find that this local relaxation time varies in phase with the density modulation. The amplitude of the spatial modulation of the relaxation time can be quite large, depending on the characteristics of the wall and thermodynamic parameters of the liquid. To disentangle the effects of confinement and density modulation on the spatially resolved dynamics, we compare the dynamics of a confined liquid with that of an unconfined one in which a similar density modulation is induced by an external potential. We find several differences indicating that density modulation alone cannot account for all the features seen in the spatially resolved dynamics of confined liquids. We also examine how the dynamics near a wall depends on the separation between the two walls and show that the features seen in our simulations persist in the limit of large wall separation.
Relating saturation capacity to charge density in strong cation exchangers.
Steinebach, Fabian; Coquebert de Neuville, Bertrand; Morbidelli, Massimo
2017-07-21
In this work the relation between physical and chemical resin characteristics and the total amount of adsorbed protein (saturation capacity) for ion-exchange resins is discussed. Eleven different packing materials with a sulfo-functionalization and one multimodal resin were analyzed in terms of their porosity, pore size distribution, ligand density and binding capacity. By specifying the ligand density and binding capacity by the total and accessible surface area, two different groups of resins were identified: Below a ligand density of approx. 2.5μmol/m 2 area the ligand density controls the saturation capacity, while above this limit the accessible surface area becomes the limiting factor. This results in a maximum protein uptake of around 2.5mg/m 2 of accessible surface area. The obtained results allow estimating the saturation capacity from independent resin characteristics like the saturation capacity mainly depends on "library data" such as the accessible and total surface area and the charge density. Hence these results give an insight into the fundamentals of protein adsorption and help to find suitable resins, thus limiting the experimental effort in early process development stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Density estimation in tiger populations: combining information for strong inference
Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Delampady, Mohan; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Macdonald, David W.
2012-01-01
A productive way forward in studies of animal populations is to efficiently make use of all the information available, either as raw data or as published sources, on critical parameters of interest. In this study, we demonstrate two approaches to the use of multiple sources of information on a parameter of fundamental interest to ecologists: animal density. The first approach produces estimates simultaneously from two different sources of data. The second approach was developed for situations in which initial data collection and analysis are followed up by subsequent data collection and prior knowledge is updated with new data using a stepwise process. Both approaches are used to estimate density of a rare and elusive predator, the tiger, by combining photographic and fecal DNA spatial capture–recapture data. The model, which combined information, provided the most precise estimate of density (8.5 ± 1.95 tigers/100 km2 [posterior mean ± SD]) relative to a model that utilized only one data source (photographic, 12.02 ± 3.02 tigers/100 km2 and fecal DNA, 6.65 ± 2.37 tigers/100 km2). Our study demonstrates that, by accounting for multiple sources of available information, estimates of animal density can be significantly improved.
Strong density of a class of simple operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somasundaram, S.; Mohammad, N.
1991-08-01
An algebra of simple operators has been shown to be strongly dense in the algebra of all bounded linear operators on function spaces of a compact (not necessarily abelian) group. Further, it is proved that the same result is also true for L 2 (G) if G is a locally compact (not necessarily compact) abelian group. (author). 6 refs
Density functional application to strongly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eschrig, H.; Koepernik, K.; Chaplygin, I.
2003-01-01
The local spin density approximation plus onsite Coulomb repulsion approach (LSDA+U) to density functional theory is carefully reanalyzed. Its possible link to single-particle Green's function theory is occasionally discussed. A simple and elegant derivation of the important sum rules for the on-site interaction matrix elements linking them to the values of U and J is presented. All necessary expressions for an implementation of LSDA+U into a non-orthogonal basis solver for the Kohn-Sham equations are given, and implementation into the full-potential local-orbital solver (Phys. Rev. B 59 (1999) 1743) is made. Results of application to several planar cuprate structures are reported in detail and conclusions on the interpretation of the physics of the electronic structure of the cuprates are drawn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, C.
1996-12-31
In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.
Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLerran, L.
2011-01-01
The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2015-01-01
Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matora, I.M.; Merkulov, L.A.
1975-01-01
The effect is considered of two kinds of a dependence of the emission density from the electric field voltage on the emitter surface of a strong-current electron gun (the Schottky law and the ''3/2'' law) upon the choice of a form for the meridional cross section of this emitter at the condition of electron flux laminarity. A calculation example is given for electron gun with close to laminar flow assuming the validity of the Schottky law. The results of calculation of varying the laminar flux character are given which appears when varying parameters of the gun at the voltage 500 kV and current 250 A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirtschink, André; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Umrigar, C. J.; Morgan, John D.
2014-01-01
Anions and radicals are important for many applications including environmental chemistry, semiconductors, and charge transfer, but are poorly described by the available approximate energy density functionals. Here we test an approximate exchange-correlation functional based on the exact strong-coupling limit of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional on the prototypical case of the He isoelectronic series with varying nuclear charge Z − and to capture in general the physics of loosely bound anions, with a tendency to strongly overbind that can be proven mathematically. We also include corrections based on the uniform electron gas which improve the results
Strong solutions for an incompressible Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system with different densities
Li, Yinghua; Huang, Mingxia
2018-06-01
In this paper, we investigate a coupled Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system describing a diffuse interface model for two-phase flow of viscous incompressible fluids with different densities in a bounded domain Ω \\subset R^N(N=2,3). We prove the existence and uniqueness of local strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem when the initial density function ρ _0 has a positive lower bound.
Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Dunson, David B
2012-08-01
This article considers a broad class of kernel mixture density models on compact metric spaces and manifolds. Following a Bayesian approach with a nonparametric prior on the location mixing distribution, sufficient conditions are obtained on the kernel, prior and the underlying space for strong posterior consistency at any continuous density. The prior is also allowed to depend on the sample size n and sufficient conditions are obtained for weak and strong consistency. These conditions are verified on compact Euclidean spaces using multivariate Gaussian kernels, on the hypersphere using a von Mises-Fisher kernel and on the planar shape space using complex Watson kernels.
Electronic zero-point oscillations in the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory
Gori Giorgi, P.; Vignale, G.; Seidl, M.
2009-01-01
The exchange-correlation energy in Kohn-Sham density functional theory can be expressed exactly in terms of the change in the expectation of the electron-electron repulsion operator when, in the many-electron Hamiltonian, this same operator is multiplied by a real parameter λ varying between 0
Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.
2013-01-01
In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...
Response of Spectral Reflectances and Vegetation Indices on Varying Juniper Cone Densities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo E. Ponce-Campos
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Juniper trees are widely distributed throughout the world and are common sources of allergies when microscopic pollen grains are transported by wind and inhaled. In this study, we investigated the spectral influences of pollen-discharging male juniper cones within a juniper canopy. This was done through a controlled outdoor experiment involving ASD FieldSpec Pro Spectroradiometer measurements over juniper canopies of varying cone densities. Broadband and narrowband spectral reflectance and vegetation index (VI patterns were evaluated as to their sensitivity and their ability to discriminate the presence of cones. The overall aim of this research was to assess remotely sensed phenological capabilities to detect pollen-bearing juniper trees for public health applications. A general decrease in reflectance values with increasing juniper cone density was found, particularly in the Green (545–565 nm and NIR (750–1,350 nm regions. In contrast, reflectances in the shortwave-infrared (SWIR, 2,000 nm to 2,350 nm region decreased from no cone presence to intermediate amounts (90 g/m2 and then increased from intermediate levels to the highest cone densities (200 g/m2. Reflectance patterns in the Red (620–700 nm were more complex due to shifting contrast patterns in absorptance between cones and juniper foliage, where juniper foliage is more absorbing than cones only within the intense narrowband region of maximum chlorophyll absorption near 680 nm. Overall, narrowband reflectances were more sensitive to cone density changes than the equivalent MODIS broadbands. In all VIs analyzed, there were significant relationships with cone density levels, particularly with the narrowband versions and the two-band vegetation index (TBVI based on Green and Red bands, a promising outcome for the use of phenocams in juniper phenology trait studies. These results indicate that spectral indices are sensitive to certain juniper phenologic traits that can potentially be
Spin polarization in high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tsue, Yasuhiko; Da Providência, João; Providência, Constança
2016-01-01
In high density quark matter under a strong external magnetic field, possible phases are investigated by using the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model with tensor-type four-point interaction between quarks, as well as the axial-vector-type four-point interaction. In the tensor-type interact...
Generalized Models from Beta(p, 2) Densities with Strong Allee Effect: Dynamical Approach
Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel
2012-01-01
A dynamical approach to study the behaviour of generalized populational growth models from Beta(p, 2) densities, with strong Allee effect, is presented. The dynamical analysis of the respective unimodal maps is performed using symbolic dynamics techniques. The complexity of the correspondent discrete dynamical systems is measured in terms of topological entropy. Different populational dynamics regimes are obtained when the intrinsic growth rates are modified: extinction, bistability, chaotic ...
Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Raizada
Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms^{-1}. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.
Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics
Some new features of electron density irregularities over SHAR during strong spread F
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Raizada
2000-02-01
Full Text Available An RH-560 rocket flight was conducted from Sriharikota rocket range (SHAR (14°N, 80°E, dip latitude 5.5°N to study electron density and electric field irregularities during spread F. The rocket was launched at 2130 local time (LT and it attained an apogee of 348 km. Results of electron density fluctuations are presented here. Two extremely sharp layers of very high electron density were observed at 105 and 130 km. The electron density increase in these layers was by a factor of 50 in a vertical extent of 10 km. Large depletions in electron density were observed around 175 and 238 km. Both sharp layers as well as depletions were observed also during the descent. The presence of sharp layers and depletions during the ascent and the descent of the rocket as well as an order of magnitude less electron density, in 150-300 km region during the descent, indicate the presence of strong large-scale horizontal gradients in the electron density. Some of the valley region irregularities (165-178 km, in the intermediate scale size range, observed during this flight, show spectral peaks at 2 km and can be interpreted in terms of the image striation theory suggested by Vickrey et al. The irregularities at 176 km do not exhibit any peak at kilometer scales and appear to be of new type. The growth rate of intermediate scale size irregularities, produced through generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability, was calculated for the 200-330 km altitude, using observed values of electron density gradients and an assumed vertically downward wind of 20 ms-1. These growth rate calculations suggest that the observed irregularities could be produced by the gradient drift instability.Key words: Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities - Radio science (ionospheric physics
Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern
Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike
2018-03-01
Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.
Belovsky, Gary E; Laws, Angela Nardoni; Slade, Jennifer B
2011-04-01
Increasingly, ecologists emphasize that prey frequently change behaviour in the presence of predators and these behavioural changes can reduce prey survival and reproduction as much or more than predation itself. However, the effects of behavioural changes on survival and reproduction may vary with prey density due to intraspecific competition. In field experiments, we varied grasshopper density and threat of avian predation and measured grasshopper behaviour, survival and reproduction. Grasshopper behaviour changed with the threat of predation and these behavioural changes were invariant with grasshopper density. Behavioural changes with the threat of predation decreased per capita reproduction over all grasshopper densities; whereas the behavioural changes increased survival at low grasshopper densities and then decreased survival at high densities. At low grasshopper densities, the total reproductive output of the grasshopper population remained unchanged with predation threat, but declined at higher densities. The effects of behavioural changes with predation threat varied with grasshopper density because of a trade-off between survival and reproduction as intraspecific competition increased with density. Therefore, resource availability may need to be considered when assessing how prey behavioural changes with predation threat affect population and food web dynamics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Smouter, H.; Simpson, R.J.; Pear, G.R.
1995-01-01
An experiment is described in which the tiller density of microswards of Lolium rigidum was varied by altering planting density. The treatments were expected to alter the interplant competition for light and thus affect the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) of the grass swards.
Effect of Dislocation Density on Deformation Behavior of Super Strong Bainitic Steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Avishan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Presence of nanoscale bainitic ferrites and high carbon retained austenites that are stable at ambient temperature within the microstructures of super strong bainitic steels makes it possible to achieve exceptional strengths and ductility properties in these groups of nanostructured steels. This article aims to study the effect of the dislocation density variations during tensile testing in ambient temperature on deformation behavior of nanostructured low temperature bainitic steels. Results indicate that dislocation absorption from bainitic ferrite subunits by surrounding retained austenite reduces the work hardening and therefore increases the formability of bainitic ferrite during deformation, which in turn results in a suitable combination of strength and ductility.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katoch S.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mads; Raundahl, Jakob; Pettersen, Paola
2009-01-01
Objective: To investigate whether transdermal low dose estradiol treatment induces changes in mammographic density or heterogeneity compared to raloxifene. Secondarily, if these changes relate to changes in bone formation/resorption markers, and if these findings indicate elevation of breast canc...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reymond, S.
2010-04-29
We have made an experimental study of the tunneling density of states (DOS) in strong ferromagnetic thin films (CoFe) in proximity with a thick superconducting film (Nb) as a function of d{sub F}, the ferromagnetic thickness. Remarkably, we find that as d{sub F} increases, the superconducting DOS exhibits a scaling behavior in which the deviations from the normal-state conductance have a universal shape that decreases exponentially in amplitude with characteristic length d* {approx} 0.4 nm. We do not see oscillations in the DOS as a function of d{sub F}, as expected from predictions based on the Usadel equations, although an oscillation in T{sub c}(d{sub F}) has been seen in the same materials.
Mass density slope of elliptical galaxies from strong lensing and resolved stellar kinematics
Lyskova, N.; Churazov, E.; Naab, T.
2018-04-01
We discuss constraints on the mass density distribution (parametrized as ρ ∝ r-γ) in early-type galaxies provided by strong lensing and stellar kinematics data. The constraints come from mass measurements at two `pinch' radii. One `pinch' radius r1 = 2.2REinst is defined such that the Einstein (i.e. aperture) mass can be converted into the spherical mass almost independently of the mass-model. Another `pinch' radius r2 = Ropt is chosen so that the dynamical mass, derived from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, is least sensitive to the anisotropy of stellar orbits. We verified the performance of this approach on a sample of simulated elliptical galaxies and on a sample of 15 SLACS lens galaxies at 0.01 ≤ z ≤ 0.35, which have already been analysed in Barnabè et al. by the self-consistent joint lensing and kinematic code. For massive simulated galaxies, the density slope γ is recovered with an accuracy of ˜13 per cent, unless r1 and r2 happen to be close to each other. For SLACS galaxies, we found good overall agreement with the results of Barnabè et al. with a sample-averaged slope γ = 2.1 ± 0.05. Although the two-pinch-radii approach has larger statistical uncertainties, it is much simpler and uses only few arithmetic operations with directly observable quantities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Backes, Steffen
2017-04-01
The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backes, Steffen
2017-04-15
The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non
Varying plant density and harvest time to optimize cowpea leaf yield and nutrient content
Ohler, T. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A.
1996-01-01
Plant density and harvest time were manipulated to optimize vegetative (foliar) productivity of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] canopies for future dietary use in controlled ecological life-support systems as vegetables or salad greens. Productivity was measured as total shoot and edible dry weights (DW), edible yield rate [(EYR) grams DW per square meter per day], shoot harvest index [(SHI) grams DW per edible gram DW total shoot], and yield-efficiency rate [(YER) grams DW edible per square meter per day per grams DW nonedible]. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse for leaf-only harvest at 14, 28, 42, 56, 84, or 99 plants/m2 and were harvested 20, 30, 40, or 50 days after planting (DAP). Shoot and edible dry weights increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. A maximum of 1189 g shoot DW/m2 and 594 g edible DW/m2 were achieved at an estimated plant density of 85 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. EYR also increased as plant density and time to harvest increased. An EYR of 11 g m-2 day-1 was predicted to occur at 86 plants/m2 and harvest 50 DAP. SHI and YER were not affected by plant density. However, the highest values of SHI (64%) and YER (1.3 g m-2 day-1 g-1) were attained when cowpeas were harvested 20 DAP. The average fat and ash contents [dry-weight basis (dwb)] of harvested leaves remained constant regardless of harvest time. Average protein content increased from 25% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Carbohydrate content declined from 50% DW at 30 DAP to 45% DW at 50 DAP. Total dietary fiber content (dwb) of the leaves increased from 19% to 26% as time to harvest increased from 20 to 50 days.
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.
2016-01-01
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tierno, S. P., E-mail: sp.tierno@upm.es; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L. [Department of Applied Physics, E.T.S.I. Aeronáutica y del Espacio. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2016-01-15
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.
Existence of a virtual cathode close to a strongly electron emissive wall in low density plasmas
Tierno, S. P.; Donoso, J. M.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Conde, L.
2016-01-01
The interaction between an electron emissive wall, electrically biased in a plasma, is revisited through a simple fluid model. We search for realistic conditions of the existence of a non-monotonic plasma potential profile with a virtual cathode as it is observed in several experiments. We mainly focus our attention on thermionic emission related to the operation of emissive probes for plasma diagnostics, although most conclusions also apply to other electron emission processes. An extended Bohm criterion is derived involving the ratio between the two different electron densities at the potential minimum and at the background plasma. The model allows a phase-diagram analysis, which confirms the existence of the non-monotonic potential profiles with a virtual cathode. This analysis shows that the formation of the potential well critically depends on the emitted electron current and on the velocity at the sheath edge of cold ions flowing from the bulk plasma. As a consequence, a threshold value of the governing parameter is required, in accordance to the physical nature of the electron emission process. The latter is a threshold wall temperature in the case of thermionic electrons. Experimental evidence supports our numerical calculations of this threshold temperature. Besides this, the potential well becomes deeper with increasing electron emission, retaining a fraction of the released current which limits the extent of the bulk plasma perturbation. This noninvasive property would explain the reliable measurements of plasma potential by using the floating potential method of emissive probes operating in the so-called strong emission regime.
Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette
2015-01-01
Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the yield and yield components were studied using a conventional variety Zhongshuang 11 (ZS 11 and a hybrid variety Zhongyouza 12 (ZYZ 12 at varying plant densities. The increase in plant density led to an initial increase in seed yield and pod numbers per unit area, followed by a decrease. The optimal plant density was 58.5 × 104 plants ha−1 in both ZS 11 and ZYZ 12. The further researches on physiological traits showed a rapid decrease in the green leaf area index (GLAI and chlorophyll content and a remarkable increase in malondialdehyde content in high plant density (HPD population than did the low plant density (LPD population, which indicated the rapid leaf senescence. However, HPD had higher values in terms of pod area index (PAI, pod photosynthesis, and radiation use efficiency (RUE after peak anthesis. A significantly higher level of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed, which resulted in higher yield. HPD resulted in a rapid decrease in root morphological parameters (root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume. These results suggested that increasing the plant density within a certain range was a promising option for high seed yield in winter rapeseed in China.
Hou, Zhishuai; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Liu, Qun; Wang, Jinhuan; Guan, Biao; Wang, Qinglong
2017-01-01
The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of varying densities on serum reproductive parameters of immature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental trout were maintained in intensive, pen-reared farms for 300 days in fresh water reservoirs. Initial densities were 4.6, 6.6, and 8.6 kg/m3 (40, 60, 80 ind./m3), indicated as SD1, SD2, SD3, and final densities were 31.1, 40.6, 49.3 kg/m3, respectively. A summary of the ovarian stages were observed by histological examination. Serum E2 (estradiol), T (testosterone) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and FSH (follicle-stimulating-hormone), LH (luteinizing-hormone), vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P (17α,20βdihydroxy4-pregnen-3-one) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings demonstrated that ovarian development were retarded (from stage III to stage IV) at highest rearing density (SD3) after 180 days of intensive culture (over 40.6 kg/m3). In addition, we observed an inverse relationship between serum reproductive parameters and rearing density. Furthermore, compared to serum reproductive parameters of SD1, E2, T, FSH, vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P, GSI and LH of two higher density groups decreased firstly and significantly at 60 (over 15.9 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 31.7 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 40.6 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 45 kg/m3) and 300 (over 49.3 kg/m3) days, respectively. Comparing serum reproductive parameters within the same ovarian development stage of rainbow trout from varying densities revealed that higher population density also led to significantly lower overall serum reproductive parameters. Overall, this study presents the reproductive, endocrinological parameters of juvenile female rainbow trout at high rearing densities and indicates the need for rainbow trout (114.44±5.21 g, 19.69±0.31 cm) that are initially stocked at 6.6 or 8.6 kg/m3 should be classified and subdivided into lower density after 180 days of farming (not over 31.7 kg/m3).
Optimized LTE Cell Planning with Varying Spatial and Temporal User Densities
Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Dawy, Zaher; Abu Dayya, Adnan
2015-01-01
Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation (4G) cellular networks using meta-heuristic algorithms. In this approach, we aim to satisfy both cell coverage and capacity constraints simultaneously by formulating an optimization problem that captures practical planning aspects. The starting point of the planning process is defined through a dimensioning exercise that captures both coverage and capacity constraints. Afterwards, we implement a meta-heuristic algorithm based on swarm intelligence (e.g., particle swarm optimization or the recently-proposed grey wolf optimizer) to find suboptimal base station locations that satisfy both problem constraints in the area of interest which can be divided into several subareas with different spatial user densities. Subsequently, an iterative approach is executed to eliminate eventual redundant base stations. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the performance of the proposed scheme and compute the average number of users in outage. Next, the problems of green planning with regards to temporal traffic variation and planning with location constraints due to tight limits on electromagnetic radiations are addressed, using the proposed method. Finally, in our simulation results, we apply our proposed approach for different scenarios with different subareas and user distributions and show that the desired network quality of service targets are always reached even for large-scale problems.
Positive streamers in air and nitrogen of varying density: experiments on similarity laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Briels, T M P; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U
2008-01-01
Positive streamers in ambient air at pressures from 0.013 to 1 bar are investigated experimentally. The voltage applied to the anode needle ranges from 5 to 45 kV, the discharge gap from 1 to 16 cm. Using a 'slow' voltage rise time of 100-180 ns, the streamers are intentionally kept thin. For each pressure p, we find a minimal diameter d min . To test whether streamers at different pressures are similar, the minimal streamer diameter d min is multiplied by its pressure p; we find this product to be well approximated by p · d min = 0.20 ± 0.02 mm bar over two decades of air pressure at room temperature. The value also fits diameters of sprite discharges above thunderclouds at an altitude of 80 km when extrapolated to room temperature (as air density rather than pressure determines the physical behaviour). The minimal velocity of streamers in our measurements is approximately 0.1 mm ns -1 = 10 5 m s -1 . The same minimal velocity has been reported for tendrils in sprites. We also investigate the size of the initial ionization cloud at the electrode tip from which the streamers emerge, and the streamer length between branching events. The same quantities are also measured in nitrogen with a purity of approximately 99.9%. We characterize the essential differences with streamers in air and find a minimal diameter of p · d min = 0.12 ± 0.02 mm bar in our nitrogen.
Optimized LTE Cell Planning with Varying Spatial and Temporal User Densities
Ghazzai, Hakim
2015-03-09
Base station deployment in cellular networks is one of the fundamental problems in network design. This paper proposes a novel method for the cell planning problem for the fourth generation (4G) cellular networks using meta-heuristic algorithms. In this approach, we aim to satisfy both cell coverage and capacity constraints simultaneously by formulating an optimization problem that captures practical planning aspects. The starting point of the planning process is defined through a dimensioning exercise that captures both coverage and capacity constraints. Afterwards, we implement a meta-heuristic algorithm based on swarm intelligence (e.g., particle swarm optimization or the recently-proposed grey wolf optimizer) to find suboptimal base station locations that satisfy both problem constraints in the area of interest which can be divided into several subareas with different spatial user densities. Subsequently, an iterative approach is executed to eliminate eventual redundant base stations. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations to study the performance of the proposed scheme and compute the average number of users in outage. Next, the problems of green planning with regards to temporal traffic variation and planning with location constraints due to tight limits on electromagnetic radiations are addressed, using the proposed method. Finally, in our simulation results, we apply our proposed approach for different scenarios with different subareas and user distributions and show that the desired network quality of service targets are always reached even for large-scale problems.
Positive streamers in air and nitrogen of varying density: experiments on similarity laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briels, T M P; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, P O Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: ebert@cwi.nl, E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl
2008-12-07
Positive streamers in ambient air at pressures from 0.013 to 1 bar are investigated experimentally. The voltage applied to the anode needle ranges from 5 to 45 kV, the discharge gap from 1 to 16 cm. Using a 'slow' voltage rise time of 100-180 ns, the streamers are intentionally kept thin. For each pressure p, we find a minimal diameter d{sub min}. To test whether streamers at different pressures are similar, the minimal streamer diameter d{sub min} is multiplied by its pressure p; we find this product to be well approximated by p {center_dot} d{sub min} = 0.20 {+-} 0.02 mm bar over two decades of air pressure at room temperature. The value also fits diameters of sprite discharges above thunderclouds at an altitude of 80 km when extrapolated to room temperature (as air density rather than pressure determines the physical behaviour). The minimal velocity of streamers in our measurements is approximately 0.1 mm ns{sup -1} = 10{sup 5} m s{sup -1}. The same minimal velocity has been reported for tendrils in sprites. We also investigate the size of the initial ionization cloud at the electrode tip from which the streamers emerge, and the streamer length between branching events. The same quantities are also measured in nitrogen with a purity of approximately 99.9%. We characterize the essential differences with streamers in air and find a minimal diameter of p {center_dot} d{sub min} = 0.12 {+-} 0.02 mm bar in our nitrogen.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.R.
1981-04-01
A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L.
2005-01-01
In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koinov, Z.G.; Yanchev, I.Y.
1981-09-01
The density of states in heavily doped strongly compansated semiconductors in a strong magnetic field is calculated by using the path-integral method. The case is considered when correlation exists in the impurity positions owing to the Coulomb interactions between the charged donors and acceptors during the high-temperature preparation of the samples. The semiclassical formula is rederived and corrections to it due to the long-range character of the potential and its short-range fluctuations are obtained. The density of states in the tail is studied and analytical results are given in the classical and quantum cases. (author)
Nath, G.; Sinha, A. K.
2017-01-01
The propagation of a cylindrical shock wave in an ideal gas in the presence of a constant azimuthal magnetic field with consideration for the axisymmetric rotational effects is investigated. The ambient medium is assumed to have the radial, axial, and azimuthal velocity components. The fluid velocities and density of the ambient medium are assumed to vary according to an exponential law. Nonsimilar solutions are obtained by taking into account the vorticity vector and its components. The dependences of the characteristics of the problem on the Alfven-Mach number and time are obtained. It is shown that the presence of a magnetic field has a decaying effect on the shock wave. The pressure and density are shown to vanish at the inner surface (piston), and hence a vacuum forms at the line of symmetry.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsson, Martin; Alderborn, Goeran; Stroemme, Maria
2003-01-01
Room temperature dielectric frequency response data taken over 13 decades in frequency on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) tablets of varying density are presented. The frequency response shows on three different processes: the first one is a high-frequency relaxation process whose magnitude increases and reaches a plateau as the tablet density increases. This process is associated with orientational motions of local chain segments via glycosidic bonds. The second relaxation process, related to the presence of water in the MCC matrix, is insensitive to changes in tablet density. At lower frequencies, dc-like imperfect charge transport dominates the dielectric spectrum. The dc conductivity was found to decrease with increasing tablet density and increase exponentially with increasing humidity. Transient current measurements indicated that two different ionic species, protons and OH - ions, lied behind the observed conductivity. At ambient humidity of 22%, only one in a billion of the water molecules present in the tablet matrix participated in long range dc conduction. The diffusion coefficient of the protons and OH - ions were found to be of the order of 10 -9 cm 2 /s, which is the same as for small salt building ions in MCC. This shows that ionic drugs leaving a tablet matrix may diffuse in the same manner as the constituent ions of water and, thus, elucidates the necessity to understand the water transport properties of excipient materials to be able to tailor the drug release process from pharmaceutical tablets
Song, Sae Won; Bae, Yoon Jung; Lee, Dae Taek
2010-10-01
This study examines the combined effects of caloric restriction on body composition, blood lipid, and satiety in slightly overweight women by varying food density and aerobic exercise. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for a four-week weight management program: the high-energy density diet plus exercise (HDE: n = 12, 22 ± 2 yrs, 65 ± 7 kg, 164 ± 5 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) and low-energy density diet plus exercise (LDE: n = 11, 22 ± 1 yrs, 67 ± 7 kg, 161 ± 2 cm, 35 ± 4 % fat) groups. Subjects maintained a low-calorie diet (1,500 kcal/day) during the program. Isocaloric (483 ± 26 for HDE, 487 ± 27 kcal for LDE) but different weight (365 ± 68 for HDE, 814 ± 202 g for LDE) of lunch was provided. After lunch, they biked at 60% of maximum capacity for 40 minutes, five times per week. The hunger level was scaled (1: extremely hungry; 9: extremely full) at 17:30 each day. Before and after the program, the subjects' physical characteristics were measured, and fasting blood samples were drawn. The daily energy intake was 1,551 ± 259 for HDE and 1,404 ± 150 kcal for LDE (P > 0.05). After four weeks, the subjects' weights and % fat decreased for both LDE (-1.9 kg and -1.5%, P < 0.05) and HDE (-1.6 kg and -1.4%, respectively, P < 0.05). The hunger level was significantly higher for HDE (2.46 ± 0.28) than for LDE (3.10 ± 0.26) (P < 0.05). The results suggest that a low-energy density diet is more likely to be tolerated than a high-energy density diet for a weight management program combining a low-calorie diet and exercise, mainly because of a reduced hunger sensation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti
2014-01-01
The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti, E-mail: nitikant@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, G. T. Road, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)
2014-07-15
The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.
Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities
Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.
2017-11-01
The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob
1996-01-01
We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, J.C.H.; Griffiths, M.R.
2003-01-01
The precision error of the bone densitometer is used to interpret significant change in bone mineral density (BMD) in serial studies. The precision error can be expressed as standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variation (CV). The aims of this study are to determine the precision error over a range of BMD values and to demonstrate the application of the precision error in clinical practice. A bone phantom was used consisting of a perspex block with eight compartments containing varying amounts of hydroxyapatite powder to simulate a range of bone densities. The block was scanned 21 times and manual regions placed over each compartment to measure the BMD in each compartment. There were no significant differences in the variances or SD for all eight compartments, that is, over the range of BMD normally encountered in clinical practice. However, the calculated CV show a progressive fall in values as the BMD rises. Therefore, the SD should be used to calculate significant BMD change. In a practise with quality control procedures in place to detect calibration drift and with appropriately trained personnel, a change of approximately 0.05 g/cm 2 is generally regarded as being a significant change at a 95% confidence level. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd
Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales
Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei
2018-06-01
We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.
Thermal properties of UO2 from density functional theory: role of strong correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panigrahi, Puspamitra; Kaur Gurpreet; Valsakumar, M.C.
2011-01-01
We report a study of ground state magnetic structure of Uranium-dioxide (UO 2 ) using ab initio calculations employing PAW pseudopotentials and Dudarev's version of GGA+U formalism as implemented in VASP to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb correlation among the localized Uranium-5f electrons. By choosing the value of the Hubbard parameter U eff to be 4.0 eV, we have confirmed the experimental observation that the ground state of UO 2 is an insulator with an anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) ordering. We study systematically the ground state structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of UO 2 and focus on the structure sensitive thermal properties such as specific heat, thermal expansion and comment on the calculation of thermal conductivity. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Refslund, Bjarke
2018-01-01
Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sissay, Adonay [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Lopata, Kenneth, E-mail: klopata@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2016-09-07
Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Lopata, Kenneth
2016-01-01
Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C; Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V
2009-01-01
We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 μm thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted ∼7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J c values of ∼3.1 MA cm -2 at 77 K and ∼43 MA cm -2 at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H irr , which reaches that of Nb 3 Sn (∼28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J c values are ∼15% of the depairing current density J d , much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: zhijun@asc.magnet.fsu.edu
2009-05-15
We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 {mu}m thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted {approx}7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J{sub c} values of {approx}3.1 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and {approx}43 MA cm{sup -2} at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H{sub irr}, which reaches that of Nb{sub 3}Sn ({approx}28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J{sub c} values are {approx}15% of the depairing current density J{sub d}, much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.
Faith Inman-Narahari; Rebecca Ostertag; Stephen P. Hubbell; Christian P. Giardina; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack; Andrew MacDougall
2016-01-01
Conspecific density may contribute to patterns of species assembly through negative density dependence (NDD) as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, or through facilitation (positive density dependence; PDD). Conspecific density effects are expected to be more negative in darker and wetter environments due to higher pathogen abundance and...
Yen, Tsung-Wen; Lim, Thong-Leng; Yoon, Tiem-Leong; Lai, S. K.
2017-11-01
We combined a new parametrized density functional tight-binding (DFTB) theory (Fihey et al. 2015) with an unbiased modified basin hopping (MBH) optimization algorithm (Yen and Lai 2015) and applied it to calculate the lowest energy structures of Au clusters. From the calculated topologies and their conformational changes, we find that this DFTB/MBH method is a necessary procedure for a systematic study of the structural development of Au clusters but is somewhat insufficient for a quantitative study. As a result, we propose an extended hybridized algorithm. This improved algorithm proceeds in two steps. In the first step, the DFTB theory is employed to calculate the total energy of the cluster and this step (through running DFTB/MBH optimization for given Monte-Carlo steps) is meant to efficiently bring the Au cluster near to the region of the lowest energy minimum since the cluster as a whole has explicitly considered the interactions of valence electrons with ions, albeit semi-quantitatively. Then, in the second succeeding step, the energy-minimum searching process will continue with a skilledly replacement of the energy function calculated by the DFTB theory in the first step by one calculated in the full density functional theory (DFT). In these subsequent calculations, we couple the DFT energy also with the MBH strategy and proceed with the DFT/MBH optimization until the lowest energy value is found. We checked that this extended hybridized algorithm successfully predicts the twisted pyramidal structure for the Au40 cluster and correctly confirms also the linear shape of C8 which our previous DFTB/MBH method failed to do so. Perhaps more remarkable is the topological growth of Aun: it changes from a planar (n =3-11) → an oblate-like cage (n =12-15) → a hollow-shape cage (n =16-18) and finally a pyramidal-like cage (n =19, 20). These varied forms of the cluster's shapes are consistent with those reported in the literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
We have developed TOUGH2 modules for strongly coupled flow and transport that include full hydrodynamic dispersion. T2DM models tow-dimensional flow and transport in systems with variable salinity, while T32DMR includes radionuclide transport with first-order decay of a parent-daughter chain of radionuclide components in variable salinity systems. T2DM has been applied to a variety of coupled flow problems including the pure solutal convection problem of Elder and the mixed free and forced convection salt-dome flow problem. In the Elder and salt-dome flow problems, density changes of up to 20% caused by brine concentration variations lead to strong coupling between the velocity and brine concentration fields. T2DM efficiently calculates flow and transport for these problems. We have applied T2DMR to the dispersive transport and decay of radionuclide tracers in flow fields with permeability heterogeneities and recirculating flows. Coupling in these problems occurs by velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion. Our results show that the maximum daughter species concentration may occur fully within a recirculating or low-velocity region. In all of the problems, we observe very efficient handling of the strongly coupled flow and transport processes.
Messiaen, A. M.
1996-11-01
A new discharge regime has been observed on the pumped limiter tokamak TEXTOR-94 in the presence of strong radiation cooling and for different scenarii of additional hearing. The radiated power fraction (up to 90%) is feedback controlled by the amount of Ne seeded in the edge. This regime meets many of the necessary conditions for a future fusion reactor. Energy confinement increases with increasing densities (reminiscent of the Z-mode obtained at ISX-B) and as good as ELM-free H-mode confinement (enhancement factor verus ITERH93-P up to 1.2) is obtained at high densities (up to 1.2 times the Greenwald limit) with peaked density profiles showing a peaking factor of about 2 and central density values around 10^14cm-3. In experiments where the energy content of the discharges is kept constant with an energy feedback loop acting on the amount of ICRH power, stable and stationary discharges are obtained for intervals of more than 5s, i.e. 100 times the energy confinement time or about equal to the skin resistive time, even with the cylindrical q_α as low as 2.8 β-values up to the β-limits of TEXTOR-94 are achieved (i.e. β n ≈ 2 of and β p ≈ 1.5) and the figure of merit for ignition margin f_Hqa in these discharges can be as high as 0.7. No detrimental effects of the seeded impurity on the reactivity of the plasma are observed. He removal in these discharges has also been investigated. [1] Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Association "EURATOM-Belgian State", Ecole Royale Militaire-Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussels, Belgium [2] Institut für Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, GmbH, Association "EURATOM-KFA", Jülich, Germany [3] Fusion Energy Research Program, Mechanical Engineering Division, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, USA [4] FOM Institüt voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, Associatie "FOM-EURATOM", Nieuwegein, The Netherlands [*] Researcher at NFSR, Belgium itemize
Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.
2009-01-01
We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahmani, Farzin; Nouranian, Sasan, E-mail: sasan@olemiss.edu; Mahdavi, Mina [University of Mississippi, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Al-Ostaz, Ahmed [University of Mississippi, Department of Civil Engineering (United States)
2016-11-15
In this fundamental study, a series of molecular dynamics simulations were performed in vacuo to investigate the energetics and select geometries of 20 standard amino acids (AAs) on pristine graphene (PG) and graphene oxide (GO) surfaces as a function of graphene surface oxygen density. These interactions are of key interest to graphene/biomolecular systems. Our results indicate that aromatic AAs exhibit the strongest total interactions with the PG surfaces due to π-π stacking. Tryptophan (Trp) has the highest aromaticity due to its indole side chain and, hence, has the strongest interaction among all AAs (−16.66 kcal/mol). Aliphatic, polar, and charged AAs show various levels of affinity to the PG sheets depending on the strength of their side chain hydrophobic interactions. For example, arginine (Arg) with its guanidinium side chain exhibits the strongest interaction with the PG sheets (−13.81 kcal/mol) following aromatic AAs. Also, glycine (Gly; a polar AA) has the weakest interaction with the PG sheets (−7.29 kcal/mol). When oxygen-containing functional groups are added to the graphene sheets, the π-π stacking in aromatic AAs becomes disrupted and perfect parallelism of the aromatic rings is lost. Moreover, hydrogen bonding and/or electrostatic interactions become more pronounced. Charged AAs exhibit the strongest interactions with the GO surfaces. In general, the AA-GO interactions increase with increasing surface oxygen density, and the effect is more pronounced at higher O/C ratios. This study provides a quantitative measure of AA-graphene interactions for the design and tuning of biomolecular systems suitable for biosensing, drug delivery, and gene delivery applications.
Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C
2013-12-01
The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morgan S. Pratchett
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The dispersal potential of crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS larvae is important in understanding both the initiation and spread of population outbreaks, and is fundamentally dependent upon how long larvae can persist while still retaining the capacity to settle. This study quantified variation in larval survivorship and settlement rates for CoTS maintained at three different densities of a single-celled flagellate phytoplankton, Proteomonas sulcata (1 × 103, 1 × 104, and 1 × 105 cells/mL. Based on the larval starvation hypothesis, we expected that low to moderate levels of phytoplankton prey would significantly constrain both survival and settlement. CoTS larvae were successfully maintained for up to 50 days post-fertilization, but larval survival differed significantly between treatments. Survival was greatest at intermediate food levels (1 × 104 cells/mL, and lowest at high (1 × 105 cells/mL food levels. Rates of settlement were also highest at intermediate food levels and peaked at 22 days post-fertilization. Peak settlement was delayed at low food levels, probably reflective of delayed development, but there was no evidence of accelerated development at high chlorophyll concentrations. CoTS larvae were recorded to settle 17–43 days post-fertilization, but under optimum conditions with intermediate algal cell densities, peak settlement occurred at 22 days post-fertilization. Natural fluctuations in nutrient concentrations and food availability may affect the number of CoTS that effectively settle, but seem unlikely to influence dispersal dynamics.
Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.
2018-06-01
Recent observations have shown that bulk flow motions in structured solar plasmas, most evidently in coronal mass ejections (CMEs), may lead to the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities (KHIs). Analytical models are thus essential in understanding both how the flows affect the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, and what the critical flow speed is for the formation of the KHI. We investigate both these aspects in a novel way: in a steady magnetic slab embedded in an asymmetric environment. The exterior of the slab is defined as having different equilibrium values of the background density, pressure, and temperature on either side. A steady flow and constant magnetic field are present in the slab interior. Approximate solutions to the dispersion relation are obtained analytically and classified with respect to mode and speed. General solutions and the KHI thresholds are obtained numerically. It is shown that, generally, both the KHI critical value and the cut-off speeds for magnetoacoustic waves are lowered by the external asymmetry.
Delmas, Henri; Le, Ngoc Tuan; Barthe, Laurie; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine
2015-07-01
This work aims at investigating for the first time the key sonication (US) parameters: power density (DUS), intensity (IUS), and frequency (FS) - down to audible range, under varied hydrostatic pressure (Ph) and low temperature isothermal conditions (to avoid any thermal effect). The selected application was activated sludge disintegration, a major industrial US process. For a rational approach all comparisons were made at same specific energy input (ES, US energy per solid weight) which is also the relevant economic criterion. The decoupling of power density and intensity was obtained by either changing the sludge volume or most often by changing probe diameter, all other characteristics being unchanged. Comprehensive results were obtained by varying the hydrostatic pressure at given power density and intensity. In all cases marked maxima of sludge disintegration appeared at optimum pressures, which values increased at increasing power intensity and density. Such optimum was expected due to opposite effects of increasing hydrostatic pressure: higher cavitation threshold then smaller and fewer bubbles, but higher temperature and pressure at the end of collapse. In addition the first attempt to lower US frequency down to audible range was very successful: at any operation condition (DUS, IUS, Ph, sludge concentration and type) higher sludge disintegration was obtained at 12 kHz than at 20 kHz. The same values of optimum pressure were observed at 12 and 20 kHz. At same energy consumption the best conditions - obtained at 12 kHz, maximum power density 720 W/L and 3.25 bar - provided about 100% improvement with respect to usual conditions (1 bar, 20 kHz). Important energy savings and equipment size reduction may then be expected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Hong-Yi; Ting, C. S.
2003-01-01
Using an effective Hamiltonian with d-wave superconductivity (dSC) and competing antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions, we show that weak and one-dimensionally modulated dSC, spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) could coexist in the ground state configuration. With proper parameters, the SDW order exhibits a period of 8a, while for dSC and CDW orders the period is 4a. The local density of states (LDOS), which probing the behavior of quasiparticle excitations, is found to have t...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikas
2011-01-01
Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)
Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola
2017-12-01
The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.
Fronstin, Paul; Helman, Ruth
2009-07-01
PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR HEALTH REFORM: Findings from the 2009 Health Confidence Survey--the 12th annual HCS--indicate that Americans have already formed strong opinions regarding various aspects of health reform, even before details have been released regarding various key factors. These issues include health insurance market reform, the availability of a public plan option, mandates on employers and individuals, subsidized coverage for the low-income population, changes to the tax treatment of job-based health benefits, and regulatory oversight of health care. These opinions may change as details surface, especially as they concern financing options. In the absence of such details, the 2009 HCS finds generally strong support for the concepts of health reform options that are currently on the table. U.S. HEALTH SYSTEM GETS POOR MARKS, BUT SO DOES A MAJOR OVERHAUL: A majority rate the nation's health care system as fair (30 percent) or poor (29 percent). Only a small minority rate it excellent (6 percent) or very good (10 percent). While 14 percent of Americans think the health care system needs a major overhaul, 51 percent agree with the statement "there are some good things about our health care system, but major changes are needed." NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN ELEMENTS RATED HIGHLY: Between 68 percent and 88 percent of Americans either strongly or somewhat support health reform ideas such as national health plans, a public plan option, guaranteed issue, expansion of Medicare and Medicaid, and employer and individual mandates. MIXED REACTION TO HEALTH BENEFITS TAX CAP: Reaction to capping the current tax exclusion of employment-based health benefits is mixed. Nearly one-half of Americans (47 percent) would switch to a lower-cost plan if the tax exclusion were capped, 38 percent would stay on their current plan and pay the additional taxes, and 9 percent don't know. CONTINUED FAITH IN EMPLOYMENT-BASED BENEFITS, BUT DOUBTS ON AFFORDABILITY: Individuals with employment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-10-01
The topics discussed comprise the onset of instability in heated free jets and jets with density gradients, flow past heated/cooled boundaries, atmospheric shear flow, and mathematical modeling of laminar-turbulent transition phenomena. Three contributions have been input to INIS. (P.A.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishimaru, S.; Utsumi, K.
1981-01-01
We propose a fitting formula for the dielectric screening function of the degenerate electron liquids at metallic and lower densities which accurately reproduces the recent Monte Carlo results as well as those of the microscopic calculations, and which satisfies the self-consistency conditions in the compressibility sum rule and the short-range correlation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gholam Hossein Bordbar; Hajar Bahri; Fatemeh Kayanikhoo
2012-01-01
We have calculated the structural properties of a strange quark star with a static model in the presence of a strong magnetic field.To this end,we use the MITbag model with a density dependent bag constant.To parameterize the density dependence of the bag constant,we have used our results for the lowest order constrained variational calculation of the asymmetric nuclear matter.By calculating the equation of state of strange quark matter,we have shown that the pressure of this system increases by increasing both density and magnetic field.Finally,we have investigated the effect of density dependence of the bag constant on the structural properties of a strange quark star.
Lü, Boqiang; Shi, Xiaoding; Zhong, Xin
2018-06-01
We are concerned with the Cauchy problem of the two-dimensional (2D) nonhomogeneous incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with vacuum as far-field density. It is proved that if the initial density decays not too slow at infinity, the 2D Cauchy problem of the density-dependent Navier–Stokes equations on the whole space admits a unique global strong solution. Note that the initial data can be arbitrarily large and the initial density can contain vacuum states and even have compact support. Furthermore, we also obtain the large time decay rates of the spatial gradients of the velocity and the pressure, which are the same as those of the homogeneous case.
McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon
2005-01-01
We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...
Santos, Joao
2017-10-01
Powerful laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in the kTesla range. The B-fields are measured by proton-deflectometry and high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes. According to our modeling, the quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface, accounting for the space charge neutralization and the plasma magnetization. The major control parameter is the laser irradiance Iλ2 . The B-fields ns-scale is long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport into solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented enhancement of a factor 5 on the energy-density flux at 60 µm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes and to laboratory astrophysics. We acknowledge funding from French National Agency for Research (ANR), Grant TERRE ANR-2011-BS04-014, and from EUROfusion Consortium, European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, Grant 633053.
Santos, J. J.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Ehret, M.; Arefiev, A. V.; Batani, D.; Beg, F. N.; Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Florido, R.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Fujioka, S.; Gigosos, M. A.; Giuffrida, L.; Gremillet, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Kojima, S.; Korneev, Ph.; Law, K. F. F.; Marquès, J.-R.; Morace, A.; Mossé, C.; Peyrusse, O.; Rose, S.; Roth, M.; Sakata, S.; Schaumann, G.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Toncian, T.; Woolsey, N.; Zhang, Z.
2018-05-01
Powerful nanosecond laser-plasma processes are explored to generate discharge currents of a few 100 kA in coil targets, yielding magnetostatic fields (B-fields) in excess of 0.5 kT. The quasi-static currents are provided from hot electron ejection from the laser-irradiated surface. According to our model, which describes the evolution of the discharge current, the major control parameter is the laser irradiance Ilasλlas2 . The space-time evolution of the B-fields is experimentally characterized by high-frequency bandwidth B-dot probes and proton-deflectometry measurements. The magnetic pulses, of ns-scale, are long enough to magnetize secondary targets through resistive diffusion. We applied it in experiments of laser-generated relativistic electron transport through solid dielectric targets, yielding an unprecedented 5-fold enhancement of the energy-density flux at 60 μm depth, compared to unmagnetized transport conditions. These studies pave the ground for magnetized high-energy density physics investigations, related to laser-generated secondary sources of radiation and/or high-energy particles and their transport, to high-gain fusion energy schemes, and to laboratory astrophysics.
Strongly enhanced current densities in Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn superconducting tapes
Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo
2014-03-01
Improving transport current has been the primary topic for practical application of superconducting wires and tapes. However, the porous nature of powder-in-tube (PIT) processed iron-based tapes is one of the important reasons for low critical current density (Jc) values. In this work, the superconducting core density of ex-situ Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 + Sn tapes, prepared from optimized precursors, was significantly improved by employing a simple hot pressing as an alternative route for final sintering. The resulting samples exhibited optimal critical temperature (Tc), sharp resistive transition, small resistivity and high Vickers hardness (Hv) value. Consequently, the transport Jc reached excellent values of 5.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 4.3 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K, respectively. Our tapes also exhibited high upper critical field Hc2 and almost field-independent Jc. These results clearly demonstrate that PIT pnictide wire conductors are very promising for high-field magnet applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.
2005-01-01
We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregori, G; Hansen, S B; Key, M H; King, J; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H; Patel, P K; Shepard, R; Snavely, R A; Wilks, S C; Glenzer, S H
2005-03-17
We have measured high resolution copper K{alpha} spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T{sub e}) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T{sub e} and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z {approx} 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is {Lambda}{sub ii} {approx} 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime.
Yethiraj, Anand
2010-03-01
External fields affect self-organization in Brownian colloidal suspensions in many different ways [1]. High-frequency time varying a.c. electric fields can induce effectively quasi-static dipolar inter-particle interactions. While dipolar interactions can provide access to multiple open equilibrium crystal structures [2] whose origin is now reasonably well understood, they can also give rise to competing interactions on short and long length scales that produce unexpected low-density ordered phases [3]. Farther from equilibrium, competing external fields are active in colloid spincoating. Drying colloidal suspensions on a spinning substrate produces a ``perfect polycrystal'' - tiny polycrystalline domains that exhibit long-range inter-domain orientational order [4] with resultant spectacular optical effects that are decoupled from single-crystallinity. High-speed movies of drying crystals yield insights into mechanisms of structure formation. Phenomena arising from multiple spatially- and temporally-varying external fields can give rise to further control of order and disorder, with potential application as patterned (photonic and magnetic) materials. [4pt] [1] A. Yethiraj, Soft Matter 3, 1099 (2007). [2] A. Yethiraj, A. van Blaaderen, Nature 421, 513 (2003). [3] A.K. Agarwal, A. Yethiraj, Phys. Rev. Lett ,102, 198301 (2009). [4] C. Arcos, K. Kumar, W. Gonz'alez-Viñas, R. Sirera, K. Poduska, A. Yethiraj, Phys. Rev. E ,77, 050402(R) (2008).
Nsumei, Patrick; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter
2012-01-01
A new Vary-Chap function is introduced for the empirical modeling of the electron density N(h) profile in the topside ionosphere that uses a shape function S(h) in the generalized Chapman function. The Vary-Chap profile extends the bottomside profile that is specified by the IRI model or measured by the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to the altitude of the ISIS-2 satellite. Some 80,000 topside profiles, measured by the topside sounder on the ISIS-2 satellite were analyzed, and the shape function S(h) was calculated for each profile. A parameterized function S*(h), composed of two sub-functions S1(h) and S2(h), is fitted to the measured S(h) profile using three free parameters. At altitudes just above the F2 layer peak height hmF2, the shape function S1 controls S(h), and at greater altitudes S2 controls S(h). The height of the intersection of S1 and S2 is defined as the transition height h(sub T) indicating the transition from an O(+) to an H(+)-dominated profile shape. The observed transition heights range from approx.500 km to 800 km.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Aditya N. Roy, E-mail: aditya@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Venkataraman, V. [Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore – 560012 (India)
2016-05-23
Interface trap density (D{sub it}) in a GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor can be measured electrically by measuring its impedance, i.e. by exciting it with a small signal voltage source and measuring the resulting current through the circuit. We propose a new method of measuring D{sub it} where the MOS capacitor is subjected to a (time-varying) magnetic field instead, which produces an effect equivalent to a (time-varying) voltage drop across the sample. This happens because the electron chemical potential of GaAs changes with a change in an externally applied magnetic field (unlike that of the gate metal); this is not the voltage induced by Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. So, by measuring the current through the MOS, D{sub it} can be found similarly. Energy band diagrams and equivalent circuits of a MOS capacitor are drawn in the presence of a magnetic field, and analyzed. The way in which a magnetic field affects a MOS structure is shown to be fundamentally different compared to an electrical voltage source.
Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S
2014-12-01
Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke
2016-01-01
Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm"−"3 (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm"−"3; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm"−"3) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C_H_W_E) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ"1"3C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ"1"3C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying soil depths in extensively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breulmann, Marc [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Environmental and Biotechnology Centre (UBZ), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Boettger, Tatjana [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Isotope Hydrology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Buscot, François [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gruendling, Ralf [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department, Department of Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Schulz, Elke [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)
2016-03-01
Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm{sup −3} (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm{sup −3}; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm{sup −3}) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C{sub HWE}) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ{sup 13}C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ{sup 13}C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.
2004-01-01
A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Greta S Aeby
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.
Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C. Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A.; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L.; Work, Thierry M.; Davy, Simon K.
2011-01-01
Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.
Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L
2016-08-01
Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (vs. Low ED) in a priori defined brain regions of interest previously implicated in energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures of child body composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja
2016-01-01
The structure–property relationships of bulk CeO_2 and Ce_2O_3 have been investigated using AM05 and PBEsol exchange–correlation functionals within the frameworks of Hubbard-corrected density functional theory (DFT+U) and density functional perturbation theory (DFPT+U). Compared with conventional PBE+U, RPBE+U, PW91+U and LDA+U functionals, AM05+U and PBEsol+U describe experimental crystalline parameters and properties of CeO_2 and Ce_2O_3 with superior accuracy, especially when +U is chosen close to its value derived by the linear-response approach. Lastly, the present findings call for a reexamination of some of the problematic oxide materials featuring strong f- and d-electron correlation using AM05+U and PBEsol+U.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)
2012-09-20
We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo E Gürtler
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect the host-feeding preferences of triatomine bugs is crucial for estimating transmission risks and predicting the effects of control tactics targeting domestic animals. We tested whether Triatoma infestans bugs prefer to feed on dogs vs. chickens and on dogs vs. cats and whether vector density modified host choices and other vital rates under natural conditions.Two host choice experiments were conducted in small caged huts with two rooms between which bugs could move freely. Matched pairs of dog-chicken (six and dog-cat (three were assigned randomly to two levels of vector abundance and exposed to starved bugs during three nights. Bloodmeals from 1,160 bugs were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Conditional logistic regression showed that dogs were highly preferred over chickens or cats and that vector density modified host-feeding choices. The relative risk of a bug being blood-engorged increased significantly when it fed only on dog rather than chicken or cat. Bugs achieved higher post-exposure weight at higher vector densities and successive occasions, more so if they fed on a dog rather than on a cat.Our findings strongly refute the hypothesis that T. infestans prefers to blood-feed on chickens rather than dogs. An increase in dog or cat availability or accessibility will increase the rate of bug feeding on them and exert strong non-linear effects on R(0. When combined with between-dog heterogeneities in exposure, infection, and infectiousness, the strong bug preference for dogs can be exploited to target dogs in general, and even the specific individuals that account for most of the risk, with topical lotions or insecticide-impregnated collars to turn them into baited lethal traps or use them as transmission or infestation sentinels based on their immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi or bug salivary antigens.
Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A
2011-06-09
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).
Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C
2011-01-01
Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danial Farhadi
2016-04-01
Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.
Lee, Jui-Huna; Wu, Chang-Fu; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Chan, Chang-Chuan
2015-05-01
Traffic intensity, length of road, and proximity to roads are the most common traffic indicators in the land use regression (LUR) models for particulate matter in ESCAPE study areas in Europe. This study explored what local variables can improve the performance of LUR models in an Asian metropolis with high densities of roads and strong activities of industry, commerce and construction. By following the ESCAPE procedure, we derived LUR models of PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse (PM₂.₅-₁₀) in Taipei. The overall annual average concentrations of PM₂.₅, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse were 26.0 ± 5.6, 48.6 ± 5.9, and 23.3 ± 3.1 μg/m(3), respectively, and the absorption coefficient of PM₂.₅ was 2.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-5)m(-1). Our LUR models yielded R(2) values of 95%, 96%, 87%, and 65% for PM₂.₅, PM₂.₅ absorbance, PM₁₀, and PMcoarse, respectively. PM₂.₅ levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, construction, and residential land-use variables and decreased by rivers; while PM₂.₅ absorbance levels were increased by local traffic variables, industrial, and commercial land-use variables in the models. PMcoarse levels were increased by elevated highways. Road area explained more variance than road length by increasing the incremental value of 27% and 6% adjusted R(2) for PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ models, respectively. In the PM₂.₅ absorbance model, road area and transportation facility explain 29% more variance than road length. In the PMcoarse model, industrial and new local variables instead of road length improved the incremental value of adjusted R(2) from 39% to 60%. We concluded that road area can better explain the spatial distribution of PM₂.₅ and PM₂.₅ absorbance concentrations than road length. By incorporating road area and other new local variables, the performance of each PM LUR model was improved. The results suggest that road area is a better indicator of traffic intensity rather
Bleyer, Archie; Keegan, Theresa
2018-04-01
Case reports of cancer among soccer players raised concerns that the crumb rubber infill in synthetic turf fields may cause malignant lymphoma. One prior epidemiologic study on the topic found no association. An ecologic evaluation of county-level incidence of lymphomas by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for the state of California with data obtained from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Synthetic turf field density by county was obtained from the Synthetic Turf Council. During 2000-2013, 7214 14- to 30-year-old Californians were diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Annual lymphoma county incidence trends were not associated with the county-level synthetic turf field density. None of 20 sub-analyses by race/ethnicity, sex and county median household income indicated a correlation of lymphoma incidence with synthetic turf field density. In California, there was no evidence at the county-level that synthetic turf fields are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma in adolescents and young adults. Our findings in the state with the greatest number of such fields and a large, diverse patient population are consistent with those of a prior study observing no association between individual-level exposures to turf fields and cancer incidence. Avoidance of synthetic turf fields for fear of increased cancer risk is not warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W
2015-02-01
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L
2014-08-01
The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boris Kauhl
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of general practitioners (GPs in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. Methods To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. Results T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65–79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55–65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. Conclusion The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany’s largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leal A, B.; Mireles G, F.; Quirino T, L.; Pinedo, J.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: bleal79@yahoo.com.mx
2005-07-01
In the area of the Radiological Safety it is required of a calibrated detection system in energy and efficiency for the determination of the concentration in activity in samples that vary in chemical composition and by this in density. The area of Nuclear Engineering requires to find the grade of isotopic enrichment of the uranium of the Sub-critic Nuclear Chicago 9000 Mark. Given the experimental importance that has the determination from the curves of efficiency to the effects of establishing the quantitative results, is appealed to the simulation of the response function of the detector used in the Regional Center of Nuclear Studies inside the range of energy of 80 keV to 1400 keV varying the density of the matrix and the chemical composition by means of the application of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4A. The obtained results in the simulation of the response function of the detector show a grade of acceptance in the range from 500 to 1400 keV energy, with a smaller percentage discrepancy to 10%, in the range of low energy that its go from 59 to 400 keV, the percentage discrepancy varies from 17% until 30%, which is manifested in the opposing isotopic relationship for 5 fuel rods of the Sub critic nuclear assemble. (Author)
Zheng, Yulong; Liao, Zhiyong
2017-11-22
Invasive plant species often form dense mono-dominant stands in areas they have invaded, while having only sparse distribution in their native ranges, and the reasons behind this phenomenon are a key point of research in invasive species biology. Differences in species composition between native and invasive ranges may contribute to the difference in distribution status. In this study, we found that the high-density condition had a more negative effect on C. odorata than the low-density condition when co-grown with neighbor plants from its native range in Mexico, while this pattern was not in evidence when it was grown with neighbors from its invasive range in China. Different competitive ability and coevolutionary history with C. odorata between native-range neighbors and invasive-range neighbors may lead to the inconsistent patterns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T
2011-01-01
High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I
2009-01-01
We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nasu, K.
1987-01-01
The phase diagram of a two-dimensional N-site N-electron system (N>>1) with site-diagonal electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling is studied in the context of polaron theory, so as to clarify the competition between the superconducting (SC) state and the charge-density wave (CDW) state. The Fermi surface of noninteracting electrons is assumed to be a complete circle with no nesting-type instability in the case of weak e-ph coupling, so as to focus on such a strong coupling that even the standard ''strong-coupling theory'' for superconductivity breaks down. Phonon clouds moving with electrons as well as a frozen phonon are taken into account by a variational method, combined with a mean-field theory. It covers the whole region of three basic parameters characterizing the system: the intersite transfer energy of electron T, the e-ph coupling energy S, and the phonon energy ω. The resultant phase diagram is given in a triangular coordinate space spanned by T, S, and ω. In the adiabatic region ω >(T,S) near the ω vertex of the triangle, on the other hand, each electron becomes a small polaron, and the SC state is always more stable than the CDW state, because the retardation effect is absent
Dynamics of Spontaneous Emission Controlled by Local Density of States in Photonic Crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodahl, Peter; Nikolaev, Ivan S.; van Driel, A. Floris
2006-01-01
We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter....
Weighted approximation with varying weight
Totik, Vilmos
1994-01-01
A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.
A mechanistic analysis of density dependence in algal population dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian eBorlestean
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Population density regulation is a fundamental principle in ecology, but the specific process underlying functional expression of density dependence remains to be fully elucidated. One view contends that patterns of density dependence are largely fixed across a species irrespective of environmental conditions, whereas another is that the strength and expression of density dependence are fundamentally variable depending on the nature of exogenous or endogenous constraints acting on the population. We conducted a study investigating the expression of density dependence in Chlamydomonas spp. grown under a gradient from low to high nutrient density. We predicted that the relationship between per capita growth rate (pgr and population density would vary from concave up to concave down as nutrient density became less limiting and populations experienced weaker density regulation. Contrary to prediction, we found that the relationship between pgr and density became increasingly concave-up as nutrient levels increased. We also found that variation in pgr increased, and pgr levels reached higher maxima in nutrient-limited environments. Most likely, these results are attributable to population growth suppression in environments with high intraspecific competition due to limited nutrient resources. Our results suggest that density regulation is strongly variable depending on exogenous and endogenous processes acting on the population, implying that expression of density dependence depends extensively on local conditions. Additional experimental work should reveal the mechanisms influencing how the expression of density dependence varies across populations through space and time.
Local particle flux reversal under strongly sheared flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Newman, D.E.; Ware, A.S.
2003-01-01
The advection of electron density by turbulent ExB flow with linearly varying mean yields a particle flux that can reverse sign at certain locations along the direction of magnetic shear. The effect, calculated for strong flow shear, resides in the density-potential cross phase. It is produced by the interplay between the inhomogeneities of magnetic shear and flow shear, but subject to a variety of conditions and constraints. The regions of reversed flux tend to wash out if the turbulence consists of closely spaced modes of different helicities, but survive if modes of a single helicity are relatively isolated. The reversed flux becomes negligible if the electron density response is governed by electron scales while the eigenmode is governed by ion scales. The relationship of these results to experimentally observe flux reversals is discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cláudio Joaquim Borba-Pinheiro
2010-04-01
Full Text Available A osteoporose é uma doença crônica que atinge o esqueleto humano. OBJETIVO: Verificar os efeitos do treinamento resistido sobre a densidade mineral óssea (DMO, força muscular, equilíbrio e qualidade de vida em mulheres menopausadas em tratamento com alendronato. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 16 voluntárias. Elas foram separadas em dois grupos: que praticaram o treino resistido (n = 9, 49,7 ± 4,2 idade e que constituíram o grupo controle (n = 7, 53,8 ± 4,4 idade. Os instrumentos de avaliação seguintes foram usados: a absorciometria de dupla energia por raios X -DXA (que mediu a coluna lombar L2-L4, colo do fêmur, triângulo de Wards e trocanter maior, o Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ e um teste de equilíbrio. O treinamento foi periodizado em 12 meses, divididos em seis ciclos com intensidade de 70-90% da carga máxima (10RM. Testes paramétricos (t ou Wilcoxon, para análise intragrupo e (Anova para intergrupos, foram usados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças significativas favoráveis ao grupo que treinou nos sítios da lombar L2-L4 (6,8%, p = 0,001, colo do fêmur (4,8%, p = 0,005 e trocanter (0,76%, p = 0,005. Além de diferenças significativas também para o equilíbrio corporal (21,4%, p = 0,001, qualidade de vida (9,1%, p = 0,001 e todas as medidas de força como na pressão de pernas 45° (49,3%, p Osteoporosis is a chronic disease of the human skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD, muscular strength, balance and quality of life in menopausal women taking Alendronate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female volunteers participated in the study. The volunteers were separated into two groups: resistance training participants (n=9; 49.7±4.2 years and control group (n=7; 53.8±4.4 years. The following evaluation instruments were used: absorptiometry-DXA (which measured the lumbar spine L2-L4, neck femur, Wards triangle and major trochanter, the
Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K
2007-01-01
The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.
Sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation to density fluctuations in ethane gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eftekhari, A.
1982-01-01
The annihilation rates of orthopositronium (o-Ps) and free positrons and positronium formation fractions have been measured in gaseous ethane at seven temperatures between 295 and 377 K for densities in the range 1.2-286 amagat. The pick off quenching rate of o-Ps is observed to vary with temperature at low densities of ethane. The observed behavior of the o-Ps annihilation rates with density and temperature is interpreted in terms of density fluctuations in ethane gas. A simple theoretical model is developed which explains the observed annihilation behavior reasonably well at those temperatures and densities where density fluctuations are small. The annihilation rates of flow-energy positrons indicate the formation of positron-ethane collision complexes and self-trapping of positrons in clusters of ethane molecules. The o-Ps yields appear to be independent of temperature and show a strong dependence on the density of the gas
Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Yokoi, N.
2017-12-01
Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow
Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-T{sub c} superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pradhan, B. [Government Science College, Malkangiri 764 048 (India)], E-mail: brunda@iopb.res.in; Raj, B.K. [B.J.B. College, Bhubaneswar 751 014 (India); Rout, G.C. [Condensed Matter Physics Group, P.G. Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, F.M. University, Balasore 756 019 (India)], E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.in
2008-12-01
We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T{sub c} cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters.
Interplay of charge density wave and spin density wave in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pradhan, B.; Raj, B.K.; Rout, G.C.
2008-01-01
We present a mean-field theory theoretical model study for the coexistence of the two strongly interacting charge density wave (CDW) and spin density wave (SDW) for high-T c cuprates in the underdoped region before the onset of the superconductivity in the system. The analytic expressions for the temperature dependence of the CDW and SDW order parameters are derived and solved self-consistently. Their interplay is studied by varying their respective coupling constants. It is observed that in the interplay region both the gap parameters exhibit very strong dependence of their gap values for the coupling constants. Further, the electronic density of states (DOS) for the conduction electrons, which represents the scanning tunneling data, show two gap parameters in the interplay region from these experimental data. Our model can help to determine separately the CDW and SDW parameters
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Shoji, Takuhei; Sakurai, Yutaka; Sato, Hiroki; Chihara, Etsuo; Ishida, Masahiro; Omae, Kazuyuki
2010-06-01
To investigate associations between blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the prevalence of acquired color vision impairment (ACVI) in middle-aged Japanese men. Participants in this cross-sectional study underwent color vision testing, ophthalmic examination, a standardized interview and examination of venous blood samples. Ishihara plates, a Lanthony 15-hue desaturated panel, and Standard pseudoisochromatic Plates part 2 were used to examine color vision ability. The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was performed to define ACVI. Smoking status and alcohol intake were recorded during the interview. We performed logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, LDL-C level, systemic hypertension, diabetes, cataract, glaucoma, overweight, smoking status, and alcohol intake. Adjusted odds ratios for four LDL-C levels were calculated. A total of 1042 men were enrolled, 872 participants were eligible for the study, and 31 subjects were diagnosed with ACVI. As compared to the lowest LDL-C category level (or=160 mg/dl). The multiple-adjusted ORs were 2.91 (95% CI, 0.87-9.70) for the 2nd highest category and 3.81 (95% CI, 1.03-14.05) for the highest level. Tests for trend were significant (Pmen with elevated LDL-C levels. These changes might be related to deteriorated neurologic function associated with lipid metabolite abnormalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
varying elastic parameters distributions
Moussawi, Ali
2014-12-01
The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.
Vesicle biomechanics in a time-varying magnetic field.
Ye, Hui; Curcuru, Austen
2015-01-01
Cells exhibit distortion when exposed to a strong electric field, suggesting that the field imposes control over cellular biomechanics. Closed pure lipid bilayer membranes (vesicles) have been widely used for the experimental and theoretical studies of cellular biomechanics under this electrodeformation. An alternative method used to generate an electric field is by electromagnetic induction with a time-varying magnetic field. References reporting the magnetic control of cellular mechanics have recently emerged. However, theoretical analysis of the cellular mechanics under a time-varying magnetic field is inadequate. We developed an analytical theory to investigate the biomechanics of a modeled vesicle under a time-varying magnetic field. Following previous publications and to simplify the calculation, this model treated the inner and suspending media as lossy dielectrics, the membrane thickness set at zero, and the electric resistance of the membrane assumed to be negligible. This work provided the first analytical solutions for the surface charges, electric field, radial pressure, overall translational forces, and rotational torques introduced on a vesicle by the time-varying magnetic field. Frequency responses of these measures were analyzed, particularly the frequency used clinically by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The induced surface charges interacted with the electric field to produce a biomechanical impact upon the vesicle. The distribution of the induced surface charges depended on the orientation of the coil and field frequency. The densities of these charges were trivial at low frequency ranges, but significant at high frequency ranges. The direction of the radial force on the vesicle was dependent on the conductivity ratio between the vesicle and the medium. At relatively low frequencies (biomechanics under a time-varying magnetic field. Biological effects of clinical TMS are not likely to occur via alteration of the biomechanics of brain
Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs
Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2010-01-01
This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tendler, M.
1984-06-01
The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.
Li, Guangquan
2011-01-01
Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
2015-01-01
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
Variable Kernel Density Estimation
Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.
1992-01-01
We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...
TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2015-02-10
We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.
Strongly interacting Fermi gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakr W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Plasma density profiles and finite bandwidth effects on electron heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spielman, R.B.; Mizuno, K.; DeGroot, J.S.; Bollen, W.M.; Woo, W.
1980-01-01
Intense, p-polarized microwaves are incident on an inhomogeneous plasma in a cylindrical waveguide. Microwaves are mainly absorbed by resonant absorption near the critical surface (where the plasma frequency, ω/sub pe/, equals the microwave frequency, ω/sub o/). The localized plasma waves strongly modify the plasma density. Step-plateau density profiles or a cavity are created depending on the plasma flow speed. Hot electron production is strongly affected by the microwave bandwidth. The hot electron temperature varies as T/sub H/ is proportional to (Δ ω/ω) -0 25 . As the hot electron temperature decreases with increasing driver bandwidth, the hot electron density increases. This increase is such that the heat flux into the overdense region (Q is proportional to eta/sub H/T/sub H/ 3 2 ) is nearly constant
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
On the mixed phase of strongly interacting matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suleymanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Belashev, B.Z.; Guseynaliyev, Y.G.; Vodoplanov, A.S.
2005-01-01
Full text : The studying of the behavior of some characteristics of hadron-nuclear and nuclear-nuclear interactions as a function of the collision centrality Q is an important experimental method to get information about the changes of nuclear matter phase, because the increasing of the centrality could lead to the growth of the nuclear matter baryon density. The regime change in the behavior of some centrality depending characteristics of events is expected by the varying the Q. It would be the signal about the phase transition. This method is considered as the best tool reaching the quark-gluon plasma phase of strongly interacting matter. Some experimental results demonstrate already the existence of the regime changes in the event characteristics behavior as a function of collision centrality
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paraficz, Danuta
value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...
Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1980-01-01
An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.
2011-01-01
Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Strongly disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muttalib, K.A.
1982-01-01
We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G
1977-01-01
The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....
Antonella Del Rosso
2016-01-01
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Strongly interacting Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.
1980-01-01
The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, M.P.
1984-07-01
The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated
Strong-interaction nonuniversality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
1989-01-01
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Wickens, F
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae
We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...
Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.
J. R.
2007-01-01
Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"
Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets
Noormets, Jaanus
2007-01-01
Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest
Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus
Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017
2007-01-01
42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia
Sets with Prescribed Arithmetic Densities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Luca, F.; Pomerance, C.; Porubský, Štefan
2008-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 1336-913X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : generalized arithmetic density * generalized asymptotic density * generalized logarithmic density * arithmetical semigroup * weighted arithmetic mean * ratio set * R-dense set * Axiom A * delta-regularly varying function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.
2004-01-01
The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density
Remnants of strong tidal interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mcglynn, T.A.
1990-01-01
This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs
Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.
Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael
2015-06-09
threshold determined by the adsorption energy, the brush of loops under the carpet reaches a saturated state, resulting in a l / d -independent brush-under-carpet structure, which can also be applied to describe adsorbed multisticker polymers in nonselective adsorption where a sticker can strongly bind to any place on the adsorption surface. We examine the adsorbed amount Γ of multisticker polymers in different regimes for selective adsorption. If the adsorbed multisticker polymers are nonoverlapping mushrooms, the adsorbed amount Γ increases linearly with the surface density of adsorption sites Σ ≈ 1/ d 2 . In the self-similar carpet regime, Γ increases sublinearly as Σ 0.15 in a good solvent, while only logarithmically in a theta solvent. Formation of a brush layer under the carpet contributes an additional adsorbed amount. This additional amount increases linearly with Σ and eventually dominates the overall adsorbed amount Γ before saturating at a plateau value controlled by the adsorption energy.
A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm
Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.
2010-01-01
Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.
The temporal variability of species densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redfearn, A.; Pimm, S.L.
1993-01-01
Ecologists use the term 'stability' to mean to number of different things (Pimm 1984a). One use is to equate stability with low variability in population density over time (henceforth, temporal variability). Temporal variability varies greatly from species to species, so what effects it? There are at least three sets of factors: the variability of extrinsic abiotic factors, food web structure, and the intrinsic features of the species themselves. We can measure temporal variability using at least three statistics: the coefficient of variation of density (CV); the standard deviation of the logarithms of density (SDL); and the variance in the differences between logarithms of density for pairs of consecutive years (called annual variability, hence AV, b y Wolda 1978). There are advantages and disadvantages to each measure (Williamson 1984), though in our experience, the measures are strongly correlated across sets of taxonomically related species. The increasing availability of long-term data sets allows one to calculate these statistics for many species and so to begin to understand the various causes of species differences in temporal variability
Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics
Drake, R. Paul
2008-11-01
Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare
... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...
Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.
Powell, J R
1971-12-03
Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.
Orbits in weak and strong bars
Contopoulos, George
1980-01-01
The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).
PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.
2012-07-01
make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic
Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew
2014-01-01
Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)
Resolvability of regional density structure
Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.
2016-12-01
Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatyuk, A.V.
1998-01-01
For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)
Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Philippe Uzan
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igor Kaganovich
2000-01-01
Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas
Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor
We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...
EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian
2011-03-01
Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed
Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira
2001-01-01
A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maslov, V.M.
1998-01-01
Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)
Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic ﬁeld. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean ﬁeld theory is taken and extended to ...
Density limit in ASDEX discharges with peaked density profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staebler, A.; Niedermeyer, H.; Loch, R.; Mertens, V.; Mueller, E.R.; Soeldner, F.X.; Wagner, F.
1989-01-01
Results concerning the density limit in OH and NI-heated ASDEX discharges with the usually observed broad density profiles have been reported earlier: In ohmic discharges with high q a (q-cylindrical is used throughout this paper) the Murakami parameter (n e R/B t ) is a good scaling parameter. At the high densities edge cooling is observed causing the plasma to shrink until an m=2-instability terminates the discharge. When approaching q a =2 the density limit is no longer proportional to I p ; a minimum exists in n e,max (q a ) at q a ∼2.15. With NI-heating the density limit increases less than proportional to the heating power; the behaviour during the pre-disruptive phase is rather similar to the one of OH discharges. There are specific operating regimes on ASDEX leading to discharges with strongly peaked density profiles: the improved ohmic confinement regime, counter neutral injection, and multipellet injection. These regimes are characterized by enhanced energy and particle confinement. The operational limit in density for these discharges is, therefore, of great interest having furthermore in mind that high central densities are favourable in achieving high fusion yields. In addition, further insight into the mechanisms of the density limit observed in tokamaks may be obtained by comparing plasmas with rather different density profiles at their maximum attainable densities. 7 refs., 2 figs
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camila Moura SANTOS
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Estudos sobre variações nas dimensões celulares de espécies arbóreas de clima tropical são escassos. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a variação da densidade básica e da anatomia no sentido radial da madeira de Astronium graveolens Jacq. Coletaram-se cinco indivíduos da espécie, provenientes da Estação Experimental Luiz Antônio (SP. Os métodos empregados nas análises foram os usualmente utilizados em pesquisas de densidade e anatomia de madeira. De acordo com os resultados foram constatadas altas correlações entre densidade básica, comprimento de fibra, espessura da parede da fibra, diâmetro de vaso e frequência de vaso com a distância da medula. A densidade básica da madeira é altamente dependente do comprimento das fibras, espessura da parede das fibras e diâmetro dos vasos, ocorrendo aumento no sentido da medula para a casca.Studies on variations in cell sizes of tree species in tropical climate are scarce. Thus, the aim was characterize the radial variation of basic density and wood anatomy of Astronium graveolens Jacq. Five specimens were collected at the Luiz Antônio Experimental Station,(SP. Sstandard methods for studying the density and wood anatomy were employed. According to the results we observed high correlation among basic density,fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel diameter and vessel frequency with distance fromthe pith. The wood density is highly dependent on fiber length, fiber wall thicknessand vessel diameter, there was an increase towards the pith to bark.
Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.
1994-07-01
Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs
Emerson, Kevin J; Glaser, Robert L
2017-08-07
Wolbachia pipientis , a bacterial symbiont infecting arthropods and nematodes, is vertically transmitted through the female germline and manipulates its host's reproduction to favor infected females. Wolbachia also infects somatic tissues where it can cause nonreproductive phenotypes in its host, including resistance to viral pathogens. Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes are strongly associated with the density of Wolbachia in host tissues. Little is known, however, about how Wolbachia density is regulated in native or heterologous hosts. Here, we measure the broad-sense heritability of Wolbachia density among families in field populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens , and show that densities in ovary and nongonadal tissues of females in the same family are not correlated, suggesting that Wolbachia density is determined by distinct mechanisms in the two tissues. Using introgression analysis between two different strains of the closely related species C. quinquefasciatus , we show that Wolbachia densities in ovary tissues are determined primarily by cytoplasmic genotype, while densities in nongonadal tissues are determined by both cytoplasmic and nuclear genotypes and their epistatic interactions. Quantitative-trait-locus mapping identified two major-effect quantitative-trait loci in the C. quinquefasciatus genome explaining a combined 23% of variance in Wolbachia density, specifically in nongonadal tissues. A better understanding of how Wolbachia density is regulated will provide insights into how Wolbachia density can vary spatiotemporally in insect populations, leading to changes in Wolbachia -mediated phenotypes such as viral pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Emerson, Glaser.
Strong diffusion formulation of Markov chain ensembles and its optimal weaker reductions
Güler, Marifi
2017-10-01
Two self-contained diffusion formulations, in the form of coupled stochastic differential equations, are developed for the temporal evolution of state densities over an ensemble of Markov chains evolving independently under a common transition rate matrix. Our first formulation derives from Kurtz's strong approximation theorem of density-dependent Markov jump processes [Stoch. Process. Their Appl. 6, 223 (1978), 10.1016/0304-4149(78)90020-0] and, therefore, strongly converges with an error bound of the order of lnN /N for ensemble size N . The second formulation eliminates some fluctuation variables, and correspondingly some noise terms, within the governing equations of the strong formulation, with the objective of achieving a simpler analytic formulation and a faster computation algorithm when the transition rates are constant or slowly varying. There, the reduction of the structural complexity is optimal in the sense that the elimination of any given set of variables takes place with the lowest attainable increase in the error bound. The resultant formulations are supported by numerical simulations.
Categorization of States Beyond Strong and Weak
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Tikuisis
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The discourse on poor state performers has suffered from widely varying definitions on what distinguishes certain weak states from others. Indices that rank states from strong to weak conceal important distinctions that can adversely affect intervention policy. This deficiency is addressed by grouping states according to their performance on three dimensions of statehood: authority, legitimacy, and capacity. The resultant categorization identifies brittle states that are susceptible to regime change, impoverished states often considered as aid darlings, and fragile states that experience disproportionately high levels of violent internal conflict. It also provides a quantifiable means to analyze transitions from one state type to another for more insightful intervention policy.
Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.
2000-01-01
Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru
Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.
1987-01-01
The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs
Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas
Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.
2015-04-01
Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Vliet Arjen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Dan
2007-01-01
the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...
Electrons in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzykson, C.
1985-05-01
We first describe the average one-particle spectrum in the presence of a strong magnetic field together with random impurities for a Gaussian distribution, and generalized using a supersymmetric method. We then study the effect of Coulomb interactions on an electron gas in a strong field, within the approximation of a projection on the lowest Landau level. At maximal density (or filling fraction ν equal to unity) the quantum mechanical problem is equivalent to a soluble classical model for a two-dimensional plasma. As ν decreases, more states come into play. Laughlin has guessed the structure of the ground state and its low lying excitations for certain rational values of the filling fraction. A complete proof is however missing, nor is it clear what happens as ν becomes so small that a ''crystalline'' structure becomes favoured. Our presentation shows a link with functions occurring in combinatorics and analytic number theory, which seems not to have been fully exploited
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huijbregtse, J.M.; Klaassen, F.C.; Geest, R.C.F. van der; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.
1999-01-01
Recently, the authors showed that natural linear defects are the origin of the high critical currents in laser ablated YGBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films. Combining wet-chemical etching and Atomic Force Microscopy, they find that these dislocations are created by island coalescence during growth. Consequently, the defect density can be reproducibly varied by manipulating the density of growth islands, which in turn depends on the substrate temperature. Interestingly, the radial defect distribution function approaches zero at small distances, indicating short range order. Therefore, they are now able to study vortex matter in films with a tailored non-random distribution of natural strong pinning sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeSantis, G.N.
1995-01-01
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch
Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U
2014-01-01
The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)
Effect of initial perturbation amplitude on Richtmyer-Meshkov flows induced by strong shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dell, Z.; Abarzhi, S. I., E-mail: snezhana.abarzhi@gmail.com, E-mail: sabarji@andrew.cmu.edu [Mellon College of Science and Carnegie Mellon University – Qatar, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15231 (United States); Stellingwerf, R. F. [Stellingwerf Consulting, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States)
2015-09-15
We systematically study the effect of the initial perturbation on Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) flows induced by strong shocks in fluids with contrasting densities. Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations are employed. A broad range of shock strengths and density ratios is considered. The amplitude of the initial single mode sinusoidal perturbation of the interface varies from 0% to 100% of its wavelength. The simulations results are compared, wherever possible, with four rigorous theories, and with other experiments and simulations, achieving good quantitative and qualitative agreement. Our study is focused on early time dynamics of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). We analyze the initial growth-rate of RMI immediately after the shock passage, when the perturbation amplitude increases linearly with time. For the first time, to the authors' knowledge, we find that the initial growth-rate of RMI is a non-monotone function of the initial perturbation amplitude, thus restraining the amount of energy that can be deposited by the shock at the interface. The maximum value of the initial growth-rate depends on the shock strength and the density ratio, whereas the corresponding value of the initial perturbation amplitude depends only slightly on the shock strength and density ratio.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m² on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition were evaluated during 75 days on turbot (75.6 ± 2.8 g fed two dietary L-carnitine levels (40 or 240 mg kg¹. At the end of the feeding trial, total ammonia excretion (TAN was measured postprandially for 24h. Specific growth rate and weight gain decreased with increasing stocking density. Fish held at 4 kg m² had higher final body weight (94-96 g than fish held at higher densities (80-87 g. Protein efficiency ratio was higher in fish held at 4 kg m² (1.33-1.36, in comparison to fish stocked at 8 kg m² (0.98 or 14 kg m² (0.45. Voluntary feed intake decreased from 0.70 to 0.56% BW with increasing stocking density. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation did not affect growth performance and body composition, except for body L-carnitine content which increased from 75 to 128 mg kg¹ BW with supplementation. Fish fed 240 mg L-carnitine supplements had lower TAN that the ones fed 40 mg L-carnitine (p A aquicultura de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus utilizando elevadas densidades pode reduzir o crescimento e aumentar os custos de produção. Elevados níveis de metabolitos gerados nestes sistemas intensivos provocam rápida deterioração da qualidade da água, podendo também comprometer a performance da produção. A L-carnitina atua como potenciadora do crescimento parecendo ser promissora por atenuar alguns desses efeitos. Os efeitos de densidades (4, 8, 11 e 14 kg m² no desempenho do crescimento, composição corporal foram avaliados em pregados
Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthias Schonlau
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.
Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence
DuBois, Don; Rose, Harvey A.; Russell, David
1990-01-01
Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear "caviton" excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that "free" Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed.
Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.
1990-01-01
Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound damping the turbulent energy is dominantly in non-linear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful HF waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. (orig.)
Caviton dynamics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DuBois, D.; Rose, H.A.; Russell, D.
1989-01-01
Recent studies based on long time computer simulations of Langmuir turbulence as described by Zakharov's model will be reviewed. These show that for strong to moderate ion sound samping the turbulent energy is dominantly in nonlinear ''caviton'' excitations which are localized in space and time. A local caviton model will be presented which accounts for the nucleation-collapse-burnout cycles of individual cavitons as well as their space-time correlations. This model is in detailed agreement with many features of the electron density fluctuation spectra in the ionosphere modified by powerful hf waves as measured by incoherent scatter radar. Recently such observations have verified a prediction of the theory that ''free'' Langmuir waves are emitted in the caviton collapse process. These observations and theoretical considerations also strongly imply that cavitons in the heated ionosphere, under certain conditions, evolve to states in which they are ordered in space and time. The sensitivity of the high frequency Langmuir field dynamics to the low frequency ion density fluctuations and the related caviton nucleation process will be discussed. 40 refs., 19 figs
Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.
1996-01-01
It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature
A varying-α brane world cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youm, Donam
2001-08-01
We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)
Newtonian cosmology with a time-varying constant of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McVittie, G.C.
1978-01-01
Newtonian cosmology is based on the Eulerian equations of fluid mechanics combined with Poisson's equation modified by the introduction of a time-varying G. Spherically symmetric model universes are worked out with instantaneously uniform densities. They are indeterminate unless instantaneous uniformity of the pressure is imposed. When G varies as an inverse power of the time, the models can in some cases be shown to depend on the solution of a second-order differential equation which also occurs in the Friedmann models of general relativity. In Section 3, a method for 'passing through' a singularity of this equation is proposed which entails making four arbitrary mathematical assumptions. When G varies as (time) -1 , models with initially cycloidal motion are possible, each cycle becoming longer as time progresses. Finally, gravitation becomes so weak that the model expands to infinity. Kinetic and potential energies for the whole model are derived from the basic equations; their sum is not constant. (author)
Lattice fields and strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.
1989-06-01
I review the lattice formulation of gauge theories and the use of numerical methods to investigate nonperturbative phenomena. These methods are directly applicable to studying hadronic matter at high temperatures. Considerable recent progress has been made in numerical algorithms for including dynamical fermions in such calculations. Dealing with a nonvanishing baryon density adds new unsolved challenges. 33 refs
Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang
2013-08-01
A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We estimated mean and temporal variability of population sizes, productivity, apparent survival, and immigration. We assessed how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population growth to understand the demographic reasons of population change and how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population size to identify possible density-dependent mechanisms. The shrike population varied between 35 and 74 breeding pairs but did not show a significant trend in population size over time (growth rate 1.002 +/- 0.001 [mean +/- SD]). Apparent survival of females (juveniles 0.06 +/- 0.01; adults 0.37 +/- 0.03) was lower than that of males (juveniles 0.10 +/- 0.01; adults 0.44 +/- 0.02). Immigration rates were substantial and higher in females (0.56 +/- 0.02) than in males (0.43 +/- 0.02), and average productivity was 2.76 +/- 0.14. Without immigration, the Red-backed Shrike population would have declined strongly. Immigration was the strongest driver for the number of females while local recruitment was the most important driver for the number of males. Immigration of both sexes and productivity, but not local recruitment and survival, were subject to density dependence. Density-dependent productivity was not effectively regulating the local population but may have contributed to regulate shrike populations at larger spatial scales. These findings suggest that immigration is not only an important component to prevent a geographically open population from decline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)
Information Density and Syntactic Repetition
Temperley, David; Gildea, Daniel
2015-01-01
In noun phrase (NP) coordinate constructions (e.g., NP and NP), there is a strong tendency for the syntactic structure of the second conjunct to match that of the first; the second conjunct in such constructions is therefore low in syntactic information. The theory of uniform information density predicts that low-information syntactic…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciane Moreira Chaves
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Na literatura, há controvérsias sobre a importância da massa corporal total (MCT, da massa magra (MM e da massa gorda (MG como determinantes da densidade mineral óssea (DMO em mulheres idosas. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a relação da DMO com a MCT, MM e MG em mulheres idosas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 97 mulheres com idade entre 60-70 anos e média de 66,41 ± 4,82 anos. Nenhuma participante fazia uso de hormônios ou qualquer outro medicamento que pudesse afetar o metabolismo ósseo, assim como não tinham o hábito de fumar ou de ingerir bebidas alcoólicas. A composição corporal e a DMO do colo femoral (CF e da coluna lombar (CL foram medidas através da DXA, um DPX-IQ lunar. As relações entre MCT, MM e MG e a DMO do CF e da CL foram realizadas separadamente, através da análise de regressão linear. A análise de regressão múltipla foi utilizada para determinar a contribuição da MCT, MM e MG sobre a DMO do CF e da CL. RESULTADOS: A MCT mostrou-se fortemente correlacionada com a DMO do CF e da CL (r = 0,54, p = 0,01 e r = 0,37, p = 0,01, respectivamente, do que a MG (r = 0,30, p = 0,01 e r = 0,19, p = 0,06, respectivamente e MM (r = 0,44, p = 0,01 e r = 0,26, p = 0,05, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A MCT e a MM foram os componentes corporais que mantiveram relação significativa com a DMO do CF e da CL. A MG mostrou correlação fraca com a DMO do CF e da CL, não sendo estatisticamente significativa neste último sítio. Assim, a MCT e a MM são, entre as variáveis da composição corporal, as que mais significativamente determinam a DMO em mulheres idosas.En la literatura, hay controversias sobre la importancia de la masa corporal total (MCT, la masa magra (MM, y la masa grasa (MG como decisivas sobre la estimación de la densidad mineral osea (DMO en las mujeres mayores. OBJETIVO: Determinar la relación de DMO con MCT, MM y MG en las mujeres mayores. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron 97 mujeres con la edad entre 60 -70 años de promedio
Strong interactions at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.
1995-01-01
Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Strong-field dissociation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.
1993-01-01
The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs
Housing Cycles in Switzerland - A Time-Varying Approach
Drechsel, Dirk
2015-01-01
In light of the strong increase of house prices in Switzerland, we analyze the effects of mortgage rate shocks, changes in the interplay between housing demand and supply and GDP growth on house prices for the time period 1981- 2014. We employ Bayesian time-varying coefficients vector autoregressions to allow different monetary and immigration regimes over time. A number of structural changes, such as regulatory changes in the aftermath of the 1990s real estate crisis, the introduction of fre...
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
The colours of strong interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)
Krishnadas, Meghna; Comita, Liza S
2018-01-01
Soil fungi are key mediators of negative density-dependent mortality in seeds and seedlings, and the ability to withstand pathogens in the shaded understory of closed-canopy forests could reinforce light gradient partitioning by tree species. For four species of tropical rainforest trees-two shade-tolerant and two shade-intolerant-we conducted a field experiment to examine the interactive effects of fungal pathogens, light, and seed density on germination and early seedling establishment. In a fully factorial design, seeds were sown into 1 m 2 plots containing soil collected from underneath conspecific adult trees, with plots assigned to forest edge (high light) or shaded understory, high or low density, and fungicide or no fungicide application. We monitored total seed germination and final seedling survival over 15 weeks. Shade-intolerant species were strongly constrained by light; their seedlings survived only at the edge. Fungicide application significantly improved seedling emergence and/or survival for three of the four focal species. There were no significant interactions between fungicide and seed density, suggesting that pathogen spread with increased aggregation of seeds and seedlings did not contribute to pathogen-mediated mortality. Two species experienced significant edge-fungicide interactions, but fungicide effects in edge vs. interior forest varied with species and recruitment stage. Our results suggest that changes to plant-pathogen interactions could affect plant recruitment in human-impacted forests subject to fragmentation and edge-effects.
Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolak, A.
1987-01-01
Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis
Experimental study of particle transport and density fluctuation in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Sanin, A.
2005-01-01
A variety of electron density (n e ) profiles have been observed in Large Helical Device (LHD). The density profiles change dramatically with heating power and toroidal magnetic field (B t ) under the same line averaged density. The particle transport coefficients, i.e., diffusion coefficient (D) and convection velocity (V) are experimentally obtained in the standard configuration from density modulation experiments. The values of D and V are estimated separately in the core and edge. The diffusion coefficients are found to be a strong function of electron temperature (T e ) and are proportional to T e 1.7±0.9 in the core and T e 1.1±0.14 in the edge. Edge diffusion coefficients are proportional to B t -2.08 . It is found that the scaling of D in the edge is close to gyro-Bohm-like in nature. Non-zero V is observed and it is found that the electron temperature gradient can drive particle convection, particularly in the core region. The convection velocity in the core reverses direction from inward to outward as the T e gradient increases. In the edge, convection is inward directed in most cases of the present data set. It shows a modest tendency, being proportional to T e gradient and remaining inward directed. However, the toroidal magnetic field also significantly affects the value and direction of V. The density fluctuation spectrum varies with heating power suggesting that it has an influence on particle transport. The value of K sub(perpendicular) ρ i is around 0.1, as expected for gyro-Bohm diffusion. Fluctuations are localized in both positive and negative density gradient regions of the hollow density profiles. The fluctuation power in each region is clearly distinguished having different phase velocity profiles. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard
2008-01-01
effects adequately which, on the other hand, can be described by many-body perturbation theory MBPT. It is therefore of interest to develop a hybrid model which combines the best of both the MBPT and DFT approaches. This can be achieved by splitting the two-electron interaction into long-range and short...
Quantization rules for strongly chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.
1992-09-01
We discuss the quantization of strongly chaotic systems and apply several quantization rules to a model system given by the unconstrained motion of a particle on a compact surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We study the periodic-orbit theory for distinct symmetry classes corresponding to a parity operation which is always present when such a surface has genus two. Recently, several quantization rules based on periodic orbit theory have been introduced. We compare quantizations using the dynamical zeta function Z(s) with the quantization condition cos(π N(E)) = 0, where a periodix-orbit expression for the spectral staircase N(E) is used. A general discussion of the efficiency of periodic-orbit quantization then allows us to compare the different methods. The system dependence of the efficiency, which is determined by the topological entropy τ and the mean level density anti d(E), is emphasized. (orig.)
Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kelvin Ch’ng
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.
Pentacene Excitons in Strong Electric Fields.
Kuhnke, Klaus; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Kabakchiev, Alexander; Lutz, Theresa; Rahman, Talat S; Kern, Klaus
2018-02-05
Electroluminescence spectroscopy of organic semiconductors in the junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) provides access to the polarizability of neutral excited states in a well-characterized molecular geometry. We study the Stark shift of the self-trapped lowest singlet exciton at 1.6 eV in a pentacene nanocrystal. Combination of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) with experiment allows for assignment of the observation to a charge-transfer (CT) exciton. Its charge separation is perpendicular to the applied field, as the measured polarizability is moderate and the electric field in the STM junction is strong enough to dissociate a CT exciton polarized parallel to the applied field. The calculated electric-field-induced anisotropy of the exciton potential energy surface will also be of relevance to photovoltaic applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
A Robust Mass Estimator for Dark Matter Subhalo Perturbations in Strong Gravitational Lenses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minor, Quinn E. [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Kaplinghat, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine CA 92697 (United States); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-08-20
A few dark matter substructures have recently been detected in strong gravitational lenses through their perturbations of highly magnified images. We derive a characteristic scale for lensing perturbations and show that they are significantly larger than the perturber’s Einstein radius. We show that the perturber’s projected mass enclosed within this radius, scaled by the log-slope of the host galaxy’s density profile, can be robustly inferred even if the inferred density profile and tidal radius of the perturber are biased. We demonstrate the validity of our analytic derivation using several gravitational lens simulations where the tidal radii and the inner log-slopes of the density profile of the perturbing subhalo are allowed to vary. By modeling these simulated data, we find that our mass estimator, which we call the effective subhalo lensing mass, is accurate to within about 10% or smaller in each case, whereas the inferred total subhalo mass can potentially be biased by nearly an order of magnitude. We therefore recommend that the effective subhalo lensing mass be reported in future lensing reconstructions, as this will allow for a more accurate comparison with the results of dark matter simulations.
Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods
Avella, Adolfo
2012-01-01
The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...
Strongly correlated systems numerical methods
Mancini, Ferdinando
2013-01-01
This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...
Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques
Mancini, Ferdinando
2015-01-01
The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...
Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification
Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven
1998-01-01
We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.
String dynamics at strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)
Conduction properties of strongly interacting Fermions
Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Esslinger, Tilman
2013-05-01
We experimentally study the transport process of ultracold fermionic atoms through a mesoscopic, quasi two-dimensional channel connecting macroscopic reservoirs. By observing the current response to a bias applied between the reservoirs, we directly access the resistance of the channel in a manner analogous to a solid state conduction measurement. The resistance is further controlled by a gate potential reducing the atomic density in the channel, like in a field effect transistor. In this setup, we study the flow of a strongly interacting Fermi gas, and observe a striking drop of resistance with increasing density in the channel, as expected at the onset of superfluidity. We relate the transport properties to the in-situ evolution of the thermodynamic potential, providing a model independant thermodynamic scale. The resistance is compared to that of an ideal Fermi gas in the same geometry, which shows an order of magnitude larger resistance, originating from the contact resistance between the channel and the reservoirs. The extension of this study to a channel containing a tunable disorder is briefly outlined.
Strong interactions in low dimensions
Baeriswyl, D
2007-01-01
This book provides an attempt to convey the colorful facets of condensed matter systems with reduced dimensionality. Some of the specific features predicted for interacting one-dimensional electron systems, such as charge- and spin-density waves, have been observed in many quasi-one-dimensional materials. The two-dimensional world is even richer: besides d-wave superconductivity and the Quantum Hall Effect - perhaps the most spectacular phases explored during the last two decades - many collective charge and spin states have captured the interest of researchers, such as charge stripes or spont
Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.
Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E
2018-03-01
We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.
Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling
Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira
2017-12-01
We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.
Potential stream density in Mid-Atlantic US watersheds.
Elmore, Andrew J; Julian, Jason P; Guinn, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C
2013-01-01
Stream network density exerts a strong influence on ecohydrologic processes in watersheds, yet existing stream maps fail to capture most headwater streams and therefore underestimate stream density. Furthermore, discrepancies between mapped and actual stream length vary between watersheds, confounding efforts to understand the impacts of land use on stream ecosystems. Here we report on research that predicts stream presence from coupled field observations of headwater stream channels and terrain variables that were calculated both locally and as an average across the watershed upstream of any location on the landscape. Our approach used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt), a robust method commonly implemented to model species distributions that requires information only on the presence of the entity of interest. In validation, the method correctly predicts the presence of 86% of all 10-m stream segments and errors are low (stream density and compare our results with the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). We find that NHD underestimates stream density by up to 250%, with errors being greatest in the densely urbanized cities of Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD and in regions where the NHD has never been updated from its original, coarse-grain mapping. This work is the most ambitious attempt yet to map stream networks over a large region and will have lasting implications for modeling and conservation efforts.
Hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, Monika [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Old Residency Road, Ratanada, Jodhpur 342011 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sedrakian, Armen, E-mail: sedrakian@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, J.W. Goethe-University, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2013-01-17
Compact stars with strong magnetic fields (magnetars) have been observationally determined to have surface magnetic fields of order of 10{sup 14}–10{sup 15} G, the implied internal field strength being several orders larger. We study the equation of state and composition of dense hypernuclear matter in strong magnetic fields in a range expected in the interiors of magnetars. Within the non-linear Boguta–Bodmer–Walecka model we find that the magnetic field has sizable influence on the properties of matter for central magnetic field B⩾10{sup 17} G, in particular the matter properties become anisotropic. Moreover, for the central fields B⩾10{sup 18} G, the magnetized hypernuclear matter shows instability, which is signalled by the negative sign of the derivative of the pressure parallel to the field with respect to the density, and leads to vanishing parallel pressure at the critical value B{sub cr}≃10{sup 19} G. This limits the range of admissible homogeneously distributed fields in magnetars to fields below the critical value B{sub cr}.
Radiative properties of strongly magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisheit, J.C.
1993-11-01
The influence of strong magnetic fields on quantum phenomena continues to be a topic of much interest to physicists and astronomers investigating a wide array of problems - the formation of high energy-density plasmas in pulsed power experiments, the crustal structure and radiative properties of neutron stars, transport coefficients of matter irradiated by subpicosecond lasers, the spectroscopy of magnetic white dwarf stars, the quantum Hall effect, etc. The passage of time finds more questions being asked than being answered in this subject, where even the hydrogen atom open-quotes paradigmclose quotes remains a major challenge. This theoretical program consists of two distinct parts: (1) investigation into the structure and transport properties of many-electron atoms in fields B > 10 8 Gauss; and (2) extension of spectral lineshape methods for diagnosing fields in strongly magnetized plasmas. Research during the past year continued to be focused on the first topic, primarily because of the interest and skills of Dr. E.P. Lief, the postdoctoral research associate who was hired to work on the proposal
Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shree Ram Acharya
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.
Density dependent hadron field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, C.; Lenske, H.; Wolter, H.H.
1995-01-01
A fully covariant approach to a density dependent hadron field theory is presented. The relation between in-medium NN interactions and field-theoretical meson-nucleon vertices is discussed. The medium dependence of nuclear interactions is described by a functional dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices on the baryon field operators. As a consequence, the Euler-Lagrange equations lead to baryon rearrangement self-energies which are not obtained when only a parametric dependence of the vertices on the density is assumed. It is shown that the approach is energy-momentum conserving and thermodynamically consistent. Solutions of the field equations are studied in the mean-field approximation. Descriptions of the medium dependence in terms of the baryon scalar and vector density are investigated. Applications to infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei are discussed. Density dependent coupling constants obtained from Dirac-Brueckner calculations with the Bonn NN potentials are used. Results from Hartree calculations for energy spectra, binding energies, and charge density distributions of 16 O, 40,48 Ca, and 208 Pb are presented. Comparisons to data strongly support the importance of rearrangement in a relativistic density dependent field theory. Most striking is the simultaneous improvement of charge radii, charge densities, and binding energies. The results indicate the appearance of a new ''Coester line'' in the nuclear matter equation of state
Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.
2003-01-01
Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints
Detection of dynamically varying interaural time differences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlrausch, Armin; Le Goff, Nicolas; Breebaart, Jeroen
2010-01-01
of fringes surrounding the probe is equal to the addition of the effects of the individual fringes. In this contribution, we present behavioral data for the same experimental condition, called dynamically varying ITD detection, but for a wider range of probe and fringe durations. Probe durations varied...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, A.
2002-01-01
When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Strong versions of Bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1994-01-01
Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption
Strongly interacting light dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-07-01
In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.
Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Robles
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))
1992-07-09
We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Estimation of strong ground motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Makoto
1993-01-01
Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event
Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)
2011-10-29
We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.
Effects of time-varying β in SNLS3 on constraining interacting dark energy models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yong-Zhen; Geng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Xin
2014-01-01
It has been found that, for the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year (SNLS3) data, there is strong evidence for the redshift evolution of the color-luminosity parameter β. In this paper, adopting the w-cold-dark-matter (wCDM) model and considering its interacting extensions (with three kinds of interaction between dark sectors), we explore the evolution of β and its effects on parameter estimation. In addition to the SNLS3 data, we also use the latest Planck distance priors data, the galaxy clustering data extracted from sloan digital sky survey data release 7 and baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey, as well as the direct measurement of Hubble constant H 0 from the Hubble Space Telescope observation. We find that, for all the interacting dark energy (IDE) models, adding a parameter of β can reduce χ 2 by ∝34, indicating that a constant β is ruled out at 5.8σ confidence level. Furthermore, it is found that varying β can significantly change the fitting results of various cosmological parameters: for all the dark energy models considered in this paper, varying β yields a larger fractional CDM densities Ω c0 and a larger equation of state w; on the other side, varying β yields a smaller reduced Hubble constant h for the wCDM model, but it has no impact on h for the three IDE models. This implies that there is a degeneracy between h and coupling parameter γ. Our work shows that the evolution of β is insensitive to the interaction between dark sectors, and then highlights the importance of considering β's evolution in the cosmology fits. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freyss, M.
2015-01-01
This chapter gives an introduction to first-principles electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure calculations have a crucial importance in the multi-scale modelling scheme of materials: not only do they enable one to accurately determine physical and chemical properties of materials, they also provide data for the adjustment of parameters (or potentials) in higher-scale methods such as classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, cluster dynamics, etc. Most of the properties of a solid depend on the behaviour of its electrons, and in order to model or predict them it is necessary to have an accurate method to compute the electronic structure. DFT is based on quantum theory and does not make use of any adjustable or empirical parameter: the only input data are the atomic number of the constituent atoms and some initial structural information. The complicated many-body problem of interacting electrons is replaced by an equivalent single electron problem, in which each electron is moving in an effective potential. DFT has been successfully applied to the determination of structural or dynamical properties (lattice structure, charge density, magnetisation, phonon spectra, etc.) of a wide variety of solids. Its efficiency was acknowledged by the attribution of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1998 to one of its authors, Walter Kohn. A particular attention is given in this chapter to the ability of DFT to model the physical properties of nuclear materials such as actinide compounds. The specificities of the 5f electrons of actinides will be presented, i.e., their more or less high degree of localisation around the nuclei and correlations. The limitations of the DFT to treat the strong 5f correlations are one of the main issues for the DFT modelling of nuclear fuels. Various methods that exist to better treat strongly correlated materials will finally be presented. (author)
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
density functional theory; quantum fluid dynamics. 1. Introduction ... dynamics of strongly non-linear interaction of atoms with intense ... theory and quantum fluid dynamics in real space. .... clear evidence of bond softening since density in the.
Effective lagrangian for strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.
1988-01-01
We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H.; Skjaeraasen, O.
2011-01-01
Large-scale simulations of wave packet collapse are performed by numerically solving the three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic Zakharov equations, focusing on individual wave packet collapses and on wave packets that form in continuously driven strong turbulence. The collapse threshold is shown to decrease as the electron thermal speed ν e /c increases and as the temperature ratio T i /T e of ions to electrons decreases. Energy lost during wave packet collapse and dissipation is shown to depend on ν e /c. The dynamics of density perturbations after collapse are studied in 3D electromagnetic strong turbulence for a range of T i /T e . The structures of the Langmuir, transverse, and total electric field components of wave packets during strong turbulence are investigated over a range of ν e /c. For ν e /c e /c > or approx. 0.17, transverse modes become trapped in density wells and contribute significantly to the structure of the total electric field. At all ν e /c, the Langmuir energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly oblate (pancake shaped). The transverse energy density contours of wave packets are predominantly prolate (sausage shaped), with the major axis being perpendicular to the major axes of the Langmuir component. This results in the wave packet becoming more nearly spherical as ν e /c increases, and in turn generates more spherical density wells during collapse. The results obtained are compared with previous 3D electrostatic results and 2D electromagnetic results.
Λ( t ) cosmology induced by a slowly varying Elko field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, S.H.; Pinho, A.S.S.; Silva, J.M. Hoff da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Engenharia, Guaratinguetá, Departamento de Física e Química Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, 12516-410—Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Jesus, J.F., E-mail: shpereira@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: alexandre.pinho510@gmail.com, E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Campus Experimental de Itapeva, R. Geraldo Alckmin, 519 Itapeva, SP (Brazil)
2017-01-01
In this work the exact Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations for an Elko spinor field coupled to gravity in an Einstein-Cartan framework are presented. The torsion functions coupling the Elko field spin-connection to gravity can be exactly solved and the FRW equations for the system assume a relatively simple form. In the limit of a slowly varying Elko spinor field there is a relevant contribution to the field equations acting exactly as a time varying cosmological model Λ( t )=Λ{sub *}+3β H {sup 2}, where Λ{sub *} and β are constants. Observational data using distance luminosity from magnitudes of supernovae constraint the parameters Ω {sub m} and β, which leads to a lower limit to the Elko mass. Such model mimics, then, the effects of a dark energy fluid, here sourced by the Elko spinor field. The density perturbations in the linear regime were also studied in the pseudo-Newtonian formalism.
Strong growth for Queensland mining
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-10-01
The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.
Strongly interacting W's and Z's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1984-01-01
The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data
Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XIU-LAN
2012-01-01
A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.
Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.
Barany, Sandor
2009-01-01
Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a
Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys
2008-01-01
8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"
Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana
2018-01-01
Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.
Liméa, L; Alexandre, G; Berthelot, V
2012-02-01
The effects of a concentrate diet on growth, carcass fat, and fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle (supraspinatus), perirenal, and intermuscular adipose tissues of Creole goats (n = 32) were evaluated. Goats were fed a tropical green forage Digitaria decumbens ad libitum with no concentrate (G0) or 1 of 3 levels of concentrate: 140 (G100), 240 (G200), and 340 g•d(-1) (G300), respectively. Goats were slaughtered according to the standard procedure at the commercial BW (22 to 24 kg of BW). Goats fed the concentrate diets (G100, G200, and G300) had greater ADG (P 0.05). Increased concentrate supplementation did not affect (P > 0.05) the proportion of MUFA in all tissues and had very little effect on SFA in perirenal tissue, but increased the PUFA proportion in muscle (P < 0.05). The major effect of feeding increased concentrate was an increase in n-6 PUFA proportions in all tissues (P < 0.001) and, surprisingly, a decrease in n-3 PUFA (P < 0.001). Focusing on FA, which are supposed to have a beneficial or an adverse effect on human health, feeding increased concentrate did not increase the content of any cholesterol-increasing SFA in meat, but increased the n-6/n-3 ratio above 4 when more than 240 g of concentrate was fed per day.
The geometry of percolation fronts in two-dimensional lattices with spatially varying densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gastner, Michael T; Oborny, Beáta
2012-01-01
Percolation theory is usually applied to lattices with a uniform probability p that a site is occupied or that a bond is closed. The more general case, where p is a function of the position x, has received less attention. Previous studies with long-range spatial variations in p(x) have only investigated cases where p has a finite, non-zero gradient at the critical point p c . Here we extend the theory to two-dimensional cases in which the gradient can change from zero to infinity. We present scaling laws for the width and length of the hull (i.e. the boundary of the spanning cluster). We show that the scaling exponents for the width and the length depend on the shape of p(x), but they always have a constant ratio 4/3 so that the hull's fractal dimension D = 7/4 is invariant. On this basis, we derive and verify numerically an asymptotic expression for the probability h(x) that a site at a given distance x from p c is on the hull. (paper)
Assessing Accuracy in Varying LIDAR Data Point Densities in Digital Elevation Maps
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Anderson, Brian C
2008-01-01
... (Laser or Light Detection And Ranging) collection. Additionally, this thesis contains information on the multiple space missions that use laser altimetry or Lidar to gather data about planet earth, the moon, asteroids, Mars and Mercury...
Nonlinear load-deflection behavior of abutment backwalls with varying height and soil density.
2011-12-01
We address the scaling of abutment wall lateral response with wall height and compaction condition through testing and analytical work. The : analytical work was undertaken to develop hyperbolic curves representing the load-deflection response of bac...
Assessing Accuracy in Varying LIDAR Data Point Densities in Digital Elevation Maps
2008-09-01
describes the project undertaken for delimiting the data collected on the regions and outlines the statistical methodology used to assess research...not hydrologically corrected (to enforce flow- direction) • Generated contours not aesthetically appealing • Lidar returns on water are unreliable...and ground “bottom” returns. In his 21 1984 paper, Krabill concluded that the results of the test over the Wolf River Basin “were sufficient to
Performance of green LTE networks powered by the smart grid with time varying user density
Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.
2013-01-01
In this study, we implement a green heuristic algorithm involving the base station sleeping strategy that aims to ensure energy saving for the radio access network of the 4GLTE (Fourth Generation Long Term Evolution) mobile networks. We propose
Prutkin, I.; Tenzer, R.
2009-01-01
When topography is represented by a simple regular grid digital elevation model, the analytical rectangular prism approach is often used for a precise gravity field modelling at the vicinity of the computation point. However, when the topographical surface is represented more realistically, for
Assessing Accuracy in Varying LIDAR Data Point Densities in Digital Elevation Maps
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Anderson, Brian C
2008-01-01
... analysis when comparing the different DEMs built by randomly selecting 90%, 66%, 50%, 30%, 10%, 5%, 3%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.05%, 0.03% and 0.01% of the data from an airborne Lidar collection from Honduras in 2008...
Performance of green LTE networks powered by the smart grid with time varying user density
Ghazzai, Hakim
2013-09-01
In this study, we implement a green heuristic algorithm involving the base station sleeping strategy that aims to ensure energy saving for the radio access network of the 4GLTE (Fourth Generation Long Term Evolution) mobile networks. We propose an energy procurement model that takes into consideration the existence of multiple energy providers in the smart grid power system (e.g. fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, etc.) in addition to deployed photovoltaic panels in base station sites. Moreover, the analysis is based on the dynamic time variation of daily traffic and aims to maintain the network quality of service. Our simulation results show an important contribution in the reduction of CO2 emissions that can be reached by optimal power allocation over the active base stations. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Missov, Trifon I.; Schöley, Jonas
to this criterion admissible distributions are, for example, the gamma, the beta, the truncated normal, the log-logistic and the Weibull, while distributions like the log-normal and the inverse Gaussian do not satisfy this condition. In this article we show that models with admissible frailty distributions...... and a Gompertz baseline provide a better fit to adult human mortality data than the corresponding models with non-admissible frailty distributions. We implement estimation procedures for mixture models with a Gompertz baseline and frailty that follows a gamma, truncated normal, log-normal, or inverse Gaussian...
Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey
2018-01-01
The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil
2008-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.
High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics
Lebedev, Sergey V
2007-01-01
During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...
2006-01-01
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...
Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells
Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram
2016-06-01
Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.
Strong seismic ground motion propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.
1988-10-01
At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials
Density heterogeneity of the cratonic lithosphere
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina
2015-01-01
Using free-board modeling, we examine a vertically-averaged mantle density beneath the Archean-Proterozoic Siberian craton in the layer from the Moho down to base of the chemical boundary layer (CBL). Two models are tested: in Model 1 the base of the CBL coincides with the LAB, whereas in Model 2...... the base of the CBL is at a 180 km depth. The uncertainty of density model is density structure of the Siberian lithospheric mantle with a strong...... correlation between mantle density variations and the tectonic setting. Three types of cratonic mantle are recognized from mantle density anomalies. 'Pristine' cratonic regions not sampled by kimberlites have the strongest depletion with density deficit of 1.8-3.0% (and SPT density of 3.29-3.33 t/m3...
Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets
Jong, F.C.J.M. de; Roon, F.A. de
2001-01-01
We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value of the assets that can be held by domestic investors only versus the market value of the assets that can be traded freely.Our empirical analysis for 30 emerging markets shows that there are strong...
Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars
Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.
2018-05-01
Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.
Ionospheric phenomena before strong earthquakes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Silina
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A statistical analysis of several ionospheric parameters before earthquakes with magnitude M > 5.5 located less than 500 km from an ionospheric vertical sounding station is performed. Ionospheric effects preceding "deep" (depth h > 33 km and "crust" (h 33 km earthquakes were analysed separately. Data of nighttime measurements of the critical frequencies foF2 and foEs, the frequency fbEs and Es-spread at the middle latitude station Dushanbe were used. The frequencies foF2 and fbEs are proportional to the square root of the ionization density at heights of 300 km and 100 km, respectively. It is shown that two days before the earthquakes the values of foF2 averaged over the morning hours (00:00 LT–06:00 LT and of fbEs averaged over the nighttime hours (18:00 LT–06:00 LT decrease; the effect is stronger for the "deep" earthquakes. Analysing the coefficient of semitransparency which characterizes the degree of small-scale turbulence, it was shown that this value increases 1–4 days before "crust" earthquakes, and it does not change before "deep" earthquakes. Studying Es-spread which manifests itself as diffuse Es track on ionograms and characterizes the degree of large-scale turbulence, it was found that the number of Es-spread observations increases 1–3 days before the earthquakes; for "deep" earthquakes the effect is more intensive. Thus it may be concluded that different mechanisms of energy transfer from the region of earthquake preparation to the ionosphere occur for "deep" and "crust" events.
Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henseler, Peter
2010-01-01
We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length ξ, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of ξ for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of ξ due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of ξ as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)
Interplay of Anderson localization and strong interaction in disordered systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henseler, Peter
2010-01-15
We study the interplay of disorder localization and strong local interactions within the Anderson-Hubbard model. Taking into account local Mott-Hubbard physics and static screening of the disorder potential, the system is mapped onto an effective single-particle Anderson model, which is studied within the self-consistent theory of electron localization. For fermions, we find rich nonmonotonic behavior of the localization length {xi}, particularly in two-dimensional systems, including an interaction-induced exponential enhancement of {xi} for small and intermediate disorders and a strong reduction of {xi} due to hopping suppression by strong interactions. In three dimensions, we identify for half filling a Mott-Hubbard-assisted Anderson localized phase existing between the metallic and the Mott-Hubbard-gapped phases. For small U there is re-entrant behavior from the Anderson localized phase to the metallic phase. For bosons, the unrestricted particle occupation number per lattice site yields a monotonic enhancement of {xi} as a function of decreasing interaction, which we assume to persist until the superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate phase is entered. Besides, we study cold atomic gases expanding, by a diffusion process, in a weak random potential. We show that the density-density correlation function of the expanding gas is strongly affected by disorder and we estimate the typical size of a speckle spot, i.e., a region of enhanced or depleted density. Both a Fermi gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate (in a mean-field approach) are considered. (orig.)
Strongly interacting photons and atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alge, W.
1999-05-01
This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)
Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.
1981-01-01
This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)
Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills
Narayanan, M.
2015-12-01
The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987
Singh, Tulika; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singla, Veenu; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Gurpreet; Bal, Amanjit
2018-05-01
Mammography is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of breast cancer. However, higher breast density was strongly associated with lower mammographic sensitivity. Breast density is also identified as independent and strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Studies have shown women with high breast density have four to six times increased risk of breast cancer as compare to women with fatty breast. It varies between different age group it generally decreases with increasing age in postmenopausal women and it can be different in different ethnic groups and people from different geographical areas. This study evaluates the breast density in Indian population and its relationship with the age. We reviewed of all screening mammography examinations performed from May 2012 to January 2015 at our institute PGIMER, Chandigarh, INDIA. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. A total of 6132 screening mammograms were performed. Each subgroup categorized by decade of age. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density (P density in Indian and Western population with more Indians having ACR Grade 1 and 2 and Western population having 2 and 3. We found an inverse relationship between patient age and mammographic breast density. However, there were a large proportion of young women who had lower grades of mammographic density which could potentially benefit from the use of routine screening mammography in this subgroup of patients. Moreover, the breast density of Indian population is less when compared to the Western population. This might suggest that mammography is a good modality of choice for screening Indian population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)
2017-03-15
We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.
Strong and Electromagnetic Interactions at SPS Energies
Ribicki, Andrzej
2009-01-01
Particle production in peripheral Pb+Pb collisions has been measured at a beam energy of 158 GeV per nucleon, corresponding to psNN 17.3 GeV. The measurements provide full double differential coverage in a wide range of longitudinal and transverse momenta, including the central (“mid-rapidity”) area and extending far into the projectile fragmentation region. The resulting analysis shows the heavy ion reaction as a mixture of different processes. In particular, surprising phenomena, like the presence of large and strongly varying structures in the shape of the double differential cross section d2s /dxFd pT , are induced by the final state electromagnetic interaction between produced particles and the charged spectator system. This effect is largest at low transverse momenta, where it results in a deep valley in the xF -dependence of the produced p+/p− ratio. The basic characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomenon described above agree with the results of a theoretical analysis, performed by means of ...
Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlip, S.
2003-01-01
Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models
Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence
Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng
2016-09-01
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.
Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint
Grange, Pascal
2017-06-01
A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N + 1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.
Quantum entanglement in strong-field ionization
Majorosi, Szilárd; Benedict, Mihály G.; Czirják, Attila
2017-10-01
We investigate the time evolution of quantum entanglement between an electron, liberated by a strong few-cycle laser pulse, and its parent ion core. Since the standard procedure is numerically prohibitive in this case, we propose a method to quantify the quantum correlation in such a system: we use the reduced density matrices of the directional subspaces along the polarization of the laser pulse and along the transverse directions as building blocks for an approximate entanglement entropy. We present our results, based on accurate numerical simulations, in terms of several of these entropies, for selected values of the peak electric-field strength and the carrier-envelope phase difference of the laser pulse. The time evolution of the mutual entropy of the electron and the ion-core motion along the direction of the laser polarization is similar to our earlier results based on a simple one-dimensional model. However, taking into account also the dynamics perpendicular to the laser polarization reveals a surprisingly different entanglement dynamics above the laser intensity range corresponding to pure tunneling: the quantum entanglement decreases with time in the over-the-barrier ionization regime.
Russia needs a strong counterpart
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.
2008-01-01
In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knuyt, G.K.; Callebaut, D.K.
1978-01-01
The equations defining the ion density in a non-quasineutral plasma (chasma) are derived for a number of particular cases from the general results obtained in paper 1. Explicit calculations are made for a fairly general class of boundaries: all tri-axial ellipsoids, including cylinders with elliptic cross-section and the plane parallel case. The results are very simple. When the ion production and the beam intensity are constant then the steady state ion space charge is also constant in space, it varies over less than 10% for the various geometries, it may exceed the beam density largely for comparatively high pressures (usually still less than about 10 -3 Torr), it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases and moreover it can be calculated precisely and easily by some simple formulae for which also approximations are elaborated. The total potential is U =-ax 2 -by 2 -cz 2 , a, b and c constants which can be calculated immediately from the space charge density and the geometry; the largest coefficient varies at most over a factor four for various geometries; it is tabulated for a number of interesting cases. (author)
Laboratory Density Functionals
Giraud, B. G.
2007-01-01
We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.
Dispersal, density dependence, and population dynamics of a fungal microbe on leaf surfaces.
Woody, Scott T; Ives, Anthony R; Nordheim, Erik V; Andrews, John H
2007-06-01
Despite the ubiquity and importance of microbes in nature, little is known about their natural population dynamics, especially for those that occupy terrestrial habitats. Here we investigate the dynamics of the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (Ap) on apple leaves in an orchard. We asked three questions. (1) Is variation in fungal population density among leaves caused by variation in leaf carrying capacities and strong density-dependent population growth that maintains densities near carrying capacity? (2) Do resident populations have competitive advantages over immigrant cells? (3) Do Ap dynamics differ at different times during the growing season? To address these questions, we performed two experiments at different times in the growing season. Both experiments used a 2 x 2 factorial design: treatment 1 removed fungal cells from leaves to reveal density-dependent population growth, and treatment 2 inoculated leaves with an Ap strain engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP), which made it possible to track the fate of immigrant cells. The experiments showed that natural populations of Ap vary greatly in density due to sustained differences in carrying capacities among leaves. The maintenance of populations close to carrying capacities indicates strong density-dependent processes. Furthermore, resident populations are strongly competitive against immigrants, while immigrants have little impact on residents. Finally, statistical models showed high population growth rates of resident cells in one experiment but not in the other, suggesting that Ap experiences relatively "good" and "bad" periods for population growth. This picture of Ap dynamics conforms to commonly held, but rarely demonstrated, expectations of microbe dynamics in nature. It also highlights the importance of local processes, as opposed to immigration, in determining the abundance and dynamics of microbes on surfaces in terrestrial systems.
Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes
Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA
2008-12-16
CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.
"Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys
2008-01-01
Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk
Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.
2000-01-01
is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...
Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson
Tõnson, Margit, 1978-
2010-01-01
Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest
Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states
Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,
2012-01-01
We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar
2010-01-01
45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid
Evidence for coordinate genetic control of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes and lymphocytes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeLuise, M.; Flier, J.S.
1985-01-01
The erythrocyte is widely used as a model cell for studies of the Na,K pump in health and disease. However, little is known about the factors that control the number of Na,K pumps expressed on the erythrocytes of a given individual, nor about the extent to which erythrocytes can be used to validly assess the pump density on other cell types. In this report, the authors have compared the interindividual variance of Na,K pump density in erythrocytes of unrelated individuals to that seen with identical twins. Unlike unrelated individuals, in whom pump parameters, i.e., ouabain binding sites, 86 Rb uptake, and cell Na concentration vary widely, identical twin pairs showed no significant intrapair variation for these values. Thus, a role for genetic factors is suggested. In addition, the authors established and validated a method for determining Na,K pump density and pump-mediated 86 Rb uptake in human peripheral lymphocytes. Using this method, they show that whereas Na,K pump density differs markedly between erythrocytes (mean of 285 sites per cell) and lymphocytes (mean 40,600 sites per cell), there is a strong and highly significant correlation (r = 0.79, P less than 0.001) between the pump density in these cell types in any given individual. Taken together, these studies suggest that genetic factors are important determinants of Na,K pump expression, and that pump density appears to be coordinately regulated in two cell types in healthy individuals
Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Pietropaolo, E.
2014-01-01
We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.
Risky behavior and its effect on survival: snowshoe hare behavior under varying moonlight conditions
Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.
2018-01-01
Predation and predation risk can exert strong influences on the behavior of prey species. However, risk avoidance behaviors may vary among populations of the same species. We studied a population of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) near the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania. This population occupies different habitat types, experiences different environmental conditions, and are exposed to different predator species and densities than northern hare populations; therefore, they might exhibit differences in risk avoidance behaviors. We analyzed hare survival, movement rates, and habitat use under different levels of predation risk, as indexed by moonlight. Similar to previous work, we found snowshoe hare survival decreased with increased moon illumination during the winter, but we found differences in behavioral responses to increased predation risk. We found that snowshoe hares did not reduce movement rates during high‐risk nights, but instead found that hares selected areas with denser canopy cover, compared to low‐risk nights. We suggest that behavioral plasticity in response to predation risk allows populations of the same species to respond to localized conditions.
Miller, Tom E X
2007-07-01
1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.
Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series
Razdan, Ashok
2003-01-01
In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.
Radiation damage in stainless steel under varying temperature neutron irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Naoaki [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1998-03-01
Microstructural evolution of model alloys of 316SS was examined by neutron irradiation at JMTR under cyclic temperature varying condition. In the case of Fe-16Cr-17Ni, formation of interstitial loops and voids are strongly suppressed by varying the temperature from 473K to 673K. By adding Ti as miner element (0.25wt%), however, abnormal accumulation of vacancies (void swelling of 11%dpa at 0.1dpa) was observed. Theoretical analysis standing on the rate theory of defect clustering and simulation irradiation experiments with heavy ions indicates that the vacancy-rich condition which appears temporally during and after changing the temperature from low to high brings these results. It was also shown that only 1 dpa pre-irradiation at low temperature changes swelling behavior at high temperature above several 10 dpa. The understanding of non-steady-state defect processes under temperature varying irradiation is very important to estimate the radiation damage under fusion environment where short-term and long-term temperature variation is expected. (author)
Equation of state of strongly coupled plasma mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt, H.E.
1984-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled (high density) plasmas of mixtures of light elements have been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For an assumed uniform charge background the equation of state of ionic mixtures is a simple extension of the one-component plasma EOS. More realistic electron screening effects are treated in linear response theory and with an appropriate electron dielectric function. Results have been obtained for the ionic pair distribution functions, and for the electric microfield distribution
Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.
Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry
2013-07-05
In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.
Orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.; Dillner, Oe.; Lisak, M.
1992-01-01
An approximate analytical investigation is made to assess the importance of orbit losses of strongly ICRF-heated minority ions. Explicit expressions for the fraction of lost minority ions are derived and shown to be in good agreement with numerical simulation results. The results indicate that present day ICRF heating power density levels cannot be raised significantly without causing important particle and energy losses due to unconfined particle orbits. 6 refs., 5 figs
Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.
Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.
1972-01-01
A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.
Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides
Alsaqqa, Ali M.
Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T switches between Gaussian and non-Gaussian over several hours, possibly arising from dynamically competing ground states. VO2 is one of the most widely studied strongly correlated oxides and is important from the
Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rougemont, Romulo [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ficnar, Andrej [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Finazzo, Stefano I. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade do Estado de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz, 271, CEP 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Noronha, Jorge [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, Butantã, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2016-04-15
Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, μ{sub B}, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for μ{sub B}≤400 MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and μ{sub B} dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter q̂ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the baryon dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy and light quarks generally displays a nontrivial, fast-varying behavior as a function of the temperature near the crossover. Moreover, energy loss is also found to generally increase due to nonzero baryon density effects even though this strongly coupled liquid cannot be described in terms of well defined quasiparticle excitations. Furthermore, to get a glimpse of how thermalization occurs in a hot and baryon dense QGP, we study how the lowest quasinormal mode of an external massless scalar disturbance in the bulk is affected by a nonzero baryon charge. We find that the equilibration time associated with the lowest quasinormal mode decreases in a dense medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoner, J.O. Jr.
1991-01-01
The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)
Evaluation of Persons of Varying Ages.
Stolte, John F.
1996-01-01
Reviews two experiments that strongly support dual coding theory. Dual coding theory holds that communicating concretely (tactile, auditory, or visual stimuli) affects evaluative thinking stronger than communicating abstractly through words and numbers. The experiments applied this theory to the realm of age and evaluation. (MJP)
Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica
Geske, Julian; Drossel, Barbara; Vogel, Michael
2016-03-01
We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.
Fragile-to-strong transition in liquid silica
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julian Geske
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate anomalies in liquid silica with molecular dynamics simulations and present evidence for a fragile-to-strong transition at around 3100 K-3300 K. To this purpose, we studied the structure and dynamical properties of silica over a wide temperature range, finding four indicators of a fragile-to-strong transition. First, there is a density minimum at around 3000 K and a density maximum at 4700 K. The turning point is at 3400 K. Second, the local structure characterized by the tetrahedral order parameter changes dramatically around 3000 K from a higher-ordered, lower-density phase to a less ordered, higher-density phase. Third, the correlation time τ changes from an Arrhenius behavior below 3300 K to a Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behavior at higher temperatures. Fourth, the Stokes-Einstein relation holds for temperatures below 3000 K, but is replaced by a fractional relation above this temperature. Furthermore, our data indicate that dynamics become again simple above 5000 K, with Arrhenius behavior and a classical Stokes-Einstein relation.
Magnetization of dense neutron matter in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, A.A.; Yang, J.
2010-01-01
Spin polarized states in neutron matter at a strong magnetic field up to 1018 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. Analyzing the self consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin polarization parameter as a function of the density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented oppositely to the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, beginning from some threshold density dependent on the magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations have also two other branches of solutions for the spin polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to the free energy corresponding to the thermodynamically preferable branch with the negative spin polarization. As a consequence, at a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state at the high density region in neutron matter which changes into a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization with decrease in the density at some threshold value. The calculations of the neutron spin polarization parameter, energy per neutron, and chemical potentials of spin-up and spin-down neutrons as functions of the magnetic field strength show that the influence of the magnetic field remains small at the field strengths up to 1017 G.
Varied line-space gratings and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinney, W.R.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed
The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.
2010-01-01
The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.
New varying speed of light theories
Magueijo, J
2003-01-01
We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying $c$, dispelling the myth that the constancy of $c$ is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a color dependent speed of light; varying $c$ induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how ``doubly special'' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space...
Graphene on metals: A van der Waals density functional study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Kelkkanen, Kari André
2010-01-01
We use density functional theory (DFT) with a recently developed van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) to study the adsorption of graphene on Co, Ni, Pd, Ag, Au, Cu, Pt, and Al(111) surfaces. In contrast to the local-density approximation (LDA) which predicts relatively strong binding for Ni...
Exploring high-density baryonic matter: Maximum freeze-out density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randrup, Joergen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)
2016-08-15
The hadronic freeze-out line is calculated in terms of the net baryon density and the energy density instead of the usual T and μ{sub B}. This analysis makes it apparent that the freeze-out density exhibits a maximum as the collision energy is varied. This maximum freeze-out density has μ{sub B} = 400 - 500 MeV, which is above the critical value, and it is reached for a fixed-target bombarding energy of 20-30 GeV/N well within the parameters of the proposed NICA collider facility. (orig.)
Holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant in Hořava-Lifshitz cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Setare, M.R. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamil, Mubasher, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)
2010-02-01
We investigate the holographic dark energy scenario with a varying gravitational constant in a flat background in the context of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We extract the exact differential equation determining the evolution of the dark energy density parameter, which includes G variation term. Also we discuss a cosmological implication of our work by evaluating the dark energy equation of state for low redshifts containing varying G corrections.
X-ray measurements of water fog density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camp, A.L.
1982-11-01
Water-fog densities were measured in a laboratory experiment using x-ray diagnostics. Fog densities were measured, varying the flow rate, nozzle type, nozzle configuration, nozzle height above the x-ray beam, and water surface tension. Suspended water volume fractions between 0.0008 and 0.0074 percent were measured. The fog density increases approximately as the square root of the flow rate; the other parameters had little effect on the density
Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Linear Multistep Methods with Variable Step Size
Hadjimichael, Yiannis; Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Né meth, Adriá n
2016-01-01
Strong stability preserving (SSP) methods are designed primarily for time integration of nonlinear hyperbolic PDEs, for which the permissible SSP step size varies from one step to the next. We develop the first SSP linear multistep methods (of order
Transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heckmann, Klaus
2011-01-01
In this thesis, we investigate the dissipative transport phenomena of strongly interacting matter. The special interest is in the shear viscosity and its value divided by entropy density. The performed calculations are based on effective models for Quantum Chromodynamics, mostly focused on the 2-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. This allows us to study the hadronic sector as well as the quark sector within one single model. We expand the models up to next-to-leading order in inverse numbers of colors. We present different possibilities of calculating linear transport coefficients and give an overview over qualitative properties as well as over recent ideas concerning ideal fluids. As present methods are not able to calculate the quark two-point function in Minkowski space-time in the self-consistent approximation scheme of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, a new method for this purpose is developed. This self-energy parametrization method is applied to the expansion scheme, yielding the quark spectral function with meson back-coupling effects. The usage of this spectral function in the transport calculation is only one result of this work. We also test the application of different transport approaches in the NJL model, and find an interesting behavior of the shear viscosity at the critical end point of the phase diagram. We also use the NJL model to calculate the viscosity of a pion gas in the dilute regime. After an analysis of other models for pions and their interaction, we find that the NJL-result leads to an important modification of transport properties in comparison with the calculations which purely rely on pion properties in the vacuum. (orig.)
Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.
Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina
2017-11-01
One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our
The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC
Heinz, Ulrich W
2009-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities -- a "quark-gluon plasma (QGP)". A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called "elliptic flow" in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This article explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements whi...
Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.
1999-01-01
Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, 'SAC-5, CSPC', (''3/4'') large, and (''3/8'') small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...
Achieving maximum baryon densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1984-01-01
In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities
Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer
Teng, Y.; Hu, X.
2013-12-01
application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.
Design and Environment, 1972
1972-01-01
Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…
Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaub, S. C., E-mail: sschaub@mit.edu; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 167 Albany St., Bldg. NW16, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-08-15
Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.
Electron density and gas density measurements in a millimeter-wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaub, S. C.; Hummelt, J. S.; Guss, W. C.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.
2016-01-01
Electron density and neutral gas density have been measured in a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy and two-dimensional laser interferometry, respectively. A plasma was created with a focused high frequency microwave beam in air. Experiments were run with 110 GHz and 124.5 GHz microwaves at powers up to 1.2 MW. Microwave pulses were 3 μs long at 110 GHz and 2.2 μs long at 124.5 GHz. Electron density was measured over a pressure range of 25 to 700 Torr as the input microwave power was varied. Electron density was found to be close to the critical density, where the collisional plasma frequency is equal to the microwave frequency, over the pressure range studied and to vary weakly with input power. Neutral gas density was measured over a pressure range from 150 to 750 Torr at power levels high above the threshold for initiating breakdown. The two-dimensional structure of the neutral gas density was resolved. Intense, localized heating was found to occur hundreds of nanoseconds after visible plasma formed. This heating led to neutral gas density reductions of greater than 80% where peak plasma densities occurred. Spatial structure and temporal dynamics of gas heating at atmospheric pressure were found to agree well with published numerical simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alicia Ledo
Full Text Available Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies.
Progress on MEVVA source VARIS at GSI
Adonin, A.; Hollinger, R.
2018-05-01
For the last few years, the development of the VARIS (vacuum arc ion source) was concentrated on several aspects. One of them was the production of high current ion beams of heavy metals such as Au, Pb, and Bi. The requested ion charge state for these ion species is 4+. This is quite challenging to produce in vacuum arc driven sources for reasonable beam pulse length (>120 µs) due to the physical properties of these elements. However, the situation can be dramatically improved by using the composite materials or alloys with enhanced physical properties of the cathodes. Another aspect is an increase of the beam brilliance for intense U4+ beams by the optimization of the geometry of the extraction system. A new 7-hole triode extraction system allows an increase of the extraction voltage from 30 kV to 40 kV and also reduces the outer aperture of the extracted ion beam. Thus, a record beam brilliance for the U4+ beam in front of the RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) has been achieved, exceeding the RFQ space charge limit for an ion current of 15 mA. Several new projectiles in the middle-heavy region have been successfully developed from VARIS to fulfill the requirements of the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) programs. An influence of an auxiliary gas on the production performance of certain ion charge states as well as on operation stability has been investigated. The optimization of the ion source parameters for a maximum production efficiency and highest particle current in front of the RFQ has been performed. The next important aspect of the development will be the increase of the operation repetition rate of VARIS for all elements especially for uranium to 2.7 Hz in order to provide the maximum availability of high current ion beams for future FAIR experiments.
New varying speed of light theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magueijo, Joao
2003-01-01
We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication
Cremer, Jonas; Segota, Igor; Yang, Chih-Yu; Arnoldini, Markus; Groisman, Alex; Hwa, Terence
2016-11-01
More than half of fecal dry weight is bacterial mass with bacterial densities reaching up to 1012 cells per gram. Mostly, these bacteria grow in the proximal large intestine where lateral flow along the intestine is strong: flow can in principal lead to a washout of bacteria from the proximal large intestine. Active mixing by contractions of the intestinal wall together with bacterial growth might counteract such a washout and allow high bacterial densities to occur. As a step towards understanding bacterial growth in the presence of mixing and flow, we constructed an in-vitro setup where controlled wall-deformations of a channel emulate contractions. We investigate growth along the channel under a steady nutrient inflow. Depending on mixing and flow, we observe varying spatial gradients in bacterial density along the channel. Active mixing by deformations of the channel wall is shown to be crucial in maintaining a steady-state bacterial population in the presence of flow. The growth-dynamics is quantitatively captured by a simple mathematical model, with the effect of mixing described by an effective diffusion term. Based on this model, we discuss bacterial growth dynamics in the human large intestine using flow- and mixing-behavior having been observed for humans.
Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian S.
2004-01-01
A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini......-world are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...
A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B
2016-01-01
It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)
Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Trangbæk, Klaus
The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...
Leptin and bone mineral density
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morberg, Cathrine M.; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva
2003-01-01
Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 kg...... males, but it also stresses the fact that the strong covariation between the examined variables is a shortcoming of the cross-sectional design....
Strong Convergence Bound of the Pareto Index Estimator under Right Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Zuoxiang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed random variables with common Pareto-type distribution function as , where represents a slowly varying function at infinity. In this note we study the strong convergence bound of a kind of right censored Pareto index estimator under second-order regularly varying conditions.
Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated many-body system
You, Wenlong
The past decade has seen a substantial rejuvenation of interest in the study of quantum phase transitions (QPTs), driven by experimental advance on the cuprate superconductors, the heavy fermion materials, organic conductors, Quantum Hall effect, Fe-As based superconductors and other related compounds. It is clear that strong electronic interactions play a crucial role in the systems of current interest, and simple paradigms for the behavior of such systems near quantum critical points remain unclear. Furthermore, the rapid progress in Feshbach resonance and optical lattice provides a flexible platform to study QPT. Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) describes the non-analytic behaviors of the ground-state properties in a many-body system by varying a physical parameter at absolute zero temperature - such as magnetic field or pressure, driven by quantum fluctuations. Such quantum phase transitions can be first-order phase transition or continuous. The phase transition is usually accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the correlations in the ground state, and describing this change shall clearly be one of our major interests. We address this issue from three prospects in a few strong correlated many-body systems in this thesis, i.e., identifying the ordered phases, studying the properties of different phases, characterizing the QPT points. In chapter 1, we give an introduction to QPT, and take one-dimensional XXZ model as an example to illustrate the QPT therein. Through this simple example, we would show that when the tunable parameter is varied, the system evolves into different phases, across two quantum QPT points. The distinct phases exhibit very different behaviors. Also a schematic phase diagram is appended. In chapter 2, we are engaged in research on ordered phases. Originating in the work of Landau and Ginzburg on second-order phase transition, the spontaneous symmetry breaking induces nonzero expectation of field operator, e.g., magnetization M
Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?
Marley, Mark Scott
2014-01-01
Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.
Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances
Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.
2015-12-01
Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic
Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jirí
2003-01-01
We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...
Spherical shock due to point explosion with varying energy
Singh, J. B.; Srivastava, S. K.
1983-05-01
The motion of a perfect gas behind a weak or strong spherical point-explosion shock wave in a nonuniform rest atmosphere is investigated analytically for the case of variable flow energy. The self-similar solutions derived are also adaptable to a uniform expanding piston. The solution is applied to the isothermal case, and the results of numerical integration are presented in graphs showing the density, velocity, and pressure distributions for different values of delta. The findings are considered significant for investigations of sonic booms, laser production of plasmas, high-altitude nuclear detonations, supernova explosions, and the sudden expansion of the solar corona, and for the laboratory production of high temperatures using shock waves.
Behn, M. D.; Conrad, C. P.; Silver, P. G.
2005-12-01
Shear flow in the asthenosphere tends to align olivine crystals in the direction of shear, producing a seismically anisotropic asthenosphere that can be detected using a number of seismic techniques (e.g., shear-wave splitting (SWS) and surface waves). In the ocean basins, where the asthenosphere has a relatively uniform thickness and lithospheric anisotropy appears to be small, observed azimuthal anisotropy is well fit by asthenospheric shear flow in global flow models driven by a combination of plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. In contrast, beneath the continents both the lithospheric ceiling and asthenospheric thickness may vary considerably across cratonic regions and ocean-continent boundaries. To examine the influence of a continental lithosphere with variable thickness on predictions of continental seismic anisotropy, we impose lateral variations in lithospheric viscosity in global models of mantle flow driven by plate motions and mantle density heterogeneity. For the North American continent, the Farallon slab descends beneath a deep cratonic root, producing downwelling flow in the upper mantle and convergent flow beneath the cratonic lithosphere. We evaluate both the orientation of the predicted azimuthal anisotropy and the depth dependence of radial anisotropy for this downwelling flow and find that the inclusion of a strong continental root provides an improved fit to observed SWS observations beneath the North American craton. Thus, we hypothesize that at least some continental anisotropy is associated with sub-lithospheric viscous shear, although fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric layer may also contribute significantly. Although we do not observe significant variations in the direction of predicted anisotropy with depth, we do find that the inclusion of deep continental roots pushes the depth of the anisotropy layer deeper into the upper mantle. We test several different models of laterally-varying lithosphere and asthenosphere
Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terada, Kikuo
1977-01-01
Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)
Surface and canopy fuels vary widely in 24-yr old postfire lodgepole pine forests
Nelson, K. N.; Turner, M.; Romme, W. H.; Tinker, D. B.
2013-12-01
Extreme fire seasons have become common in western North America, and the extent of young postfire forests has grown as fire frequency and annual area burned have increased. These young forests will set the stage for future fires, but an assessment of fuel loads in young forests is lacking. The rate of fuel re-accumulation and fuels variability in postfire forest landscapes is needed to anticipate future fire occurrence and behavior in the American West. We studied fuel characteristics in young lodgepole pine forests that regenerated after the 1988 fires in Yellowstone National Park to address two questions: (1) How do surface fuel characteristics change with time-since-fire? (2) How do canopy and surface fuels vary across the Yellowstone landscape 24 years postfire? During summer 2012, we re-measured surface fuels in 11 plots that were established in 1996 (8 yrs post fire), and we measured surface and canopy fuels in 82 stands (each 0.25 ha) distributed across the Yellowstone post-1988 fire landscape. In the remeasured plots, surface fuel loads generally increased over the last 16 years. One-hr fuels did not change between sample dates, but all other fuel classes (i.e., 10-hr, 100-hr, and 1000-hr) increased by a factor of two or three. Within the sample timeframe, variability of fuel loads within stands decreased significantly. The coefficients of variation decreased for all fuel classes by 23% to 67%. Data from the 82 plots revealed that canopy and surface fuels in 24-year-old stands varied tremendously across the Yellowstone landscape. Live tree densities spanned 0 to 344,067 trees ha-1, producing a mean available canopy fuel load of 7.7 Mg ha-1 and a wide range from 0 to 47 Mg ha-1. Total surface fuel loads averaged 130 Mg ha-1 and ranged from 49 to 229 Mg ha-1, of which 90% was in the 1000-hr fuel class. The mass of fine surface fuels (i.e., litter/duff, 1-hr, 10-hr, and herbaceous fuels) and canopy fuels (i.e., foliage and 1-hr branches) were strongly and
Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density
Maskarinec, Gertraud; Verheus, Martijn; Tice, Jeffrey A.
2010-01-01
Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density. PMID:22253990
Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey A. Tice
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.
Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.
Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla
2013-07-17
Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.
Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanjiva Lele
2012-10-01
The target of this SciDAC Science Application was to develop a new capability based on high-order and high-resolution schemes to simulate shock-turbulence interactions and multi-material mixing in planar and spherical geometries, and to study Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing. These fundamental problems have direct application in high-speed engineering flows, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions and scramjet combustion, and also in the natural occurrence of supernovae explosions. Another component of this project was the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulations of flows involving shock-turbulence interaction and multi-material mixing, that were to be validated with the DNS databases generated during the program. The numerical codes developed are designed for massively-parallel computer architectures, ensuring good scaling performance. Their algorithms were validated by means of a sequence of benchmark problems. The original multi-stage plan for this five-year project included the following milestones: 1) refinement of numerical algorithms for application to the shock-turbulence interaction problem and multi-material mixing (years 1-2); 2) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of canonical shock-turbulence interaction (years 2-3), targeted at improving our understanding of the physics behind the combined two phenomena and also at guiding the development of SGS models; 3) large-eddy simulations (LES) of shock-turbulence interaction (years 3-5), improving SGS models based on the DNS obtained in the previous phase; 4) DNS of planar/spherical RM multi-material mixing (years 3-5), also with the two-fold objective of gaining insight into the relevant physics of this instability and aiding in devising new modeling strategies for multi-material mixing; 5) LES of planar/spherical RM mixing (years 4-5), integrating the improved SGS and multi-material models developed in stages 3 and 5. This final report is outlined as follows. Section 2 shows an assessment of numerical algorithms that are best suited for the numerical simulation of compressible flows involving turbulence and shock phenomena. Sections 3 and 4 deal with the canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem, from the DNS and LES perspectives, respectively. Section 5 considers the shock-turbulence inter-action in spherical geometry, in particular, the interaction of a converging shock with isotropic turbulence as well as the problem of the blast wave. Section 6 describes the study of shock-accelerated mixing through planar and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing as well as the shock-curtain interaction problem In section 7 we acknowledge the different interactions between Stanford and other institutions participating in this SciDAC project, as well as several external collaborations made possible through it. Section 8 presents a list of publications and presentations that have been generated during the course of this SciDAC project. Finally, section 9 concludes this report with the list of personnel at Stanford University funded by this SciDAC project.
Probability densities and Lévy densities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler
For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....
Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.
Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G
2017-03-01
Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R 2 =0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Spatial mapping of humeral head bone density.
Alidousti, Hamidreza; Giles, Joshua W; Emery, Roger J H; Jeffers, Jonathan
2017-09-01
Short-stem humeral replacements achieve fixation by anchoring to the metaphyseal trabecular bone. Fixing the implant in high-density bone can provide strong fixation and reduce the risk of loosening. However, there is a lack of data mapping the bone density distribution in the proximal humerus. The aim of the study was to investigate the bone density in proximal humerus. Eight computed tomography scans of healthy cadaveric humeri were used to map bone density distribution in the humeral head. The proximal humeral head was divided into 12 slices parallel to the humeral anatomic neck. Each slice was then divided into 4 concentric circles. The slices below the anatomic neck, where short-stem implants have their fixation features, were further divided into radial sectors. The average bone density for each of these regions was calculated, and regions of interest were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance with significance set at P density was found to decrease from proximal to distal regions, with the majority of higher bone density proximal to the anatomic neck of the humerus (P density increases from central to peripheral regions, where cortical bone eventually occupies the space (P density distribution in the medial calcar region was also observed. This study indicates that it is advantageous with respect to implant fixation to preserve some bone above the anatomic neck and epiphyseal plate and to use the denser bone at the periphery. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantum Capacity under Adversarial Quantum Noise: Arbitrarily Varying Quantum Channels
Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelaković, Igor; Boche, Holger; Nötzel, Janis
2013-01-01
We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called an arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes a regularized formula for the common randomness-assisted capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC. Quite surprisingly and in contrast to the classical analog of the problem involving the maximal and average error probability, we find that the capacity for entanglement transmission of an AVQC always equals its strong subspace transmission capacity. These results are accompanied by different notions of symmetrizability (zero-capacity conditions) as well as by conditions for an AVQC to have a capacity described by a single-letter formula. In the final part of the paper the capacity of the erasure-AVQC is computed and some light shed on the connection between AVQCs and zero-error capacities. Additionally, we show by entirely elementary and operational arguments motivated by the theory of AVQCs that the quantum, classical, and entanglement-assisted zero-error capacities of quantum channels are generically zero and are discontinuous at every positivity point.
Flexible time-varying filter banks
Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.
1993-09-01
Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.
Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao
2002-01-01
We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes
Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna
2013-01-01
We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks
Determinants of stingless bee nest density in lowland dipterocarp forests of Sabah, Malaysia.
Eltz, Thomas; Brühl, Carsten A; van der Kaars, Sander; Linsenmair, Eduard K
2002-03-01
We measured the nest density of stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini) in undisturbed and logged-over dipterocarp forests in Sabah, northern Borneo, and evaluated hypotheses on proximate factors leading to the observed variation: population control mediated by (1) nest predation, (2) limitation of nest trees, or (3) food limitation. Per-area nest density varied twentyfold across 14 forest sites and was significantly affected by locality, but not by the degree and history of disturbance. Nest density was generally high in sites located in the Sepilok Forest fragment (mean 8.4 nests/ha), bordering mangroves or plantations. In contrast, nest densities in continuous forests were all low (between 0 and 2.1 nests/ha, mean 0.5 nests/ha). Yearly nest mortality was low (13.5-15.0%) over 4 years of observation and did not vary between forest localities, thus limiting the potential of nest predation (1) in creating the observed variation in nest density. The presence of potential nest trees (2), though positively correlated with nest density, explained only a minute fraction of the observed variation. Nest density was best explained by differences in the pollen resources (3) available to the bees (quantified by analysis of pollen in bee garbage). Across five selected sites the amount of nonforest pollen (from mangrove or crop plants) included in diets of Trigona collina was positively correlated with T. collina nest density. External pollen sources are a likely supplement to bee diets at times when little flowering occurs inside the forest, thus increasing overall bee carrying capacity. Pollen limitation was also indicated by direct measurements of pollen import and foraging activity of T. collina in three selected sites: Pollen traps installed at nests in high-density Sepilok captured significantly more corbicular pollen than colonies in low-density Deramakot. At the same time, morning foraging activity was also greater in Sepilok, indicating a regulatory increase in foraging
Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS
2010-01-01
Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the
Panorama 2011: Refining: varying conditions by region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, C.
2011-01-01
The economic crisis has further weakened a sector that was already facing difficulties, if we look beyond the flush period (2005-2008) when, buoyed by strong demand, margins remained high and refiners could generate profits while maintaining a healthy level of activity. Falling demand and increased over-capacity in some regions - the immediate consequences of the deteriorating economic conditions over the past two years - have led to declining margins and to financial accounts being in the red. The adoption of increasingly stringent emissions standards and product specifications, burdensome regulatory requirements for refineries (for combating local pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions), stiffer competition from new fuels: all of these structural factors are weakening the sector, especially in industrialized nations with their more rigorous regulatory compliance. In this generally gloomy climate, numerous new projects are still being envisaged - although many have recently been postponed and tend to be concentrated in developing countries. (author)
Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj
to unbalanced trade offs. In Denmark the strong decentralisation combined with a lacking demand on +/- hours limits for time banks without reference periods seems to impose risks for certain groups of employees who, regardless of company size, can have extraordinary long working hours violating the 48-hour rule......There seems to be a paradox: The use of flexible working hours (i.e. variable hours) is more widespread in Germany than in Denmark, yet at the same time the discussion on the need for further flexibilisation of working hours is also more prevalent in Germany than in Denmark. In order to answer...... the framework agreements on variable hours are specified, is more decentralised in Denmark and allows an adjustment of working time closer to the single employee. 2) Both in the German and Danish metal sectors company-based agreements regulate the growing use of flexible working hours. Though the trade union...
Why Density Dependent Propulsion?
Robertson, Glen A.
2011-01-01
In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimes, S.M.
2005-01-01
Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances
Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjøth, Lars
2009-01-01
Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...
Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes
Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince
2014-01-01
We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...
Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.
1982-01-01
System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)
Scalings, spectra, and statistics of strong wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1996-01-01
A two-component model of strongly nonlinear wave turbulence is developed for a broad class of systems in which high-frequency electrostatic waves interact with low-frequency sound-like waves. In this model coherent nonlinear wave packets form and collapse amid a sea of incoherent background waves. It is shown that three classes of turbulence exist, typified by Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid turbulence. Balance between power input to incoherent waves, and dissipation at the end of collapse determines power-law scalings of turbulent electrostatic energy density, density fluctuations, length and time scales. Knowledge of the evolution of collapsing packets enables probability distributions of the magnitudes of electric fields and density fluctuations to be calculated, yielding power-law dependences. Wavenumber spectra of collapsing waves and associated density fluctuations are also calculated and shown to have power-law forms. Applications to Langmuir, lower-hybrid, and upper-hybrid waves are discussed. In the Langmuir case the results agree with earlier theory and simulations, with one exception, which is consistent only with earlier simulations. In the lower-hybrid and upper-hybrid cases, the results are consistent with the few simulations to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gorenstein M.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP are addressed and discussed.
Local condensate depletion at trap center under strong interactions
Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.
2018-04-01
Cold trapped Bose-condensed atoms, interacting via hard-sphere repulsive potentials are considered. Simple mean-field approximations show that the condensate distribution inside a harmonic trap always has the shape of a hump with the maximum condensate density occurring at the trap center. However, Monte Carlo simulations at high density and strong interactions display the condensate depletion at the trap center. The explanation of this effect of local condensate depletion at trap center is suggested in the frame of self-consistent theory of Bose-condensed systems. The depletion is shown to be due to the existence of the anomalous average that takes into account pair correlations and appears in systems with broken gauge symmetry.
Optical properties of Al nanostructures from time dependent density functional theory
Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2016-01-01
The optical properties of Al nanostructures are investigated by means of time dependent density functional theory, considering chains of varying length and ladders/stripes of varying aspect ratio. The absorption spectra show redshifting
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.
Direct sampling of the sandy substratus of the Agatti Lagoon with a corer showed the presence of vary high densities of epibenthic forms. On average, densities were about 25 times higher than previously estimated with emergence traps. About 80...
Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter
Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.
2017-06-01
The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.
Microsatellites in varied arenas of research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K S Remya
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.
Varying coefficients model with measurement error.
Li, Liang; Greene, Tom
2008-06-01
We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.
Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures
Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven
2004-01-01
The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.
Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.
2005-01-01
We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes
Propagation of hypergeometric Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media
Tang, Bin; Bian, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Kai
2018-01-01
Optical vortex beams have attracted lots of interest due to its potential application in image processing, optical trapping and optical communications, etc. In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigated the propagation properties of hypergeometric Gaussian (HyGG) beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. Based on the Snyder-Mitchell model, analytical expressions for propagation of the HyGG beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media were obtained. The influence of input power and optical parameters on the evolutions of the beam width and radius of curvature is illustrated, respectively. The results show that the beam width and radius of curvature of the HyGG beams remain invariant, like a soliton when the input power is equal to the critical power. Otherwise, it varies periodically like a breather, which is the result of competition between the beam diffraction and nonlinearity of the medium.
Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism
Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.
2015-08-01
Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.
Evolutionary dynamics with fluctuating population sizes and strong mutualism.
Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R
2015-08-01
Game theory ideas provide a useful framework for studying evolutionary dynamics in a well-mixed environment. This approach, however, typically enforces a strictly fixed overall population size, deemphasizing natural growth processes. We study a competitive Lotka-Volterra model, with number fluctuations, that accounts for natural population growth and encompasses interaction scenarios typical of evolutionary games. We show that, in an appropriate limit, the model describes standard evolutionary games with both genetic drift and overall population size fluctuations. However, there are also regimes where a varying population size can strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics. We focus on the strong mutualism scenario and demonstrate that standard evolutionary game theory fails to describe our simulation results. We then analytically and numerically determine fixation probabilities as well as mean fixation times using matched asymptotic expansions, taking into account the population size degree of freedom. These results elucidate the interplay between population dynamics and evolutionary dynamics in well-mixed systems.
Scattering of strongly absorbed particles near the Coulomb barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, B.
1979-01-01
The elastic scattering of strongly absorbed particles near the Coulomb barrier is sensitive to one size parameter, which is the distance at which the real nuclear potential has some fixed value, 0.2 MeV for α-particle, 1 MeV for 16 O. This size parameter can be related in a simple way to the radial distance of the target nucleus where the density takes some given value, 2x10 -3 nucleon /fm 3 for α-particle scattering and 5x10 -3 nucleon/fm 3 for 16 O scattering
A strong coupling simulation of Euclidean quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, B.; Hamburg Univ.
1984-12-01
Relying on Regge calculus a systematic numerical investigation of models of 4d Euclidean gravity is proposed. The scale a = 1 0 is set by fixing the expectation value of a length. Possible universality of such models is discussed. The strong coupling limit is defined by taking Planck mass msub(p) -> 0 (in units of 1 0 -1 ). The zero order approximation msub(p) = 0 is called 'fluctuating space' and investigated numerically in two 4d models. Canonical dimensions are realized and both models give a negative expectation value for the scalar curvature density. (orig.)
Locality of correlation in density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Cancio, Antonio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (United States); Gould, Tim [Qld Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Qld 4111 (Australia); Pittalis, Stefano [CNR-Istituto di Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213A, I-41125 Modena (Italy)
2016-08-07
The Hohenberg-Kohn density functional was long ago shown to reduce to the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation in the non-relativistic semiclassical (or large-Z) limit for all matter, i.e., the kinetic energy becomes local. Exchange also becomes local in this limit. Numerical data on the correlation energy of atoms support the conjecture that this is also true for correlation, but much less relevant to atoms. We illustrate how expansions around a large particle number are equivalent to local density approximations and their strong relevance to density functional approximations. Analyzing highly accurate atomic correlation energies, we show that E{sub C} → −A{sub C} ZlnZ + B{sub C}Z as Z → ∞, where Z is the atomic number, A{sub C} is known, and we estimate B{sub C} to be about 37 mhartree. The local density approximation yields A{sub C} exactly, but a very incorrect value for B{sub C}, showing that the local approximation is less relevant for the correlation alone. This limit is a benchmark for the non-empirical construction of density functional approximations. We conjecture that, beyond atoms, the leading correction to the local density approximation in the large-Z limit generally takes this form, but with B{sub C} a functional of the TF density for the system. The implications for the construction of approximate density functionals are discussed.
Strong-coupling approach to nematicity in the cuprates
Orth, Peter Philipp; Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Schmalian, Joerg; Fernandes, Rafael
The underdoped cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ is known to exhibit an electronic nematic phase in proximity to antiferromagnetism. While nematicity sets in at large temperatures of T ~ 150 K, static spin density wave order only emerges at much lower temperatures. The magnetic response shows a strong in-plane anisotropy, displaying incommensurate Bragg peaks along one of the crystalline directions and a commensurate peak along the other one. Such an anisotropy persists even in the absence of long-range magnetic order at higher temperatures, marking the onset of nematic order. Here we theoretically investigate this situation using a strong-coupling method that takes into account both the localized Cu spins and the holes doped into the oxygen orbitals. We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and show that charge fluctuations promote an enhancement of the nematic susceptibility near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.
Supper strong nanostructured TWIP steels for automotive applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.W. Yuan
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A ductile and super strong nanostructured twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP steels were fabricated by cold rolling and recovery treatment. This strong and ductile nanostructured alloy can be used for the anti-intrusion part of body-in-white. Cold rolling was used to produce intensive nano-twins so that the microstructure was greatly refined. Recovery is employed to anneal dislocations for improving the ductility. A physical model is proposed to describe the relationship between the yield stress and the twin density. Furthermore, the present work also found that the activation energy for recovery is ~160 J/mol, which implies that the recovery mechanism is governed by dislocation core diffusion.
A new class of strongly coupled plasmas inspired by sonoluminescence
Bataller, Alexander; Plateau, Guillaume; Kappus, Brian; Putterman, Seth
2014-10-01
Sonoluminescence originates in a strongly coupled plasma with a near liquid density and a temperature of ~10,000 K. This plasma is in LTE and therefore, it should be a general thermodynamic state. To test the universality of sonoluminescence, similar plasma conditions were generated using femtosecond laser breakdown in high pressure gases. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals both transport and thermodynamic properties of a strongly coupled plasma. A blackbody spectrum, which persists long after the exciting laser has turned off, indicates the presence of a highly ionized LTE microplasma. In parallel with sonoluminescence, this thermodynamic state is achieved via a considerable reduction in the ionization potential. We gratefully acknowledge support from DARPA MTO for research on microplasmas. We thank Brian Naranjo, Keith Weninger, Carlos Camara, Gary Williams, and John Koulakis for valuable discussions.
Wigner functions for fermions in strong magnetic fields
Sheng, Xin-li; Rischke, Dirk H.; Vasak, David; Wang, Qun
2018-02-01
We compute the covariant Wigner function for spin-(1/2) fermions in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field by exactly solving the Dirac equation at non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge densities. The Landau energy levels as well as a set of orthonormal eigenfunctions are found as solutions of the Dirac equation. With these orthonormal eigenfunctions we construct the fermion field operators and the corresponding Wigner-function operator. The Wigner function is obtained by taking the ensemble average of the Wigner-function operator in global thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., at constant temperature T and non-zero fermion-number and chiral-charge chemical potentials μ and μ_5, respectively. Extracting the vector and axial-vector components of the Wigner function, we reproduce the currents of the chiral magnetic and separation effect in an arbitrarily strong magnetic field.
Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)
2017-05-15
A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)
Highly Resolved Measurements of a Developing Strong Collisional Plasma Shock
Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Higginson, D. P.; Wilks, S. C.; Haberberger, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Keenan, B. D.; Vold, E. L.
2018-03-01
The structure of a strong collisional shock front forming in a plasma is directly probed for the first time in laser-driven gas-jet experiments. Thomson scattering of a 526.5 nm probe beam was used to diagnose temperature and ion velocity distribution in a strong shock (M ˜11 ) propagating through a low-density (ρ ˜0.01 mg /cc ) plasma composed of hydrogen. A forward-streaming population of ions traveling in excess of the shock velocity was observed to heat and slow down on an unmoving, unshocked population of cold protons, until ultimately the populations merge and begin to thermalize. Instabilities are observed during the merging, indicating a uniquely plasma-phase process in shock front formation.
Spectator Effects during Leptogenesis in the Strong Washout Regime
Garbrecht, Bjorn
2014-01-01
By including spectator fields into the Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis, we show that partially equilibrated spectator interactions can have a significant impact on the freeze-out value of the asymmetry in the strong washout regime. The final asymmetry is typically increased, since partially equilibrated spectators "hide" a part of the asymmetry from washout. We study examples with leptonic and non-leptonic spectator processes, assuming thermal initial conditions, and find up to 50% enhanced asymmetries compared to the limit of fully equilibrated spectators. Together with a comprehensive overview of the equilibration temperatures for various Standard Model processes, the numerical results indicate the ranges when the limiting cases of either fully equilibrated or negligible spectator fields are applicable and when they are not. Our findings also indicate an increased sensitivity to initial conditions and finite density corrections even in the strong washout regime.
Rydberg-atom formation in strongly correlated ultracold plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bannasch, G.; Pohl, T.
2011-01-01
In plasmas at very low temperatures, the formation of neutral atoms is dominated by collisional three-body recombination, owing to the strong ∼T -9/2 scaling of the corresponding recombination rate with the electron temperature T. While this law is well established at high temperatures, the unphysical divergence as T→0 clearly suggests a breakdown in the low-temperature regime. Here, we present a combined molecular dynamics Monte Carlo study of electron-ion recombination over a wide range of temperatures and densities. Our results reproduce the known behavior of the recombination rate at high temperatures, but reveal significant deviations with decreasing temperature. We discuss the fate of the kinetic bottleneck and resolve the divergence problem as the plasma enters the ultracold, strongly coupled domain.
High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pericoli Ridolfini, V.
2005-01-01
One of the proposed ITER scenarios foresees the creation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in order to improve the confinement properties of the hot core plasma. The more stringent requests are: the ITB must be sustained with electron heating only with no or very small external momentum source, the strong collisional coupling at the envisaged density (line average >1.0 1020 m-3) must not prevent the barrier existence, the bootstrap current created by the large induced gradients must have a radial profile consistent with that requested by the barrier creation and sustainment. To all these items the studies carried out in FTU in the same density range (ne0 ?1.5 1020 m-3) provide encouraging prospects. With pure electron heating and current drive (LH+ECH) steady electron barrier are generated and maintained with central e- temperature >5.0 keV. Almost full CD conditions are established with a bootstrap current close to 25% of the total and well aligned with that driven by the LH waves and responsible for the barrier building. The clear change in the density fluctuations close to the ITB radius, observed by reflectometry, indicates stabilization of turbulence that is consistent with the drop of the thermal electron diffusivity inside the ITB to very low values, ?e<0.5 m2/s estimated by the transport analysis. The 10 fold neutron rate increase testifies a significant collisional ion heating, even though usually ?Ti0/Ti0 does not exceed 40%, because the e--i + equipartition time, always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time, does not allow thermal equilibrium with electrons to be attained. The ion thermal diffusivity inside the barrier must be lowered to the neoclassical level to account for the observed Ti(r) profiles, clearly indicating at least a non-degraded ion transport. The global confinement in turn improves by 1.6 times above the FTU L-scaling. The ITB radius can be controlled by varying the LH power deposition profile that is
On density forecast evaluation
Diks, C.
2008-01-01
Traditionally, probability integral transforms (PITs) have been popular means for evaluating density forecasts. For an ideal density forecast, the PITs should be uniformly distributed on the unit interval and independent. However, this is only a necessary condition, and not a sufficient one, as
On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture
McCullough, Jason
2009-01-01
In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, S.D.
1992-01-01
The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)
1992-12-31
The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.
Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).
The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle
Cheng, Yong
2015-01-01
In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.
Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer
van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.
1996-01-01
A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class
Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1984-01-01
It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)
The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...
Optimization of strong and weak coordinates
Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.
2006-01-01
We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation
78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance
2013-03-12
... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...
Etienne, Xiaoli L.; Trujillo-Barrera, Andrés; Hoffman, Linwood A.
2017-01-01
We find distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) prices to be positively correlated with both corn and soybean meal prices in the long run. However, neither corn nor soybean meal prices respond to deviations from this long-run relationship. We also identify strong time-varying dynamic
Learning Grasp Affordance Densities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver
2011-01-01
and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...
Seismic switch for strong motion measurement
Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.
1995-05-30
A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.
Influence Of Density On The Durabilities Of Three Ghanaian Timbers ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Review of factors influencing wood durability shows although density varies depending on trunk position, its role appears controversial for many timber species. Thus, for the first time, the influence of density on the durability of three Ghanaian timbers (Nauclea diderrichii (de Wild.) Merr., Nesogordonia papaverifera (A. Chev ...
Elasticity and Density of Paleozoic Shales from Bornholm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Haugwitz, C.; Larsen, Pernille Birkelund
2017-01-01
Darcy. We found that solid density and elastic stiffness parameters only vary insignificantly with solid composition, when TOC is lower than 5%, but that mass density and TOC are correlated when TOC is higher than 5%. A similar correlation was not seen for TOC and Sonic logging data. A reason can...
Combined Density Nowcasting in an Uncertain Economic Environment
K.A. Aastveit; F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)
2014-01-01
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We introduce a Combined Density Nowcasting (CDN) approach to Dynamic Factor Models (DFM) that in a coherent way accounts for time-varying uncertainty of several model and data features in order to provide more accurate and complete density nowcasts. The combination
Huge cystic craniopharyngioma. Changes of cyst density on computed tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko
1986-06-01
The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed.
Dynamics of liquid metal droplets and jets influenced by a strong axial magnetic field
Hernández, D.; Karcher, Ch
2017-07-01
Non-contact electromagnetic control and shaping of liquid metal free surfaces is crucial in a number of high-temperature metallurgical processes like levitation melting and electromagnetic sealing, among others. Other examples are the electromagnetic bending or stabilization of liquid metal jets that frequently occur in casting or fusion applications. Within this context, we experimentally study the influence of strong axial magnetic fields on the dynamics of falling metal droplets and liquid metal jets. GaInSn in eutectic composition is used as test melt being liquid at room temperature. In the experiments, we use a cryogen-free superconducting magnet (CFM) providing steady homogeneous fields of up to 5 T and allowing a tilt angle between the falling melt and the magnet axis. We vary the magnetic flux density, the tilt angle, the liquid metal flow rate, and the diameter and material of the nozzle (electrically conducting/insulating). Hence, the experiments cover a parameter range of Hartmann numbers Ha, Reynolds numbers Re, and Weber numbers We within 0 rotation ceases and the droplets are stretched in the field direction. Moreover, we observe that the jet breakup into droplets (spheroidization) is suppressed, and in the case of electrically conducting nozzles and tilt, the jets are bent towards the field axis.
Evolution of perturbation in charge-varying dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popel, S.I.; Golub, A.P.; Losseva, T.V.; Bingham, R.; Benkadda, S.
2001-01-01
The nonstationary problem of the evolution of perturbation and its transformation into nonlinear wave structure in dusty plasmas is considered. For this purpose two one-dimensional models based on a set of fluid equations, Poisson's equation, and a charging equation for dust are developed. The first (simplified) model corresponds to the case [Popel et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 4313 (1996)] when exact steady-state shock wave solutions can exist. This simplified model includes variable-charged dust grains, Boltzmann electrons, and inertial ions. The second (ionization source) model takes into account the variation of the ion density and the ion momentum dissipation due to dust particle charging as well as the source of plasma particles due to ionization process. The computational method for solving the set of equations which describe the evolution in time of a nonlinear structure in a charge-varying dusty plasma is developed. The case of the evolution of an intensive initial nonmoving region with a constant enhanced ion density is investigated on the basis of these two models. The consideration within the ionization source model is performed for the data of the laboratory experiment [Luo et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3455 (1999)]. It is shown that the ionization source model allows one to obtain shock structures as a result of evolution of an initial perturbation and to explain the experimental value of the width of the shock wave front. Comparison of the numerical data obtained on the basis of the ionization source model and the simplified model shows that the main characteristic features of the shock structure are the same for both models. Nevertheless, the ionization source model is much more sensitive to the form of the initial perturbation than the simplified model. The solution of the problem of the evolution of perturbation and its transformation into shock wave in charge-varying dusty plasmas opens up possibilities for description of the real phenomena like supernova
Strong plasma turbulence in the earth's electron foreshock
Robinson, P. A.; Newman, D. L.
1991-01-01
A quantitative model is developed to account for the distribution in magnitude and location of the intense plasma waves observed in the earth's electron foreshock given the observed rms levels of waves. In this model, nonlinear strong-turbulence effects cause solitonlike coherent wave packets to form and decouple from incoherent background beam-excited weak turbulence, after which they convect downstream with the solar wind while collapsing to scales as short as 100 m and fields as high as 2 V/m. The existence of waves with energy densities above the strong-turbulence wave-collapse threshold is inferred from observations from IMP 6 and ISEE 1 and quantitative agreement is found between the predicted distribution of fields in an ensemble of such wave packets and the actual field distribution observed in situ by IMP 6. Predictions for the polarization of plasma waves and the bandwidth of ion-sound waves are also consistent with the observations. It is shown that strong-turbulence effects must be incorporated in any comprehensive theory of the propagation and evolution of electron beams in the foreshock. Previous arguments against the existence of strong turbulence in the foreshock are refuted.
Strong plasma turbulence in the earth's electron foreshock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Newman, D.L.
1991-01-01
A quantitative model is developed to account for the distribution in magnitude and location of the intense plasma waves observed in the Earth's electron foreshock given the observed rms levels of waves. In this model, nonlinear strong-turbulence effects cause solitonlike coherent wave packets to form and decouple from incoherent background beam-excited weak turbulence, after which they convect downstream with the solar wind while collapsing to scales as short as 100 m and fields as high as 2 V m -1 . The existence of waves with energy densities above the strong-turbulence wave-collapse threshold is inferred from observations from IMP 6 and ISEE 1 and quantitative agreement is found between the predicted distribution of fields in an ensemble of such wave packets and the actual field distribution observed in situ by IMP 6. Predictions for the polarization of plasma waves and the bandwidth of ion-sound waves are also consistent with the observations. It is shown that strong-turbulence effects must be incorporated in any comprehensive theory of the propagation and evolution of electron beams in the foreshock. Previous arguments against the existence of strong turbulence in the foreshock are refuted
The strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma created at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinz, Ulrich
2009-01-01
The relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC) was built to re-create and study in the laboratory the extremely hot and dense matter that filled our entire universe during its first few microseconds. Its operation since June 2000 has been extremely successful, and the four large RHIC experiments have produced an impressive body of data which indeed provide compelling evidence for the formation of thermally equilibrated matter at unprecedented temperatures and energy densities-a 'quark-gluon plasma (QGP)'. A surprise has been the discovery that this plasma behaves like an almost perfect fluid, with extremely low viscosity. Theorists had expected a weakly interacting gas of quarks and gluons, but instead we seem to have created a strongly coupled plasma liquid. The experimental evidence strongly relies on a feature called 'elliptic flow' in off-central collisions, with additional support from other observations. This paper explains how we probe the strongly coupled QGP, describes the ideas and measurements which led to the conclusion that the QGP is an almost perfect liquid, and shows how they tie relativistic heavy-ion physics into other burgeoning fields of modern physics, such as strongly coupled Coulomb plasmas, ultracold systems of trapped atoms and superstring theory
de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta
2011-01-01
A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and
Non-linear density-dependent effects of an intertidal ecosystem engineer.
Harley, Christopher D G; O'Riley, Jaclyn L
2011-06-01
Ecosystem engineering is an important process in a variety of ecosystems. However, the relationship between engineer density and engineering impact remains poorly understood. We used experiments and a mathematical model to examine the role of engineer density in a rocky intertidal community in northern California. In this system, the whelk Nucella ostrina preys on barnacles (Balanus glandula and Chthamalus dalli), leaving empty barnacle tests as a resource (favorable microhabitat) for other species. Field experiments demonstrated that N. ostrina predation increased the availability of empty tests of both barnacle species, reduced the density of the competitively dominant B. glandula, and indirectly increased the density of the competitively inferior C. dalli. Empty barnacle tests altered microhabitat humidity, but not temperature, and presumably provided a refuge from wave action. The herbivorous snail Littorina plena was positively associated with empty test availability in both observational comparisons and experimental manipulations of empty test availability, and L. plena density was elevated in areas with foraging N. ostrina. To explore the effects of variation in N. ostrina predation, we constructed a demographic matrix model for barnacles in which we varied predation intensity. The model predicted that number of available empty tests increases with predation intensity to a point, but declines when predation pressure was strong enough to severely reduce adult barnacle densities. The modeled number of available empty tests therefore peaked at an intermediate level of N. ostrina predation. Non-linear relationships between engineer density and engineer impact may be a generally important attribute of systems in which engineers influence the population dynamics of the species that they manipulate.
Polytypism and unexpected strong interlayer coupling in two-dimensional layered ReS2
Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhou, Linwei; Qiao, Jingsi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Wei; Tan, Ping-Heng
2016-04-01
Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and anisotropic-like (AI) N layer (NL, N > 1) ReS2 are revealed by ultralow- and high-frequency Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and first-principles density functional theory calculation. Two interlayer shear modes are observed in AI-NL-ReS2 while only one shear mode appears in IS-NL-ReS2, suggesting anisotropic- and isotropic-like stacking orders in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2, respectively. This explicit difference in the observed frequencies identifies an unexpected strong interlayer coupling in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2. Quantitatively, the force constants of them are found to be around 55-90% of those of multilayer MoS2. The revealed strong interlayer coupling and polytypism in multi-layer ReS2 may stimulate future studies on engineering physical properties of other anisotropic 2D materials by stacking orders.Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and
Laser produced plasma density measurement by Mach-Zehnder interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaziri, A.; Kohanzadeh, Y.; Mosavi, R.K.
1976-06-01
This report describes an optical interferometric method of measuring the refractive index of the laser-produced plasma, giving estimates of its electron density. The plasma is produced by the interaction of a high power pulsed CO 2 laser beam with a solid target in the vacuum. The time varying plasma has a transient electron density. This transient electron density gives rise to a changing plasma refractive index. A Mach-Zehnder ruby laser interferometer is used to measure this refractive index change
Shakal, A.; Graizer, V.; Huang, M.; Borcherdt, R.; Haddadi, H.; Lin, K.-W.; Stephens, C.; Roffers, P.
2005-01-01
The Parkfield 2004 earthquake yielded the most extensive set of strong-motion data in the near-source region of a magnitude 6 earthquake yet obtained. The recordings of acceleration and volumetric strain provide an unprecedented document of the near-source seismic radiation for a moderate earthquake. The spatial density of the measurements alon g the fault zone and in the linear arrays perpendicular to the fault is expected to provide an exceptional opportunity to develop improved models of the rupture process. The closely spaced measurements should help infer the temporal and spatial distribution of the rupture process at much higher resolution than previously possible. Preliminary analyses of the peak a cceleration data presented herein shows that the motions vary significantly along the rupture zone, from 0.13 g to more than 2.5 g, with a map of the values showing that the larger values are concentrated in three areas. Particle motions at the near-fault stations are consistent with bilateral rupture. Fault-normal pulses similar to those observed in recent strike-slip earthquakes are apparent at several of the stations. The attenuation of peak ground acceleration with distance is more rapid than that indicated by some standard relationships but adequately fits others. Evidence for directivity in the peak acceleration data is not strong. Several stations very near, or over, the rupturing fault recorded relatively low accelerations. These recordings may provide a quantitative basis to understand observations of low near-fault shaking damage that has been reported in other large strike-slip earthquak.
Fish stocking density impacts tank hydrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Michael R.; Lunger, Angela; Laursen, Jesper
2006-01-01
The effect of stocking density upon the hydrodynamics of a circular tank, configured in a recirculation system, was investigated. Red drums Sciaenops ocellatus of approximately 140 g wet weight, were stocked at five rates varying from 0 to 12 kg m-3. The impact of the presence of fish upon tank...... hydrodynamics was established using in-tank-based Rhodamine WT fluorometry at a flow rate of 0.23 l s-1 (tank exchange rate of 1.9 h-1). With increasing numbers of animals, curvilinear relationships were observed for dispersion coefficients and tank mixing times. Stocking densities of 3, 6, 9 and 12 kg m-3...
Lazzeretti, Paolo
2018-04-01
It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.
Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J.
2015-01-01
Objectives Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Methods Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38–0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Results Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation. PMID:25906320
Ziemińska, Kasia; Westoby, Mark; Wright, Ian J
2015-01-01
Just as people with the same weight can have different body builds, woods with the same wood density can have different anatomies. Here, our aim was to assess the magnitude of anatomical variation within a restricted range of wood density and explore its potential ecological implications. Twig wood of 69 angiosperm tree and shrub species was analyzed. Species were selected so that wood density varied within a relatively narrow range (0.38-0.62 g cm-3). Anatomical traits quantified included wood tissue fractions (fibres, axial parenchyma, ray parenchyma, vessels, and conduits with maximum lumen diameter below 15 μm), vessel properties, and pith area. To search for potential ecological correlates of anatomical variation the species were sampled across rainfall and temperature contrasts, and several other ecologically-relevant traits were measured (plant height, leaf area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity). Despite the limited range in wood density, substantial anatomical variation was observed. Total parenchyma fraction varied from 0.12 to 0.66 and fibre fraction from 0.20 to 0.74, and these two traits were strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.86, P area to sapwood area ratio, and modulus of elasticity (0.24 ≤|r|≤ 0.41, P area to sapwood area ratio (0.47 ≤|r|≤ 0.65, all P area spectrum. The fibre-parenchyma spectrum does not yet have any clear or convincing ecological interpretation.
Dual field theory of strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akers, D.
1987-01-01
A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137
Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation
Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I
2014-01-01
Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.
Semi-strong split domination in graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwar Alwardi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.
Ernst, D.
2015-11-01
We present new experiments and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations showing that density gradient driven TEM (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-Mode plasmas during strong electron heating. Thus α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-Mode plasmas with moderate density peaking. These DIII-D low torque quiescent H-mode experiments were designed to study DGTEM turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO (and GENE) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes, but also density fluctuation spectra, with and without ECH. Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te /Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear TEM critical density gradient, locally flattening the density profile. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering (DBS) intensify near ρ = 0.3 during ECH, displaying a band of coherent fluctuations with adjacent toroidal mode numbers. GYRO closely reproduces the DBS spectrum and its change in shape and intensity with ECH, identifying these as coherent TEMs. Prior to ECH, parallel flow shear lowers the effective nonlinear DGTEM critical density gradient 50%, but is negligible during ECH, when transport displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. GS2 predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0 >qmin > 1 . A related experiment in the same regime varied the electron temperature gradient in the outer half-radius (ρ ~ 0 . 65) using ECH, revealing spatially coherent 2D mode structures in the Te fluctuations measured by ECE imaging. Fourier analysis with modulated ECH finds a threshold in Te profile stiffness. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, F.; Varela, P.; Silva, A.; Manso, M.; Santos, J.; Nunes, I.; Serra, F.; Kurzan, B.; Suttrop, W.
1997-01-01
Broadband reflectometry is a current technique that uses the round-trip group delays of reflected frequency-swept waves to measure density profiles of fusion plasmas. The main factor that may limit the accuracy of the reconstructed profiles is the interference of the probing waves with the plasma density fluctuations: plasma turbulence leads to random phase variations and magneto hydrodynamic activity produces mainly strong amplitude and phase modulations. Both effects cause the decrease, and eventually loss, of signal at some frequencies. Several data processing techniques can be applied to filter and/or interpolate noisy group delay data obtained from turbulent plasmas with a single frequency sweep. Here, we propose a more powerful algorithm performing two-dimensional regularization (in space and time) of data provided by multiple consecutive frequency sweeps, which leads to density profiles with improved accuracy. The new method is described and its application to simulated data corrupted by noise and missing data is considered. It is shown that the algorithm improves the identification of slowly varying plasma density perturbations by attenuating the effect of fast fluctuations and noise contained in experimental data. First results obtained with this method in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Chemical Evolution of Strongly Interacting Quark-Gluon Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning
2014-01-01
At very initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions a wave of quark-gluon matter is produced from the break-up of the strong color electric field and then thermalizes at a short time scale (~1 fm/c). However, the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) system is far out of chemical equilibrium, especially for the heavy quarks which are supposed to reach chemical equilibrium much late. In this paper a continuing quark production picture for strongly interacting QGP system is derived, using the quark number susceptibilities and the equation of state; both of them are from the results calculated by the Wuppertal-Budapest lattice QCD collaboration. We find that the densities of light quarks increase by 75% from the temperature T=400 MeV to T=150 MeV, while the density of strange quark annihilates by 18% in the temperature region. We also offer a discussion on how this late production of quarks affects the final charge-charge correlations
Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms
Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir
2016-03-01
We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.
Stabilizing strongly correlated photon fluids with non-Markovian reservoirs
Lebreuilly, José; Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Ciuti, Cristiano; Carusotto, Iacopo
2017-09-01
We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of transition frequencies. Our proposal is predicted to stabilize a nonequilibrium steady state sharing important features with a zero-temperature equilibrium state with a tunable chemical potential. We confirm the efficiency of our proposal for the Bose-Hubbard model by computing numerically the steady state for finite system sizes: first, we predict the occurrence of a sequence of incompressible Mott-insulator-like states with arbitrary integer densities presenting strong robustness against tunneling and losses. Secondly, for stronger tunneling amplitudes or noninteger densities, the system enters a coherent regime analogous to the superfluid state. In addition to an overall agreement with the zero-temperature equilibrium state, exotic nonequilibrium processes leading to a finite entropy generation are pointed out in specific regions of parameter space. The equilibrium ground state is shown to be recovered by adding frequency-dependent losses. The promise of this improved scheme in view of quantum simulation of the zero-temperature many-body physics is highlighted.
Strong coupling of collection of emitters on hyperbolic meta-material
Biehs, Svend-Age; Xu, Chenran; Agarwal, Girish S.
2018-04-01
Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of a strong coupling regime of the radiation matter interaction in the context of an emitter at a meta surface. The strong interaction is well realized in cavity quantum electrodynamics, which also show that strong coupling is much easier to realize using a collection of emitters. Keeping this in mind, we study if emitters on a hyperbolic meta materials can yield a strong coupling regime. We show that strong coupling can be realized for densities of emitters exceeding a critical value. A way to detect strong coupling between emitters and hyperbolic metamaterials is to use the Kretschman-Raether configuration. The strong coupling appears as the splitting of the reflectivity dip. In the weak coupling regime, the dip position shifts. The shift and splitting can be used to sense active molecules at surfaces.
Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize
Durrani, Matin
2004-01-01
Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)
Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.
1995-01-01
The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)
Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD
Fromm, Michael
2009-01-01
The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.
Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, S.D.
1991-01-01
An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, S.D.
1991-01-01
An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders
Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufmann, W.B.
1977-01-01
The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data
Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1982-10-01
Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)
Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennington, M.R.
1996-01-01
This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)
Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics
Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.
2018-03-01
Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.
The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions
El-Bennich, Bruno
2018-01-01
We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.
Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.
1982-06-01
Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt
Building strong brands – does it matter?
Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik
2014-01-01
Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...
Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.
2004-01-01
The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, J.
2007-01-01
The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals
Low Density Supersonic Decelerators
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...
density functional theory approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
YOGESH ERANDE
2017-07-27
Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.
BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...
Density scaling for multiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, A
2011-01-01
Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.
Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notomi, Masaya
2010-01-01
Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.
Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1997-01-01
The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Shi, Lei; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Xiaotong; Yang, Min; Liu, Yanming
2018-01-01
The plasma sheath-surrounded hypersonic vehicle is a dynamic and time-varying medium and it is almost impossible to calculate time-varying physical parameters directly. The in-fight detection of the time-varying degree is important to understand the dynamic nature of the physical parameters and their effect on re-entry communication. In this paper, a constant envelope zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence based on time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method is proposed to detect the plasma sheath electronic density time-varying property and wireless channel characteristic. The proposed method utilizes the CAZAC sequence, which has excellent autocorrelation and spread gain characteristics, to realize dynamic time-varying detection/channel sounding under low signal-to-noise ratio in the plasma sheath environment. Theoretical simulation under a typical time-varying radio channel shows that the proposed method is capable of detecting time-variation frequency up to 200 kHz and can trace the channel amplitude and phase in the time domain well under -10 dB. Experimental results conducted in the RF modulation discharge plasma device verified the time variation detection ability in practical dynamic plasma sheath. Meanwhile, nonlinear phenomenon of dynamic plasma sheath on communication signal is observed thorough channel sounding result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.
1979-01-01
Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.
1983-01-01
Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared
Coulomb Impurity Problem of Graphene in Strong Coupling Regime in Magnetic Fields.
Kim, S C; Yang, S-R Eric
2015-10-01
We investigate the Coulomb impurity problem of graphene in strong coupling limit in the presence of magnetic fields. When the strength of the Coulomb potential is sufficiently strong the electron of the lowest energy boundstate of the n = 0 Landau level may fall to the center of the potential. To prevent this spurious effect the Coulomb potential must be regularized. The scaling function for the inverse probability density of this state at the center of the impurity potential is computed in the strong coupling regime. The dependence of the computed scaling function on the regularization parameter changes significantly as the strong coupling regime is approached.
A model to optimize trap systems used for small mammal (Rodentia, Insectivora density estimates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damiano Preatoni
1997-12-01
Full Text Available <strong>Abstract> The environment found in the upper and lower Padane Plain and the adjoining hills isn't very homogeneous. In fact it is impossible to find biotopes extended enough to satisfy the necessary criteria for density estimate of small mammals based on the Removal method. This limitation has been partially overcome by adopting a reduced grid, counting 39 traps whose spacing depends on the studied species. Aim of this work was to verify - and eventually measure - the efficiency of a sampling method based on a "reduced" number of catch points. The efficiency of 18 trapping cycles, realized from 1991 to 1993, was evaluated as percent bias. For each of the trapping cycles, 100 computer simulations were performed, so obtaining a Monte-Carlo estimate of bias in density values. Then later, the efficiency of different trap arrangements was examined by varying the criteria. The numbers of traps ranged from 9 to 49, with trap spacing varying from 5 to 15 m and a trapping period duration from 5 to 9 nights. In this way an optimal grid system was found both for dimensions and time duration. The simulation processes involved, as a whole, 1511 different grid types, for 11347 virtual trapping cycles. Our results indicate that density estimates based on "reduced" grids are affected by an average -16% bias, that is an underestimate, and that an optimally sized grid must consist of 6x6 traps square, with about 8.7 m spacing. and be in operation for 7 nights.
Strongly coupled semiclassical plasma: interaction model and some properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baimbetov, N.F.; Bekenov, N.A.
1999-01-01
In the report a fully ionized strongly coupled hydrogen plasma is considered. The density number is considered within range n=n e =n i ≅(10 21 -2·10 25 )sm -3 , and the temperature domian is T≅(5·10 4 -10 6 ) K. The coupling parameter Γ is defined by Γ=e 2 /αk B T, where k B is the Boltzmann constant and e is electrical charge, α=(3/4πn) 1/3 is the average distance between the particles (Wigner-Seitz radius). The dimensionless density parameter r s =α/α B is given in terms of the Bohr radius α B =ℎ 2 /me 2 ∼0.529·10 - 8 sm. The degeneracy parameter for the electron was defined by the ratio between the thermal energy k B T and the Fermi energy E F :Θ=k B T/E F ∼0.54·r s /Γ. The intermediate temperature-density region, where Γ≥1; Θ≅1; T>13.6 eV is examined. A semiclassical effective potential which account for the short-range, quantum diffraction and symmetry effects of charge carriers screening
Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement of Silicon Oxycarbide through Defect Engineering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brian Ford
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The following study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of chemically synthesized silicon oxycarbide (SiCxOy thin films and nanowires through defect engineering via post-deposition passivation treatments. SiCxOy materials were deposited via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD, and exhibit strong white light emission at room-temperature. Post-deposition passivation treatments were carried out using oxygen, nitrogen, and forming gas (FG, 5% H2, 95% N2 ambients, modifying the observed white light emission. The observed white luminescence was found to be inversely related to the carbonyl (C=O bond density present in the films. The peak-to-peak PL was enhanced ~18 and ~17 times for, respectively, the two SiCxOy matrices, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich SiCxOy, via post-deposition passivations. Through a combinational and systematic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PL study, it was revealed that proper tailoring of the passivations reduces the carbonyl bond density by a factor of ~2.2, corresponding to a PL enhancement of ~50 times. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent and temperature-dependent time resolved PL (TDPL and TD-TRPL behaviors of the nitrogen and forming gas passivated SiCxOy thin films were investigated to acquire further insight into the ramifications of the passivation on the carbonyl/dangling bond density and PL yield.
Constructing Regional Groundwater Models from Geophysical Data of Varying Type, Age, and Quality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vest Christiansen, Anders; Auken, Esben; Marker, Pernille Aabye
for parameterization of a 3D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models. The objective is to create a direct input to regional groundwater models for sedimentary areas, where the sand/clay distribution governs the groundwater flow. The resistivity input is all......-inclusive in the sense that we include data from a variety of instruments (DC and EM, ground-based and airborne), with a varying spatial density and varying ages and quality. The coupling between hydrological and geophysical parameters is managed using a translator function with spatially variable parameters, which...
Long Memory of Financial Time Series and Hidden Markov Models with Time-Varying Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
2016-01-01
Hidden Markov models are often used to model daily returns and to infer the hidden state of financial markets. Previous studies have found that the estimated models change over time, but the implications of the time-varying behavior have not been thoroughly examined. This paper presents an adaptive...... to reproduce with a hidden Markov model. Capturing the time-varying behavior of the parameters also leads to improved one-step density forecasts. Finally, it is shown that the forecasting performance of the estimated models can be further improved using local smoothing to forecast the parameter variations....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2010-01-01
We investigate several varying-mass dark matter particle models in the framework of phantom cosmology. We examine whether there exist late-time cosmological solutions, corresponding to an accelerating universe and possessing dark energy and dark matter densities of the same order. Imposing exponential or power-law potentials and exponential or power-law mass dependence, we conclude that the coincidence problem cannot be solved or even alleviated. Thus, if dark energy is attributed to the phantom paradigm, varying-mass dark matter models cannot fulfill the basic requirement that led to their construction.
Surface Relaxation and Electronic States of Pt(111) Surface with Varying Slab Thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaushal, Ashok K.; Mullick, Shanta; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2011-01-01
Surface relaxation and electronic DOS's of Pt(111) surface have been studied with varying slab thickness using ab-initio SIESTA method. We found the expansion in the top layer and contraction in the subsurface layers of Pt(111) surface. Our results match with the experimental results. Also observing electronic density of states we found that as we increase the thickness of slab, the PDOS of Pt(111) surface goes towards the bulk density of states and Fermi energy shifts towards the bulk fermi energy.
Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mochalov, M. A., E-mail: postmaster@ifv.vniief.ru; Il’kaev, R. I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, A. L.; Blikov, A. O.; Ogorodnikov, V. A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russia Research Institute for Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation); Iosilevskii, I. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2017-03-15
We report on the experimental results on the quasi-isentropic compressibility of a strongly nonideal deuterium plasma that have been obtained on setups of cylindrical and spherical geometries in the pressure range of up to P ≈ 5500 GPa. We describe the characteristics of experimental setups, as well as the methods for the diagnostics and interpretation of the experimental results. The trajectory of metal shells that compress the deuterium plasma was detected using powerful pulsed X-ray sources with a maximal electron energy of up to 60 MeV. The values of the plasma density, which varied from ρ ≈ 0.8 g/cm{sup 3} to ρ ≈ 6 g/cm{sup 3}, which corresponds to pressure P ≈ 5500 GPa (55 Mbar), were determined from the measured value of the shell radius at the instant that it was stopped. The pressure of the compressed plasma was determined using gasdynamic calculations taking into account the actual characteristics of the experimental setups. We have obtained a strongly compressed deuterium plasma in which electron degeneracy effects under the conditions of strong interparticle interaction are significant. The experimental results have been compared with the theoretical models of a strongly nonideal partly degenerate plasma. We have obtained experimental confirmation of the plasma phase transition in the pressure range near 150 GPa (1.5 Mbar), which is in keeping with the conclusion concerning anomaly in the compressibility of the deuterium plasma drawn in [1].
Density-dependent feedbacks can mask environmental drivers of populations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahlgren, Johan Petter
I present some results from studies identifying environmental drivers of vital rates and population dynamics when controlling for intraspecific density statistically or experimentally, show that density dependence can be strong even in populations of slow-growing species in stressful habitats, an...
The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.
Kurokawa, Shun
2017-05-21
The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with