WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly unstable plane

  1. Selection of unstable patterns and control of optical turbulence by Fourier plane filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on selection and stabilization of transverse optical patterns in a feedback mirror experiment. Amplitude filtering in the Fourier plane is used to select otherwise unstable spatial patterns. Optical turbulence observed for nonlinearities far above the pattern formation threshold...

  2. Plane Couette flow in the presence of a strong centrifugal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.A.

    1982-05-01

    The Pomraning problem of plane Couette flow in a strong centrifugal field is studied by several methods: a half-range polynomial expansion of the linearized BGK equation; the Liu-Lees method; and a new matching approximation constructed to give the correct solution in the free-molecule limit. The matching approximation, which appears valid for strong enough centrifugal field, predicts major differences from hydrodynamic behaviour, and suggests ways in which the lack of convergence of one method studied may be corrected. (author)

  3. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Morandi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information related to a recent study “Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills” (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]. Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  4. Mechanical characterization and force-displacement hysteretic curves from in-plane cyclic tests on strong masonry infills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Paolo; Hak, Sanja; Magenes, Guido

    2018-02-01

    This article contains information related to a recent study "Performance-based interpretation of in-plane cyclic tests on RC frames with strong masonry infills" (Morandi et al., 2017 [1]). Motivated by the necessity to improve the knowledge of the in-plane seismic response of rigid strong masonry infills, a wide experimental campaign based on in-plane cyclic tests on full-scale RC infilled frame specimens, supplemented with a complete characterization of the materials, has been conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of the University of Pavia. The masonry is constituted by vertically perforated 35 cm thick clay units with tongue and groove and dry head-joints and general-purpose mortar bed-joints. The paper reports the results of the mechanical characterization and of the force-displacement hysteretic curves from the in-plane cyclic tests.

  5. Stability of plane wave solutions in complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with delayed feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Puzyrev, D.; Yanchuk, S.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Gurevich, S. V.

    2013-01-01

    We perform bifurcation analysis of plane wave solutions in one-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation with delayed feedback. Our study reveals how multistability and snaking behavior of plane waves emerge as time delay is introduced. For intermediate values of the delay, bifurcation diagrams are obtained by a combination of analytical and numerical methods. For large delays, using an asymptotic approach we classify plane wave solutions into strongly unstable, weakly unstable, and ...

  6. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  7. Commensurability oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas subject to strong in-plane magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, Mar (2016), s. 108-113 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lateral superlattices * commensurability oscillations * in-plane magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2016

  8. Frontal Plane Tibiofemoral Alignment is Strongly Related to Compartmental Knee Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Control Strategies during Stair Ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Hunter J; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Fleenor, Kristina; Zhang, Songning

    2018-03-12

    Static frontal plane tibiofemoral alignment is an important factor in dynamic knee alignment and knee adduction moments. However, little is known about the relationship between alignment and compartment contact forces or muscle control strategies. The purpose of this study was to estimate medial (MCF) and lateral (LCF) compartment knee joint contact forces and muscle forces during stair ascent using a musculoskeletal model implementing subject specific knee alignments. Kinematic and kinetic data from 20 healthy individuals with radiographically confirmed varus or valgus knee alignments were simulated using alignment specific models to predict MCFs and LCFs. Muscle forces were determined using static optimization. Independent samples t-tests compared contact and knee and frontal plane hip muscle forces between groups during weight acceptance and during pushoff. The varus group exhibited increased weight acceptance peak MCFs, while the valgus group exhibited increased pushoff peak LCFs. The varus group utilized increased vasti muscle forces during weight acceptance and hip adductor forces during pushoff. The valgus group utilized increased hip abductor forces during pushoff. The alignment dependent contact forces provide evidence of the significance of frontal plane knee alignment in healthy individuals, which may be important in considering future knee joint health. The differing muscle control strategies between alignments detail specific neuromuscular responses to control frontal plane knee loads.

  9. Strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy in ion irradiated anatase TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stiller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization of epitaxial, undoped anatase TiO2 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates was investigated. Low-energy ion irradiation was used to modify the surface of the films within a few nanometers, yet with high enough energy to produce oxygen and titanium vacancies. The as-prepared thin film shows ferromagnetism which increases after irradiation with low-energy ions. An optimal and clear magnetic anisotropy was observed after the first irradiation, opposite to the expected form anisotropy. Taking into account the experimental parameters, titanium vacancies as di-Frenkel pairs appear to be responsible for the enhanced ferromagnetism and the strong anisotropy observed in our films. The magnetic impurities concentrations was measured by particle-induced X-ray emission with ppm resolution. They are ruled out as a source of the observed ferromagnetism before and after irradiation.

  10. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  11. Dynamics and statistics of unstable quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Zelevinsky, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    The statistical theory of spectra formulated in terms of random matrices is extended to unstable states. The energies and widths of these states are treated as real and imaginary parts of complex eigenvalues for an effective non-hermitian hamiltonian. Eigenvalue statistics are investigated under simple assumptions. If the coupling through common decay channels is weak we obtain a Wigner distribution for the level spacings and a Porter-Thomas one for the widths, with the only exception for spacings less than widths where level repulsion fades out. Meanwhile in the complex energy plane the repulsion of eigenvalues is quadratic in accordance with the T-noninvariant character of decaying systems. In the opposite case of strong coupling with the continuum, k short-lived states are formed (k is the number of open decay channels). These states accumulate almost the whole total width, the rest of the states becoming long-lived. Such a perestroika corresponds to separation of direct processes (a nuclear analogue of Dicke coherent superradiance). At small channel number, Ericson fluctuations of the cross sections are found to be suppressed. The one-channel case is considered in detail. The joint distribution of energies and widths is obtained. The average cross sections and density of unstable states are calculated. (orig.)

  12. Unstable slope management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This Rapid Response Project gathered information on existing unstable slope management programs, with a : focus on asset management practices in the United States and overseas. On the basis of this study, the research : team summarized and recommende...

  13. The yield condition strongly influences the formation of Dugdale plastic strips ahead of crack tips under tensile plane stress loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, David J.

    2012-11-01

    A finite element analysis indicates a good correlation between the Dugdale plastic strip model and a linear elastic/perfectly plastic material under plane stress loading conditions for a flow theory of plasticity based on the Tresca yield condition. A similar analysis under the von Mises yield condition reveals no plastic strip formation.

  14. Painful/unstable shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, F.; Negueruela, J.; Martin, J.C.; Elizagaray, E.; Pena, J.M.; Merino, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography of the painful/unstable shoulder that was evaluated in more than 300 patients. We have encountered a great variety of painful shoulder pathology, including impingement syndrome, cuff tear arthropathy, lesions of the long head of the biceps tendon, calcifying tendinitis, adhesive capsulitis, dead arm syndrome, and degenerative joint disease. Lesions related to instability include cases of capsular avulsions, disruption of the glenohumeral ligaments, labral pathology, glenoid fractures, Hill-Sachs lesions, and changes in glenoid angulation. CT-arthrography is an accurate exploration for both unstable and painful shoulders

  15. Imaging unstable plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRIRANJAN, Rouchelle S.; TARKIN, Jason M.; RUDD, James H.; EVANS, Nicholas R.; CHOWDHURY, Mohammed M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden. Novel molecular probes currently being developed to track precursors of plaque rupture such as inflammation, micro-calcification, hypoxia and neoangiogenesis are likely to have translational applications beyond diagnostics and have the potential to play a part in quantifying early responses to therapeutic interventions and more accurate cardiovascular risk stratification.

  16. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  17. Inclined planes

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    From moving ramps to playground slides, inclined planes are at work all over in our world today. Learn all about them in five easy-to-read chapters. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  18. Treatment of Unstable Ankle Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniel Truffín Rodríguez; Gerardo Águila Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    Patients with unstable ankle fractures frequently attend the emergency rooms. It is estimated that there are 122 ankle fractures per 100 000 people a year. Surgical treatment of those that are unstable is inevitable since they can not be corrected in a conservative way. Several surgical procedures for repair of such lesions have been described and all of them constitute important tools for the orthopedic surgeon. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to discuss the current management of...

  19. Physics of Unstable Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Dao Tien; Egelhof, Peter; Gales, Sydney; Giai, Nguyen Van; Motobayashi, Tohru

    2008-04-01

    Studies at the RIKEN RI beam factory / T. Motobayashi -- Dilute nuclear states / M. Freer -- Studies of exotic systems using transfer reactions at GANIL / D. Beaumel et al. -- First results from the Magnex large-acceptance spectrometer / A. Cunsolo et al. -- The ICHOR project and spin-isospin physics with unstable beams / H. Sakai -- Structure and low-lying states of the [symbol]He exotic nucleus via direct reactions on proton / V. Lapoux et al. -- Shell gap below [symbol]Sn based on the excited states in [symbol]Cd and [symbol]In / M. Górska -- Heavy neutron-rich nuclei produced in the fragmentation of a [symbol]Pb beam / Zs. Podolyák et al. -- Breakup and incomplete fusion in reactions of weakly-bound nuclei / D.J. Hinde et al. -- Excited states of [symbol]B and [symbol]He and their cluster aspect / Y. Kanada-En'yo et al. -- Nuclear reactions with weakly-bound systems: the treatment of the continuum / C. H. Dasso, A. Vitturi -- Dynamic evolution of three-body decaying resonances / A. S. Jensen et al. -- Prerainbow oscillations in [symbol]He scattering from the Hoyle state of [symbol]C and alpha particle condensation / S. Ohkubo, Y. Hirabayashi -- Angular dispersion behavior in heavy ion elastic scattering / Q. Wang et al. -- Microscopic optical potential in relativistic approach / Z.Yu. Ma et al. -- Exotic nuclei studied in direct reactions at low momentum transfer - recent results and future perspectives at fair / P. Egelhof -- Isotopic temperatures and symmetry energy in spectator fragmentation / M. De Napoli et al. -- Multi-channel algebraic scattering theory and the structure of exotic compound nuclei / K. Amos et al. -- Results for the first feasibility study for the EXL project at the experimental storage ring at GSI / N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki et al. -- Coulomb excitation of ISOLDE neutron-rich beams along the Z = 28 chain / P. Van Duppen -- The gamma decay of the pygmy resonance far from stability and the GDR at finite temperature / G. Benzoni et al

  20. Manual control of unstable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.; Hogue, J. R.; Parseghian, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Under certain operational regimes and failure modes, air and ground vehicles can present the human operator with a dynamically unstable or divergent control task. Research conducted over the last two decades has explored the ability of the human operator to control unstable systems under a variety of circumstances. Past research is reviewed and human operator control capabilities are summarized. A current example of automobile directional control under rear brake lockup conditions is also reviewed. A control system model analysis of the driver's steering control task is summarized, based on a generic driver/vehicle model presented at last year's Annual Manual. Results from closed course braking tests are presented that confirm the difficulty the average driver has in controlling the unstable directional dynamics arising from rear wheel lockup.

  1. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  2. Unstable Semiclassical Trajectories in Tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Levkov, D G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2007-01-01

    Some tunneling phenomena are described, in the semiclassical approximation, by unstable complex trajectories. We develop a systematic procedure to stabilize the trajectories and to calculate the tunneling probability, including both the suppression exponent and prefactor. We find that the instability of tunneling solutions modifies the power-law dependence of the prefactor on h as compared to the case of stable solutions.

  3. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Recent improvements in the intensities and optical qualities of radioactive beams have made possible the study of elastic and inelastic proton scattering on unstable nuclei. The design and performances of an innovative silicon strip detector array devoted to such experiments are described. The quality of the data ...

  4. Unstable resonator with multiple outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, M. J.; Smithers, M. E.

    1983-03-01

    Two or more unstable optical resonators can be coupled together by sharing optical elements. The result is then a single compound resonator with multiple outputs. For identical coupled cavities, the transverse structure of the outputs would be identical. In general, there will be misalignments and other aberrations that will vary from cavity to cavity. The cumulative effects of such aberrations are treated using both analytical and numerical approaches. It is shown that the average output of a multioutput resonator is the same as the output of a single uncoupled resonator with aberrations equal to the average of those contained in the multioutput resonator.

  5. Effects of medium and gain inhomogeneities in unstable optical resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, C; Felsen, L B

    1977-04-01

    A previously formulated waveguide analysis of empty unstable optical resonators with finite mirrors is generalized to accommodate active media with transverse variations of refractive index and gain. The theory is developed for parallel plane mirrors and arbitrary medium inhomogeneities and is then applied to special profiles for which explicit analytical solutions can be obtained. Emphasis is placed on modifications, due to the active medium, of the edge-diffraction-dominated resonant mode behavior. It is found that even slight variations in refractive index can exert a marked influence on the resonant mode characteristics. These conclusions remain applicable also for curved mirror geometries.

  6. Unstable decay and state selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKane, Alan; Tarlie, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The decay of unstable states when several metastable states are available for occupation is investigated using path-integral techniques. Specifically, a method is described that enables the probabilities with which the metastable states are occupied to be calculated by finding optimal paths, and fluctuations about them, in the weak-noise limit. The method is illustrated on a system described by two coupled Langevin equations, which are found in the study of instabilities in fluid dynamics and superconductivity. The problem involves a subtle interplay between nonlinearities and noise, and a naive approximation scheme that does not take this into account is shown to be unsatisfactory. The use of optimal paths is briefly reviewed and then applied to finding the conditional probability of ending up in one of the metastable states, having begun in the unstable state. There are several aspects of the calculation that distinguish it from most others involving optimal paths: (i) the paths do not begin and end on an attractor, and moreover, the final point is to a large extent arbitrary, (ii) the interplay between the fluctuations and the leading-order contribution are at the heart of the method, and (iii) the final result involves quantities that are not exponentially small in the noise strength. This final result, which gives the probability of a particular state being selected in terms of the parameters of the dynamics, is remarkably simple and agrees well with the results of numerical simulations. The method should be applicable to similar problems in a number of other areas, such as state selection in lasers, activationless chemical reactions, and population dynamics in fluctuating environments

  7. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  8. Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....

  9. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  10. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  11. Emergency coronary angioplasty in refractory unstable angina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); K. Balakumaran (Kulasekaram); A.L. Soward; P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); B. Mochtar (Bas)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe performed percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as an emergency procedure in 60 patients with unstable angina pectoris that was refractory to treatment with maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and intravenous nitroglycerin. The initial success

  12. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-06-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  13. How Unstable Are Fundamental Quantum Supermembranes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaku, Michio

    1996-01-01

    String duality requires the presence of solitonic $p$-branes. By contrast, the existence of fundamental supermembranes is problematic, since they are probably unstable. In this paper, we re-examine the quantum stability of fundamental supermembranes in 11 dimensions. Previously, supermembranes were shown to be unstable by approximating them with SU(n) super Yang-Mills fields as $n \\rightarrow \\infty$. We show that this instability persists even if we quantize the continuum theory from the ver...

  14. In-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Zhiwei; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the in-plane thermal conductivity of monolayer MoS 2 is about 19.76 W mK −1 . Interestingly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 is insensitive to the number of layers, which is in strong contrast to the in-plane thermal conductivity of graphene where the interlayer interaction strongly affects the in-plane thermal conductivity. This layer number insensitivity is attributable to the finite energy gap in the phonon spectrum of MoS 2 , which makes the phonon–phonon scattering channel almost unchanged with increasing layer number. For the cross-plane thermal transport, we find that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of multilayer MoS 2 can be effectively tuned by applying cross-plane strain. More specifically, a 10% cross-plane compressive strain can enhance the thermal conductivity by a factor of 10, while a 5% cross-plane tensile strain can reduce the thermal conductivity by 90%. Our findings are important for thermal management in MoS 2 based nanodevices and for thermoelectric applications of MoS 2 . (paper)

  15. Managing risk in an unstable world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Ian

    2005-06-01

    With emerging markets like China and politically unstable countries like Saudi Arabia figuring more than ever into companies' investment calculations, business leaders are turning to political risk analysis to measure the impact of politics on potential markets, minimize risks, and make the most of global opportunities. But political risk is more subjective than its economic counterpart. It is influenced by the passage of laws, the foibles of government leaders, and the rise of popular movements. So corporate leaders must grapple not just with broad, easily observable trends but also with nuances of society and even quirks of personality. And those hard-to-quantify factors must constantly be pieced together into an ongoing narrative within historical and regional contexts. As goods, services, information, ideas, and people cross borders today with unprecedented velocity, corporations debating operational or infrastructural investments abroad increasingly need objective, rigorous assessments. One tool for measuring and presenting stability data, for example, incorporates 20 composite indicators of risk in emerging markets and scores risk variables according to both their structural and their temporal components. The indicators are then organized into four equally weighted subcategories whose ratings are aggregated into a single stability score. Countries are ranked on a scale of zero (a failed state) to100 (a fully institutionalized, stable democracy). Companies can buy political risk analyses from consultants or, as some large energy and financial services organizations have done, develop them in-house. Either way, a complete and accurate picture of any country's risk requires analysts with strong reportorial skills; timely, accurate data on a variety of social and political trends; and a framework for evaluating the impact of individual risks on stability.

  16. [Unstable pertrochanteric fractures, biomechanic, classification and therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, O; Kostál, R; Váchal, J

    2000-01-01

    The authors deal with unstable pertrochanteric, intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures extending as far as calcar femorale. The treatment of pertrochanteric issues is a serious issue as their total number in the Czech Republic exceeds 5.000 annually and with the exception of those which are contraindicated due to their health condition, all patients are indicated to surgery. In the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric fractures there occurs failure of internal fixation also with the use of implants such as dynamic hip screw or Gamma nail. The cause of unsuccessful treatment of unstable fractures is the defect in calcar femorale - impairment of the weightbearing area of proximal femur and failure of the implant as a result of its cyclic overloading - breakage of the nail, cutting out of the screw from the head in the osteoporotic bone or breaking out of screws fixing the plate to the femoral shaft. For a causal procedure the authors consider the reconstruction of the calcar femorale by a wedge valgus osteotomy of the comminuted zone after the original design of Debrunner and Cech (1969). Simultaneously with reconstruction of the medial cortical support in the calcar femorale the 160 degrees valgization is performed. In the AO classification the authors consider for unstable the fractures of types 31.A2.1, A2.2, A3.3. Significant from the therapeutic viewpoint is the classification of stable fractures (with open reduction the anatomic reconstruction of weight-bearing calcar femorale is possible) and unstable fractures - where with open reduction the defect of calcar femorale persists. For stabilization of unstable the authors recommend fixation by DHS at 150 degrees angle. If need be, this fixation may be combined with lag screws and in case of a simultaneous fracture of greater trochanter and in reverse fractures a trochanteric buttress plate has to be added. Key words: unstable pertrochanteric fractures, nonanatomic valgus reduction, DHS fixation.

  17. Unstable Titan-generated Rayleigh-Taylor Lakes Impact Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umurhan, O. M.; Korycansky, D. G.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of surface morphology on Titan, Triton, and other worlds is strongly influenced by the interplay of various fluid dynamical processes. Specifically, overturning instabilities can easily arise due to the special circumstances of landform evolution that probably occurred on these worlds. On Titan, large impacts that formed basins like Menrva crater (and possibly Hotei Regio) would have generated impact-melt ice lakes unstably arranged over less dense ice. Cantaloupe terrains, for example as seen on Triton, may be the result of condensation of volatiles (methane, nitrogen) leading to unstably stratified layers of different compositions and densities. In each of these cases, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities leading to large scale diapirism may be at play. In addition to the dynamics of these instabilities, other physical effects (e.g. heat diffusion, freezing/melting, porosity, temperature dependent viscosity) likely play an important role in the evolution of these features. In this ongoing study, we examine the properties of unstably stratified fluids in which the lower less-dense ice has a temperature dependent viscosity. Surprisingly, we find that there exists an optimal disturbance length scale corresponding to the fastest growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. For unstably stratified layers of water (low viscosity heavy liquid lying above an ice whose viscosity increases with depth) the fastest growing mode corresponds to 40-60 km scales with overturn times of approximately 100 days. We present a detailed numerical stability analysis in a corresponding Boussinessq model (in the creeping flow limit) incorporating thermal conduction and latent heat release and we examine the stability properties surveying a variety of parameters. We have also developed a two-dimensional numerical code (a hybrid spectral/compact-differencing scheme) to model the evolution of such systems for which we shall present preliminary numerical results depicting the outcome of

  18. Phase Plane Analysis Method of Nonlinear Traffic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new phase plane analysis method for analyzing the complex nonlinear traffic phenomena is presented in this paper. This method makes use of variable substitution to transform a traditional traffic flow model into a new model which is suitable for the analysis in phase plane. According to the new model, various traffic phenomena, such as the well-known shock waves, rarefaction waves, and stop-and-go waves, are analyzed in the phase plane. From the phase plane diagrams, we can see the relationship between traffic jams and system instability. So the problem of traffic flow could be converted into that of system stability. The results show that the traffic phenomena described by the new method is consistent with that described by traditional methods. Moreover, the phase plane analysis highlights the unstable traffic phenomena we are chiefly concerned about and describes the variation of density or velocity with time or sections more clearly.

  19. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  20. Decay Law of Moving Unstable Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Shirokov, M I

    2004-01-01

    Quantum relativistic decay law of moving unstable particle is analytically calculated in the model case of the Breit-Wigner mass distribution. It turns out that Einstein time dilation of the moving particle decay holds approximately at times when the decay is exponential. The related correction is calculated analytically. Being very small at these times it is practically unobservable. It is shown that Einstein dilation fails for large times t when decay is not exponential. An unstable system of the kind of K_0 meson (which is the superposition of K_s and K_l) is also considered. In this case, the violation of Einstein dilation is shown to be appreciable at all times under some condition.

  1. The Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    What happens to Tattooine-like planets that are instead in unstable orbits around their binary star system? A new study examines whether such planets will crash into a host star, get ejected from the system, or become captured into orbit around one of their hosts.Orbit Around a DuoAt this point we have unambiguously detected multiple circumbinary planets, raising questions about these planets formation and evolution. Current models suggest that it is unlikely that circumbinary planets would be able to form in the perturbed environment close their host stars. Instead, its thought that the planets formed at a distance and then migrated inwards.One danger such planets face when migrating is encountering ranges of radii where their orbits become unstable. Two scientists at the University of Chicago, Adam Sutherland and Daniel Fabrycky, have studied what happens when circumbinary planets migrate into such a region and develop unstable orbits.Producing Rogue PlanetsTime for planets to either be ejected or collide with one of the two stars, as a function of the planets starting distance (in AU) from the binary barycenter. Colors represent different planetary eccentricities. [Sutherland Fabrycky 2016]Sutherland and Fabrycky used N-body simulations to determine the fates of planets orbiting around a star system consisting of two stars a primary like our Sun and a secondary roughly a tenth of its size that are separated by 1 AU.The authors find that the most common fate for a circumbinary planet with an unstable orbit is ejection from the system; over 80% of unstable planets were ejected. This has interesting implications: if the formation of circumbinary planets is common, this mechanism could be filling the Milky Way with a population of free-floating, rogue planets that no longer are associated with their host star.The next most common outcome for unstable planets is collision with one of their host stars (most often the secondary), resulting inaccretion of the planet

  2. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Weon-Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its...

  3. Unstable Jefferson fractures: Results of transoral osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong; Albert, Todd J; Kepler, Christopher K; Ma, Wei-Hu; Yuan, Zhen-Shan; Dong, Wei-Xin

    2014-03-01

    Majority of C1 fractures can be effectively treated conservatively by immobilization or traction unless there is an injury to the transverse ligament. Conservative treatment usually involves a long period of immobilization in a halo-vest. Surgical intervention generally involves fusion, eliminating the motion of the upper cervical spine. We describe the treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures designed to avoid these problems of both conservative and invasive methods. A retrospective review of 12 patients with unstable Jefferson fractures treated with transoral osteosynthesis of C1 between July 2008 and December 2011 was performed. A steel plate and C1 lateral mass screw fixation were used to repair the unstable Jefferson fractures. Our study group included eight males and four females with an average age of 33 years (range 23-62 years). Patients were followed up for an average of 16 months after surgery. Range of motion of the cervical spine was by and large physiologic: Average flexion 35° (range 28-40°), average extension 42° (range 30-48°). Lateral bending to the right and left averaged 30° and 28° respectively (range 12-36° and 14-32° respectively). The average postoperative rotation of the atlantoaxial joint, evaluated by functional computed tomography scan was 60° (range 35-72°). Total average lateral displacement of the lateral masses was 7.0 mm before surgery (range 5-12 mm), which improved to 3.5 mm after surgery (range 1-6.5 mm). The total average difference of the atlanto-dens interval in flexion and extension after surgery was 1.0 mm (range 1-3 mm). Transoral osteosynthesis of the anterior ring using C1 lateral mass screws is a viable option for treating unstable Jefferson fractures, which allows maintenance of rotation at the C1-C2 joint and restoration of congruency of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints.

  4. Nonlinear adaptive neural controller for unstable aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, S; Omkar, SN; Mani, V; Sundararajan, N

    2005-01-01

    A model reference indirect adaptive neural control scheme that uses both off-line and online learning strategies is proposed for an,unstable nonlinear aircraft controller design. The bounded-input-bounded-output stability requirement for the controller design is circumvented using an off-line, finite interval of time training scheme. The aircraft model is first identified using a neural network with linear filter (also known as time-delayed neural network) with the available input-output data...

  5. Unstable angina and exposure to carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, M V; Cacciottolo, J M; Mifsud, S

    1994-10-01

    Inhalation of small amounts of carbon monoxide diminishes the pain threshold in patients with stable angina pectoris. The aim of this study was to identify and describe patients who had been exposed unknowingly to toxic inhalations of this gas and subsequently presented to hospital with a clinical picture of unstable angina. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 104 patients referred with unstable angina to a coronary care unit were determined on admission. The likely source of carbon monoxide was identified in all patients. Three patients had definite carbon monoxide intoxication. Another five patients had evidence of minor exposure. When the three cases with carbon monoxide poisoning were excluded, the mean carboxyhaemoglobin level was 2.5% (+/- 1.3) for smokers (n = 30) and 0.6% (+/- 0.5) for non-smokers (n = 71). Use of fossil fuel combustion in an enclosed environment was responsible for the three most serious intoxications and one of the minor cases. We suggest that a number of patients admitted for coronary care with unstable angina may have significant carbon monoxide poisoning. This intoxication is often overlooked by attending physicians with the result that high concentration oxygen therapy is not administered, when it is in fact a necessary part of treatment.

  6. Boundary Between Stable and Unstable Regimes of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion and its dependence on different parameters. Simulations were performed using a “cubed sphere" code with high grid resolution (244 grid points in the azimuthal direction, which is twice as high as that used in our earlier studies. We chose a very low viscosity value, with alpha-parameter α=0.02. We observed from the simulations that the boundary strongly depends on the ratio between magnetospheric radius rm (where the magnetic stress in the magnetosphere matches the matter stress in the disk and corotation radius rcor (where the Keplerian velocity in the disk is equal to the angular velocity of the star. For a small misalignment angle of the dipole field, Θ = 5°, accretion is unstable if rcor/rm> 1.35, and is stable otherwise. In cases of a larger misalignment angle of the dipole, Θ = 20°, instability occurs at slightly larger values, rcor/rm> 1.41

  7. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  8. Crisis-induced unstable dimension variability in a dynamical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Geraldo T.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.; Grebogi, Celso

    2008-01-01

    Unstable dimension variability is an extreme form of non-hyperbolic behavior in chaotic systems whose attractors have periodic orbits with a different number of unstable directions. We propose a new mechanism for the onset of unstable dimension variability based on an interior crisis, or a collision between a chaotic attractor and an unstable periodic orbit. We give a physical example by considering a high-dimensional dissipative physical system driven by impulsive periodic forcing

  9. The fate of unstable gauge flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Parameswaran, S.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Zavala, I. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.

    2008-12-15

    Fluxes are widely used to stabilise extra dimensions, but the supporting monopolelike configurations are often unstable, particularly if they arise as gauge flux within a non-abelian gauge sector. We here seek the endpoint geometries to which this instability leads, focussing on the simplest concrete examples: sphere-monopole compactifications in six dimensions. Without gravity most monopoles in non-abelian gauge groups are unstable, decaying into the unique stable monopole in the same topological class. We show that the same is true in Einstein-YM systems, with the new twist that the decay leads to a shrinkage in the size of the extra dimensions and curves the non-compact directions: in D dimensions a Mink{sub D-2} x S{sub 2} geometry supported by an unstable monopole relaxes to AdS{sub D-2} x S{sub 2}, with the endpoint sphere smaller than the initial one. For supergravity the situation is more complicated because the dilaton obstructs such a simple evolution. The endpoint instead acquires a dilaton gradient, thereby breaking some of the spacetime symmetries. For 6D supergravity we argue that it is the 4D symmetries that break, and examine several candidates for the endpoint geometry. By using the trick of dimensional oxidation it is possible to recast the supergravity system as a higher-dimensional Einstein-YM monopole, allowing understanding of this system to guide us to the corresponding endpoint. The result is a Kasner-like geometry conformal to Mink{sub 4} times S{sub 2}, with nontrivial conformal factor and dilaton breaking the maximal 4D symmetry and generating a singularity. Yet the resulting configuration has a lower potential energy than did the initial one, and is perturbatively stable, making it a sensible candidate endpoint for the evolution. (orig.)

  10. Fast Plane Wave Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas

    This PhD project investigates and further develops methods for ultrasound plane wave imaging and blood flow estimation with the objective of overcoming some of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems, which are related to low frame rates and only estimation of velocities along th...

  11. Exploring the physics of unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volya, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation the Continuum Shell Model (CSM) approach is advertised as a powerful theoretical tool for studying physics of unstable nuclei. The approach is illustrated using 17 O as an example, which is followed by a brief presentation of the general CSM formalism. The successes of the CSM are highlighted and references are provided throughout the text. As an example, the CSM is applied perturbatively to 20 O allowing one to explore the effects of continuum on positions of weakly bound states and low-lying resonances, as well as to discern some effects of threshold discontinuity. (author)

  12. Nuclear Data on Unstable Nuclei for Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael Scott; Meyer, Richard A; Lingerfelt, Eric; Scott, J.P.; Hix, William Raphael; Ma, Zhanwen; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Guidry, Mike W.; KOZUB, RAYMOND L.; Chae, Kyung YuK.

    2004-01-01

    Recent measurements with radioactive beams at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) have prompted the evaluation of a number of reactions involving unstable nuclei needed for stellar explosion studies. We discuss these evaluations, as well as the development of a new computational infrastructure to enable the rapid incorporation of the latest nuclear physics results in astrophysics models. This infrastructure includes programs that simplify the generation of reaction rates, manage rate databases, and visualize reaction rates, all hosted at a new website http://www.nucastrodata.org

  13. Signatures of unstable particles in finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1991-05-01

    Unstable particles (resonances) occur in QCD, the Higgs model and many other quantum field theories of interest. Since they are a dynamical phenomenon, showing up in scattering processes of stable particles, it is not obvious how to extract their masses from numerical simulations of the theory in euclidean space. For resonances in the elastic region, a solution to this problem in proposed here on the basis of a recently established relation between the scattering matrix in infinite volume and the two-particle energy spectrum in a periodic box. (orig.)

  14. Energy harvesting by dynamic unstability and internal resonance for piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Chunbo; Qin, Weiyang, E-mail: 353481781@qq.com; Deng, Wangzheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2015-08-31

    We investigated the energy harvesting of a vertical beam with tip mass under vertical excitations. We applied dynamic unstability and internal resonance to improve the efficiency of harvesting. The experiments of harmonic excitation were carried out. Results show that for the beam there exist internal resonances in the dynamically unstable and the buckling bistable cases. The dynamic unstability is a determinant for strong internal resonance or mode coupling, which can be used to create a large output from piezoelectric patches. Then, the experiments of stochastic excitation were carried out. Results prove that the internal resonance or mode coupling can transfer the excitation energy to the low order modes, mainly the first and the second one. This can bring about a large output voltage. For a stochastic excitation, it is proved that there is an optimal weight of tip mass for realizing internal resonance and producing large outputs.

  15. Interaction effects on the unstable discharge-energy characteristic of pump-turbine in pump mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Xiao, R. F.; Yang, W.; Liu, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    For a pump-turbine, unstable discharge-energy characteristic is an important factor for operating stability. In this study, the rotor-stator interaction effects on the pump-turbine which has the unstable discharge-energy characteristic has been studied. A series of transient CFD simulations under different discharge conditions have been conducted. Through the contrast between the simulations and experiments, it is found out that the energy decline is strongly affected by the flow loss in the adjustable vane. More importantly, the magnitude and direction of fluid flowing into the adjustable vane are varying with the impeller rotating. Disordered flow structure occurs in the adjustable vane and causes the energy losses due to the interaction effects. Based on this study, improvements on the flow uniformity at impeller outlet will help us to solve the unstable discharge-energy problem.

  16. Relativistic mean field theory for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toki, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the properties of unstable nuclei in the framework of the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory. We take the RMF theory as a phenomenological theory with several parameters, whose form is constrained by the successful microscopic theory (RBHF), and whose values are extracted from the experimental values of unstable nuclei. We find the outcome with the newly obtained parameter sets (TM1 and TMA) is promising in comparison with various experimental data. We calculate systematically the ground state properties of even-even nuclei up to the drip lines; about 2000 nuclei. We find that the neutron magic shells (N=82, 128) at the standard magic numbers stay at the same numbers even far from the stability line and hence provide the feature of the r-process nuclei. However, many proton magic numbers disappear at the neutron numbers far away from the magic numbers due to the deformations. We discuss how to describe giant resonances for the case of the non-linear coupling terms for the sigma and omega mesons in the relativistic RPA. We mention also the importance of the relativistic effect on the spin observables as the Gamow-Teller strength and the longitudinal and transverse spin responses. (author)

  17. Effect of Teriparatide on Unstable Pertrochanteric Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively analyzed the radiographic and clinical outcomes of unstable pertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A2 in 44 patients who underwent dynamic hip screw (DHS fixation and compared the results with 29 patients who received teriparatide in addition to DHS fixation. A significantly shorter time for fracture healing was recorded in the teriparatide-treated group than in the control group. Rates of lag screw sliding, femoral shortening, and varus collapse were all significantly reduced in the teriparatide-treated group. There were no significant differences with regard to superficial wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, mortality, malunion, and cutting of the lag screw. The mean overall mobility scores were significantly better in the teriparatide-treated group at 3 and 6 months (P<0.001 and P<0.001, resp. but not at 12 months or the last follow-up. The pain scores were also significantly better in the teriparatide-treated group at 3 and 6 months (P=0.040 and P=0.041, resp. but not at 12 months or the last follow-up. Teriparatide improves radiographic outcomes and yields better clinical outcomes at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The improvement in union time may be important for elderly populations with unstable pertrochanteric fractures to enable them to return to daily activities and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  18. Effect of teriparatide on unstable pertrochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsan-Wen; Yang, Tien-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Peng, Kuo-Ti; Lee, Mel S; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the radiographic and clinical outcomes of unstable pertrochanteric fractures (AO/OTA 31-A2) in 44 patients who underwent dynamic hip screw (DHS) fixation and compared the results with 29 patients who received teriparatide in addition to DHS fixation. A significantly shorter time for fracture healing was recorded in the teriparatide-treated group than in the control group. Rates of lag screw sliding, femoral shortening, and varus collapse were all significantly reduced in the teriparatide-treated group. There were no significant differences with regard to superficial wound infection, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, mortality, malunion, and cutting of the lag screw. The mean overall mobility scores were significantly better in the teriparatide-treated group at 3 and 6 months (P teriparatide-treated group at 3 and 6 months (P = 0.040 and P = 0.041, resp.) but not at 12 months or the last follow-up. Teriparatide improves radiographic outcomes and yields better clinical outcomes at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. The improvement in union time may be important for elderly populations with unstable pertrochanteric fractures to enable them to return to daily activities and reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Tracer filamentation at an unstable ocean front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yen Chia; Mahadevan, Amala; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc; Yecko, Philip

    2017-11-01

    A front, where two bodies of ocean water with different physical properties meet, can become unstable and lead to a flow with high strain rate and vorticity. Phytoplankton and other oceanic tracers are stirred into filaments by such flow fields, as can often be seen in satellite imagery. The stretching and folding of a tracer by a two-dimensional flow field has been well studied. In the ocean, however, the vertical shear of horizontal velocity is typically two orders of magnitude larger than the horizontal velocity gradient. Theoretical calculations show that vertical shear alters the way in which horizontal strain affects the tracer, resulting in thin, sloping structures in the tracer field. Using a non-hydrostatic ocean model of an unstable ocean front, we simulate tracer filamentation to identify the effect of vertical shear on the deformation of the tracer. In a complementary laboratory experiment, we generate a simple, vertically sheared strain flow and use dye and particle image velocimetry to quantify the filamentary structures in terms of the strain and shear. We identify how vertical shear alters the tracer filaments and infer how the evolution of tracers in the ocean will differ from the idealized two-dimensional paradigm. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is acknowledged.

  20. TREATMENT OF UNSTABLE FRACTURES OF THE TIBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Petković

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Unstable fractures of cruris are all those fractures which cannot hold satisfactory position even after orthopedic reposition and imobilization.Bone fragments or fractures which redislocate and whithin 7 days after primary well done reposition and adeqate imobilization are also unstable fractures. These fractures can be treated by orthopedic repozition, by transosal traction through calcaneus or through supramalleolar area.These fractures can also be treated surgically by internal or by external fixation. The safest operative method today is external fixation. Using of Mitkovic external flxator this method minimally traumatizes bone and soft tisue of cruris,the operation is not time consuming and complications as infection and nonunion aresignificantly more rare in comparison to internal fixation. External fixation is minimaly invasive method, preserving both periostal and intramedular blood circulation. Mitkovic system also provides biological conditions, which are very similar to biomechanical features of natural tibia and probably it is one of important factor for qicker fracture healing with big periostal callus fortnation.This external flxation system has additional advantages in comparison to other existing devices, especialy in regard of simplicity of application and possibility of accurate closed intraoperative and postoperative fracture reduction.

  1. Accelerator complex for unstable beams at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomizawa, M.; Arai, S.; Doi, M.; Katayama, T.; Niki, K.; Tokuda, N.; Yoshizawa, M.

    1992-11-01

    The construction of the prototype facility of the Exotic arena in the Japan Hadron Project (JHP) is started in 1992 at the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS), University of Tokyo. The purpose of this facility is to study the various technical problems of the Exotic arena, and to perform the experiment on nuclear and astrophysics with unstable nuclear beam. The unstable nuclei produced by bombarding a thick target with 40 MeV proton beam from the existing SF cyclotron are ionized in the ion sources, mass-analyzed by an ISOL, and transported to the accelerator complex. The accelerator complex consists of a split coaxial RFQ and an interdigital H type linac. The construction of accelerator will be completed in fiscal year 1994. The development of the SCRFQ and the IH linac which is suitable to the post-accelerator of the SCRFQ are reported. Charge stripper and the beam matching between the SCRFQ and the IH linac are explained. A buncher is necessary for the matching of longitudinal phase space between the SCRFQ and the IH linac. (K.I.)

  2. Effects of unstable shoes on trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Pérez-Soriano, Padro; Llana-Belloch, Salvador; Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Salvador-Coloma, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    In patients with neuromuscular disease and a forced vital capacity (FVC) of shoe was developed as a walking device to strengthen the lower extremity muscles and reduce joint loading. A large number of studies have reported increased electromyographic (EMG) activity throughout the gait cycle in most of the lower limb muscles, and significant kinematic changes in the lower extremity. However, no studies have investigated the effects of wearing unstable shoes on spine kinematics and trunk muscle activity during gait. To compare trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) during gait using an unstable shoe and a conventional stable control shoe. Cross-sectional study. A Biomechanics laboratory. Forty-eight healthy voluntary participants (24.5±5.6 years and 22.7±6.8 kg/m2). Subjects underwent gait analysis while simultaneously collecting surface EMG data of erector spinae (ES) and rectus abdominis (RA) and lumbar spine sagittal plane ROM while treadmill walking wearing regular shoes and unstable shoes. The results showed that the unstable shoes resulted in significantly higher ES and RA EMG muscle activity levels in all gait phases compared to control shoes (Pshoe condition showed a significantly higher mean (mean difference: 3.1º; 95% CI 2.2º to 4º) and maximum (mean difference: 4.5º; 95% CI 2.6º to 6.5º) lumbar spine extension values (Pshoes increase trunk muscle activity (ES, RA) and lumbar lordosis during gait compared to control shoes. Based on these findings, the use of unstable shoes may have potential implications in promoting spine tissue health, particularly in strengthening trunk muscles in healthy population or in low back pain treatment.

  3. BKP plane partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  4. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  5. Harmonic oscillators and resonance series generated by a periodic unstable classical orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, A. K.; Ostrovsky, Valentin N.

    1995-01-01

    The presence of an unstable periodic classical orbit allows one to introduce the decay time as a purely classical magnitude: inverse of the Lyapunov index which characterizes the orbit instability. The Uncertainty Relation gives the corresponding resonance width which is proportional to the Planck constant. The more elaborate analysis is based on the parabolic equation method where the problem is effectively reduced to the multidimensional harmonic oscillator with the time-dependent frequency. The resonances form series in the complex energy plane which is equidistant in the direction perpendicular to the real axis. The applications of the general approach to various problems in atomic physics are briefly exposed.

  6. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate. Transformation. Q. F. Zhang1,∗, Q. Y. Peng1 & J. H. Fan2 ... In astronomy, some tasks require performing the coordinate transformation between two tangent planes in ... Based on these parameters, we get maxi- mum errors in ...

  7. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  8. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  9. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  10. On the Velocity of Moving Relativistic Unstable Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Urbanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of freely moving relativistic quantum unstable systems cannot be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: it is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not defined. This effect can affect the form of the decay law of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems.

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Slinky Mechanics: Static Shapes and Unstable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; Borum, Andy; Moore, Billy; Plaut, Raymond; Dillard, David

    2014-03-01

    The floppy nature of a tumbling Slinky has captivated children and adults alike for over half a century. Highly flexible, the spring will walk down stairs, turn over in your hands, and-much to the chagrin of children everywhere-become easily entangled. The Slinky is an educational tool for demonstrating standing waves, and a structural inspiration due to its ability to extend to many times beyond its initial length without imparting plastic strain on the material. In this work, we provide a mechanical model that captures the static equilibrium configurations of the Slinky in terms of its geometric and material properties. We present both continuous and discrete models to capture a Slinky's static equilibria and unstable transitions. We compare these with experimental results obtained for the Slinky's static equilibrium shapes. We emphasize the importance of modeling coil contact, and determine the critical criteria for the Slinky to topple over in terms of a tilt angle, and the vertical displacement of one bale of coils. Finally, we provide a general description of highly flexible helical springs by considering the nondimensional potential energy of the spring, which characterizes the ``Slinkiness'' of a spring.

  13. The OBS control plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    . The applicability analysis carried out here focuses on the actual feasibility of the integration and the potential trade-offs which appear when two contradicting principles are combined. Taking advantage of the flexibility of the GMPLS control plane does not seem to be as easy and as straightforward as expected....... Thus, more than ten years later not many practical implementations of OBS networks with intelligent control can be found. The lack of active work in the ¯eld results in an incomplete set of proposals which address only few aspects of the integration challenge. Here, we analyze what is missing and why...... the existing solutions seem not to be able to provide the highly desirable strict QoS guarantees for the clients of the OBS networks....

  14. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  15. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  16. Crisis and unstable dimension variability in the bailout embedding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indicating unstable dimension variability (UDV) in the system. The presence of unstable dimension ... flow dynamics is embedded in a larger set of equations which includes the differ- ences between the particle and ... map is taken as the base map, which is a prototypical area preserving system. In this paper we confine our ...

  17. Crisis and unstable dimension variability in the bailout embedding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    length distribution of times before bursts give rise to a power law with the exponent β = −1/3. The maximum Lyapunov exponent near the crisis fluctuates around zero indicating unstable dimension variability (UDV) in the system. The presence of unstable dimension variability is confirmed by the behaviour of the probability ...

  18. Unstable ground in western North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    Unstable ground in western North Dakota is mainly the result of mass-wasting processes. The units most affected are mudstones, siltstones, and sandstones of the Fort Union Formation. Ground instability generally is indicated by landslides, soil slides, or subsidence. Landslides are mostly of the slump-earthflow type and are localized along the flanks of the high buttes in southwestern North Dakota, including HT (Black) Butte, Chalky Buttes, Sentinel Butte, and East and West Rainy Buttes, and along parts of the valleys of the Des Lacs, Missouri, Little Missouri, and Heart Rivers. Landslides are sparse elsewhere. Soil slides are common in the areas south and southwest of the maximum position of the Pleistocene glacial ice margin on slopes of 15 degrees or more, and have taken place on some slopes as gentle as five degrees. The weathered, exposed surface of the Fort Union Formation seems to be especially susceptible to soil slides. Soil slides constitute the major type of ground instability in southwestern North Dakota. Subsidence is of two types: (1) subsidence over old underground mine workings, and (2) subsidence over naturally ignited and burned underground coal beds. Major subsidence has taken place over old, underground workings near Beulah, Wilton, Lehigh, Haynes, and Belfield, and lesser subsidence near Scranton, and west and north of Bowman. Thickness of overburden above the coal in all these areas is believed to be less than 30 m (100 ft). Subsidence has not taken place over old underground workings along the Des Lacs and-Souris valleys northwest of Minot, where the thickness of overburden is more than 60 m (200 ft). Spectacular subsidence has occurred over a burning underground coal bed at Burning Coal Vein Park near the Little Missouri River, northwest of Amidon.

  19. Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Masanari; Okada, Motohiro; Enyo, Yoshio; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2017-01-01

    Noncontiguous double-level unstable spinal injuries (NDUSI) are uncommon and have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to better understand the patterns of NDUSI, in order to recommend proper diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as to raise awareness among traumatologists about the possibility of these uncommon injuries. A total of 710 consecutive patients with spine fractures were treated for >9 years since 2007 at a single regional trauma center. Of them, 18 patients with NDUSI were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NDUSI was 2.5 % of all spine fractures. In 17 of 18 patients (94.7 %), NDUSI was caused by a high-energy trauma. Nine patients (50.0 %) exhibited complete neurological deficit. Spinal cord injury occurred in the cranial injured region in all American Spinal Injury Association grade A cases. In one case, a second fracture was overlooked at the initial examination. NDUSI are common in cases of high-energy trauma and should be taken into consideration at the initial examination. A second fracture may be easily overlooked because of the high frequency of concomitant severe spinal cord injury in the cranial injured region and/or loss of consciousness due to associated injuries. To avoid overlooking injuries, full spine computed tomography is useful at the initial examination. Operative reduction and internal fixation with instrumentation through a posterior approach is recommendable for cases of NDUSI. In elderly patients, a very rapid stabilizing surgery should be planned before aspiration pneumonia occurs or the pulmonary condition worsens.

  20. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  1. Treatment of the plane foot valgo spastic by means of triple arthrodesis for double boarding: Presentation of a modified technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turriago, Camilo Andres; Duplat, Joss Luis; Larrota Mejia, Carlos Octavio; Mieth A, Klaus W

    2001-01-01

    A modification is presented to the technique of triple arthrodesis for the treatment of the plane foot valgo unstable in-patient with cerebral paralysis. A series of subjected relatives cases is compared to the technique modified with another that includes patients managed with the original technique. The evaluation post operative carried out from point of view clinical and radiographic, suggests that the modified technique offers better results that the classic technique in feet plane valgo unstable in-patient with cerebral paralysis. The used design prevents to affirm that these data are conclusive

  2. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  3. Restrictions in the realisation of multipass unstable resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strakhov, S Yu

    2009-01-01

    Main restrictions in the realisation of multipass unstable resonators caused by intracavity losses and large-scale aberrations are considered. The influence of intracavity losses on the laser radiation power and divergence is analysed based on the numerical simulation of an unstable resonator. The efficiency criterion for the unstable multipass resonator is proposed, which is proportional to the radiation brightness and takes into account the influence of the misalignment, thermal deformation and the main parameters of the active medium and resonator on the parameters of laser radiation. (resonators)

  4. On the Fate of Unstable Circumbinary Planets: Tatooine’s Close Encounters with a Death Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Adam P.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2016-02-01

    Circumbinary planets whose orbits become unstable may be ejected, accreted, or even captured by one of the stars. We quantify the relative rates of these channels, for a binary of secondary star’s mass fraction 0.1 with an orbit of 1 AU. The most common outcome is ejection, which happens ∼80% of the time. If binary systems form circumbinary planets readily and sloppily, this process may fill the Milky Way with free-floating planets. A significant fraction of the time, ∼20%, the unstable planet strikes the primary or secondary. We tracked whether a Jupiter-like planet would undergo tidal stripping events during close passages, and find that these events are rarely strong enough to capture the planet, although this may be observable via free-floating planets that are heated or spun-up by this process.

  5. Submarine granular flow down a rough plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Maxime; Cassar, Cyril; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2003-11-01

    We lead experiments of submarine granular flows in a water tank. The particles are spherical 100 microns glass beads and flow down a rough inclined plane from a reservoir with a controlled opening. Different flow regimes are observed, the flow velocity and thickness are measured. The basal water pressure is also measured and give information on the suspension rate of the flow. No flow was observed for an angle below 24 degrees. The flow velocity increases smoothly for a [24-36] degrees inclination range, and a strong velocity increase occurs for inclination over 36 degrees. The thickness of the flow decreases when inclination increases but no abrupt change of thickness is observed around 36 degrees. That suggests that a transition exists between a granular regime, where friction on the rough plane and particle contacts are dominant, and a suspension regime where basal friction vanishes. A thin film ripple instability is also observed for large inclination angles.

  6. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryazdi, M. Gh

    2017-03-01

    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper, the stable and unstable regions of Mathieu equation are determined for three cases of linear and nonlinear equations using the homotopy perturbation method. The effect of nonlinearity is examined in the unstable zone. The results show that the transition curves of linear Mathieu equation depend on the frequency of the excitation term. However, for nonlinear equations, the curves depend also on initial conditions. In addition, increasing the amplitude of response leads to an increase in the unstable zone.

  7. Stabilizing unstable steady states using extended time-delay autosynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Austin; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Hall, G. Martin; Gardner, Jeff R.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    1998-12-01

    We describe a method for stabilizing unstable steady states in nonlinear dynamical systems using a form of extended time-delay autosynchronization. Specifically, stabilization is achieved by applying a feedback signal generated by high-pass-filtering in real time the dynamical state of the system to an accessible system parameter or variables. Our technique is easy to implement, does not require knowledge of the unstable steady state coordinates in phase space, automatically tracks changes in the system parameters, and is more robust to broadband noise than previous schemes. We demonstrate the controller's efficacy by stabilizing unstable steady states in an electronic circuit exhibiting low-dimensional temporal chaos. The simplicity and robustness of the scheme suggests that it is ideally suited for stabilizing unstable steady states in ultra-high-speed systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Optimal Sensor and Actuator Location for Unstable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2013-01-01

    proposed so far, only support stable systems. However, in industrial practices it is often the case that the system, which is needed to be controlled, is not stable. The method which is proposed in this paper is a general method in the sense that it supports both stable and unstable systems. The technique...... is successfully used for determining the optimal sensor locations of the linearized Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor unstable model....

  9. Aspirin inhibits human telomerase activation in unstable carotid plaques

    OpenAIRE

    LI, FANGMING; GUO, YI; JIANG, XIN; ZHONG, JIANXIN; LI, GUANDONG; SUN, SHENGGANG

    2013-01-01

    The activation of telomerase in unstable plaques is an important factor in atherosclerosis, and may be predictive of the risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a subunit of telomerase that is essential for telomerase activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether aspirin inhibits the activation of telomerase and hTERT in unstable carotid plaques. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) derived from carotid plaques were isolated fr...

  10. Study on unstable fracture characteristics of light water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi

    1998-08-01

    Many testing studies have been conducted to validate the applicability of the leak before break (LBB) concept for the light water reactor piping in the world. It is especially important among them to clarify the condition that an inside surface crack of the piping wall does not cause an unstable fracture but ends in a stable fracture propagating only in the pipe thickness direction, even if the excessive loading works to the pipe. Pipe unstable fracture tests performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute had been planned under such background, and clarified the condition for the cracked pipe to cause the unstable fracture under monotonous increase loading or cyclic loading by using test pipes with the inside circumferential surface crack. This paper examines the pipe unstable fracture by dividing it into two parts. One is the static unstable fracture that breaks the pipe with the inside circumferential surface crack by increasing load monotonously. Another is the dynamic unstable fracture that breaks the pipe by the cyclic loading. (author). 79 refs

  11. Cross-plane thermal conductivity of tungsten diselenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norouzzadeh, Payam; Singh, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The cross-plane thermal conductivity of WSe{sub 2} is investigated using reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (RNEMD) and a recently developed Stillinger-Weber potential. It is found that the cross-plane thermal conductivity of WSe{sub 2} is strongly size dependent and saturates around 80 layers. Moreover, it is shown that even at 1000 K, ordered crystalline WSe{sub 2} does not reach the phonon glass-like limit in the cross-plane direction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Neutron Capture Experiments on Unstable Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon M. Schwantes; Ralf Sudowe; Heino Nitsche; Darleane C. Hoffman

    2003-12-16

    A primary objective of this project is to study neutron capture cross sections for various stable and unstable isotopes that will contribute to the Science Based Stockpile Stewardship (SBSS) program by providing improved data for modeling and interpretation of nuclear device performance. The information obtained will also be important in astrophysical modeling of nucleosynthesis. During this reporting period, the emphasis has been on preparing a radioactive target of {sup 155}Eu (half-life = 4.7 years), and several stable targets, including isotopically separated {sup 154}Sm, {sup 151}Eu, and {sup 153}Eu. Measurements of their neutron capture cross sections will be conducted in collaboration with researchers at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) facility using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE). A suitable backing material (beryllium) for the targets has been selected after careful calculations of its contribution to the background of the measurements. In addition, a high voltage plating procedure has been developed and optimized. Stable targets of {sup 151}Eu and {sup 153}Eu and a target of natural Eu ({approx}50% {sup 151}Eu and {approx}50% {sup 153}Eu) have each been plated to a mass thickness of >1 mg/cm{sup 2} and delivered to the DANCE collaboration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Natural Eu targets will be tested first to confirm that the target dimensions and backing are appropriate prior to performing measurements on the extremely valuable targets of separated isotopes. In order to prepare a target of the radioactive {sup 155}Eu, it must first be separated from the {sup 154}Sm target material that was irradiated in a very high neutron flux of 1.5x1015 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/s for 50 days. The reaction is {sup 154}Sm (n,f){sup 155}Sm (half-life = 22 minutes) {sup 155}Eu. Considerable progress has been made in developing a suitable high-yield and high-purity separation method for separating Eu from targets

  13. Effect of wobble board training on movement strategies to maintain equilibrium on unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Kersting, Uwe Gustav

    2018-04-01

    Standing on unstable surfaces requires more complex motor control mechanisms to sustain balance when compared to firm surfaces. Surface instability enhances the demand to maintain equilibrium and is often used to challenge balance, but little is known about how balance training affects movement strategies to control posture while standing on unstable surfaces. This study aimed at assessing the effects of isolated wobble board (WB) training on movement strategies to maintain balance during single-leg standing on a WB. Twenty healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group. The training group took part in four weeks of WB training and both groups were tested pre and post the intervention. Electromyography from the supporting lower limb muscles, full-body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded during firm surface (FS) and WB single-leg standing. WB training did not affect FS performance (p = 0.865), but tripled WB standing time (p < 0.002). Moreover, training decreased lower leg muscle activation (29-59%), leg and trunk velocities (30% and 34%, respectively), and supporting limb angular velocity (24-47% across all planes for the ankle, knee and hip joints). Post intervention standing time was significantly correlated with angular velocities at the hip (r = 0.79) and knee (r = -0.83) for controls, while it correlated significantly with contra-lateral leg (r ∼ 0.70) and trunk velocity (r = -0.74) for trained participants. These results support the assumption that WB training enhances the ability to control counter-rotation mechanisms for balance maintenance on unstable surfaces, which may be a crucial protective factor against sports injuries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Unstable genes unstable mind: beyond the central dogma of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Saraph, Arundhati A

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia has a polygenic mode of inheritance and an estimated heritability of over 80%, but success in understanding its genetic underpinnings to date has been modest. Unlike in trinucleotide neurodegenerative disorders, the phenomenon of genetic anticipation observed in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder has not been explained. For the first time, we provide a plausible molecular explanation of genetic anticipation and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, at least in part, with supporting evidence. We postulate that abnormally increased numbers of CAG repeats in many genes being expressed in the brain, coding for glutamine, cumulatively press for higher demand of glutamine in the respective brain cells, resulting in a metabolic crisis and dysregulation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. This can adversely affect the functioning of both glutamate and GABA receptors, which are known to be involved in psychosis, and may also affect glutathione levels, increasing oxidative stress. The resulting psychosis (gain in function), originating from unstable genes, is described as an effect "beyond the central dogma of molecular biology". The hypothesis explains genetic anticipation, as further expansions in subsequent generations may result in increased severity and earlier occurrence. Many other well described findings provide proof of concept. This is a testable hypothesis, does not deny any known facts and opens up new avenues of research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Unstable Links on AODV Performance in Real Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgia Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between a pair of nodes is defined unstable if it is characterized by a packet loss which is not negligible in one or both directions. The presence of unstable links in multihop ad hoc networks is very likely and it depends on several factors (e.g., different transmission capabilities of the devices, interferences caused by additional wireless devices. Their management by the routing protocols is of paramount importance since they negatively affect applications performance. In our previous experimental studies, we found that AODV is characterized by very low performance in some specific situations and, in this work, we demonstrate that it mainly depends on the wrong management of unstable links as valid routes. We present some policies that have been proposed in literature to avoid this problem, and we validate two of them through experimental results, exploiting also a direct comparison with the proactive routing protocol OLSR. Our results show that AODV is not able to avoid the use of unstable links, even when an alternative stable route exists. In the same conditions, OLSR outperforms AODV by correctly managing unstable links. In fact, it is able to guarantee a higher packet delivery ratio to the application by using the most stable path to reach the destination.

  16. Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular

  17. Unstable three dimensional nuclear matter in stochastic mean field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1993-01-01

    A semi-classical stochastic mean-field approach is discussed. In the case of unstable infinite nuclear matter, the characteristic time of the exponential growing of fluctuations and the diffusion coefficients associated to the unstable modes are calculated in the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. In order to make realistic 3D calculations feasible, the complicated Boltzmann-Langevin theory is suggested to be replaced by a simpler stochastic meanfield approach corresponding to a standard Boltzmann evolution, complemented by a simple noise chosen to reproduce the dynamics of the most unstable modes. Finally, it is explained how to approximately implement this method by simply tuning the noise associated to the use of a finite number of test particles in Boltzmann-like calculations. (authors) 17 refs., 5 figs

  18. Large scale rock slope release planes imaged by differential ground based InSAR at Randa, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, V.; Loew, S.; Kos, A.; Raetzo, H.

    2009-04-01

    In April and May of 1991 a steep rock slope above the village of Randa (Valais, Switzerland) failed in two events, releasing a total rock volume of 30 million m3. The rock mass behind the back scarp contains several million cubic meters of unstable gneisses and schists which are moving with a maximum rate of about 2 cm/yr. Different geodetic, geotechnical and geophysical techniques were applied to monitor this new instability and to determine its spatial extent. However, the boundaries of the instability could only be roughly estimated so far. For this reason five ground based differential InSAR surveys (GB-DInSAR) were carried out between 2005 and 2007 from the opposite valley flank at a distance to target of 1.3 to 1.9 km. These surveys provide displacements maps of four different time intervals with a spatial resolution of 2 to 6 m and an accuracy of less than 1 mm. These datasets reveal interesting new insights into the spatial distribution of displacements and significantly contribute to the kinematic interpretation of the ongoing movements. We found that the lower boundary of the instability is a narrow rupture plane which coincides with a primary lithological boundary on the slope. The intersection line between this basal rupture plane and the steep rock cliff extents over at least 200 m meters. It is possible to identify this structure on helicopter-based high resolution images and a LiDAR DTM of the failure surface. The eastern boundary of the instability also presents itself as a sharp line separating stable bedrock from a strongly fractured rock mass moving about 1 cm/yr along the line of sight. This lateral release plane is formed by a steeply east dipping tectonic fault plane, with subhorizontal striations and an exposed surface area of about 10'000 square meters. In the north-east of the instability the lateral boundaries crop out on surfaces that have an acute angle to the line of sight or lie in the shadow of the radar. Here the boundaries of the

  19. External Fixation of Unstable Distal Radius Fracture. A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yaniel Truffin Rodríguez; Rafael Esmandy Gámez Arregoitía; Indira L. Gómez Gil; José Julio Requeiro Morejón

    2014-01-01

    Unstable fracture of the distal radius is a common injury. If not properly treated, it can cause major disturbance in the radiocarpal joint and impaired hand function. A case of a 42-year-old patient of rural origin without a history of previous conditions treated at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. He suffered a fall on the outstretched hand, which led to an unstable fracture of the left distal radius. Emergency surgery consisting of manual fracture reduction ...

  20. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-09-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  1. DLCQ and plane wave matrix Big Bang models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the generalisations of the Craps-Sethi-Verlinde matrix big bang model to curved, in particular plane wave, space-times, beginning with a careful discussion of the DLCQ procedure. Singular homogeneous plane waves are ideal toy-models of realistic space-time singularities since they have been shown to arise universally as their Penrose limits, and we emphasise the role played by the symmetries of these plane waves in implementing the flat space Seiberg-Sen DLCQ prescription for these curved backgrounds. We then analyse various aspects of the resulting matrix string Yang-Mills theories, such as the relation between strong coupling space-time singularities and world-sheet tachyonic mass terms. In order to have concrete examples at hand, in an appendix we determine and analyse the IIA singular homogeneous plane wave - null dilaton backgrounds.

  2. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne H

    2010-06-16

    The Foot Posture Index (FPI) provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p foot type (FPI = +6 to +9) and maximum rearfoot eversion angle were more strongly positively correlated (r = 0.81, p foot type (FPI = 0 to +5) and maximum rearfoot eversion (r = 0.76, p plane rearfoot FPI score and frontal plane motion during gait were strongly positive, (r = 0.79 p foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  3. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the ...

  4. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, ...

  5. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  6. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    a 6= 1, c 6= 1; then f ± g(z) = acz + ad + b. T he fact th a t jacj = 1,and the presence of z rath er th an z, ... alldisplacem ents in the plane;this is essentially the ad- ditive group of all vectors in the plane. In fact, D is ..... ro ta tio n s fa ;fb;fc as follow s: fa = R A ;® , fb = R B ;¯ , fc = R C ;° . A ssum e that the vertices of 4 A B C are ...

  7. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: mabdalla@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: holender@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: masantos@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: ionvancea@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  8. Wear Behavior of an Unstable Knee: Stabilization via Implant Design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Reinders

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Wear-related failures and instabilities are frequent failure mechanisms of total knee replacements. High-conforming designs may provide additional stability for the joint. This study analyzes the effects of a ligamentous insufficiency on the stability and the wear behavior of a high-conforming knee design. Methods. Two simulator wear tests were performed on a high-conforming total knee replacement design. In the first, a ligamentous-stable knee replacement with a sacrificed anterior cruciate ligament was simulated. In the second, a ligamentous-unstable knee with additionally insufficient posterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament was simulated. Wear was determined gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. Implant kinematics was recorded during simulation. Results. Significantly higher wear rates (P≤0.001 were observed for the unstable knee (14.58±0.56 mg/106 cycles compared to the stable knee (7.97 ± 0.87 mg/106 cycles. A higher number of wear particles with only small differences in wear particle characteristics were observed. Under unstable knee conditions, kinematics increased significantly for translations and rotations (P≤0.01. This increase was mainly attributed to higher tibial posterior translation and internal rotations. Conclusion. Higher kinematics under unstable test conditions is a result of insufficient stabilization via implant design. Due to the higher kinematics, increased wear was observed in this study.

  9. Unstable oscillatory Pierce modes of neutralized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, J.R.; Lemons, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Oscillatory modes of the Pierce system have been calculated. These modes are found to have growth rates comparable to the previously investigated purely growing modes. When these modes are included, it is found that the Pierce system is unstable for most values of ω/sub p/ L/V 0 >π

  10. Control of an under activated unstable nonlinear object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Skovgaard, L.; Ravn, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive comparative study of several nonlinear controllers for stabilisation of the under actuated unstable nonlinear object known as the Acrobot in the literature. The object is a two DOF robot arm only actuated at the elbow. The study compares several control...

  11. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  12. Coronary angioplasty early after diagnosis of unstable angina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); H. Suryapranata (Harry); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractCoronary angioplasty (PTCA) was performed early after diagnosis of unstable angina in 71 patients who responded favorably with initial pharmacologic treatment and who also had persistent exertional angina. The patients selected for PTCA had predominantly single-vessel disease and a

  13. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of dynamic systems. In this paper ...

  14. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 10. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry - The Use of Conic Sections. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 13 Issue 10 October 2008 pp 916-928. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Distributed storage in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Goseling, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can

  16. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second pl...

  17. Complex Numbers and Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 1. Complex Numbers and Plane Geometry. Anant R Shastri. General Article Volume 13 Issue 1 January 2008 pp 35-53. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/01/0035-0053. Keywords.

  18. Lateral dynamic flight stability of a model hoverfly in normal and inclined stroke-plane hovering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Na; Sun, Mao

    2014-01-01

    Many insects hover with their wings beating in a horizontal plane (‘normal hovering’), while some insects, e.g., hoverflies and dragonflies, hover with inclined stroke-planes. Here, we investigate the lateral dynamic flight stability of a hovering model hoverfly. The aerodynamic derivatives are computed using the method of computational fluid dynamics, and the equations of motion are solved by the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis. The following is shown: The flight of the insect is unstable at normal hovering (stroke-plane angle equals 0) and the instability becomes weaker as the stroke-plane angle increases; the flight becomes stable at a relatively large stroke-plane angle (larger than about 24°). As previously shown, the instability at normal hovering is due to a positive roll-moment/side-velocity derivative produced by the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect. When the stroke-plane angle increases, the wings bend toward the back of the body, and the ‘changing-LEV-axial-velocity’ effect decreases; in addition, another effect, called the ‘changing-relative-velocity’ effect (the ‘lateral wind’, which is due to the side motion of the insect, changes the relative velocity of its wings), becomes increasingly stronger. This causes the roll-moment/side-velocity derivative to first decrease and then become negative, resulting in the above change in stability as a function of the stroke-plane angle. (paper)

  19. A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.J.

    1994-04-01

    Most enhanced oil recovery schemes involve the displacement of a more dense and more viscous oil by a less dense and less viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous medium. The interaction of heterogeneity with the several competing forces, namely, viscous, capillary, gravitational, and dispersive forces, can conspire to make the displacements unstable and difficult to model and to predict. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic methodology for modeling unstable fluid displacements in heterogeneous media. Flow visualization experiments were conducted using X-ray computed tomography imaging and a video imaging workstation to gain insights into the dynamics of unstable displacements, acquire detailed quantitative experimental image data for calibrating numerical models of unstable displacements, and image and characterize heterogeneities in laboratory cores geostatistically. High-resolution numerical models modified for use on vector-architecture supercomputers were used to replicate the image data. Geostatistical models of reservoir heterogeneity were incorporated in order to study the interaction of hydrodynamic instability and heterogeneity in reservoir displacements. Finally, a systematic methodology for matching the experimental data with the numerical models and scaling the laboratory results to other systems were developed. The result is a new method for predicting the performance of unstable EOR displacements in the field based on small-scale displacements in the laboratory. The methodology is general and can be applied to forecast the performance of most processes that involve fluid flow and transport in porous media. Therefore, this research should be of interest to those involved in forecasting the performance of enhanced oil recovery processes and the spreading of contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers.

  20. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is considered.

  1. Absolute parametric instability in a nonuniform plane plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The paper reports an analysis of the effect of spatial plasma nonuniformity on absolute parametric instability (API) of electrostatic waves in magnetized plane waveguides subjected to an intense high-frequency (HF) electric field using the separation method. In this case the effect of strong static magnetic field is ...

  2. Comparison of external fixation versus the trauma pelvic orthotic device on unstable pelvic injuries: a cadaveric study of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Conrad, Bryan; Rubery, Paul T; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Most institutions treating pelvic fractures use some method of acute mechanical stabilization. This typically involves use of pelvic binders or circumferential sheeting, and/or external fixation. The comparative value of these different modalities is controversial. We hypothesized that an external fixator would provide more stability to an unstable pelvic injury than a commercially available binder device (trauma pelvic orthotic device [T-POD]). Unstable pelvic injuries (Tile C) were surgically created in five fresh whole human cadavers. Electromagnetic sensors were placed on the same position of each hemipelvis. The amount of angular motion during testing was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device. Maximum displacements were recorded during application of the stabilizing devices, bed transfer, logrolling, and head-of-bed elevation. External fixation frames were constructed by placing two 5.0-mm half pins into the iliac crest and then connected them with a 10-mm curved bar. The T-POD device was placed at the level of the greater trochanters as per manufacturer's recommendations. While logrolling the patient and performing bed transfers, the T-POD conferred more stability in all planes of motion, although this did not reach statistical significance. During elevation of the head of the bed, the T-POD allowed less motion in the sagittal and coronal planes but permitted equivalent motion in axial rotation. These differences were not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in stability conferred by an external fixator or a T-POD for unstable pelvic injuries. We advocate acute, temporary stabilization of pelvic injuries with a binder device and early conversion to internal fixation when the patient's medical condition allows. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  3. A Wind-Tunnel Simulation of the Wake of a Large Wind Turbine in a Weakly Unstable Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, P. E.; Zhang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements have been made in the wake of a model wind turbine in both a weakly unstable and a baseline neutral atmospheric boundary layer, in the EnFlo stratified-flow wind tunnel, between 0.5 and 10 rotor diameters from the turbine, as part of an investigation of wakes in offshore winds. In the unstable case the velocity deficit decreases more rapidly than in the neutral case, largely because the boundary-layer turbulence levels are higher with consequent increased mixing. The height and width increase more rapidly in the unstable case, though still in a linear manner. The vertical heat flux decreases rapidly through the turbine, recovering to the undisturbed level first in the lower part of the wake, and later in the upper part, through the growth of an internal layer. At 10 rotor diameters from the turbine, the wake has strong features associated with the surrounding atmospheric boundary layer. A distinction is drawn between direct effects of stratification, as necessarily arising from buoyant production, and indirect effects, which arise only because the mean shear and turbulence levels are altered. Some aspects of the wake follow a similarity-like behaviour. Sufficiently far downstream, the decay of the velocity deficit follows a power law in the unstable case as well as the neutral case, but does so after a shorter distance from the turbine. Tentatively, this distance is also shorter for a higher loading on the turbine, while the power law itself is unaffected by turbine loading.

  4. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  5. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  6. Algebraic Methods in Plane Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    the role ofm appings and transform ation groups in plane geom etry. 1. P arabola in a Triangle. W e ¯rst recall tw o results from the geom etry of the parabola. Let P denote a parabola w ith focus F and d irectrix `. For any point P 2 P , let tP denote the tangent to P at P . (i) T he im age ofF under re°ection in any ofthe tangents.

  7. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  8. Stabilization of switched nonlinear systems with unstable modes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hao; Cocquempot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This book provides its reader with a good understanding of the stabilization of switched nonlinear systems (SNS), systems that are of practical use in diverse situations: design of fault-tolerant systems in space- and aircraft; traffic control; and heat propagation control of semiconductor power chips. The practical background is emphasized throughout the book; interesting practical examples frequently illustrate the theoretical results with aircraft and spacecraft given particular prominence. Stabilization of Switched Nonlinear Systems with Unstable Modes treats several different subclasses of SNS according to the characteristics of the individual system (time-varying and distributed parameters, for example), the state composition of individual modes and the degree and distribution of instability in its various modes. Achievement and maintenance of stability across the system as a whole is bolstered by trading off between individual modes which may be either stable or unstable, or by exploiting areas of part...

  9. The unstable modes of a two-component electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, P.; McClements, K. G.

    1988-12-01

    The linear generation of electrostatic waves in a homogeneous, collisionless, unmagnetized plasma with two Maxwellian electron components, one drifting with respect to the other, is investigated. It is shown that such a system may be unstable to a beam mode rather than the well-known Langmuir mode if the drifting electron component is sufficiently dense and has a sufficiently low temperature. The dispersion characteristics of this 'electron-beam instability' and the Langmuir instability at the critical drift velocity for wave growth are determined for a wide range of parameters. The results are applied to electron beams producing hard X-ray emission in solar flares, and it is argued that such beams may be unstable to the generation of electrostatic waves at frequencies below the electron plasma frequency.

  10. A numerical study of unstable Hele-Shaw flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Erik Bent; Rasmussen, Henning

    1999-01-01

    A numerical procedure which is based on an integral equation for the normal velocity at the interface is developed for the unstable flow with surface tension in a Hele-Shaw cell. The procedure has been validated by comparing solutions obtained by it with published results. It has also been applie...... to a study of the effect of small changes in the initial data on the later profiles and it was found that even very small differences can lead to large differences in the profiles at later times. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......A numerical procedure which is based on an integral equation for the normal velocity at the interface is developed for the unstable flow with surface tension in a Hele-Shaw cell. The procedure has been validated by comparing solutions obtained by it with published results. It has also been applied...

  11. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  12. Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kitamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.

  13. Order parameter model for unstable multilane traffic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lubashevsky, Ihor A.; Mahnke, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a phenomenological approach to the description of unstable vehicle motion on multilane highways that explains in a simple way the observed sequence of the phase transitions "free flow -> synchronized motion -> jam" as well as the hysteresis in the transition "free flow synchronized motion". We introduce a new variable called order parameter that accounts for possible correlations in the vehicle motion at different lanes. So, it is principally due to the "many-body" effects in the ...

  14. Unstable states produced in collisions among complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda J, D.

    1978-01-01

    A theory about resonant elastic dispersion is formulated and the wave function of unstable states associated with the resonances observed in the differential and total sections is studied. The object of this theory is to extend to the elastic collisions among complex nuclei interesting case, the methods and formalism of the dispersion of particles without structure by an external potential, following an idea originally formulated by H. Feshbach. (author)

  15. ${ \\mathcal P }{ \\mathcal T }$-symmetric interpretation of unstable effective potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Carl M.; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben

    2016-01-01

    The conventional interpretation of the one-loop effective potentials of the Higgs field in the Standard Model and the gravitino condensate in dynamically broken supergravity is that these theories are unstable at large field values. A ${ \\mathcal P }{ \\mathcal T }$-symmetric reinterpretation of these models at a quantum-mechanical level eliminates these instabilities and suggests that these instabilities may also be tamed at the quantum-field-theory level.

  16. Human muscular and postural responses in unstable load lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Hui; Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2002-09-01

    Most studies of manual material handling have focused on stable (fixed) loads. The muscular response during unstable load handling deserves more investigative attention. To investigate muscular and postural responses during unstable load lifting, and to quantify the threat posed by such loads in the workplace. Accurate assessment of load weight is important for lifters. Unfortunately, this information is not always available to individuals handling containers of liquids or shifting loads, or those encountering impact loading or a sudden unexpected load. In this study, 12 subjects were subjected to time-variant loads, in which a box weighing 18 kg was used to generate a sudden 12 (kg. m)/second load impact internally during the lifting process. Responses were investigated as a function of different load-shift conditions (anterior-to-posterior and posterior-to-anterior rolling loads and stable load), two foot placements (wide and narrow stance), and two lifting techniques (stoop and squat). Normalized electromyography signals, joint angles, and total linear length for center of pressure (COP-length) were investigated. Lifting an unstable load significantly increases total lifting time, COP-length, and muscular contraction levels. When responding to impact momentum, subjects attempted to lift with greater elbow extension and shoulder and trunk flexion. A more flexed knee joint (approximately an additional 5 degrees ) was observed during preparation for load impact in the anterior-to-posterior rolling task, allowing the formation of a more stable platform to compensate for the load variation. The largest erector spinae contraction for unstable lifting was approximately 12% to 25% greater maximal voluntary contraction than for the stable analog. The normalized electromyography data demonstrate that the central nervous system detects and responds to the need to stabilize the joints closest to the location of load-shift perturbation.

  17. Regularity and chaos in Vlasov evolution of unstable nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, B.; Chomaz, Ph.; Guarnera, A.; Colonna, M.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the onset of chaos in mean-field dynamics in presence of volume instabilities is performed. As a main finding, it is shown that the mean-field evolution presents two different regimes: a first one dominated by the almost decoupled amplification of several collective unstable modes, leading to the early condensation of the system into clusters, which is followed by a second stage dominated by a coalescence mechanism among the large-density domains. (K.A.)

  18. The monitoring of unstable rock masses applied to risk management

    OpenAIRE

    POTHERAT, Pierre; DURANTHON, Jean Paul

    2010-01-01

    Rock mass fall case studies presented in this paper show that rupture occur after a more or less long preparation stage which is link to different parameters such as the rate of displacement or the volume and the morphology of the unstable mass. In all sites efficient safety decision could have been taken early enough, with an appropriate monitoring system, even in the case of cliff collapses that are generally considered as sudden movements impossible to anticipate. Kinematics criteria that ...

  19. EFFECTS OF UNSTABLE SHOES ON ENERGY COST DURING TREADMILL WALKING AT VARIOUS SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Koyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shoes having rounded soles in the anterior- posterior direction have been commercially introduced, which are commonly known as unstable shoes (US. However, physiological responses during walking in US, particularly at various speeds, have not been extensively studied to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wearing unstable shoes while walking at low to high speeds on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE, muscle activation, oxygen consumption (VO2, and optimum speed. Healthy male adults wore US or normal walking shoes (WS, and walked at various speeds on a treadmill with no inclination. In experiment 1, subjects walked at 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 km·h-1 (duration, 3 min for all speeds and were recorded on video from the right sagittal plane to calculate the step length and cadence. Simultaneously, electromyogram (EMG was recorded from six different thigh and calf muscles, and the integrated EMG (iEMG was calculated. In experiment 2, RPE, heart rate and VO2 were measured with the walking speed being increased from 3.6 to 7.2 km·h-1 incrementally by 0.9 km·h-1 every 6 min. The optimum speed, defined by the least oxygen cost, was calculated from the fitted quadratic relationship between walking speed and oxygen cost. Wearing US resulted in significantly longer step length and lower cadence compared with WS condition at any given speed. For all speeds, iEMG in the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, heart rate, and VO2 were significantly higher in US than WS. However, RPE and optimum speed (US, 4.75 ± 0.32 km·h-1; WS, 4. 79 ± 0.18 km·h-1 did not differ significantly between the two conditions. These results suggest that unstable shoes can increase muscle activity of lower legs and energy cost without influencing RPE and optimum speed during walking at various speeds

  20. CP Violation in Correlated Production and Decay of Unstable Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kittel, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    We study resonant CP-violating Einstein--Podolsky--Rosen correlations that may take place in the production and decay of unstable scalar particles at high-energy colliders. We show that as a consequence of unitarity and CPT invariance of the S-matrix, in 2 --> 2 scatterings mediated by mixed scalar particles, at least three linearly independent decay matrices associated with the unstable scalar states are needed to obtain non-zero CP-odd observables that are also odd under C-conjugation. Instead, for the correlated production and decay of two unstable particle systems in 2 --> 4 processes, we find that only two independent decay matrices are sufficient to induce a net non-vanishing CP-violating phenomenon. As an application of this theorem, we present numerical estimates of CP asymmetries for the correlated production and decay of supersymmetric scalar top--anti-top pairs at the LHC, and demonstrate that these could reach values of order one. As a byproduct of our analysis, we develop a novel spinorial trace ...

  1. Oxygen Consumption While Standing with Unstable Shoe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Benedikt A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study explored the effects of unstable shoe design on oxygen consumption. Methods. Oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were measured in 16 individuals while barefoot, wearing unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology and wearing conventional sport shoes while standing and walking on a treadmill and for 5 individuals while walking around a 400 m track. Results. When wearing the MBT shoes, a significant (p < 0.01 increase of 9.3 ± 5.2% in VO2 was measured while standing quietly for 6 min. No differences in VO2 and HR were observed between the MBT shoes or weight-adjusted conventional shoes (to match the weight of the MBT shoes while walking on a treadmill. However, significant increases (p < 0.01 in VO2 (4.4 ± 8.2% and HR (3.6 ± 7.3% were observed for the MBT shoes compared with being barefoot. No significant differences in VO2 and HR were recorded while walking around a 400 m track either with MBT shoes, weight-adjusted conventional shoes or barefoot. Nonetheless, a comparison of the MBT shoes with barefoot revealed a tendency for VO2 to be higher when wearing the MBT shoes (7.1 ± 6.5%, p < 0.1 although HR was not significantly affected. Conclusions. The unstable shoe design predominantly effects oxygen consumption while standing, most likely due to increased muscle activity of the lower extremities.

  2. Metastability in plyometric training on unstable surfaces: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past, plyometric training (PT) has been predominantly performed on stable surfaces. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine effects of a 7-week lower body PT on stable vs. unstable surfaces. This type of exercise condition may be denoted as metastable equilibrium. Methods Thirty-three physically active male sport science students (age: 24.1 ± 3.8 years) were randomly assigned to a PT group (n = 13) exercising on stable (STAB) and a PT group (n = 20) on unstable surfaces (INST). Both groups trained countermovement jumps, drop jumps, and practiced a hurdle jump course. In addition, high bar squats were performed. Physical fitness tests on stable surfaces (hexagonal obstacle test, countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, left-right hop, dynamic and static balance tests, and leg extension strength) were used to examine the training effects. Results Significant main effects of time (ANOVA) were found for the countermovement jump, hurdle drop jump, hexagonal test, dynamic balance, and leg extension strength. A significant interaction of time and training mode was detected for the countermovement jump in favor of the INST group. No significant improvements were evident for either group in the left-right hop and in the static balance test. Conclusions These results show that lower body PT on unstable surfaces is a safe and efficient way to improve physical performance on stable surfaces. PMID:25089202

  3. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity with unstable and unilateral exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Leonard, Allison M; Young, Warren B; Bonsey, W Andrew C; MacKinnon, Scott N

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of unstable and unilateral resistance exercises on trunk muscle activation. Eleven subjects (6 men and 5 women) between 20 and 45 years of age participated. Six trunk exercises, as well as unilateral and bilateral shoulder and chest presses against resistance, were performed on stable (bench) and unstable (Swiss ball) bases. Electromyographic activity of the upper lumbar, lumbosacral erector spinae, and lower-abdominal muscles were monitored. Instability generated greater activation of the lower-abdominal stabilizer musculature (27.9%) with the trunk exercises and all trunk stabilizers (37.7-54.3%) with the chest press. There was no effect of instability on the shoulder press. Unilateral shoulder press produced greater activation of the back stabilizers, and unilateral chest press resulted in higher activation of all trunk stabilizers, when compared with bilateral presses. Regardless of stability, the superman exercise was the most effective trunk-stabilizer exercise for back-stabilizer activation, whereas the side bridge was the optimal exercise for lower-abdominal muscle activation. Thus, the most effective means for trunk strengthening should involve back or abdominal exercises with unstable bases. Furthermore, trunk strengthening can also occur when performing resistance exercises for the limbs, if the exercises are performed unilaterally.

  4. From stable to unstable anomaly-induced inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Netto, Tiberio de [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Pelinson, Ana M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Bairro da Trindade, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Shapiro, Ilya L. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University and Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Utrecht University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Quantum effects derived through conformal anomaly lead to an inflationary model that can be either stable or unstable. The unstable version requires a large dimensionless coefficient of about 5 x 10{sup 8} in front of the R{sup 2} term that results in the inflationary regime in the R+R{sup 2} (''Starobinsky'') model being a generic intermediate attractor. In this case the non-local terms in the effective action are practically irrelevant, and there is a 'graceful exit' to a low curvature matter-like dominated stage driven by high-frequency oscillations of R - scalarons, which later decay to pairs of all particles and antiparticles, with the amount of primordial scalar (density) perturbations required by observations. The stable version is a genuine generic attractor, so there is no exit from it. We discuss a possible transition from stable to unstable phases of inflation. It is shown that this transition is automatic if the sharp cut-off approximation is assumed for quantum corrections in the period of transition. Furthermore, we describe two different quantum mechanisms that may provide a required large R{sup 2}-term in the transition period. (orig.)

  5. Total motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Zhou, Haitao; Dubose, Dewayne; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-01

    The proper prehospital and inpatient management of patients with unstable spinal injuries is critical for prevention of secondary neurological compromise. The authors sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation. Five fresh cadavers with surgically created unstable L-1 burst fractures were tested. The amount of angular motion between the T-12 and L-2 vertebral segments was measured using a 3D electromagnetic motion analysis device. A complete sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. These maneuvers and transfers included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, the authors performed what they believed to be the most commonly used versus the best techniques for preventing undesirable motion at the injury level. When placing a spine board there was more motion in all 3 planes with the log-roll technique, and this difference reached statistical significance for axial rotation (p = 0.018) and lateral bending (p = 0.003). Using logrolling for spine board removal resulted in increased motion again, and this was statistically significant for flexion-extension (p = 0.014). During the bed transfer and lateral therapy, the log-roll technique resulted in more motion in all 3 planes (p ≤ 0.05). When turning the cadavers prone for surgery there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for manually turning the patient versus the Jackson table turn (p ≤ 0.01). The total motion was decreased by almost 50% in each plane when using an alternative to the log-roll techniques during the complete sequence (p ≤ 0.007). Although it is unknown how much motion in the unstable spine is necessary to cause

  6. Some Considerations Regarding Plane to Plane Parallelism Error Effects in Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Alaci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that by imposing the parallelism constraint between the measured plane and the reference plane, the position of the current plane is not univocal specified and is impossible to specify the way to attain the parallelism errors imposed by accuracy constrains. The parameters involved in the calculus of plane to plane parallelism error can be used to set univocal the relative position between the two planes.

  7. Long-term effects of electrical neurostimulation in patients with unstable angina : Refractory to conventional therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jessica; DeJongste, Mike J. L.; Zijlstra, Felix; Staal, Michiel

    2007-01-01

    Background. Patients with unstable angina pectoris may become refractory to conventional therapies. Electrical neurostimulation with transcutaneous electrical stimulation and/or spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be effective for patients with refractory unstable angina pectoris in hospital

  8. Incidence and follow-up of Braunwald subgroups in unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. van Miltenburg-van Zijl (Addy); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); R.J. Veerhoek (Rinus); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. This study was performed to establish the prognosis of patients with unstable angina within the subgroups of the Braunwald classification. Background. Among many classifications of unstable angina, the Braunwald classification is frequently used. However, the incidence

  9. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  10. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez, D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz, D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle, G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R and D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics

  11. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co...

  12. Unstable Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    The discoveries of more than 100 roughly Earth-sized bodies with orbital periods less than 1 day, ultra-short-period planets or candidates (USPs), have challenged planet formation theories, and evidence suggests USPs may be the remnants of gaseous planets that shed their atmospheres. Indeed, many hot Jupiters are near Roche-Lobe overflow (RLO), and tidal decay can push them the rest of the way in. Recent work has shown stable RLO (atmospheres lost via a steady outflow and thin accretion disk) probably cannot produce USPs on its own but suggested unstable RLO (atmospheres quickly shed on dynamical timescales) may. In fact, stable RLO may drive overflowing hot Jupiters into unstable RLO, and by analogy with the common-envelope binaries, the core that remains can drive off the gaseous envelope at the cost of its orbital energy. Wellestablished mass-radius relations for gaseous planets, coupled to simple energy and angular momentum considerations, provide a connection between the observed masses and periods for USPs and their putative progenitor gaseous planets, with few free parameters. We propose to investigate the hypothesis that USPs originate through tidal decay and a combination of stable and unstable Roche-lobe overflow of short-period gaseous planets through the following studies: -We will explore the planetary masses, orbital periods, etc. that produce unstable RLO using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite. -We will relate the observed periods and masses of USPs to their putative progenitor masses and periods to see whether they are consistent with the unstable RLO hypothesis. This proposal is directly relevant to the Exoplanets Research Program since it seeks to "understand the ... physical processes of exoplanets" and "improve understanding of [their] origins" through "theoretical studies ... and modeling'". We also expect that it will have broad impacts on a variety of astrophysical topics: -Ultra-short period planets could

  13. Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

  14. Unstable rarefied gas flow conditions in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga A.; Khalidov, Iskander A.

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear dynamic system corresponding to rarefied gas flow in a channel is investigated. Under certain conditions corresponding iterative equations may have unstable solutions in some regions of the values of gas-surface interaction parameters [1]. Numerical calculations have demonstrated that a negligible change of one of the parameters of scattering function (less than 1%) near the bifurcation points causes the substantial difference in gas flow in a channel. As well non-random solutions as random solutions can be observed on bifurcation diagrams. Some of obtained solutions have a physical meaning of locking the channel, i.e. its conductivity reduces significantly. The scattering function is supposed to be close to ray-diffuse model, where the ray model, as well as the specular model, determines only one velocity of reflected gas atoms by given incident velocity. The ray-diffuse model has better experimental confirmation in comparison with the specular-diffuse model widely applied in practical DSMC calculations. However, the problem of the empirical confirmation of the obtained numerically effect is still difficult, because the scattering conditions of this type are hardly reproducible experimentally. To verify the bifurcations of simulated type experimentally all considered physical values in the flows are to be set exactly to the same values as detected in our calculations. Adding the extra parameter of scattering function allows us extending the region where considered dynamic system (related to rarefied gas flow) is unstable in the parametric space. Simulated unstable states of the system are close to physical situations observed in experiments. Obtained connection between the parameters of nonlinear dynamic system and momentum exchange coefficients (or accommodation coefficients) makes it possible to express analytic evaluations in terms of aerodynamic characteristics including Knudsen and Mach numbers, temperature factor etc.

  15. Strategy switching in the stabilization of unstable dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Zenzeri

    Full Text Available In order to understand mechanisms of strategy switching in the stabilization of unstable dynamics, this work investigates how human subjects learn to become skilled users of an underactuated bimanual tool in an unstable environment. The tool, which consists of a mass and two hand-held non-linear springs, is affected by a saddle-like force-field. The non-linearity of the springs allows the users to determine size and orientation of the tool stiffness ellipse, by using different patterns of bimanual coordination: minimal stiffness occurs when the two spring terminals are aligned and stiffness size grows by stretching them apart. Tool parameters were set such that minimal stiffness is insufficient to provide stable equilibrium whereas asymptotic stability can be achieved with sufficient stretching, although at the expense of greater effort. As a consequence, tool users have two possible strategies for stabilizing the mass in different regions of the workspace: 1 high stiffness feedforward strategy, aiming at asymptotic stability and 2 low stiffness positional feedback strategy aiming at bounded stability. The tool was simulated by a bimanual haptic robot with direct torque control of the motors. In a previous study we analyzed the behavior of naïve users and we found that they spontaneously clustered into two groups of approximately equal size. In this study we trained subjects to become expert users of both strategies in a discrete reaching task. Then we tested generalization capabilities and mechanism of strategy-switching by means of stabilization tasks which consist of tracking moving targets in the workspace. The uniqueness of the experimental setup is that it addresses the general problem of strategy-switching in an unstable environment, suggesting that complex behaviors cannot be explained in terms of a global optimization criterion but rather require the ability to switch between different sub-optimal mechanisms.

  16. Health care for homeless and unstably housed: overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, Mark; Weiner, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The causes of homelessness are complex and multifactorial and the solutions equally complex. Though homelessness is not a disease process, it is directly linked to poor health outcomes. It is thus incumbent on health care professionals to know the various definitions of homelessness, the ramifications of unstable housing, and the specific living conditions of each homeless patient. These factors needed to be accounted for when designing treatment plans in a way that will increase access to care and promote adherence. Increasing compliance and addressing barriers to care will improve outcomes and may reduce overall health expenditures. © 2012 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989......) and threshold models (Lin and Terasvirta, 1994) are amongst the most popular models to describe the behaviour of data with structural breaks. The local linear (LL) estimator is not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break and it may even report negative values for finite samples...

  18. Correlations of Decay Times of Entangled Composite Unstable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The role played by time in the quantum theory is still mysterious by many aspects. In particular it is not clear today whether the distribution of decay times of unstable particles could be described by a time operator (TO). As we shall discuss, different approaches to this problem (one could say interpretations) can be found in the literature on the subject. As we shall show, it is possible to conceive crucial experiments aimed at distinguishing the different approaches, by measuring with accuracy the statistical distribution of decay times of entangled particles. Such experiments can be realized in principle with entangled kaon pairs.

  19. On the definition of entropy for quantum unstable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civitarese, Osvaldo; Gadella, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The concept of entropy is central to the formulation of the quantum statistical mechanics, and it is linked to the definition of the density operator and the associated probabilities of occupation of quantum states. The extension of this scheme to accommodate for quantum decaying states is conceptually difficult, because of the nature of these states. Here we present a way to treat quantum unstable states in the context of statistical mechanics. We focuss on the definition of the entropy and avoid the use of complex temperatures

  20. Unstable Systems and Quantum Zeno Phenomena in Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Pascazio, S.

    2003-02-01

    We analyze the Zeno phenomenon in quantum field theory. The decay of an unstable system can be modified by changing the time interval between successive measurements (or by varying the coupling to an external system that plays the role of measuring apparatus). We speak of quantum Zeno effect if the decay is slowed and of inverse quantum Zeno (or Heraclitus) effect if it is accelerated. The analysis of the transition between these two regimes requires close scrutiny of the features of the interaction Hamiltonian. We look in detail at quantum field theoretical models of the Lee type.

  1. Porter-Thomas distribution in unstable many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volya, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We use the continuum shell model approach to explore the resonance width distribution in unstable many-body systems. The single-particle nature of a decay, the few-body character of the interaction Hamiltonian, and the collectivity that emerges in nonstationary systems due to the coupling to the continuum of reaction states are discussed. Correlations between the structures of the parent and daughter nuclear systems in the common Fock space are found to result in deviations of decay width statistics from the Porter-Thomas distribution.

  2. Is a Doubly Quantized Vortex Dynamically Unstable in Uniform Superfluids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Kasamatsu, Kenichi

    2018-02-01

    We revisit the fundamental problem of the splitting instability of a doubly quantized vortex in uniform single-component superfluids at zero temperature. We analyze the system-size dependence of the excitation frequency of a doubly quantized vortex through large-scale simulations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, and find that the system remains dynamically unstable even in the infinite-system-size limit. Perturbation and semi-classical theories reveal that the splitting instability radiates a damped oscillatory phonon as an opposite counterpart of a quasi-normal mode.

  3. Systems considerations in mosaic focal planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. P., III

    1983-08-01

    Two key reasons for pursuing the development of mosaic focal planes are reviewed and it is shown that rapid frame repetition rate is the only requirement that can be solved no other way than through mosaic focal planes. With the view that spaceborne mosaic focal plane sensors are necessarily 'smart sensors' requiring a lot of onboard processing just to function, it is pointed out that various artificial intelligence techniques may be the most appropriate to incorporate in the data processing. Finally, a novel mosaic focal plane design is proposed, termed a virtual mosaic focal plane, in response to other system constraints.

  4. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  5. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Câmara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP, which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. Conclusion: FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion.

  6. Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Carlos Alexandre; Martins, Renato Parsekian

    2016-01-01

    A reasonable exposure of incisors and gingival tissues is generally considered more attractive than excess or lack of exposure. A reasonable gingival exposure is considered to be around 0 to 2 mm when smiling and 2-4 mm exposure of the maxillary incisor edge when the lips are at rest. The aim of this paper is to present the Functional Aesthetic Occlusal Plane (FAOP), which aims to help in the diagnosis of the relationships established among molars, incisors and the upper lip. FAOP can complement an existing and established orthodontic treatment plan, facilitating the visualization of functional and aesthetic demands by giving a greater focus on the position of incisors in the relationship established among the incisors, molars and the upper lip stomion.

  7. A chaotic system with a single unstable node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprott, J.C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jafari, Sajad, E-mail: sajadjafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pham, Viet-Thanh [School of Electronics and Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 01 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hosseini, Zahra Sadat [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    This paper describes an unusual example of a three-dimensional dissipative chaotic flow with quadratic nonlinearities in which the only equilibrium is an unstable node. The region of parameter space with bounded solutions is relatively small as is the basin of attraction, which accounts for the difficulty of its discovery. Furthermore, for some values of the parameters, the system has an attracting torus, which is uncommon in three-dimensional systems, and this torus can coexist with a strange attractor or with a limit cycle. The limit cycle and strange attractor exhibit symmetry breaking and attractor merging. All the attractors appear to be hidden in that they cannot be found by starting with initial conditions in the vicinity of the equilibrium, and thus they represent a new type of hidden attractor with important and potentially problematic engineering consequences. - Highlights: • An unusual example of a three-dimensional dissipative chaotic flow is introduced. • In this system the only equilibrium is an unstable node. • For some values of the parameters, the system has an attracting torus. • This torus can coexist with a strange attractor or with a limit cycle. • These properties are uncommon in three-dimensional systems.

  8. Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures through posterior approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Unstable intertrochanteric fractures continue to be a challenge for orthopedic surgeons due to the functional limitations it results in the postoperative period. Anatomical reconstruction of the posteromedial fragment becomes difficult through conventional lateral approach, leading to excessive fracture collapse and limping. Materials and Methods: prospective, nonrandomized study was done with 40 patients. They were operated in prone position through posterior approach. Cancellous screws or SS-wires were used to fix the greater or lesser trochanteric fragments and dynamic hip screw (DHS or dynamic condylar screw (DCS for the main two fragments. Bone grafts were used to pack cavities at the posterior trochanteric regions. Results: Fracture healing occurred earlier compared to conventional lateral approach without excessive fracture collapse in majority of cases (average time to achieve union was 13.8 weeks; range: 10–18 weeks. Good functional recovery was noted with 75% 'Good' or 'Excellent' Harris Hip Scores at 24 weeks. Conclusion: Anatomical reconstruction of unstable trochanteric fractures becomes easier through posterior approach with earlier and better functional recovery.

  9. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  10. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  11. Research on beam characteristics in a large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator with parabolic mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Yingxiong; Xiao, Yu; Zhong, Lijing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Wan, Wen; Tang, Xiahui

    2016-07-20

    Large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonators employing spherical resonator mirrors suffer from spherical aberration, which adversely affects beam quality and alignment sensitivity. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical wave-optics simulations of the beam characteristics of a negative-branch hybrid resonator having parabolic mirrors with a large equivalent Fresnel number in the unstable direction. These results are compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors. Using parabolic mirrors, the output beam has a smaller beam spot size and higher power density at the focal plane. We found that the power extraction efficiency is 3.5% higher when compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors as the cavity length was varied between -1 and 1 mm from the ideal confocal resonator. In addition, the power extraction efficiency is 5.6% higher for mirror tilt angles varied between -6 and 6 mrad. Furthermore, the output propagating field is similar to a converging wave for a spherical mirror resonator and the output beam direction deviates 3.5 mrad from the optical axis. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Study of dynamical properties in a bi-dimensional model describing the prey–predator dynamics with strong Allee effect in prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Mandal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyze a bi-dimensional differential equation system obtained by considering Holling type II functional response in prey–predator model with strong Allee effect in prey. One of the important consequence of this modification is the existence of separatrix curve which divides the behaviour of the trajectories in the phase plane. The results show that the origin is an attractor for any set of parameter values. Axial equilibrium points are stable or unstable according to the different parametric restrictions. The unique positive equilibrium point, if it exists, can be either an attractor or a repeller surrounded by a limit cycle, whose stability and uniqueness are also established. Therefore long-term coexistence of both populations is possible or they can go to extinction. Conditions on the parameter values are derived to show that the positive equilibrium point can be emerged or annihilated through transcritical bifurcation at axial equilibrium points. The existence of two heteroclinic curves is also established. It is also demonstrated that the origin is a global attractor in the phase plane for some parameter values, which implies that there are satisfying conditions where both populations can go to extinction. Ecological interpretations of all analytical results are provided thoroughly.

  13. Understanding factors that influence the use of risk scoring instruments in the management of patients with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Netherlands: a qualitative study of health care practitioners’ perceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, J.; Heeren, M.J.; Wulp, I. van der; Bruijne, M.C. de; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    <strong>Background> Cardiac risk scores estimate a patient’s risk of future cardiac events or death. They are developed to inform treatment decisions of patients diagnosed with unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Despite recommending their use in guidelines and

  14. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  15. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  16. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  17. Curves along which plane waves can interfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, S.N.; Machover, M.

    1977-07-01

    Partial results are given on a conjecture in inverse scattering theory concerning the interference of two-dimensional plane waves. The conjecture states that an odd number of plane waves of the same frequency can only cancel each other at isolated points and not along a simple continuous curve. It is partially confirmed here for curves which are nearly flat at some point. An analysis is also made for various possible nodes for an even number of plane waves.

  18. Strongly anisotropic in-plane thermal transport in single-layer black phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ankit; McGaughey, Alan J H

    2015-02-17

    Using first principles calculations, we predict the thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional materials black phosphorene and blue phosphorene. Black phosphorene has an unprecedented thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio of three, with predicted values of 110 W/m-K and 36 W/m-K along its armchair and zigzag directions at a temperature of 300 K. For blue phosphorene, which is isotropic with a zigzag structure, the predicted value is 78 W/m-K. The two allotropes show strikingly different thermal conductivity accumulation, with phonons of mean free paths between 10 nm and 1 μm dominating in black phosphorene, while a much narrower band of mean free paths (50-200 nm) dominate in blue phosphorene. Black phosphorene shows intriguing potential for strain-tuning of its thermal conductivity tensor.

  19. Strongly anisotropic in-plane thermal transport in single-layer black phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit Jain; Alan J. H. McGaughey

    2015-01-01

    Using first principles calculations, we predict the thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional materials black phosphorene and blue phosphorene. Black phosphorene has an unprecedented thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio of three, with predicted values of 110?W/m-K and 36?W/m-K along its armchair and zigzag directions at a temperature of 300?K. For blue phosphorene, which is isotropic with a zigzag structure, the predicted value is 78?W/m-K. The two allotropes show strikingly different ther...

  20. Antisocial personality disorder--stable and unstable subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Simone; Coid, Jeremy

    2010-04-01

    There have been criticisms that the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are over-dependent on criminal behavior. This study aimed to identify unrelated criteria of social and behavioral problems and instability, and to investigate their associations in a representative household sample of adults in the UK. Approximately one third of adults with ASPD did not fulfill any of the criteria for instability. They were less aggressive and involved in illegal activities but expressed less remorse for their behaviors. Instability in ASPD was mediated primarily through comorbid anxiety disorders and borderline personality disorder. The concept of Secondary Psychopathy, which has not generally been applied to ASPD, demonstrated many similarities to the unstable subtype.

  1. Small Enterprise Strategies in an Unstable Public Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Green

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many small business owners in the United States dream about getting a large contract with the federal government, feeling that their lives would be easier if they did. Ironically, there have been numerous occasions where small businesses have gone out of business after being overwhelmed by a government contract. This case study addresses how small businesses can improve their survival and success rate in the public sector with a strategic approach to their operations. It begins by discussing the preparation that goes into federal contracting by small businesses. Case examples of four American companies involved in contracting with the Department of Energy are evaluated. Data collection is achieved through qualitative analysis. The application of these conclusions could increase the survival rate of small businesses operating in an unstable public environment. The study is significant because this research widens contemporary assumptions about strategic thinking for small businesses engaged in government contracting.

  2. Development of an RFQ linac for unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, S.; Imanishi, A.; Morimoto, T.; Shibuya, S.; Tojyo, E.; Tokuda, N.

    1990-05-01

    A split coaxial RFQ (SCRFQ) is being developed for accelerating unstable nuclei with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/60 from 1 to 170 keV/u in the JHP heavy-ion linac. The SCRFQ is equipped with modulated vanes to generate ideal quadrupole and accelerating fields. The fundamental problems on the SCRFQ have been clarified and solved through studies on a cold model, and the excellent accelerating performance has been confirmed by using a proton accelerating model working at 50 MHz. A 25.5-MHz prototype for the JHP SCRFQ is now under development. The prototype, 2.1 m in length and 0.9 m in diameter, will accelerate ions with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/30 from 1 to 45 keV/u. Low-power tests conducted so far show that the prototype cavity has good rf characteristics. (author)

  3. [Stabilization of unstable intertrochanteric fractures with the proximal femoral nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehmisch, S; Rieckenberg, J; Dresing, K

    2013-02-01

    Restoration of function and anatomy of the proximal femur. Possibility of full weightbearing after surgery. Less invasive intramedullary osteosynthesis. Unstable trochanteric fracture (AO classification 31-A2, 31-A3), subtrochanteric fracture (AO classification 32-A1), fracture of the femoral shaft in the proximal region. Ipsilateral coxarthrosis, open growth plate, hip fracture. Closed or open reduction on the extension table. Intramedullary reaming of the proximal femur, insertion of PFNA and blade as proximal locking screw, static or dynamic distal locking screw. Implantion of bone cement via blade, if necessary. Weightbearing as limited by pain. Osteoporosis diagnostics and initiation of treatment, if necessary. The stabilization of trochanteric fractures is usually done with PFNA. Compared to other methods, e.g., DHS, fewer complications were observed with the PFNA. Subtrochanteric fractures were associated with higher complication rates compared to intertrochanteric fractures.

  4. Stable and unstable crack growth in pressure vessel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Canonico, D.A.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Three identical steel pressure vessels with 254-mm (10-in.) dia, 38-mm (1.5-in.) wall thicknesses and long, deep machined and sharpened axially oriented flaws were tested at three different temperatures. The vessels were assembled by electron-beam welding cylindrical sections with substantially different toughnesses due to different heat treatments. Crack extension initiated in relatively brittle sections, and the cracks extended both stably and unstably, depending on test temperature, toward the tougher sections where crack arrest did and did not occur. Charpy impact specimens and both slow-bend and dynamic precracked Charpy specimens were used for material characterization. The behavior of the vessels is described and related to the Charpy data

  5. Synthesis of unstable cyclic peroxides for chemiluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, Fernando H.; Oliveira, Marcelo A. de; Augusto, Felipe A.; Ciscato, Luiz Francisco M.L.; Bastos, Erick L.; Baader, Wilhelm J., E-mail: wjbaader@iq.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2012-11-15

    Cyclic four-membered ring peroxides are important high-energy intermediates in a variety of chemi and bioluminescence transformations. Specifically, a-peroxy lactones (1,2-dioxetanones) have been considered as model systems for efficient firefly bioluminescence. However, the preparation of such highly unstable compounds is extremely difficult and, therefore, only few research groups have been able to study the properties of these substances. In this study, the synthesis, purification and characterization of three 1,2-dioxetanones are reported and a detailed procedure for the known synthesis of diphenoyl peroxide, another important model compound for the chemical generation of electronically excited states, is provided. For most of these peroxides, the complete spectroscopic characterization is reported here for the first time. (author)

  6. Active Feedback Control of Unstable Wells at the Brage Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Dalsmo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present new results on stabilization of horizontal wells with gas lift. The stabilization is achieved by a novel dynamic feedback control solution using the production choke at the wellhead. The primary input to the dynamic feedback controller is a measurement of the downhole pressure. The field results to be presented are from the Brage field operated by Norsk Hydro in the North sea. Production at Brage began in 1993 and the field went off plateau in 1998. As the production has decreased, the problems related to unstable production from some of the wells have escalated steadily. The results from the extensive field tests on the Brage wells arc very promising. The tests have confirmed the stabilization feature of the control solution. The pressure and flow variations have been dramatically reduced, and it is possible to produce the wells at a lower downhole pressure leading to increased production.

  7. Large In-Plane and Vertical Piezoelectricity in Janus Transition Metal Dichalchogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Lou, Jun; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2017-08-22

    Piezoelectricity in 2D van der Waals materials has received considerable interest because of potential applications in nanoscale energy harvesting, sensors, and actuators. However, in all the systems studied to date, strain and electric polarization are confined to the basal plane, limiting the operation of piezoelectric devices. In this paper, based on ab initio calculations, we report a 2D materials system, namely, the recently synthesized Janus MXY (M = Mo or W, X/Y = S, Se, or Te) monolayer and multilayer structures, with large out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization. For MXY monolayers, both strong in-plane and much weaker out-of-plane piezoelectric polarizations can be induced by a uniaxial strain in the basal plane. For multilayer MXY, we obtain a very strong out-of-plane piezoelectric polarization when strained transverse to the basal plane, regardless of the stacking sequence. The out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficient d 33 is found to be strongest in multilayer MoSTe (5.7-13.5 pm/V depending on the stacking sequence), which is larger than that of the commonly used 3D piezoelectric material AlN (d 33 = 5.6 pm/V); d 33 in other multilayer MXY structures are a bit smaller, but still comparable. Our study reveals the potential for utilizing piezoelectric 2D materials and their van der Waals multilayers in device applications.

  8. Augmentation of proximal femoral nail in unstable trochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadegone Wasudeo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biomechanically proximal femoral nail (PFN is a better choice of implant, still it is associated with screw breakage, cut out of screw through femoral head, Z effect, reverse Z effect, and lateral migration of screws. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of augmented PFN in terms of prevention of postoperative complications and failure rates in unstable trochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective study of 82 cases with unstable trochanteric femoral fractures from April 2010 to December 2015. Forty-two females and 40 males in the age group between 58 and 81 years were included in this study. There were 45 cases of AO 31 A2 (2.2, 2.3 and 37 cases of AO 31 A3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3. Fractures were fixed by PFN with augmentation by an additional screw from trochanter to inferior quadrant of femoral head or cerclage wire to strengthen the lateral trochanteric wall. Results: The bone healing is observed in all the cases in the mean period of 14.2 weeks. Nine patients developed complications, including lateral migration of neck screws (n = 5, Z effect (n = 1, infection (n = 2, and breakage of distal interlocking bolt in one case. Removal of screws was required in five cases. Patients were followed up for a mean of 8.4 months. At the end of follow-up the Salvati and Wilson hip function was 32 (out of 40 in 88% of patients. Conclusion: The stabilization of lateral trochanteric wall with additional screw or cerclage wire increases the stability of construct.

  9. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  10. Flux dynamics in ultrasensitive superconducting focal planes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The performance of superconducting focal planes will drive the achievable specifications of ultrasensitive instruments for NASA astrophysics missions, yet they have...

  11. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  12. The PLSI Method of Stabilizing Two-Dimensional Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Recursive Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangatharan N

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D recursive digital filters find applications in image processing as in medical X-ray processing. Nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP filters have definitely positive magnitude characteristics as opposed to quarter-plane (QP filters. In this paper, we provide methods for stabilizing the given 2D NSHP polynomial by the planar least squares inverse (PLSI method. We have proved in this paper that if the given 2D unstable NSHP polynomial and its PLSI are of the same degree, the PLSI polynomial is always stable, irrespective of whether the coefficients of the given polynomial have relationship among its coefficients or not. Examples are given for 2D first-order and second-order cases to prove our results. The generalization is done for the th order polynomial.

  13. Relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during different functional tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Luke; Feger, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Increased inversion following lateral ankle sprain and in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) is thought to contribute to recurrent injury and feelings of instability, however, there are no biomechanic assessment tools readily available to evaluate for excessive inversion prior to or following lateral ankle sprains. Before establishing a clinically useful biomechanic assessment tool, it is important to understand whether there is a relationship in the extent of ankle frontal plane motion across various tasks to help determine if one task or a combination of tasks would be most appropriate when evaluating patients. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the relationship between ankle frontal plane kinematics during walking, step-down, and jump-landing tasks. Fifty-six recreationally active adults (gender=M:26;F:30, age=21.2±3.2, height=171.3±8.0cm, mass=75.6±15.4) volunteered. Main outcome measures were ankle frontal plane motion at initial contact and peak inversion during aerial phases across 3 tasks (walking, step-down, and jump-landing). Relationships between ankle frontal plane kinematics were analyzed by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r). There were strong correlations in peak inversion during the aerial phase between the step-down and walking (r=0.68; pbiomechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  15. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  16. Relationships between foot type and dynamic rearfoot frontal plane motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuter Vivienne H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI provides an easily applicable, validated method for quantifying static foot posture. However there is limited evidence relating to the ability of the FPI to predict dynamic foot function. This study aimed to assess the relationship between dynamic rearfoot motion and FPI scores in pronated and normal foot types. Methods 40 participants were recruited with equal numbers of pronated and normal foot types as classified by their FPI score. Three dimensional rearfoot motion was collected for each of the participants. Dynamic maximum rearfoot eversion was correlated with the total FPI score across all participants and within the normal and pronated foot types. Linear correlations were performed between components of the total FPI scores measuring frontal plane rearfoot position and maximum rearfoot eversion. The capacity of the total FPI score to predict maximum frontal plane motion of the rearfoot was investigated using linear regression analysis. Results The correlation between the total FPI score and maximum rearfoot eversion was strongly positive (r = 0.92, p 2 = 0.85, p Conclusions The results of this study suggest the FPI has strong predictive ability for dynamic rearfoot function. This will assist in clinical screening and research by allowing easy classification by functional foot type. Positive correlations between frontal plane rearfoot measurements and maximum rearfoot eversion suggest the FPI may identify dominant planar components of dynamic rearfoot motion and warrants further investigation.

  17. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Histological patterns of atherosclerotic plaques in unstable angina patients vary according to clinical presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, J; Kaski, J; Pereira, W; Arie, S; Ramires, J; Pileggi, F

    1998-01-01

    Background—Unstable angina is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. The diverse clinical presentations of unstable angina may reflect different pathogenic mechanisms within the plaque.
Objective—To investigate the cellular constituents of culprit coronary atheromatous plaques in patients with stable angina pectoris and patients with diverse clinical presentations of unstable angina.
Methods—48 patients who underwent coronary atherectomy for management of ischaemic heart disease: 23 had stable an...

  20. Discretization of superintegrable systems on a plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabát, Z.

    2012-02-01

    We construct difference analogues of so called Smorodinsky-Winternitz superintegrable systems in the Euclidean plane. Using methods of umbral calculus, we obtain difference equations for generalized isotropic harmonic oscillator on the uniform lattice, and also its solution in terms of power series. In the case of gauge-rotated Hamiltonian, the solution is a polynomial, well-defined in the whole plane.

  1. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    There is a way to describe a family of plane curves different from that using Cartesian or po- lar co-ordinates. This is a trigonometric equation involving two angles. In this article, we highlight the fact that trigonometric equations are conve- nient to describe certain one-parameter families of plane curves. In some cases, the ...

  2. Influence of prolonged wearing of unstable shoes on upright standing postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Andreia S P; Macedo, Rui; Santos, Rubim; Sousa, Filipa; Silva, Andreia; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2016-02-01

    To study the influence of prolonged wearing of unstable shoes on standing postural control in prolonged standing workers. The participants were divided into two groups: one wore unstable shoes while the other wore conventional shoes for 8weeks. Stabilometry parameters related to centre of pressure (CoP), rambling (RM) and trembling (TR) as well as the total agonist/antagonist muscle activity, antagonist co-activation and reciprocal activation were evaluated during upright standing, before and after the 8weeks period. In both moments, the subjects were evaluated wearing the unstable shoes and in barefoot. The unstable shoe condition presented increased CoP displacement related variables and decreased co-activation command compared to barefoot before and after the intervention. The prolonged wearing of unstable shoes led to: (1) reduction of medial-lateral CoP root mean square and area; (2) decreased anteroposterior RM displacement; (3) increased anteroposterior RM mean velocity and mediolateral RM displacement; (4) decreased anteroposterior TR RMS; and (5) increased thigh antagonist co-activation in the unstable shoe condition. The unstable shoe condition is associated to a higher destabilising effect that leads to a selection of more efficient and accurate postural commands compared to barefoot. Prolonged wearing of unstable shoes provides increased effectiveness and performance of the postural control system, while wearing of unstable shoes in upright standing, that are reflected by changes in CoP related variables and by a reorganisation of postural control commands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. “Occlusal Plane Orientor”: An Innovative and Efficient Device for Occlusal Plane Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuniyal, Harish; Katoch, Nidhi; Rao, P. Laxman

    2011-01-01

    Correct occlusal plane orientation is a prerequisite in Prosthodontic reconstructive treatment therapy as it helps in achieving esthetics and phonetics anteriorly and forms a milling surface posteriorly where tongue and buccinator muscle position the food bolus during mastication. Activity of Muscles during clenching will be least, when the occlusal plane is made parallel to plane of lost natural teeth. Conventionally the ala-tragus line (Camper’s plane) is used as a guide for assessment of t...

  4. [Surgical treatment of unstable pelvic fractures combined with acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jun; Li, Zong-yuan; Liu, Gang

    2015-05-01

    To discuss the treatment strategy of acetabular fractures and unstable pelvic fracture of the hip and to evaluate its outcome. Retrospective analysis of clinical data in 32 patients with unstable pelvic fracture and acetabular fractures from January 2007 to June 2013 were collected. There were 18 males and 14 females aged from 18 to 62 years old (means 38 years old). According to Tile classification of pelvic fracture, 11 cases were type B1, 8 were type B2.1, 7 were type B2.2, 3 were type C1.1, 2 were type C1.2, 1 was type C3. According to Judet-Letournel classification, anterior column fracture was in 1 case, transverse fracture in 8, transverse plus posterior wall fracture in 6, T-type fracture in 1, anterior column plus half transverse fractures in 5, double column fracture in 11. Other combined injuries were treated early, the surgical operation were performed after stable condition. The hip joint function and the fracture reduction were assessed during follow-up. The operative time was from 1.8 to 6.5 hours (averaged 3 hours). Two fat patients' incision occurred in fat liquefaction and healed after dressing, no incision infection happened. Only 1 case was lost to follow-up, 31 patients were followed up with a mean time of 23 months (6 to 42 months). The healing time of pelvic fracture was from 8 to 18 weeks (averaged in 10.6 weeks). The hip function was evaluated according to the Matta and Tornetta standard postoperatively, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 14 cases, fair and poor in 1 case respectively. The Majeed score of the hip function was 83.65? 7.67, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 12 cases and fair in 4 cases. The healing time of acetabular fractures was from 8 to 16 weeks (averaged in 10.2 weeks). The fracture reduction was assessed by Matta standard, the result was excellent in 15 cases, good in 12 cases and fair in 4 cases. The heterotopic ossification was evaluated by Brooker standard, 4 cases were grade I, 1 case was

  5. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazalis, B., E-mail: bernard.cazalis@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Desquines, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance BP3 (France); Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique, CEA/DEN/DMN, F- 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bernaudat, C. [Electricité de France, EDF/SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-04-15

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO{sup ®} specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  6. The plane strain tests in the PROMETRA program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazalis, B.; Desquines, J.; Carassou, S.; Le Jolu, T.; Bernaudat, C.

    2016-01-01

    A fuel cladding mechanical test, performed under conditions of plane strain deformation in the transverse direction of tube axis, was originally developed at Pennsylvania State University. It was decided to implement this original test within the PROMETRA program using the same experimental procedure and its optimization for a ring mechanical testing on plane strain conditions (PST tests) in hot cells laboratory. This paper presents a detailed description and an interpretation of the Plane Strain Tensile (PST) tests performed in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. At first, the context of the PST tests is situated and the specificities of these tests implemented at CEA are justified. Indeed, a significant adjustment of the original experimental procedure is carried out in order to test the irradiated fuel cladding in the best possible conditions. Then, the tests results on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5™ and ZIRLO ® specimens are gathered. The main analyses in support of these tests, such as metallographies, fractographic examinations and finite element simulations are detailed. Finally, a synthesis of the interpretation of the tests is proposed. The PST test seems only representative of plane strain fracture conditions when the test material is very ductile (fresh or high temperature or low hydride material like M5TM). However, it provides a relevant representation of the RIA rupture initiation which is observed in irradiated cladding resulting from hydride rim damage due to the strong irradiation of a fuel rod. - Highlights: • A plane strain mechanical test performed on fuel rod claddings is described. • The tests are performed in the framework of the French PROMETRA program. • Fresh Zircaloy-4 and irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are tested. • The main analyses in support of these tests are detailed. • A synthesis of the interpretation of the PST tests is proposed.

  7. Finite Element Simulation of Dynamic Stability of Plane Free-Surface of a Liquid under Vertical Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Srinivas Kolukula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When partially filled liquid containers are excited vertically, the plane free-surface of the liquid can be stable or unstable depending on the amplitude and frequency of the external excitation. For some combinations of amplitude and frequency, the free-surface undergoes unbounded motion leading to instability called parametric instability or parametric resonance, and, for few other combinations, the free-surface undergoes bounded stable motion. In parametric resonance, a small initial perturbation on the free-surface can build up unboundedly even for small external excitation, if the excitation acts on the tank for sufficiently long time. In this paper, the stability of the plane free-surface is investigated by numerical simulation. Stability chart for the governing Mathieu equation is plotted analytically using linear equations. Applying fully nonlinear finite element method based on nonlinear potential theory, the response of the plane free-surface is simulated for various cases.

  8. Maxillomandibular plane angle bisector (MM) adjunctive to occlusal plane to evaluate anteroposterior measurement of dental base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganiger, Chanamallappa R; Nayak, U S Krishna; Cariappa, K U; Ahammed, A R Yusuf

    2012-07-01

    This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical usefulness of the maxillomandibular bisector, its reproducibility, its validity and its relationship to the functional occlusal plane, the bisecting occlusal plane and the nature of its cant. Thirty pretreatment lateral cephalograms, each of adolescents (above 18 years of age) and children (10- 12 years), seeking orthodontic treatment were randomly selected and the Wits technique of anteroposterior measurement was used to compare A-B values measured to the new plane with those measured to the functional occlusal plane (FOP) and to the traditional or bisecting occlusal plane (BOP). Present study showed that MM bisector plane is more reproducible and valid reference plane, than the FOP and BOP. A new plane, geometrically derived from the dental base planes, has been tested as an occlusal plane substitute for the measurement of anteroposterior jaw relationships. It lies close to but at an angle and inferior to the traditional occlusal planes and is highly reproducible at all times. Maxillomandibular planes angle bisector may be a useful adjunct for the cephalometric assessment of sagittal relationship of the patient.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Structure and evolution of irradiated accretion disks. I - Static thermal equilibrium structure. II - Dynamical evolution of a thermally unstable torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Y.; Mineshige, S.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal equilibrum structure and dynamical behavior of externally irradiated accretion disks are investigated. For radiative disks only the surface layer is heated, while for convective disks the heat penetrates deeply into the disk. For sufficiently strong radiation and given irradiation flux F(irr), the disk is completely stabilized against thermal instabilities of the sort invoked to explain dwarf novae. For moderately strong irradiation there is still an unstable branch in the thermal equilibrium curve. In typical soft X-ray transients, the disk is unstable against the dwarf-nova type instability. Fixed F(irr) on accretion disk annuli reduces the amplitude and the quiescent times and increases the outburst duration of the resultant light curves. Varying F(irr) in proportion to the mass accretion rate at the disks's inner edge results in light curves with a plateau in the decay from outbursts. In the case when irradiation is suddenly switched on, a temperature inversion results which leads to the formation of an accretion corona.

  12. Unstable femoral neck fractures in children - A new treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruthi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Femoral neck fractures in children are an uncommon but difficult situation. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical results of closed reduction internal fixation and primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop in high angled pediatric femoral neck fractures. Methods : In a prospective nonrandomized study conducted at 2 centres, sixteen children and adolescents with a Pauwel type 2/3 fracture neck femur were taken as participants. The femoral neck fractures were stabilized using closed reduction and internal fixation (6.5 mm noncannulated screw and a primary valgus osteotomy fixed with a tension band wire loop preferably within 24-36 hours of injury. Patients were evaluated to determine complications, clinical and radiological outcome. Results : At a mean post operative follow up of 5 years, union was achieved in all cases. Three patients had AVN and one developed coxavara. Results were evaluated using IOWA hip scores. Thirteen patients had an excellent result while 3 patients had a good result. Conclusion : Use of this technique holds promise in treating these difficult unstable fractures. Although results from a larger series are still awaited yet the use of this technique can safely be extended to stable fractures also, to minimize the incidence of complications as nonunion and AVN.

  13. Gamma camera intrinsic uniformity in an unstable power supply environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejeh, John E; Adedapo, Kayode S; Akinlade, Bidemi I; Osifo, Bola O A

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show that a gamma camera in a developing country could perform efficiently despite electricity outages using intrinsic flood uniformity tests as an index of performance. A total of 143 intrinsic uniformity test results for a new gamma camera in use in an environment with unstable power supply are presented. The integral uniformity for the central field of view (CFOV) was found to be between 3.43% and 1.49% (3.29% for acceptance test) while the integral uniformity for the useful field of view (UFOV) was between 4.51% and 1.9% (5.21% for acceptance test). The differential uniformity for the CFOV was between 1.99% and 1.04% (2.25% for acceptance test) while that of the UFOV was between 2.84% and 1.23% (2.63% for acceptance test). In conclusion, these results show that the uniformity of the gamma camera under this condition is within an acceptable range for both planar and SPET imaging.

  14. Quantum dynamics of dynamically unstable, integrable few-mode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Ranchu; Tiesinga, Eite

    2017-04-01

    Recently, quenches in isolated ultra-cold atomic quantum systems have become a subject of intense study. We consider quantum few-mode systems that are integrable in their classical mean-field limit and become dynamically unstable after a quench of a system parameter. Specifically, we study the cases of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential and of an antiferromagnetic F = 1 spinor BEC constrained to a single spatial mode. First, we study the time dynamics of a coherent state after the quench within the truncated Wigner approximation and find that due to phase-space mixing the systems relax to a steady state. Using action-angle formalism and guided by insights from the related pendulum system, we obtain analytical expressions for the time evolution of expectation values of observables and their long-time values. We also study the full quantum dynamics of the systems. Comparing their results with the TWA results, we find agreement in the long-time expectation value of the observables. The relaxation time scales, however, are different.

  15. Coupling of damped and growing modes in unstable shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, A. E.; Terry, P. W.; Zweibel, E. G.; Pueschel, M. J.

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of the saturation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is undertaken to determine the extent to which the conjugate linearly stable mode plays a role. For a piecewise-continuous mean flow profile with constant shear in a fixed layer, it is shown that the stable mode is nonlinearly excited, providing an injection-scale sink of the fluctuation energy similar to what has been found for gyroradius-scale drift-wave turbulence. Quantitative evaluation of the contribution of the stable mode to the energy balance at the onset of saturation shows that nonlinear energy transfer to the stable mode is as significant as energy transfer to small scales in balancing energy injected into the spectrum by the instability. The effect of the stable mode on momentum transport is quantified by expressing the Reynolds stress in terms of stable and unstable mode amplitudes at saturation, from which it is found that the stable mode can produce a sizable reduction in the momentum flux.

  16. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  17. The Unstable Elbow: Current Concepts in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Wolf, Brian R; van Riet, Roger P; Steinmann, Scott P

    2016-01-01

    Elbow instability is common and may occur after a variety of injuries, including falls or direct blows. Instability can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute instability is classified as simple (without fracture) or complex (with associated fracture). Chronic instability is classified as a chronically dislocated or recurrently unstable elbow. Recurrent instability commonly presents as isolated medial or lateral collateral ligament insufficiency. A chronically dislocated elbow is often more complex, involving both osseous and ligamentous injuries. The treatment of simple dislocations typically involves closed reduction and nonsurgical management. Chronic recurrent lateral and medial collateral ligament insufficiencies have very different clinical characteristics, but definitive treatment frequently involves ligament reconstruction. Complex instability usually requires surgery, which includes open reduction and internal fixation of coronoid and olecranon fractures, repair or replacement of radial head fractures, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Medial collateral ligament repair and/or external fixation are rarely required to restore stability. It is important for surgeons to understand current concepts in the diagnosis and management of acute and chronic elbow instability as well as the preferred surgical treatments and techniques for the management of these injuries.

  18. Unstable mutations: cause of some neurological hereditary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenca Berger, P.; Morales Montero, F.

    1999-01-01

    Unstable mutations or amplification of triplets constitute a kind of genetic alteration discovered during the last decade. They had been found inside or near genes important for the normal neurological function of the human being. In some cases, the presence of the amplification causes the inactivation of the gene or the synthesis of a new product which functions different from the original protein. Some common characteristics of diseases caused by the amplification of triplets are that it affects the nervous system and are degenerative in nature. The expression of the manifestations varies according to age. Most of them show genetic anticipation in which the severity of the manifestations increases with each generation and appear at an earlier age. In most cases, the severity of the symptoms is correlated positively to the size of the amplification. The diagnosis of an affected individual in a family may indicate the presence of an altered gene in other relatives. These relatives may not present evident signs of the illness either because it is of late onset or because they carry premutations. The molecular diagnosis of these mutations is important to estimate the risk of developing the disease and/or of transmitting the illness to the descendants and to eliminate the fears of healthy relatives who have inherited normal copies of the gene. (Author) [es

  19. Crustal fingering: solidification on a viscously unstable interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Porter, Mark; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the formation of gas hydrates in seafloor sediments, here we study the volumetric expansion of a less viscous gas pocket into a more viscous liquid when the gas-liquid interfaces readily solidify due to hydrate formation. We first present a high-pressure microfluidic experiment to study the depressurization-controlled expansion of a Xenon gas pocket in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. The evolution of the pocket is controlled by three processes: (1) volumetric expansion of the gas; (2) rupturing of existing hydrate films on the gas-liquid interface; and (3) formation of new hydrate films. These result in gas fingering leading to a complex labyrinth pattern. To reproduce these observations, we propose a phase-field model that describes the formation of hydrate shell on viscously unstable interfaces. We design the free energy of the three-phase system to rigorously account for interfacial effects, gas compressibility and phase transitions. We model the hydrate shell as a highly viscous fluid with shear-thinning rheology to reproduce shell-rupturing behavior. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model, which illustrate the emergence of complex crustal fingering patterns as a result of gas expansion dynamics modulated by hydrate growth at the interface.

  20. Unstable fronts and motile structures formed by microrollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Michelle; Delmotte, Blaise; Youssef, Mena; Sacanna, Stefano; Donev, Aleksandar; Chaikin, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Condensation of objects into stable clusters occurs naturally in equilibrium and driven systems. It is commonly held that potential interactions, depletion forces, or sensing are the only mechanisms which can create long-lived compact structures. Here we show that persistent motile structures can form spontaneously from hydrodynamic interactions alone, with no sensing or potential interactions. We study this structure formation in a system of colloidal rollers suspended and translating above a floor, using both experiments and large-scale three-dimensional simulations. In this system, clusters originate from a previously unreported fingering instability, where fingers pinch off from an unstable front to form autonomous `critters’, whose size is selected by the height of the particles above the floor. These critters are a stable state of the system, move much faster than individual particles, and quickly respond to a changing drive. With speed and direction set by a rotating magnetic field, these active structures offer interesting possibilities for guided transport, flow generation, and mixing at the microscale.

  1. Phosphatidylcholine, an edible carrier for nanoencapsulation of unstable thiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juveriya Fathima, Syeda; Fathima, Irum; Abhishek, Virat; Khanum, Farhath

    2016-04-15

    Lipid nanoparticles have been used for carrying different therapeutic agents because of the advantage in improved absorption, bioavailability, targeted deliveries and reduction in the quantity of drugs required. The aim of the study was to prepare and characterize nanoliposomes containing thiamine hydrochloride and study their physicochemical stability as this vitamin is highly unstable. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) was used as an edible encapsulant. The average size of nanoliposomes was found to be 150 nm and zeta potential was -34 mV. The encapsulation efficiency was 97%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the size, spherical nature and smooth surface of the nanoliposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) evidenced that the nanoliposomes were stable up to 300°C. The functional groups present were determined by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the presence of vitamin was confirmed in final formulation by biochemical analysis. The crystalline nature of thiamine was analyzed by X-ray diffraction studies. Storage studies indicated that the nanoliposomes were highly stable up to 3 months at different temperatures. Thus, phosphatidylcholine can be used as carrier vehicle of nutrients especially vitamins, as it can form stable nanoliposomes with 97% encapsulation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unstable Angina Treatment in Various Periods of Geomagnetic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokayeva, L. K.; Afanasiyeva, T. N.; Samsonov, S. N.; Petrova, V. D.; Dolgova, E. M.; Manykina, V. I.; Vodolagina, E. S.

    In 145 patients with unstable angina (UA) there was analized an efficiency of a drug therapy at different types of heliogeophysical activity (HA) during the 23th solar cycle. 83 patients were examined at the period of a lower HA (Kp-index 16,19±0,18), and 62 patients - at the period of a higher HA (Kp-index 17,25±0,21, p<0,05). Baseline severity of patients' condition with UA at the moment of hospitalization at the studied periods did not differ, but the effectiveness of the therapy depended on the period of HA. At the period of a higher HA antianginal effect was stronger than at the lower period of HA (2,27±0,16 points and 1,75±0,12 points, p<0,05), and the need in nitroglycerin on the background of a drug therapy disappeared for 5-7 days quicker than at the period of a lower HA. Maximal hypotensive effect at a higher HA was achieved quicker - on the 3rd day of the treatment, and at a lower HA - only up to hospital discharge (p<0,05). Blood viscosity did not normalize in both of the studied periods, but in small vessels there was noted a decrease of a BV (p<0,05). So, at a higher HA the effectiveness of a drug therapy in patients with UA is higher than at the period of a lower HA.

  3. Stable and Unstable Rotational Dynamics of a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Matthew; Gibbons, Chad; Belaiter, Sami; Clarage, James B.

    2017-10-01

    One of the canonical, and memorable, classroom demonstrations from an upper-division mechanics course is to toss a rigid body with three distinct principal moments of inertia into the air, giving it a spin along one of its three principal axes. A student's mechanics textbook itself works great for the body, secured rigidly shut with a rubber band. The book will spin stably about its longest and shortest dimensions, just like a top or gyroscope. What is surprising is that any attempt to spin the book about its intermediate axis (the axis parallel to the book's lines of text) will result in a wildly unstable and chaotic tumbling, which most students find curious enough to warrant staying awake for a subsequent derivation of Euler's equations. However, now that most students read their text "books" off of a tablet or phone, this demonstration may seem outdated. Or is it? Like a textbook, a phone or tablet also has three distinct principal moments. Better still, not only do these solid state devices require no rubber band, but these bodies can collect detailed data on their dynamical state, turning a demonstration into an actual experiment. This article reports the results of this modern version of the classical "book toss" demonstration, fittingly carried out by a team composed of both an old physics professor and a youthful group of three undergraduate students studying physics and engineering.

  4. Progressively unstable c2 spondylolysis requiring spinal fusion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yusuke; Ellis, Michael John; Anderson, Jennifer; Hara, Masahito; Natsume, Atsushi; Ginsberg, Howard Joeseph

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft at the pars interarticularis in the cervical spine. This is the case of C2 spondylolysis demonstrating progressive significant instability, which was successfully treated by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cervical anterior plate. We describe a 20-year-old female with C2 spondylolysis presenting with progressive worsening of neck pain associated with progressive instability at the C2/3 segment. The progression of instability was well-documented on flexion-extension cervical spine x-rays. She was successfully treated by C2/3 ACDF with anterior cervical plate. Her preoperative significant neck pain resolved immediately after the surgical intervention. She was completely free from neurological symptoms at 1-year postoperative follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss 24 reported cases with C2 spondylolysis. When planning treatment, we should make sure to differentiate this pathology from acute traumatic fracture, which is a hangman's fracture. Assessment of C2/3 instability associated with neurological deficits is extremely important to consider management properly. C2/3 ACDF with cervical plate is biomechanically viable, less invasive, and provides adequate surgical stabilization for unstable C2 spondylolysis.

  5. Revealing Bell's nonlocality for unstable systems in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Di Domenico, Antonio; Curceanu, Catalina; Larsson, Jan-Aake; Moskal, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Entanglement and its consequences - in particular the violation of Bell inequalities, which defies our concepts of realism and locality - have been proven to play key roles in Nature by many experiments for various quantum systems. Entanglement can also be found in systems not consisting of ordinary matter and light, i.e. in massive meson-antimeson systems. Bell inequalities have been discussed for these systems, but up to date no direct experimental test to conclusively exclude local realism was found. This mainly stems from the fact that one only has access to a restricted class of observables and that these systems are also decaying. In this Letter we put forward a Bell inequality for unstable systems which can be tested at accelerator facilities with current technology. Herewith, the long awaited proof that such systems at different energy scales can reveal the sophisticated ''dynamical'' nonlocal feature of Nature in a direct experiment gets feasible. Moreover, the role of entanglement and CP violation, an asymmetry between matter and antimatter, is explored, a special feature offered only by these meson-antimeson systems. (orig.)

  6. Determination of the occlusal plane using a custom-made occlusal plane analyzer: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedia, Sumit V; Dange, Shankar P; Khalikar, Arun N

    2007-11-01

    In fixed prosthodontic procedures, when it has been determined that restoration of all or most of the posterior teeth is necessary, the use of the Broderick occlusal plane analyzer provides an easy and practical method to determine an occlusal plane that will fulfill esthetic and functional occlusion requirements. However, several manufacturers of semiadjustable articulators offer no such occlusal plane analyzers for use with these instruments. This article demonstrates the use of a custom-made Broderick occlusal plane analyzer with a semiadjustable articulator to determine the correct curve of Spee for the occlusal plane.

  7. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Optically sectioned imaging by oblique plane microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Lin, Ziduo; Lyon, Alex R.; MacLeod, Ken T.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Oblique Plane Microscopy (OPM) is a light sheet microscopy technique that combines oblique illumination with correction optics that tilt the focal plane of the collection system. OPM can be used to image conventionally mounted specimens on coverslips or tissue culture dishes and has low out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity. No moving parts are required to achieve an optically sectioned image and so high speed optically sectioned imaging is possible. The first OPM results obtained using a high NA water immersion lens on a commercially available inverted microscope frame are presented, together with a measurement of the achievable optical resolution.

  10. Molecular cloning of plane pollen allergen Pla a 3 and its utility as diagnostic marker for peach associated plane pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangorsch, A; Larsson, H; Messmer, M; García-Moral, A; Lauer, I; Wolfheimer, S; Schülke, S; Bartra, J; Vieths, S; Lidholm, J; Scheurer, S

    2016-05-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) are considered to provoke allergic symptoms to plane tree pollen, which are frequently associated with peach allergy. The objective was to clone the cDNA of plane pollen nsLTP Pla a 3, to characterize IgE-binding and allergenic potency of recombinant Pla a 3 in comparison to its natural counterpart and peach nsLTP Pru p 3. Natural Pla a 3 was purified from plane pollen and analysed by mass spectrometry (MS). Recombinant Pla a 3 was characterized by SDS-PAGE and CD spectroscopy. Specific IgE to extract, components of plane pollen and Pru p 3 was measured by ImmunoCAP in sera of patients allergic to either plane pollen (n = 10), peach (n = 15) or both (n = 15). Biological potency of the proteins was investigated by in vitro mediator release assays and IgE cross-reactivity by competitive ELISA. Two Pla a 3 isoforms were identified. Recombinant Pla a 3 showed high purity, structural integrity, IgE-binding capacity comparable to nPla a 3 and biological potency. Sensitization to plane pollen extract was confirmed in 24/25 plane pollen allergics. The frequency of sensitization to Pla a 3 was 53% among patients allergic to both plane pollen and peach and 10% among plane pollen allergics tolerating peach where most patients were sensitized to Pla a 1. Pla a 3 and Pru p 3 showed strong bi-directional IgE cross-reactivity in patients allergic to peach and plane pollen, but not in peach allergics tolerating plane pollen. Levels of IgE-binding were generally higher to Pru p 3 than to Pla a 3. Sensitization to Pla a 3 is relevant in a subgroup of plane pollen allergics with concomitant peach allergy. IgE testing with Pla a 3 may serve as a marker to identify plane pollen allergic patients at risk of LTP-mediated food reactions and thereby improve in vitro diagnostic procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Clinical Course of Two Children with Unstable Hemoglobins : The Effect of Hydroxyurea Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loovers, Harriet M.; Tamminga, Nienke; Mulder, Andre B.; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.

    Case reports on the effect of hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for unstable hemoglobins (Hbs) are sparse; only three adult cases have been reported. We report for the first time on the effect of HU therapy in children carrying unstable Hbs. The first case concerns a female child with a familial history of

  12. Incidence and follow-up of Braunwald subgroups in unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miltenburg-van Zijl, A. J.; Simoons, M. L.; Veerhoek, R. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was performed to establish the prognosis of patients with unstable angina within the subgroups of the Braunwald classification. BACKGROUND. Among many classifications of unstable angina, the Braunwald classification is frequently used. However, the incidence and risk for each

  13. Acute and long-term outcome of directional coronary atherectomy for stable and unstable angina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A.W.M. Umans (Victor); P.J. de Feyter (Pim); D.C. MacLeod (Donald); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.P.T. de Jaegere (Peter); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.W. Deckers (Jaap)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical efficacy and safety of directional coronary atherectomy for the treatment of stable and unstable angina were assessed in 82 patients with stable and 68 patients with unstable angina. Therefore, clinical and angiographic follow-up was obtained in a prospectively collected

  14. One-dimensional unstable eigenfunction and manifold computations in delay differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, K.; Krauskopf, B.; Engelborghs, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a new numerical technique for computing the unstable eigenfunctions of a saddle periodic orbit in a delay differential equation. This is used to obtain the necessary starting data for an established algorithm for computing one-dimensional (1D) unstable manifolds of an

  15. Determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... ... some of these reactions have been used as tools to serve as surrogates of neutron-induced compound nuclear fission cross-sections involving unstable targets. In this paper, we report some of the recent results on the determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable actinides present ...

  16. Nodular cast iron fatigue lifetime in cyclic plane bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Kokavec

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue behavior of a component is strongly dependent on the material and its surface condition. Therefore, the manner in which the surface is prepared during component manufacturing (surface roughness, residual stresses etc. has a decisive role in dictating the initiation time for fatigue cracks. The fatigue behavior of the same material, a nodular cast iron, with three different surface conditions (fine ground, sand blast and as-cast has been investigated under cyclic plane bending. The results show differences in fatigue strength, which are associated with the surface conditions. The characteristics of the surface layers of the different test specimens were examined by metallography.

  17. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  18. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  19. Lieb's correlation inequality for plane rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivasseau, V.

    1980-01-01

    We prove a conjecture by E. Lieb, which leads to the Lieb inequality for plane rotors. As in the Ising model case, this inequality implies the existence of an algorithm to compute the transition temperature of this model. (orig.)

  20. Causal inheritance in plane wave quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality

  1. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  2. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  3. Integration over Tropical Plane Curves and Ultradiscretization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwao, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    In this article we study holomorphic integrals on tropical plane curves in view of ultradiscretization. We prove that the lattice integrals over tropical curves can be obtained as a certain limit of complex integrals over Riemannian surfaces.

  4. Elliptical Modons On The Beta-plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizner, Z.; Khvoles, R.; Berson, D.

    Conventional modons are stationary localized solutions to the equation of the quasi- geostrophic PV conservation. The contour separating the interior area, where the streamlines are closed, from the exterior area (open streamlines) is circular, the depen- dences of PV vs. streamfunction (SF) in the interior and exterior regions being linear (but different) in such modons. We consider barotropic modons on the beta-plane, in which the separating contour differs from a circle. While the exterior solution is given analytically, the interior solution is found using a variant of the Newton-Kantorovich procedure. It is shown that any deviation of the modon form from a circle causes nonlinearity of the internal PV vs. SF dependence. Special emphasis has been placed on elliptical modons. The difference of the elliptical modons on the f-plane (Boyd and Ma, 1990) from those on the beta-plane is discussed, and the 'dispersion relationships' of the beta-plane modons are analyzed.

  5. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M ⊕ for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M Jup for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M ☉ disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M ☉ protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to ∼4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e ∼ 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e ∼ 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M ⊕ cores can orbit stably for ∼1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M Jup ) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  6. Unstable Planetary Systems Emerging Out of Gas Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-05-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  7. Salvianolate injection in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wu, Jiarui; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Salvianolate injection in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Methods: Using literature databases, we conducted a thorough and systematic retrieval of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that using Salvianolate injection for treating UAP. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the RCTs, and then the data were extracted and meta-analyzed by RevMan5.2 software. Results: A total of 22 RCTs with 2050 participants were included. The meta-analysis indicated that the combined use of Salvianolate injection and western medicine (WM) in the treatment of UAP can achieve a superior effect in angina pectoris total effective rate (risk ratio [RR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.17, 1.27), Z = 10.15, P < 0.00001], and the total effectiveness rate of electrocardiogram [RR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.19,1.34), Z = 7.77, P < 0.00001]. In addition, Salvianolate injection can improve the nitroglycerin withdrawal rate and the serum level of NO, decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) or adverse drug events (ADEs) were reported in 6 RCTs involving 15 cases; however, there were no serious ADRs/ADEs. Conclusion: Based on the systematic review, the combined use of Salvianolate injection and WM in the treatment of UAP can achieve a better effect; however, there was no definitive conclusion about its safety. More the large-sample and multicenter RCTs are needed to support its clinical usage. PMID:28002341

  8. ORBITAL MIGRATION OF PROTOPLANETS IN A MARGINALLY GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, Alan P., E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Core accretion and disk instability require giant protoplanets to form in the presence of disk gas. Protoplanet migration models generally assume disk masses low enough that the disk's self-gravity can be neglected. However, disk instability requires a disk massive enough to be marginally gravitationally unstable (MGU). Even for core accretion, an FU Orionis outburst may require a brief MGU disk phase. We present a new set of three-dimensional, gravitational radiation hydrodynamics models of MGU disks with multiple protoplanets, which interact gravitationally with the disk and with each other, including disk gas mass accretion. Initial protoplanet masses are 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} for core accretion models, and 0.1 to 3 M {sub Jup} for Nice scenario models, starting on circular orbits with radii of 6, 8, 10, or 12 AU, inside a 0.091 M {sub Sun} disk extending from 4 to 20 AU around a 1 M {sub Sun} protostar. Evolutions are followed for up to {approx}4000 yr and involve phases of relative stability (e {approx} 0.1) interspersed with chaotic phases (e {approx} 0.4) of orbital interchanges. The 0.01 to 10 M {sub Circled-Plus} cores can orbit stably for {approx}1000 yr: monotonic inward or outward orbital migration of the type seen in low mass disks does not occur. A system with giant planet masses similar to our solar system (1.0, 0.33, 0.1, 0.1 M {sub Jup}) was stable for over 1000 yr, and a Jupiter-Saturn-like system was stable for over 3800 yr, implying that our giant planets might well survive an MGU disk phase.

  9. Proof of Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.; Kouadik, S.

    1994-10-01

    Using Neumann series, we solve iteratively SBE to arbitrary order. Then applying this, we compute the energy momentum tensor and n points functions for generic n starting from WZP action on the supercomplex plane. We solve the superconformal Ward identity and we show that the iterative solution to arbitrary order is resumed by WZP action. This proves the Polyakov conjecture on supercomplex plane. (author). 8 refs

  10. Attitude analysis in Flatland: The plane truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1993-01-01

    Many results in attitude analysis are still meaningful when the attitude is restricted to rotations about a single axis. Such a picture corresponds to attitude analysis in the Euclidean plane. The present report formalizes the representation of attitude in the plane and applies it to some well-known problems. In particular, we study the connection of the 'additive' and 'multiplicative' formulations of the differential corrector for the quaternion in its two-dimensional setting.

  11. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  12. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  13. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  14. Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)

  15. The Zwicky Transient Facility Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Thomas; Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Project Team

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Faciility (ZTF) is a new survey camera mounted on the 1.2m Oschin Schmidt Telescope on Mount Palomar. The camera has a 47 square degree field of view and is expected to start public survey observations in early 2018. The public surveys are undertaken with support provided by the NSF MSIP program. One of the two public surveys is a twice nightly scan of the central Galactic Plane visible from Mount Palomar, one scan in r-band and one in g-band. Publicly accessible data from the survey will be one of two types: (1) prompt alerts of variable activity of Galactic Plane sources using image difference source identification, and (2) photometric light curves of Galactic Plane sources extracted from calibrated images. Data will be made accessible through the Caltech Image Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC). The ZTF Galactic Plane Survey, combined with Gaia and PanSTARRS data, will be an exciting new resource for time domain astronomy observations of Galactic sources.We will describe the details of the ZTF Galactic Plane survey, including estimated coverage of the plane and light curve sampling. We will also describe plans for public access to the data, as well as comment on some of the important science that will be possible using the survey data.

  16. Effect of occlusal plane on smile attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batwa, Waeil; Hunt, Nigel P; Petrie, Aviva; Gill, Daljit

    2012-03-01

    To determine the influence of the occlusal plane angle on smile attractiveness as perceived by a group of adult orthodontic patients and dentists. The first stage utilized a laboratory approach to record changes in vertical tooth position at different occlusal plane angles using a maxillary model mounted on an articulator. In the second stage, photographic manipulation was undertaken, using data from stage 1, to produce a computerized prediction of the appearance of the smile at differing occlusal plane angles (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 degrees). Finally, the five developed photographs were assessed by participants. Alterations in the occlusal plane angle did affect relative smile attractiveness for both patients (n  =  66) and dentists (n  =  66). For patients, the 10 degree smile was rated better than the 0 and 20 degree smiles (P occlusal plane angle does affect relative smile attractiveness. However, patients were more tolerant of these changes than dentists. This suggests that large changes in the occlusal plane angle would affect relative smile attractiveness, and small changes are unlikely to affect smile attractiveness.

  17. BUSINESS STRATEGIES IN UNSTABLE INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT – CASE OF BRIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Rakita,

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The visionary idea of BRIC1 countries and their leading position in the development of globaleconomy, conceived by the leading investment bank Goldman Sachs more than a decade ago, cameunder heavy skepticism. However, what many doubted came true. At the end of 2011 BRIC countriesgenerated approximately 26% of global GDP, and their share in the growth of global GDP was morethan 50%. The impressive growth of BRIC countries has been in large measure due to FDI inflow2.Intensive FDI inflow and economic development have not been followed by improved institutionalefficiency. This article will show that inefficient institutions in BRIC countries have not beendiscouraging to MNCs3, who were predominantly led by the extent and the growth dynamics of themarket. Modifications to business strategies applied in developed countries by MNCs, in order tomanage unstable institutional environment in BRIC countries, will be analyzed. The conclusion isthat the key modification is establishment of strong relationships with local stakeholders, in order forMNCs to gain necessary knowledge of the new business environment and create a sound basis forinstitutional efficiency improvement.

  18. Puerarin injection for treatment of unstable angina pectoris: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhisheng; Wei, Baozhu; Qian, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin is an effective ingredient isolated from Radix Puerariae, a leguminous plant. In China, a large number of early studies suggest that puerarin may be used in the treatment of coronary heart disease. In recent years, puerarin injection has been widely used to treat coronary heart disease and angina pectoris. To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of puerarin injection in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Data were retrieved from digital databases, including PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database (EMBASE), China Biology Medicine (CBM), the Cochrane Library, and Chinese databases. Compared with patients who were treated with conventional Western medicines alone, the patients who were treated with conventional Western medicines in combination with puerarin injection exhibited significant improvements in the incidence of angina pectoris, electrocardiogram findings, nitroglycerin consumption and plasma endothelin levels. Strong evidence suggests that, the use of puerarin in combination with conventional Western medicines is a better treatment option for treating UAP, compared with the use of conventional Western medicines alone.

  19. Approximation for a Coulomb-Volkov solution in strong fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, H. R.; Krainov, V. P.

    1994-08-01

    A simple analytical approximation is found for the wave function of an electron simultaneously exposed to a strong, circularly polarized plane-wave field and an atomic Coulomb potential. The approximation is valid when α0>>1, where α0 is the classical radius of motion of a free electron in the plane-wave field. This constraint is sufficiently mild at low frequencies that it makes possible a major extension of the lower bound of laser intensities for which Volkov-solution-based approximations are useful.

  20. Investigation of the flow turning loss in unstable solid propellant rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Lawrence Mark

    The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of the flow turning loss, which contributes to the damping of axial acoustic instabilities in solid propellant rocket motors. This understanding is needed to develop practical methods for designing motors that do not exhibit such instabilities. The flow turning loss results from the interaction of the flow of combustion products leaving the surface of the propellant with the acoustic field in an unstable motor. While state of the art solid rocket stability models generally account for the flow turning loss, its magnitude and characteristics have never been fully investigated. This thesis describes a combined theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of the flow turning loss and its dependence upon various motor design and operating parameters. First, a one dimensional acoustic stability equation that verifies the existence of the flow turning loss was derived for a chamber with constant mean pressure and temperature. The theoretical development was then extended to include the effects of mean temperature gradients to accommodate combustion systems in which mean temperature gradients and heat losses are significant. These analyses provided the background and expressions necessary to guide an experimental study. The relevant equations were then solved for the developed experimental setup to predict the behavior of the flow turning loss and the other terms of the developed acoustic stability equation. This was followed by and experimental study in which the flow turning region of an unstable solid propellant rocket motor was simulated. The setup was used, with and without combustion, to determine the dependence of the flow turning loss upon operating conditions. These studies showed that the flow turning loss strongly depends upon the gas velocity at the propellant surface and the location of the flow turning region relative to the standing acoustic wave. The flow turning loss measured in the

  1. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  2. Analytic study of plastic instabilities during tension or compression tests on a metallic plate bi-axially loaded in its plane: symmetric and antisymmetric modes with respect to the median plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This report is a continuation of the thesis [23], devoted to the onset of necking plastic instabilities during tension tests on metallic plates bi-axially loaded in their plane. We are also interested here in compression tests, and in the development of antisymmetric defects with respect to the median plane of the plate. As in the thesis, we search for the dominant mode, i.e. the most unstable pair of wavelengths (λ1, λ2) in the loading plane. An approximate analytical formulation for the growth rate is proposed, especially for plane-strain tests in the absence of viscous effects, and for static tests in tension in the x1 and x2 loading directions. In that latter case, we retrieve published results [14][15]. For plane-strain tests, we show that infinitely dense networks of shear bands inclined at 45 deg. with respect to the loading direction instantaneously occur when heat softening prevails over work-hardening. (author)

  3. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  4. Diagnostic possibilities of radionuclide investigation in patterns with stable and unstable angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomareva, A.G.; Zudbinov, Yu.I.; Sokolov, O.K.; Kudinov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial radiocardiography and scintigraphy with 99m Tc-pyrophosphate was performed in 58 patients with stable angina and 60 patients with unstable angina. In patients with stable angina, positive scintigrams were mostly recorded after anginal attacks. Their central hemodynamic parameters deteriorated progressively as angina increased in severity. Patients with unstable angina typically showed myocardial accumulation of the label that was unrelated to anginal attacks and recordable by direct-projection scintigraphy. The assessment of myocardial radiocardiographic and scintigraphic data allows one to differentiate between stable and unstable angina

  5. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  6. PRIMARY CEMENTED BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY WITH TROCHANTERIC AND CALCAR RECONSTRUCTION IN UNSTABLE INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES IN ELDERLY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu Ranga Vital

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : To avoid the complications and morbidity associated with attempted Osteosynthesis of the so called Unstable inter - trochanteric fractures in the elderly population, Primary Cemented Bipolar hemiarthroplasty been around for over three decades now. But, hardly any emphasis been given over the technical aspects to i mprove the functional outcome. Present study is one such, following reconstructive attempts ( O f primary cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty with trochanter and calcar reconstruction in the elderly population to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included 20 cases of elderly patients with mean age of 73.5 years (Age range 66 to 82 yr who sustained multifragmentary/communited inter - trochanteric femur fracture treated with Primary cemented bipolar hemiar throplasty with trochanteric and calcar reconstruction to emphasize the importance of restoration soft tissue tension to reduce the risk of unstable Hemiarthroplasty. Essential Technical steps include Figure of eight / multiple wire loop technique of recons truction ( with or without K ‘wires of greater trochanter/ abductor mechanism and calcar reconstruction either by wiring Lesser trochanteric fragment and or insertion of cortical piece of bone graft (medially under the collar of the prosthesis harvested f rom head and neck fragment. The patients were followed up at six week, three month, six month and one year postoperatively and assessed using Harris Hip Score (HHS. RESULTS: The mean HHS score was 85 (range 69 to 91 at the end of one year. The main clini cal measures were early post - operative full weight bearing, post - operative complication & functional outcome. The time to full weight bearing, the rate of post - operative complications & functional outcome was significantly better in cemented bipolar arthro plasty group. CONCLUSION: The authors strongly believe that primary cemented bipolar

  7. Reproducibility of postural control measurement during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duquet William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control tests like standing and sitting stabilometry are widely used to evaluate neuromuscular control related to trunk balance in low back pain patients. Chronic low back pain patients have lesser postural control compared to healthy subjects. Few studies have assessed the reproducibility of the centre of pressure deviations and to our knowledge no studies have investigated the reproducibility of three-dimensional kinematics of postural control tests in a low back pain population. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reproducibility of a seated postural control test in low back pain patients. Methods Postural control in low back pain patients was registered by a three dimensional motion analysis system combined with a force plate. Sixteen chronic low back pain patients having complaints for at least six months, were included based on specific clinical criteria. Every subject performed 4 postural control tests. Every test was repeated 4 times and lasted 40 seconds. The force plate registered the deviations of the centre of pressure. A Vicon-612-datastation, equipped with 7 infra-red M1 camera's, was used to track 13 markers attached to the torso and pelvis in order to estimate their angular displacement in the 3 cardinal planes. Results All Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC calculated for the force plate variables did not exceed 0.73 (ranging between 0.11 and 0.73. As for the torso, ICC's of the mean flexion-extension and rotation angles ranged from 0.65 to 0.93 and of the mean lateral flexion angle from 0.50 to 0.67. For the pelvis the ICC of the mean flexion-extension angle varied between 0.66 and 0.83, the mean lateral flexion angle between 0.16 and 0.81 and the mean rotation angle between 0.40 and 0.62. Consecutive data suggest that the low test-retest reproducibility is probably due to a learning effect. Conclusion The test-retest reproducibility of these postural control tests in

  8. Development of small drones "Ant-Plane" for Antarctic research -its possibility and dificulty-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Four kinds of small drones (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles UAV, so called Ant-Plane are developed under the Ant-Plane project for scientific research and logistics in the coast region of Antarctica in austral summer. The Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 30 m of the planned course during calm weather at Sakurajima Volcano on Kyushu. During strong wind, 22 m/s, at Chokai Volcano, northern Honshu, the drone remained on course during straight flight but deviated when turning leeward. An onboard magneto-resistant magnetometer (400 g recorded the variation of magnetic field with accuracy of 10 nT in calm wind, but strong magnetic noise was observed in strong wind, especially a head wind. The Ant-Plane 4 achieved a continuous flight of 500 km and the highest flight altitude of 5700 m. The Ant-Plane UAV can be used for various kinds of Antarctic, requires further development of techniques for easy takeoff and landing and easy start of engines.

  9. On the theory of twinning plane superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    The thermodynamic potential of the superconducting layer in the twinning plane (TP) vicinity for the type I superconductors is found. The corrections to the surface tension in powers of the Ginsburg-Landau parameter κ are obtained. The corresponding states law for the supercooling field for the type I twinning plane superconductivity (TPS) is obtained, as well as the critical field law for the type II TPS. A review of experimental and theoretical works on TPS and some similar systems is given. The conditions for the Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition for the proximity effect are discussed, as well as the possible mechanisms for the conducting phase transition TPS in Nb and the pinning forces close to the twinning plane. The obtained order parameter distribution can be used for description of the superlattices from normal and superconducting metals as well. 6 figs., 44 refs

  10. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cuenca

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica tipo1 (DM1 y el síndrome del cromosoma X frágil (FRAXA son dos enfermedades hereditarias relativamente comunes. Ambas constituyen ejemplos de un nuevo tipo de mecanismo mutacional, llamado mutaciones inestables o dinámicas, expansión de tripletas, o amplificación del ADN. La DM1 se considera como la distrofia muscular más frecuente en los adultos y FRAXA es la principal causa de retardo mental hereditario. Este trabajo presenta resultados actualizados de un estudio prospectivo no aleatorio en pacientes clínicamente afectados, que se realiza con el objetivo de confirmar el diagnóstico con técnicas moleculares (Hibridación de Southern y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, PCR, y llevar a cabo el tamizaje en cascada del resto de la familia para ofrecerles consejo genético adecuado. Se confirmó el diagnóstico clínico inicial en la mayoría de los casos de distrofia miotónica, pero en los casos con retardo mental, más de la mitad de los análisis resultaron negativos para la amplificación en el gen FMR1, específica de FRAXA. La razón principal para esto podría ser el cuadro clínico muy sutil que muestran los niños afectados antes de la pubertad. Los únicos métodos disponibles para prevenir estas discapacidades por el momento son, el tamizaje en cascada, el consejo genético y el aborto selectivo. De los cuales, el último no se puede llevar a cabo según las leyes vigentes en Costa Rica.Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people, in order to confirm the diagnosis with

  11. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  12. Rotation of Listing's plane during vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, D; Ro, A; Cadera, W; Crawford, J D; Vilis, T

    1992-11-01

    When visually fixating targets on an isovergence surface, the position of each eye was constrained to a plane. Thus, Listing's law holds during vergence. The planes were, however, rotated temporally with respect to those when viewing distant targets. The effect of this rotation was to produce a torsion which depended on eye elevation; extorsion of the two eyes for downward gaze and intorsion for upward gaze. The saccadic velocity command was relatively unaffected during vergence. Computer simulations suggest that the saccadic tonic command and the vergence command interact multiplicatively in three dimensions.

  13. Stability maps, unstable periodic orbits and transfers in the Jovian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villac, Benjamin; Lara, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Low cost transfers of a spacecraft in a multi-gravitational orbital environment, which are based on connections between unstable periodic orbits, present several trade-offs, such time-of-flight v.s transfer fuel cost.

  14. Circumferential wires as a supplement to intramedullary nailing in unstable trochanteric hip fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Birkelund, Lasse; Palm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Fixation of unstable trochanteric fractures is challenging. Application of a circumferential wire may facilitate bone contact and avoid postoperative fracture displacement. However, the use of circumferential wires remains controversial due to possible disturbance of the blood supply...

  15. Diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris has declined markedly with the advent of more sensitive troponin assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Souza, Maria; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During 2010 we evaluated all patients in whom cardiac troponin I had been measured at a single university hospital. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI......]) was established in cases of a rise and/or fall of cardiac troponin I together with cardiac ischemic features. Patients with unstable chest discomfort and cardiac troponin I values below the decision limit of myocardial infarction were diagnosed as having unstable angina pectoris. The definition of acute coronary...... patients were older, more frequently women, and had more comorbidities than patients with unstable angina pectoris and STEMI. At median follow-up of 3.2 years 195 patients had died: 14% of unstable angina pectoris, 45% of NSTEMI, and 25% of STEMI patients. Age-adjusted log-rank statistics revealed...

  16. Unstable trochanteric femoral fractures: extramedullary or intramedullary fixation. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, I. B.; Marti, R. K.; van der Werken, Chr

    2004-01-01

    For operative treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures two options exist: extramedullary or intramedullary stabilisation. A review of 18 international papers that compared two different treatment methods for trochanteric fractures, in prospective randomised clinical trials, is presented. In view

  17. Monitoring cardiac output during hyperbaric oxygen treatment of haemodynamically unstable patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Treschow, Frederik; Skielboe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from necrotizing fasciitis (NF) are often haemodynamically unstable and require extended monitoring of cardiovascular parameters; yet this is limited during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). We aimed to evaluate the use and safety of transoesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring...

  18. Stabilization and PID tuning algorithms for second-order unstable processes with time-delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Qiu Han; Nandong, Jobrun

    2017-03-01

    Open-loop unstable systems with time-delays are often encountered in process industry, which are often more difficult to control than stable processes. In this paper, the stabilization by PID controller of second-order unstable processes, which can be represented as second-order deadtime with an unstable pole (SODUP) and second-order deadtime with two unstable poles (SODTUP), is performed via the necessary and sufficient criteria of Routh-Hurwitz stability analysis. The stability analysis provides improved understanding on the existence of a stabilizing range of each PID parameter. Three simple PID tuning algorithms are proposed to provide desired closed-loop performance-robustness within the stable regions of controller parameters obtained via the stability analysis. The proposed PID controllers show improved performance over those derived via some existing methods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. How to Treat the Complex Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures in Elderly Patients? DHS or Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hasankhani

    2014-09-01

     Arthroplasty is an alternative treatment in elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures and can provide good and satisfactory clinical outcomes associated with low complication and mortality rates. 

  20. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallerstein, N

    1996-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to gain an improved understanding of the basin-wide impact of LWD dynamics in unstable and stable channel environments and to develop a set of coherent debris management...

  1. Impacts of Woody Debris on Fluvial Processes and Channel Morphology in Stable and Unstable Streams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallerstein, N

    1997-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to gain an improved understanding of the basin-wide impact of LWD dynamics in unstable and stable channel environments and to develop a set of coherent debris management...

  2. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  3. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method: This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, wit...

  4. Transient Giant R Wave as a Marker for Ischemia in Unstable Angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Yashasvi; Maraboto, Carola; Christia, Panagiota; Faillace, Robert

    2017-04-28

    Unstable angina is a clinical diagnosis that may present with or without electrocardiographic changes. The "giant R wave" on electrocardiogram has been reported as a manifestation of acute ischemia; however, it is a rare finding in current clinical practice. We describe a case of a patient with unstable angina and a transient "giant R wave" pattern with a culprit lesion in the right coronary artery.

  5. One-dimensional unstable eigenfunction and manifold computations in delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Kirk; Krauskopf, Bernd; Engelborghs, Koen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a new numerical technique for computing the unstable eigenfunctions of a saddle periodic orbit in a delay differential equation. This is used to obtain the necessary starting data for an established algorithm for computing one-dimensional (1D) unstable manifolds of an associated saddle fixed point of a suitable Poincare map. To illustrate our method, we investigate an intermittent transition to chaos in a delay system describing a semiconductor laser subject to phase-conjugate feedback

  6. Diagnosis of unstable angina pectoris has declined markedly with the advent of more sensitive troponin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Maria; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S; Gerke, Oke; Larsen, Torben B; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Jangaard, Nikolaj; Diederichsen, Søren Z; Hosbond, Susanne; Hove, Jens; Thygesen, Kristian; Mickley, Hans

    2015-08-01

    Since the arrival of the universal definition of myocardial infarction more sensitive troponin assays have been developed. How these occurrences have influenced the proportions and clinical features of the components of acute coronary syndrome have not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. During 2010 we evaluated all patients in whom cardiac troponin I had been measured at a single university hospital. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction [NSTEMI]) was established in cases of a rise and/or fall of cardiac troponin I together with cardiac ischemic features. Patients with unstable chest discomfort and cardiac troponin I values below the decision limit of myocardial infarction were diagnosed as having unstable angina pectoris. The definition of acute coronary syndrome included unstable angina pectoris, NSTEMI, and STEMI. Mortality data were obtained from the Danish Civil Personal Registration System. Of 3762 consecutive patients, 516 had acute coronary syndrome. Unstable angina pectoris was present in 7%, NSTEMI in 67%, and STEMI in 26%. The NSTEMI patients were older, more frequently women, and had more comorbidities than patients with unstable angina pectoris and STEMI. At median follow-up of 3.2 years 195 patients had died: 14% of unstable angina pectoris, 45% of NSTEMI, and 25% of STEMI patients. Age-adjusted log-rank statistics revealed differences in mortality: NSTEMI vs unstable angina pectoris (P = .0091) and NSTEMI vs STEMI (P = .0045). The application of the universal definition together with the use of a contemporary troponin assay seems to have reduced the proportion of patients with unstable angina pectoris to the benefit of patients with NSTEMI. Despite this, NSTEMI patients have a sustained higher mortality than patients with STEMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intraoperative Computed Tomography Navigation for Transpedicular Screw Fixation to Treat Unstable Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Yu; Wu, Meng-Huang; Li, Yen-Yao; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Hsu, Chu-Hsiang; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Hsu, Robert Wen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transpedicular screw (TPS) fixation in unstable thoracic and lumbar (TL) spine fractures remains technically difficult because of destroyed anatomical landmarks, unstable gross segments, and discrepancies in anatomic orientation using conventional anatomic landmarks, fluoroscopic guidance, or computed tomography (CT)-based navigation. In this study, we evaluated the safety and accuracy of TPS placement under intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) navigation in managing unstable TL spine fractures. From 2010 to 2013, we retrospectively reviewed the Spine Operation Registry records of patients who underwent posterior instrumented fusion to treat unstable TL spine fractures via the iCT navigation system. An unstable spine fracture was identified as AO/Magerl classification type B or type C. In all, 316 screws in 37 patients with unstable TL spine fractures were evaluated and involved 7 thoracic, 23 thoracolumbar junctional, and 7 lumbar fractures. The accuracy of TPS positioning in the pedicle without breach was 98% (310/316). The average number of iCT scans per patient was 2.1 (range 2–3). The average total radiation dose to patients was 15.8 mSv; the dose per single level exposure was 2.7 mSv. The TPS intraoperative revision rate was 0.6% (2/316) and no neurovascular sequela was observed. TPS fixation using the iCT navigation system obtained a 98% accuracy in stabilizing unstable TL spine fractures. A malplaced TPS could be revised during real-time confirmation of the TPS position, and no secondary operation was required to revise malplaced screws. The iCT navigation system provides accurate and safe management of unstable TL spine fractures. In addition, operating room personnel, including surgeons and nurses, did not need to wear heavy lead aprons as they were not exposed to radiation. PMID:25997042

  8. Can Unstable Shoe Be Used As a Safety Training Shoe for Rehabilitation Exercises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gandomkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Unstable shoes have been recommended to osteoarthritis patients in order to reduce walking injuries. The aim of this study was to test the effect of unstable shoe on biomechanical selected variables related to injury during stanse phase of running. Materials & Methods: Twenty five healthy young male students available men (21±2.27years participated in this study. Subjects were asked to ran on the force plate in barefoot, with unstable and control shoe conditions. Active and passive joint power, peak anterior-posterior forces, active and passive vertical force, loading rate and impulse of posterior and passive vertical forces variables were recorded using synchronizing force plate and video camera and calculated in MATLAB software. A repeated measure of ANOVA used to test the hypothesis in SPSS software (version 20, p<0.05. Results: negative power at Ankle joint decreased significantly by 49%, 35% using unstable shoe compared to contol shoe and barefoot conditions respectively (P=0.02,P<0.05. Furthemore, unstable shoe decreased significantly the active ankle power compared to barefoot condition by 23% (P=0.01. Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force increased significantly in unstable shoe compared to control shoe (P<0.05. Conclusion: Unstable shoe increased some of running related injuries risk factors such as Loading rate and peak of passive vertical force, impulse and peak of posterior force. Furthemore, this shoe could decrease absorption potential shank muscles and ankle active stability compared to control shoe. However, with increase of ankle active power compared to barefoot and lower anterior force, Unstable shoe could improve the ankle joint force generation and propulsion potential.

  9. Unstable malaria in Sudan: the influence of the dry season. Malaria in areas of unstable and seasonal transmission. Lessons from Daraweesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G

    1999-01-01

    -parasite relationships in an area characterized by unstable and seasonal malaria of low transmission intensity. The work was performed in the village Daraweesh located in north-eastern Sudan 16 km from Gedaref town. The climate of the region is characterized by well-defined wet and dry periods with a short rainy season...

  10. Further Evidence for an unstable H-Dibaryon ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present preliminary results for the mass of the 6q flavor-singlet state (J P = 0 + , S = -2) called H-dibaryon, calculated in quenched QCD on 16 3 x30 and 243x30 lattices with improved gauge and fermion actions (Symanzik improvement, Clover action). For both lattice sizes we applied the fuzzing technique to enhance the overlap with the ground state. We observe a H-mass above the ΛΛ-threshold for strong decay. The difference in mass, mH - 2 mλ , increases with increasing lattice size

  11. Further Evidence for an unstable H-Dibaryon ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E

    2000-03-01

    We present preliminary results for the mass of the 6q flavor-singlet state (J{sup P} = 0{sup +}, S = -2) called H-dibaryon, calculated in quenched QCD on 16{sup 3}x30 and 243x30 lattices with improved gauge and fermion actions (Symanzik improvement, Clover action). For both lattice sizes we applied the fuzzing technique to enhance the overlap with the ground state. We observe a H-mass above the {lambda}{lambda}-threshold for strong decay. The difference in mass, mH - 2{sub m{lambda}}, increases with increasing lattice size.

  12. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen...

  13. Infrared MUSIC from Z technology focal planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, C.R.; Sommese, A.; Johnston, D.; Landau, H.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm which uses the high frequency differences in sensed time signals to discriminate, count, and accurately locate closely spaced targets. Z technology focal planes allow the implementation of this algorithm and the trade-off between finer spatial resolution systems and systems with coarser resolution but higher sampling rates

  14. On Generalisation of Polynomials in Complex Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslina Darus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalised Bell and Laguerre polynomials of fractional-order in complex z-plane are defined. Some properties are studied. Moreover, we proved that these polynomials are univalent solutions for second order differential equations. Also, the Laguerre-type of some special functions are introduced.

  15. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  16. Combinatorial Intricacies of Labeled Fano Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Saniga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given a seven-element set X = { 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 } , there are 30 ways to define a Fano plane on it. Let us call a line of such a Fano plane—that is to say an unordered triple from X—ordinary or defective, according to whether the sum of two smaller integers from the triple is or is not equal to the remaining one, respectively. A point of the labeled Fano plane is said to be of the order s, 0 ≤ s ≤ 3 , if there are s defective lines passing through it. With such structural refinement in mind, the 30 Fano planes are shown to fall into eight distinct types. Out of the total of 35 lines, nine ordinary lines are of five different kinds, whereas the remaining 26 defective lines yield as many as ten distinct types. It is shown that no labeled Fano plane can have all points of zero-th order, or feature just one point of order two. A connection with prominent configurations in Steiner triple systems is also pointed out.

  17. Personnel thermoluminescent dosimetry of plane pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work are presented the results of the research realized in the pilots of commercial planes of the different flight equipment existing. The results obtained show that the pilots receive during their work, doses of ionizing radiation greater than the limit recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. (Author)

  18. Copernican Revolution in the Complex Plane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Copernican Revolution in the Complex Plane - An Algebraic Way to Show the "Chief Point" of Copernican Innovation. Giorgio Goldoni. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1065-1084 ...

  19. Evolved stars in Galactic Plane surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Kars

    2013-09-01

    For the first time in history the entire Galactic Plane is digitally mapped from La Palma and Chile by the European Galactic Plane surveys EGAPS (UVEX, IPHAS and VPHAS+, see http://www.uvexsurvey.org http://www.iphas.org and http://www.vphasplus.org). The complete Galactic plane (3600 square degrees) is imaged in optical colours (U,g,r,i, H-alpha and HeI 5875) down to 21st magnitude using the INT and VST telescopes. This will eventually result into a multi-colour mosaic and a catalogue with more than a billion of stars. In this thesis the populations of evolved stars (white dwarfs, compact binaries and other UV-excess sources) in the data of the "UV-Excess Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (UVEX)" are studied. From the first 211 square degrees of UVEX data, the bluest stars are automatically selected as UV-excess sources, spectroscopic follow-up of UV-excess objects is obtained, a DA white dwarfs space number density and birth rate is derived, and UV-excess sources with an infrared-excess are investigated. (see also Verbeek et al., 2012; Verbeek et al., 2013; Groot et al., 2009).

  20. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  1. Covariant quantum mechanics on a null plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leutwyler, H.; Stern, J.

    1977-03-01

    Lorentz invariance implies that the null plane wave functions factorize into a kinematical part describing the motion of the system as a whole and an inner wave function that involves the specific dynamical properties of the system - in complete correspondence with the non-relativistic situation. Covariance is equivalent to an angular condition which admits non-trivial solutions

  2. Crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, D.K.M.; Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for estimating the decrease in crack-initiation toughness, from a reference plane strain value, due to positive straining along the crack front of a circumferential flaw in a reactor pressure vessel is presented in this study. This method relates crack initiation under generalized plane strain conditions with material failure at points within a distance of a few crack-tip-opening displacements ahead of a crack front, and involves the formulation of a micromechanical crack-initiation model. While this study is intended to address concerns regarding the effects of positive out-of- plane straining on ductile crack initiation, the approach adopted in this work can be extended in a straightforward fashion to examine conditions of macroscopic cleavage crack initiation. Provided single- parameter dominance of near-tip fields exists in the flawed structure, results from this study could be used to examine the appropriateness of applying plane strain fracture toughness to the evaluation of circumferential flaws, in particular to those in ring-forged vessels which have no longitudinal welds. In addition, results from this study could also be applied toward the analysis of the effects of thermal streaming on the fracture resistance of circumferentially oriented flaws in a pressure vessel. 37 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    stress, couple stress and first moment, which are also shown graphically. The results of micropolar elasticity are deduced as a special case from the present formulation. Keywords. Eigenvalue; microstretch elastic solid; two-dimensional plane problem; integral transform; impulsive force. 1. Introduction. It is well known that ...

  4. Microscale out-of-plane anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A microscale out-of-plane thermal sensor. A resistive heater is suspended over a substrate by supports raised with respect to the substrate to provide a clearance underneath the resistive heater for fluid flow. A preferred fabrication process for the thermal sensor uses surface micromachining and a three-dimensional assembly to raise the supports and lift the resistive heater over the substrate.

  5. Influence of light sheet separation on SPIV measurement in a large field spanwise plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foucaut, J M; Coudert, S.; Braud, C.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) is nowadays a well-established measurement technique for turbulent flows. However, the accuracy and the spatial resolution are still highly questionable in the presence of complex flow with both strong gradients and out-of-plane motions. To give guid...

  6. Origin of the Local Group satellite planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indranil; O'Ryan, David; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2018-04-01

    We attempt to understand the planes of satellite galaxies orbiting the Milky Way (MW) and M31 in the context of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), which implies a close MW-M31 flyby occurred ≈8 Gyr ago. Using the timing argument, we obtain MW-M31 trajectories consistent with cosmological initial conditions and present observations. We adjust the present M31 proper motion within its uncertainty in order to simulate a range of orbital geometries and closest approach distances. Treating the MW and M31 as point masses, we follow the trajectories of surrounding test particle disks, thereby mapping out the tidal debris distribution. Around each galaxy, the resulting tidal debris tends to cluster around a particular orbital pole. We find some models in which these preferred spin vectors align fairly well with those of the corresponding observed satellite planes. The radial distributions of material in the simulated satellite planes are similar to what we observe. Around the MW, our best-fitting model yields a significant fraction (0.22) of counter-rotating material, perhaps explaining why Sculptor counter-rotates within the MW satellite plane. In contrast, our model yields no counter-rotating material around M31. This is testable with proper motions of M31 satellites. In our best model, the MW disk is thickened by the flyby 7.65 Gyr ago to a root mean square height of 0.75 kpc. This is similar to the observed age and thickness of the Galactic thick disk. Thus, the MW thick disk may have formed together with the MW and M31 satellite planes during a past MW-M31 flyby.

  7. Evaluation of the crack plane equilibrium model for predicting plastic fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.A.; Smith, F.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Crack Plane Equilibium (CPE) model is a simple model for predicting the initiation of crack growth in ductile materials. The CPE model is evaluated for center-crack tension specimens and for pipe specimens containing part-through circumferential cracks emanating from the inside surface of the pipe. The model is based upon requiring equilibrium between the applied loads and an assumed stress distribution in the uncracked ligament near the crack tip. Required fracture parameters are the ultimate tensile strength and a process zone size at the crack tip that is determined from simple fracture tests. Crack growth initiation for the crack and specimen geometries studied is predicted with sufficient accuracy to warrant extending the CPE model for investigating other geometries and for predicting stable crack growth and the onset of unstable crack growth

  8. Calm Water Performance of Hard-Chine Vessels in Semi-Planing and Planing Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadimi Parviz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper, a mathematical model is developed for performance prediction of hard-chin boats which can be used in both semi-planing and planing regimes. The proposed model bases on the 2D+T theory and implements pressure distributions over the length of the hull in order to compute the forces. To determine the forces in the semi-planing range, a function is proposed for the non-dimensional length at which the transom effect appears. Three drag components, which are: frictional drag, induced drag, and spray drag, are considered in the computations performed using an iterative method to satisfy two equilibrium equations. The validity of the proposed method is verified by comparing the predicted trim angle and resistance against the available experimental data. Based on this comparison, it is observed that the proposed method reveals satisfying accuracy in both semi-planing and planing regimes. The method is then used to study variation of hydrodynamic and hydrostatic forces as the hull makes a transition from the semi-planing regime to the planing regime. In addition, different components of the resistance are analyzed.

  9. Total motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Zhou, Haitao; Conrad, Bryan P; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-15

    Biomechanical cadaveric study. We sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation, using 2 different protocols. From the time of injury until the spine is adequately stabilized in the operating room, every step in management of the spine-injured patient can result in secondary injury to the spinal cord. The amount of angular motion between C5 and C6, after a surgically created unstable injury, was measured using an electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). A total sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. This included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, we performed what has been shown to be the best and commonly used (log-roll) techniques. During bed transfers and the turn prone for surgery, there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for traditional transfer with the spine board and manually turning the patient prone as commonly done (P patient from the field to stabilization in the operating room using the best compared with the most commonly used techniques. As previously reported, using log-roll techniques consistently results in unwanted motion at the injured spinal segment.

  10. Identifying unstable rock blocks by measuring micro-tremors and vibration on cliffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify unstable rock blocks and take countermeasures to prevent sudden rock fall disasters. However, identifying such blocks visually is extremely difficult, so an identification method using peculiar features of unstable blocks must be developed. The method reported here uses a vibrometer, which is inexpensive and easy to operate.

    In order to assess the feasibility of the method, a field experiment was carried out on rock cliffs in three regions of Japan where unstable blocks are likely to exist. Vibrometers were set up on the cliffs to capture two types of vibration waves in three dimensions, i.e., micro-tremor and reactive vibration. The former type naturally exists all the time, while the latter is generated only by applying stimulation waves. At least one of the vibrometers was installed on stable baserock to compare the results with the wave patterns of unstable rock blocks.

    In addition to conventional items (amplitude, frequency spectrum, vibration particle trace, trace accumulation length, that is the accumulation of the trace length of a vibrating particle for ten seconds, was introduced to analyze the patterns for both types of wave.

    As a result, unstable rock blocks were found to generate higher amplitudes of vibration waves than stable rock blocks, and different patterns of frequency spectrum, direction of vibration particle trace, and trace accumulation length. Hence, vibrators were shown to be useful for identifying unstable rock blocks. In particular, by using trace accumulation length as an indicator, the stability of a block can be evaluated without generating stimulative waves, providing a direction for developing a cost-effective simple method for identifying unstable blocks in future.

  11. Stable or unstable tear of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: an MR diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M.; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Wouters, Kristien; Dossche, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to distinguish stable from unstable tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. MR images of 97 patients with surgically confirmed ACL tear were retrospectively reviewed. According to arthroscopic and clinical examination, these patients had 36 stable and 61 unstable (9 partial and 52 complete) ACL tears. MR images were interpreted by two blinded reviewers and scored with respect to previously reported primary and secondary MR signs of ACL injury. Based on a comprehensive assessment of all the MR findings, ACLs were categorized as being stable or unstable. MR accuracy was calculated considering only primary MR signs and considering both primary and secondary MR signs of ACL injury, separately. Accuracy of each individual primary and secondary MR sign was calculated. Considering only primary MR signs, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR were 77, 92, and 82%, respectively. Considering both primary and secondary MR signs, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR were 59, 81, and 67%, respectively. Of all MR signs, discontinuity and abnormal orientation had highest test accuracy (79 and 87%, respectively). Anterior tibial translation, uncovering of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, and hyperbuckled PCL were only seen in unstable ACLs (specificity 100%), but these secondary findings had low sensitivity (23%). Bone contusion around the lateral knee compartment was seen in both unstable and stable ACLs (accuracy 64%). Previously reported MR imaging signs do not allow accurate distinction between clinically stable and unstable ACL injuries. Anterior tibial translation, uncovering of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, and hyperbuckled PCL, if present, are helpful signs in the diagnosis of an unstable tear. The presence of bone marrow edema around the lateral knee compartment is not predictive of ACL insufficiency. (orig.)

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of an Unstable Bench Press Bar Path and Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael A; Leib, Daniel J; Ostrowski, Stephanie J; Carlson, Lara A

    2017-05-01

    Lawrence, MA, Leib, DJ, Ostrowski, SJ, and Carlson, LA. Nonlinear analysis of an unstable bench press bar path and muscle activation. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1206-1211, 2017-Unstable resistance exercises are typically performed to improve the ability of stabilizing muscles to maintain joint integrity under a load. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an unstable load (as provided by a flexible barbell and a load suspended by elastic bands) on the bar path, the primary musculature, and stabilizing musculature while bench pressing using nonlinear analyses. Fifteen resistance-trained men (age 24.2 ± 2.7 years, mass 84.1 ± 12.0 kg, height 1.77 ± 0.05 m, 9.9 ± 3.4 years of lifting experience, and bench press 1 repetition maximum (RM) 107.5 ± 25.9 kg) volunteered for this study. Subjects pressed 2 sets of 5 repetitions in both stable (total load 75% 1RM) and unstable (total load 60% 1RM) conditions using a standard barbell and a flexible Earthquake bar, respectively. Surface electromyography was used to detect muscle activity of primary movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps) and bar stabilizing musculature (latissimus dorsi, middle and posterior deltoid, biceps brachii, and upper trapezius). During the unstable condition, the bar moved in more ways and was less predictable in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions. However, the muscle activation patterns of all muscles were more constrained with the unstable barbell. These findings suggest that the unstable condition was more challenging to control, but subjects controlled the instability by contracting their muscles in a more stable pattern or "staying tight" throughout the exercise.

  13. Stable or unstable tear of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: an MR diagnosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten Duffel/Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Duffel (Belgium); Wouters, Kristien [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Scientific Coordination and Biostatistics, Edegem (Belgium); Dossche, Lieven [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Orthopedics, Edegem (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    To determine the usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to distinguish stable from unstable tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. MR images of 97 patients with surgically confirmed ACL tear were retrospectively reviewed. According to arthroscopic and clinical examination, these patients had 36 stable and 61 unstable (9 partial and 52 complete) ACL tears. MR images were interpreted by two blinded reviewers and scored with respect to previously reported primary and secondary MR signs of ACL injury. Based on a comprehensive assessment of all the MR findings, ACLs were categorized as being stable or unstable. MR accuracy was calculated considering only primary MR signs and considering both primary and secondary MR signs of ACL injury, separately. Accuracy of each individual primary and secondary MR sign was calculated. Considering only primary MR signs, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR were 77, 92, and 82%, respectively. Considering both primary and secondary MR signs, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR were 59, 81, and 67%, respectively. Of all MR signs, discontinuity and abnormal orientation had highest test accuracy (79 and 87%, respectively). Anterior tibial translation, uncovering of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, and hyperbuckled PCL were only seen in unstable ACLs (specificity 100%), but these secondary findings had low sensitivity (23%). Bone contusion around the lateral knee compartment was seen in both unstable and stable ACLs (accuracy 64%). Previously reported MR imaging signs do not allow accurate distinction between clinically stable and unstable ACL injuries. Anterior tibial translation, uncovering of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, and hyperbuckled PCL, if present, are helpful signs in the diagnosis of an unstable tear. The presence of bone marrow edema around the lateral knee compartment is not predictive of ACL insufficiency. (orig.)

  14. In-plane optical response in underdoped YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeshita, Teruhisa; Masui, Takahiko; Tajima, Setsuko

    2005-03-01

    The recent STM experiments demonstrated that the electronic state in CuO2 plane is inhomogeneous [1], which becomes conspicuous in the underdoped regime. In such an inhomogeneous state, it is not obvious whether a superfluid density is correctly estimated by a conventional way. We investigated the in-plane optical response for underdoped YBCO crystal to discuss the relation between inhomogeneity and superfluid density in the pseudo-gapped state. The a-axis optical spectrum shows a larger residual conductivity than that for the optimum doping. The superfluid density estimated from our optical spectrum at the lowest temperature is substantially smaller than that determined by μSR. We discuss this strongly suppressed superfluid density and the large residual conductivity in terms of the inhomogeneity in real- and k-space. This work was supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO) through ISTEC as the Collaborative Research and Development of Fundamental Technologies for Superconductivity Applications. [1]K.M.Lang et al., Nature 415, 412 (2002). *present address: Dept. of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan

  15. Reaction plane angle dependence of dihadron azimuthal correlations from a multiphase transport model calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Zhang, S.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Chen, J. H.; Ma, G. L.; Zhong, C.; Huang, H. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Dihadron azimuthal angle correlations relative to the reaction plane have been investigated in Au+Au collisions at √(s NN )=200 GeV using a multiphase transport model (AMPT). Such reaction plane azimuthal-angle-dependent correlations can shed light on the path-length effect of energy loss of high-transverse-momentum particles propagating through a hot dense medium. The correlations vary with the trigger particle azimuthal angle with respect to the reaction plane direction, φ s =φ T -Ψ EP , which is consistent with the experimental observation by the STAR Collaboration. The dihadron azimuthal angle correlation functions on the away side of the trigger particle present a distinct evolution from a single-peak to a broad, possibly double-peak structure when the trigger particle direction goes from in-plane to out-of-plane with the reaction plane. The away-side angular correlation functions are asymmetric with respect to the back-to-back direction in some regions of φ s , which could provide insight into the testing v 1 method for reconstructing the reaction plane. In addition, both the root-mean-square width (W rms ) of the away-side correlation distribution and the splitting parameter (D) between the away-side double peaks increase slightly with φ s , and the average transverse momentum of away-side-associated hadrons shows a strong φ s dependence. Our results indicate that a strong parton cascade and resultant energy loss could play an important role in the appearance of a double-peak structure in the dihadron azimuthal angular correlation function on the away side of the trigger particle.

  16. The effects of HIV stigma on health, disclosure of HIV status, and risk behavior of homeless and unstably housed persons living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitski, Richard J; Pals, Sherri L; Kidder, Daniel P; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Holtgrave, David R

    2009-12-01

    HIV-related stigma negatively affects the lives of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA experience myriad challenges and may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of HIV-related stigma. Homeless/unstably housed PLWHA from 3 U.S. cities (N = 637) completed computer-assisted interviews that measured demographics, self-assessed physical and mental health, medical utilization, adherence, HIV disclosure, and risk behaviors. Internal and perceived external HIV stigma were assessed and combined for a total stigma score. Higher levels of stigma were experienced by women, homeless participants, those with a high school education or less, and those more recently diagnosed with HIV. Stigma was strongly associated with poorer self-assessed physical and mental health, and perceived external stigma was associated with recent non-adherence to HIV treatment. Perceived external stigma was associated with decreased HIV disclosure to social network members, and internal stigma was associated with drug use and non-disclosure to sex partners. Interventions are needed to reduce HIV-related stigma and its effects on the health of homeless/unstably housed PLWHA.

  17. Applicability of Pulse Pressure Variation during Unstable Hemodynamic Events in the Intensive Care Unit: A Five-Day Prospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Delannoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse pressure variation can predict fluid responsiveness in strict applicability conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical applicability of pulse pressure variation during episodes of patient hemodynamic instability in the intensive care unit. We conducted a five-day, seven-center prospective study that included patients presenting with an unstable hemodynamic event. The six predefined inclusion criteria for pulse pressure variation applicability were as follows: mechanical ventilation, tidal volume >7 mL/kg, sinus rhythm, no spontaneous breath, heart rate/respiratory rate ratio >3.6, absence of right ventricular dysfunction, or severe valvulopathy. Seventy-three patients presented at least one unstable hemodynamic event, with a total of 163 unstable hemodynamic events. The six predefined criteria for the applicability of pulse pressure variation were completely present in only 7% of these. This data indicates that PPV should only be used alongside a strong understanding of the relevant physiology and applicability criteria. Although these exclusion criteria appear to be profound, they likely represent an absolute contraindication of use for only a minority of critical care patients.

  18. Experimental observations of strong double layers. [in triple plasma device for lower magnetospheric simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Hershkowitz, N.; Hubbard, R.; Joyce, G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is applied to the production of strong electric potential double layers (DL) in a triple plasma device. The simulation is intended to represent DL in the low magnetosphere above the auroral zones. The DL are described as standing electrostatic shocks with different energy coefficients in their strong and weak forms. The strong DL was generally found to be unstable, but stability could be imparted if a population of trapped electrons was presented. Stability increased with the length of the system. A schematic for the system is presented, and a phase-space plot of electrons (indicating system stability) is graphed.

  19. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  20. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, A.

    2002-01-01

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  1. Low-lying dipole response in stable and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenna, M; Colò, G; Bortignon, P F; Pozzi, G; Roca-Maza, X; Mizuyama, K

    2013-01-01

    The presence of some low-lying (pygmy) strength in the dipole spectrum, at excitation energy well below the isovector giant dipole energy, has been confirmed in several nuclei. The microscopic structure and the nature of these states, in particular the possible collective nature and the isospin character, are currently under strong debate. In addition, a relation with the isovector properties of the equation of state of nuclear matter, such as the symmetry energy or its slope, has been proposed. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree–Fock plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for both the isoscalar and isovector dipole responses, of different neutron-rich nuclei ( 68 Ni, 132 Sn and 208 Pb). All of them show a low-energy peak that increases in magnitude with increasing values of the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation. Eventually, the collectivity associated with the RPA states contributing to this peak is more pronounced in the isoscalar than in the isovector channel. (paper)

  2. Morphological segmentation for sagittal plane image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, F N; Paula, I C; Medeiros, F S; Ushizima, D M; Cintra, L S

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a morphological image segmentation method by applying watershed transform with markers to scale-space smoothed images and furthermore provides images for clinical monitoring and analysis of patients. The database comprises sagittal plane images taken from a digital camera of patients submitted to Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) physiotherapy treatment. Orthopaedic specialists can use these segmented images to diagnose posture problems, assess physiotherapy treatment evolution and thus reduce diagnostic errors due to subjective analysis.

  3. Representations of stack triangulations in the plane

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Stack triangulations appear as natural objects when defining an increasing family of triangulations by successive additions of vertices. We consider two different probability distributions for such objects. We represent, or "draw" these random stack triangulations in the plane $\\R^2$ and study the asymptotic properties of these drawings, viewed as random compact metric spaces. We also look at the occupation measure of the vertices, and show that for these two distributions it converges to som...

  4. Augmented-plane-wave calculations on small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serena, P.A.; Baratoff, A.; Soler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations on a wide range of small molecules, demonstrating the accuracy and flexibility of an alternative method for calculating the electronic structure of molecules, solids, and surfaces. It is based on the local-density approximation (LDA) for exchange and correlation and the nonlinear augmented-plane-wave method. Very accurate atomic forces are obtained directly. This allows for implementation of Car-Parrinello-like techniques to determine simultaneously the self-consistent electron wave functions and the equilibrium atomic positions within an iterative scheme. We find excellent agreement with the best existing LDA-based calculations and remarkable agreement with experiment for the equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, and dipole moments of a wide variety of molecules, including strongly bound homopolar and polar molecules, hydrogen-bound and electron-deficient molecules, and weakly bound alkali and noble-metal dimers, although binding energies are overestimated

  5. Fluctuation diamagnetism near surfaces and twinning planes in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, S.N.; Dubovskii, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    Fluctuations of the magnetic moment and of the specific heat near surfaces and twinning planes in superconductors are studied. Fluctuations near a surface yield an additional contribution to the effect of the usual bulk fluctuations on the diamagnetic moment. Such an additional contribution has a singularity near a temperature T/sub c/3(H), which is higher than the bulk superconducting transition temperature in a magnetic field T/sub c/2(H). Depending on the strength of the magnetic field, the singularity of the additional contribution to the magnetic moment can be either logarithmic (strong fields) or of square-root type (weak fields). Experiments which could reveal the aforementioned anomalous behavior are discussed in detail

  6. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-29

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  7. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  8. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The next generation of X-ray spectrometers necessitate significant increases in both resolution and effective area to achieve the science goals set forth in the 2010 Decadal Survey and the 2013 Astrophysics Roadmap. The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), an X-ray spectroscopy suborbital rocket payload currently scheduled for launch in Q3 2020, will serve as a testbed for several key technologies which can help achieve the desired performance increases of future spectrometers. OGRE will be the first instrument to fly mono-crystalline silicon X-ray mirrors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The payload will also utilize an array of off-plane gratings manufactured at The Pennsylvania State University. Additionally, the focal plane will be populated with an array of four electron-multiplying CCDs developed by the Open University and XCAM Ltd. With these key technologies, OGRE hopes to achieve the highest resolution on-sky soft X-ray spectrum to date. We discuss the optical design, expected performance, and the current status of the payload.

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. Influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for VBLs in the walls of hard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, X.F.; Guo, G.X.; Xu, J.P.; Liu, S.P.; Wang, L.N.; Huo, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the critical in-plane field range for vertical Bloch lines in the walls of three kinds of hard domains is investigated experimentally. It is found that for each kind of three hard domains, there exists a critical in-plane field range, i. e. [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], which depends on temperatures and in which vertical Bloch lines are unstable. Here, H ip (1) (T) is the initial critical in-plane field where VBLs in the walls of three kinds of hard domains are annihilated, and H ip (2) (T) is the lowest in-plane field where VBLs in their corresponding hard domains are annihilated completely. H ip (1) (T), H ip (2) (T) and [H ip (1) (T),H ip (2) (T)], all decrease as the temperature increase. Furthermore, H ip (1) (T) and H ip (2) (T) reach zero at T 0 1 and T 0 , respectively. In addition, there exists a relationship among them, when T is unchanged, H ip (1) (T) of the three kinds of hard domains (ordinary hard bubbles (OHB), first kind of dumbbell domain (ID) and second kind of dumbbell domains (IID)) decrease successively, and theirH ip (2) (T) are the same

  11. Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.

  12. The use of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the individual biomonitoring: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Thiago de Salazar e

    2005-02-01

    Biodosimetry is based on the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. The quantification of unstable chromosome aberrations and micronuclei, in peripheral blood lymphocytes, are two methods commonly used in biodosimetry. In this context, the aim of this research was to compare these methods in the biomonitoring of health care professionals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In parallel, the technique of C-banding was evaluated for quality control of unstable chromosome aberrations analyses. Thus, samples of peripheral blood from health care professionals of three hospitals from Recife (Brazil) were collected, and the lymphocytes cultures were carried out based on the cytogenetic classical technique. It was pointed out that analysis of micronuclei is faster than the unstable chromosome aberrations ones, which suggests the use of the former in preliminary evaluation in cases of suspected accidental exposure. C-banding technique was efficient, as confirmatory test, in the identification of dicentrics and rings during the analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations, being able to be applied in the quality control in biodosimetry. The comparison between the individual work conditions with the frequencies of unstable aberrations and micronuclei obtained from cytogenetic analysis, resulted in the change of behavior of the professionals involved in this research, with a better observance of the radioprotection standards. (author)

  13. J-integral evaluation and stability analysis in the unstable ductile fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Toshiro; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Shiratori, Masaki.

    1984-01-01

    Concerning unstable ductile fracture, which is an important problem on the structural stability of line pipes, nuclear reactor piping and so on, the research on fracture mechanics parameters which control the beginning of the stable growth and unstable growth of cracks attracts interest. At present, as the parameters, the T-modulus based on J-integral crack tip opening angle, crack opening angle averaged over crack developing part, plastic work coefficient and so on have been proposed. The research on the effectiveness and inter-relation of these parameters is divided into generation phase and application phase, and by these researches, it was reported that all T-modulus, CTOA and COA took almost constant values in relation to crack development, except initial transition period. In order to decide which parameter is most appropriate, the detailed analysis is required. In this study, the analysis of unstable ductile fracture of a central crack test piece and a small tensile test piece was carried out by finite element method, and the evaluation of J-integral in relation to crack development, J-integral resistance value when COA is assumed to be a constant, the form of an unstable fracture occurring point and the compliance dependence were examined. The method of analysis, the evaluation of J-integral, J-integral resistance value, unstable fracture occurring point and stability diagram are described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Proton elastic scattering from stable and unstable nuclei - Extraction of nuclear densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Zenihiro, J.

    2017-11-01

    Progress in proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies to determine nuclear density distributions is reviewed. After challenges of about 15 years to explain proton elastic scattering and associated polarization phenomena at intermediate energies, we have reached to some conclusions regarding proton elastic scattering as a means of obtaining nuclear densities. During this same period, physics of unstable nuclei has become of interest, and the density distributions of protons and neutrons play more important roles in unstable nuclei, since the differences in proton and neutron numbers and densities are expected to be significant. As such, proton elastic scattering experiments at intermediate energies using the inverse kinematic method have started to determine density distributions of unstable nuclei. In the region of unstable nuclei, we are confronted with a new problem when attempting to find proton and neutron densities separately from elastic proton scattering data, since electron scattering data for unstable nuclei are not presently available. We introduce a new means of determining proton and neutron densities separately by double-energy proton elastic scattering at intermediate energies.

  15. Relationship between the serologic status of helicobacter pylori with the presence of unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Adel, S. M. H.; Rajabzadeh, A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether unstable angina is co-related to seropositivity to chronic Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. It is a case control, descriptive study conducted at CCU in Razi Hospital in Ahwaz a city southwest Iran, from 2004 to 2005. We measured serum HP- lgG levels of participants in CCU in a hospital. Blood samples were drawn during study period from 96 patients (mean age 56 years) with Unstable Angina (UA) according to American Heart Association criteria and from 96 participants free of cardiovascular disease (mean age 58 years) and stored at 20 degree C. Serology results were studied in relation to UA. Using chi squared test, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated, adjusting for age, gender, and established risk factors. Seventy nine (82.3%) of patients with unstable angina and 55(61.1%) in the control group presented a positive anti HP-lgG. Odds ratio was 3 with 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.3. There was significant relation between HP-lgG positivity and unstable angina (P 0.05). Our study revealed relationship between seropositivity of HP-lgG and unstable angina. (author)

  16. Muscle co-contraction around the knee when walking with unstable shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsak, Brian; Heller, Mario; Baca, Arnold

    2015-02-01

    Walking with unstable shoes has been discussed to decrease joint loading. Typical estimates of joint loading using an inverse dynamic approach only account for net joint moments, not considering the potential role of muscular co-contraction. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscular co-contraction levels when walking with two different unstable shoe constructions (rocker-bottom and toning shoes) compared to walking with regular shoes. For each shoe condition, 12 healthy subjects walked with both, a regular shoe and with an unstable shoe at self-selected walking speed at a 10-m walkway. Surface EMG data of selected muscles were recorded and time normalized for calculating co-contraction indices (CCI) for opposing muscle groups. Results showed an increase of co-contraction primarily for vastii and gastrocnemius muscles for the first and second half of stance when walking with an unstable shoe construction. Therefore, when using an inverse dynamic approach to analyze joint loading differences between regular shoes and unstable shoes, one should be cautious in interpreting the data, as these methods base their estimates of joint moments upon the net joint torque. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Complex Way to Laser Diode Spectra: Example of an External Cavity Laser With Strong Optical Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo

    2005-01-01

    An external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered feedback to an antireflection-coated facet is studied with a time-domain integral equation for the electric field, which reproduces the modes of the oscillation condition as steady-state solutions. For each mode, the stability and spectral...... to simulate the large signal time evolution after start from unstable modes....

  18. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.

  19. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  20. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  2. Effects of constant immigration on the dynamics and persistence of stable and unstable Drosophila populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Joshi, Amitabh

    2013-01-01

    Constant immigration can stabilize population size fluctuations but its effects on extinction remain unexplored. We show that constant immigration significantly reduced extinction in fruitfly populations with relatively stable or unstable dynamics. In unstable populations with oscillations of amplitude around 1.5 times the mean population size, persistence and constancy were unrelated. Low immigration enhanced persistence without affecting constancy whereas high immigration increased constancy without enhancing persistence. In relatively stable populations with erratic fluctuations of amplitude close to the mean population size, both low and high immigration enhanced persistence. In these populations, the amplitude of fluctuations relative to mean population size went down due to immigration, and their dynamics were altered to low-period cycles. The effects of immigration on the population size distribution and intrinsic dynamics of stable versus unstable populations differed considerably, suggesting that the mechanisms by which immigration reduced extinction risk depended on underlying dynamics in complex ways. PMID:23470546

  3. A novel double loop control model design for chemical unstable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Er-Ding; Hu, Ming-Hui; Tu, Shan-Tung; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Shao, Hui-He

    2014-03-01

    In this manuscript, based on Smith predictor control scheme for unstable process in industry, an improved double loop control model is proposed for chemical unstable processes. Inner loop is to stabilize integrating the unstable process and transform the original process to first-order plus pure dead-time dynamic stable process. Outer loop is to enhance the performance of set point response. Disturbance controller is designed to enhance the performance of disturbance response. The improved control system is simple with exact physical meaning. The characteristic equation is easy to realize stabilization. Three controllers are separately design in the improved scheme. It is easy to design each controller and good control performance for the respective closed-loop transfer function separately. The robust stability of the proposed control scheme is analyzed. Finally, case studies illustrate that the improved method can give better system performance than existing design methods. © 2013 ISA Published by ISA All rights reserved.

  4. Unstable housing as a factor for increased injection risk behavior at US syringe exchange programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Braine, Naomi; Friedmann, Patricia

    2007-11-01

    To assess variation in injection risk behavior among unstably housed/homeless injecting drug users (IDUs) across programs in a national sample of US syringe exchange programs. About 23 syringe exchange programs were selected through stratified random sampling of moderate to very large US syringe exchange programs operating in 2001-2005. Subjects at each program were randomly sampled. Risk behavior interviews were collected using audio-computer assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI). "Unstable housing/homelessness" was operationally defined as having lived "on the street or in a shanty" or "living in a shelter or single room occupancy hotel (SRO)" at any time in the 6 months prior to the interview. "Receptive sharing" was operationally defined as having injected with a needle or syringe that "had been used by someone else" in the 30 days prior to the interview. Six very large and nine moderate-to-large programs had at least 50 subjects who reported unstable housing, and these 15 programs were used in the analyses. There was considerable variation among the 15 programs in the percentages of unstably housed participants (range from 35 to 74%, P lack of significant variation in the odds ratios for increased injection risk suggests that none of the programs were "better" or "worse" at reducing injection risk behavior among unstably housed participants. Reduction in injecting risk behavior among syringe exchange participants may require greater efforts to provide stable housing or the development of dramatically new interventions to reduce injecting risk behavior among IDUs with persistent unstable housing.

  5. A comparison of locked versus nonlocked Enders rods for length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Henry Bone; Ho, Christine A; Podeszwa, David A; Wilson, Philip L

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel flexible Enders rods have been used for intramedullary fixation of pediatric femur fractures with good success. Despite intraoperative anatomic alignment, length unstable femur fractures can present postoperatively with fracture shortening. The purpose of this study was to review all length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures in which Enders rods were used and compare those that were locked to those that were not locked. A retrospective clinical and radiographic review of all patients at a single institution undergoing flexible intramedullary fixation for length unstable femoral shaft fractures from 2001 to 2008. A length unstable fracture was defined as either a comminuted fracture or a spiral fracture longer than twice the diameter of the femoral shaft. A total of 107 length unstable femoral shaft fractures fixed with Enders rods were identified, of which 37 cases (35%) had both Enders rods "locked" through the eyelet in the distal femur with a 2.7 mm fully threaded cortical screw. Patient demographics, clinical course, complications, fracture characteristics, and radiographic outcomes were compared for the locked and nonlocked groups. There were no statistical differences between the groups in demographic data, operative variables, fracture pattern, fracture location, time to union, femoral alignment, or major complications. Shortening of the femur and nail migration measured at 1 to 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly greater for the nonlocked cases. The medial and lateral locked Enders rods moved 1.3 and 1.9 mm, respectively, and the unlocked Enders each moved 12.1 mm (P < 0.05). At final follow-up there were significantly more (P < 0.05) clinical complaints in nonlocked group, including limp, clinical shortening, and painful palpable rods. Locking Enders rods for length unstable pediatric fractures is an excellent option to prevent shortening and resulted in no additional complications, added surgical time, or increased blood loss

  6. Standard test method for plane-strain (Chevron-Notch) fracture toughness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of plane-strain (chevron-notch) fracture toughnesses, KIv or KIvM, of metallic materials. Fracture toughness by this method is relative to a slowly advancing steady state crack initiated at a chevron-shaped notch, and propagating in a chevron-shaped ligament (Fig. 1). Some metallic materials, when tested by this method, exhibit a sporadic crack growth in which the crack front remains nearly stationary until a critical load is reached. The crack then becomes unstable and suddenly advances at high speed to the next arrest point. For these materials, this test method covers the determination of the plane-strain fracture toughness, KIvj or KIvM, relative to the crack at the points of instability. Note 1—One difference between this test method and Test Method E 399 (which measures KIc) is that Test Method E 399 centers attention on the start of crack extension from a fatigue precrack. This test method makes use of either a steady state slowly propagating crack, or a...

  7. VAST PLANES OF SATELLITES IN A HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATION OF THE LOCAL GROUP: COMPARISON TO ANDROMEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, N.; Ocvirk, P.; Aubert, D.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We search for vast planes of satellites (VPoS) in a high-resolution simulation of the Local Group performed by the CLUES project, which improves significantly the resolution of previous similar studies. We use a simple method for detecting planar configurations of satellites, and validate it on the known plane of M31. We implement a range of prescriptions for modeling the satellite populations, roughly reproducing the variety of recipes used in the literature, and investigate the occurrence and properties of planar structures in these populations. The structure of the simulated satellite systems is strongly non-random and contains planes of satellites, predominantly co-rotating, with, in some cases, sizes comparable to the plane observed in M31 by Ibata et al. However, the latter is slightly richer in satellites, slightly thinner, and has stronger co-rotation, which makes it stand out as overall more exceptional than the simulated planes, when compared to a random population. Although the simulated planes we find are generally dominated by one real structure forming its backbone, they are also partly fortuitous and are thus not kinematically coherent structures as a whole. Provided that the simulated and observed planes of satellites are indeed of the same nature, our results suggest that the VPoS of M31 is not a coherent disk and that one-third to one-half of its satellites must have large proper motions perpendicular to the plane

  8. Effects of shape on unstable growth of cavities interacting with surrounding small voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2008-01-01

    shape. If there is no porosity in the surrounding material, the central void in a high triaxiality stress field develops towards a near spherical shape before unstable growth occurs. However, in the presence of surrounding small-scale voids the evolution of the porosity fields has much influence......The possibility of unstable cavity growth in a ductile metal containing many voids has been studied recently. The central spherical cavity was discretely represented, whereas the surrounding small-scale voids were represented by a porous ductile material model in terms of a field quantity...

  9. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  10. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Steve [Los Alamos Visualization Associates

    2017-05-25

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  11. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve

    2016-03-01

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  12. Interaction of neutral particles with strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s the experimentally available field strengths have continuously increased. The current peak intensity record is 2 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} and next generation facilities such as ELI, HiPER and XCELS plan to reach even intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Thus, modern laser facilities are a clean source for very strong external electromagnetic fields and promise new and interesting high-energy physics experiments. In particular, strong laser fields could be used to test non-linear effects in quantum field theory. Earlier we have investigated how radiative corrections modify the coupling of a charged particle inside a strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field. However, a charged particle couples already at tree level to electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we have now analyzed how the coupling between neutral particles and radiation is affected by a very strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field, when loop corrections are taken into account. In particular, the case of neutrinos is discussed.

  13. Plane-Wave DFT Methods for Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylaska, Eric J.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed description of modern plane-wave DFT methods and software (contained in the NWChem package) are described that allow for both geometry optimization and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Significant emphasis is placed on aspects of these methods that are of interest to computational chemists and useful for simulating chemistry, including techniques for calculating charged systems, exact exchange (i.e. hybrid DFT methods), and highly efficient AIMD/MM methods. Sample applications on the structure of the goethite+water interface and the hydrolysis of nitroaromatic molecules are described.

  14. Locating a minisum circle in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities in the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, i.e., we approximate a set of given points by a circle regarding the sum of weighted distances. If the radius...... of the circle is a variable we show that there always exists an optimal circle passing through two of the existing facilities. For the case of a fixed radius we provide characterizations of optimal circles in special cases. Solution procedures are suggested....

  15. Rotating out-of-plane micromirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak, Sahil; Edmiston, Greg; Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Ramirez, Gabriel; Dallas, Tim

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a novel, micro-actuated system for beam steering or optical multiplexing applications. The system consists of polysilicon micromirror which is held at ~45° angle on a gear which has a rotational freedom of 360°. In this work, we use serpentine springs attached to a mirror with position specific "catch blocks" to hold the mirror at a desired angle on top of a rotating gear. Out-of-plane assembly is achieved using a simple, postprocessing procedure. The mirror platform is driven by an electrostatically actuated rotary drive. The mirror was tested for robustness and optical performance. Good correlation was found between experiment and various simulations.

  16. The memory effect for plane gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2017-09-01

    We give an account of the gravitational memory effect in the presence of the exact plane wave solution of Einstein's vacuum equations. This allows an elementary but exact description of the soft gravitons and how their presence may be detected by observing the motion of freely falling particles. The theorem of Bondi and Pirani on caustics (for which we present a new proof) implies that the asymptotic relative velocity is constant but not zero, in contradiction with the permanent displacement claimed by Zel'dovich and Polnarev. A non-vanishing asymptotic relative velocity might be used to detect gravitational waves through the "velocity memory effect", considered by Braginsky, Thorne, Grishchuk, and Polnarev.

  17. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years). The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t -test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis ( P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = -0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect ( R 2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning perpendicular to the FBP can be an alternate way in the

  18. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  19. New plastic plane stress model for concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winnicki, A.; Cichon, Cz.

    1993-01-01

    In the paper a description of concrete behaviour in the plane stress case is given on the basis of the modified bounding surface plasticity theory. Three independent plastic mechanisms have been introduced describing axiatoric and deviatoric plastic strains and their coupling. All the new analytical formulae for material functions being in agreement with experiments and loading/unloading criteria have been proposed. In addition, for the proper description of concrete behaviour in tension a new, separate function of bounding surface shrinkage has been introduced. (author)

  20. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... deviation, sigma(est) of the velocity profile estimate is around 2% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees relative to the peak velocity, when the flow angle is known in advance. A study is performed to investigate how different parameters influence the blood velocity estimation...

  1. On Helmholtz Problem for Plane Periodical Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishin, P.G.; Vinitskij, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    The plane Helmholtz problem of the periodical disc structures with the phase shifts conditions of the solutions along the basis lattice vectors and the Dirichlet conditions on the basic boundaries is considered. The Green function satisfying the quasi periodical conditions on the lattice is constructed. The Helmholtz problem is reduced to the boundary integral equations for the simple layer potentials of this Green function. The methods of the discretization of the arising integral equations are proposed. The procedures of calculation of the matrix elements are discussed. The reality of the spectral parameter of the nonlinear continuous and discretized problems is shown. 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  3. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  4. Correlation between C-Reactive Protein in Peripheral Vein and Coronary Sinus in Stable and Unstable Angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Weverton Ferreira, E-mail: wfleite@cardiol.br [Instituto do Coração (InCor) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramires, José Antonio Franchini; Moreira, Luiz Felipe Pinho; Strunz, Célia Maria Cassaro [Instituto do Coração (InCor) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mangione, José Armando [Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is commonly used in clinical practice to assess cardiovascular risk. However, a correlation has not yet been established between the absolute levels of peripheral and central hs-CRP. To assess the correlation between serum hs-CRP levels (mg/L) in a peripheral vein in the left forearm (LFPV) with those in the coronary sinus (CS) of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and a diagnosis of stable angina (SA) or unstable angina (UA). This observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted at the Instituto do Coração, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, and at the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, where CAD patients referred to the hospital for coronary angiography were evaluated. Forty patients with CAD (20 with SA and 20 with UA) were included in the study. Blood samples from LFPV and CS were collected before coronary angiography. Furthermore, analysis of the correlation between serum levels of hs-CRP in LFPV versus CS showed a strong linear correlation for both SA (r = 0.993, p < 0.001) and UA (r = 0.976, p < 0.001) and for the entire sample (r = 0.985, p < 0.001). Our data suggest a strong linear correlation between hs-CRP levels in LFPV versus CS in patients with SA and UA.

  5. ARC Code TI: X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC) is an open source research tool used to interact with the commercial flight simulator software X-Plane. XPC allows users to...

  6. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    is unlimited poles of the anelastic modes in the complex plane . The complex plane is tiled with boxes, and contour integrals are performed numerically... complex modes of a plane layered fluid-elastic medium. Ivansson and Karasalo (1992, 1993) and Ivansson (1997) have published a numerical algorithm based...grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth” accepted for

  7. Exact relativistic solution of disordered radiation with plane symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da; Wolk, I.; Som, M.M.

    1976-04-01

    An exact solution of Einstein equations corresponding to an equilibrium distribution of disordered electromagnetic radiation with plane symmetry is obtained. This equilibrium is due solely to the gravitational and pressure effects inherent to the radiation. The distribution of radiation is found to be maximum and finite at the plane of symmetry, and to decrease monotonically in directions normal to this plane. The solution tends asymptotically to the static plane symmetric vacuum solution obtained by Levi-Civita. Timelike and null geodesics are discussed

  8. First results from the INTEGRAL galactic plane scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Schonfelder, V.

    2003-01-01

    Scans of the Galactic plane performed at regular intervals constitute a key element of the guaranteed time observations of the INTEGRAL observing programme. These scans are done for two reasons: frequent monitoring of the Galactic plane in order to detect transient sources, and time resolved...... mapping of the Galactic plane in continuum and diffuse line emission. This paper describes first results obtained from the Galactic plane scans executed so far during the early phase (Dec. 2002-May 2003) of the nominal mission....

  9. A method for measuring three-dimensional mandibular kinematics in vivo using single-plane fluoroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-C; Lin, C-C; Chen, Y-J; Hong, S-W; Lu, T-W

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Accurate measurement of the three-dimensional (3D) motion of the mandible in vivo is essential for relevant clinical applications. Existing techniques are either of limited accuracy or require the use of transoral devices that interfere with jaw movements. This study aimed to develop further an existing method for measuring 3D, in vivo mandibular kinematics using single-plane fluoroscopy; to determine the accuracy of the method; and to demonstrate its clinical applicability via measurements on a healthy subject during opening/closing and chewing movements. Methods The proposed method was based on the registration of single-plane fluoroscopy images and 3D low-radiation cone beam CT data. It was validated using roentgen single-plane photogrammetric analysis at static positions and during opening/closing and chewing movements. Results The method was found to have measurement errors of 0.1 ± 0.9 mm for all translations and 0.2° ± 0.6° for all rotations in static conditions, and of 1.0 ± 1.4 mm for all translations and 0.2° ± 0.7° for all rotations in dynamic conditions. Conclusions The proposed method is considered an accurate method for quantifying the 3D mandibular motion in vivo. Without relying on transoral devices, the method has advantages over existing methods, especially in the assessment of patients with missing or unstable teeth, making it useful for the research and clinical assessment of the temporomandibular joint and chewing function. PMID:22842637

  10. The Curious Out-of-Plane Conductivity of PEDOT : PSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ruit, Kevin; Katsouras, Ilias; Bollen, Dirk; van Mol, Ton; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Kemerink, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    For its application as transparent conductor in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivity of PEDOT:PSS are important. However, studies into the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS rarely address the out-of-plane conductivity and those that do, report widely

  11. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  12. The Sentinel 4 focal plane subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Rüdiger; Skegg, Michael P.; Hermsen, Markus; Hinger, Jürgen; Williges, Christian; Reulke, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    The Sentinel 4 instrument is an imaging spectrometer, developed by Airbus under ESA contract in the frame of the joint European Union (EU)/ESA COPERNICUS program with the objective of monitoring trace gas concentrations. Sentinel 4 will provide accurate measurements of key atmospheric constituents such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, as well as aerosol and cloud properties. Sentinel 4 is unique in being the first geostationary UVN mission. The SENTINEL 4 space segment will be integrated on EUMETSAT's Meteosat Third Generation Sounder satellite (MTG-S). Sentinel 4 will provide coverage of Europe and adjacent regions. The Sentinel 4 instrument comprises as a major element two Focal Plane Subsystems (FPS) covering the wavelength ranges 305 nm to 500 nm (UVVIS) and 750 nm to 775 nm (NIR) respectively. The paper describes the Focal Plane Subsystems, comprising the detectors, the optical bench and the control electronics. Further the design and development approach will be presented as well as first measurement results of FPS Qualification Model.

  13. Mathematical Foundation for Plane Covering Using Hexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon G.

    1999-01-01

    This work is to indicate the development and mathematical underpinnings of the algorithms previously developed for covering the plane and the addressing of the elements of the covering. The algorithms are of interest in that they provides a simple systematic way of increasing or decreasing resolution, in the sense that if we have the covering in place and there is an image superimposed upon the covering, then we may view the image in a rough form or in a very detailed form with minimal effort. Such ability allows for quick searches of crude forms to determine a class in which to make a detailed search. In addition, the addressing algorithms provide an efficient way to process large data sets that have related subsets. The algorithms produced were based in part upon the work of D. Lucas "A Multiplication in N Space" which suggested a set of three vectors, any two of which would serve as a bases for the plane and also that the hexagon is the natural geometric object to be used in a covering with a suggested bases. The second portion is a refinement of the eyeball vision system, the globular viewer.

  14. The plane motion control of the quadrocopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kanatnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a large number of modern flying vehicles, the quadrocopter relates to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV which are relatively cheap and easy to design. Quadrocopters are able to fly in bad weather, hang in the air for quite a long time, observe the objects and perform many other tasks. They have been applied in rescue operations, in agriculture, in the military and many other fields.For quadrocopters, the problems of path planning and control are relevant. These problems have many variants in which limited resources of modern UAV, possible obstacles, for instance, for flying in a cross-country terrain or in a city environment and weather conditions (particularly, wind conditions are taken into account. Many research studies are concerned with these problems and reflected in series of publications (note the interesting survey [1] and references therein. Various methods were used for the control synthesis for these vehicles: linear approximations [2], sliding mode control [3], the covering method [4] and so on.In the paper, a quadrocopter is considered as a rigid body. The kinematic and dynamic equations of the motion are analyzed. Two cases of motion are emphasized: a motion in a vertical plane and in a horizontal plane. The control is based on transferring of the affine system to the canonical form [5] and the nonlinear stabilization method [6].

  15. Traces of chiral symmetry on light planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazdjian, Hagop.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of a description of the hadronic world by field theories defined on light planes and formulated in terms of three interacting quark field variables has been investigated. The framework of models where the chiral symmetry breaking is produced by the only mechanical masses of quarks has been considered. The hypothesis that the light plane charges generate in the real world approximate symmetries of one particle states has also been emitted. The projection of the algebraic structure of the observables in the space of physical states have yielded various relations in terms of the masses and couplings of the low lying mesons. They seem to be in agreement with experimental data, and suggest the consistency of the adopted model to describe symmetry breaking phenomena. The quark mechanical masses m(u) approximately 30MeV and m(s) approximately 200MeV have also been estimated. The smallness of these masses in respect to those of hadrons seems to indicate that they do not constitute the only mass scale of the hadronic world, but that there should exist another scale parameter, independent of the quark mechanical masses, and symmetric of SU(3) [fr

  16. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  17. A new dimension to cephalometry: DW plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti K Hatewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: An accurate jaw relationship is critically important in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Various angular and linear measurements that have been proposed can be erroneous because they depend on various factors. Aim: The purpose of this study is to establish a new cephalometric measurement to assess the skeletal jaw discrepancy using Walker's point. Settings and Design: Lateral cephalogram of 100 Indian subjects with age range (8–11, 12–18, 19-27 were obtained. Inclusion criteria were – clinically Class I occlusion; normal overjet and overbite; orthoganthic profile; competent lips and cephalometrically normal ANB; Wits appraisal; Rakosi Jarabak's angle of inclination and mandibular plane angle. Materials and Methods: Four skeletal landmarks: Point A, Point B, Walker's point (W and Wing point (w were used to indicate the severity and type of skeletal dysplasia. Double W (DW was constructed joining the Walker's and Wing point. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance test and Student's t-test was applied which showed significant results. Results: The difference between Walker's perpendicular to A Point and Walker's perpendicular to B Point gave the sagittal jaw discrepancy and was found to be 8.2 ± 0.9 mm. This measurement remained relatively constant throughout life. Conclusions: DW plane is an effective way to accurately establish the skeletal jaw relationship. It analyses the variance between linear measurements to determine the sagittal jaw relationship, linear measurements for vertical maxillary height and angular measurements to determine rotational jaw changes.

  18. Texture evolution by shear on two planes during ECAP of a high-strength aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shuncai [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wangs@soton.ac.uk; Starink, Marco J.; Gao Nong; Qiao Xiaoguang [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Xu Cheng [Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Langdon, Terence G. [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The evolution of texture was examined during equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) of an Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy having a strong initial texture. An analysis of the local texture using electron backscatter diffraction demonstrates that shear occurs on two shear planes: the main shear plane (MSP) equivalent to the simple shear plane, and a secondary shear plane which is perpendicular to the MSP. Throughout most regions of the ECAP billet, the MSP is close to the intersection plane of the two channels but with a small (5 deg.) deviation. Only the {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace}<1 1 0> and {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}<1 1 0> shear systems were activated and there was no experimental evidence for the existence of other shear systems. In a small region at the bottom edge of the billet that passed through the zone of intersection of the channels, the observed textures were fully consistent with the rolling textures of Copper and Goss.

  19. The planes of satellite galaxies problem, suggested solutions, and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2018-02-01

    Satellite galaxies of the Milky Way and of the Andromeda galaxy have been found to preferentially align in significantly flattened planes of satellite galaxies, and available velocity measurements are indicative of a preference of satellites in those structures to co-orbit. There is an increasing evidence that such kinematically correlated satellite planes are also present around more distant hosts. Detailed comparisons show that similarly anisotropic phase-space distributions of sub-halos are exceedingly rare in cosmological simulations based on the ΛCDM paradigm. Analogs to the observed systems have frequencies of ≤ 0.5% in such simulations. In contrast to other small-scale problems, the satellite planes issue is not strongly affected by baryonic processes because the distribution of sub-halos on scales of hundreds of kpc is dominated by gravitational effects. This makes the satellite planes one of the most serious small-scale problems for ΛCDM. This review summarizes the observational evidence for planes of satellite galaxies in the Local Group and beyond, and provides an overview of how they compare to cosmological simulations. It also discusses scenarios which aim at explaining the coherence of satellite positions and orbits, and why they all are currently unable to satisfactorily resolve the issue.

  20. Concentrated Ground Plane Booster Antenna Technology for Multiband Operation in Handset Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Picher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current demand in the handset antenna field requires multiband antennas due to the existence of multiple communication standards and the emergence of new ones. At the same time, antennas with reduced dimensions are strongly required in order to be easily integrated. In this sense, the paper proposes a compact radiating system that uses two non-resonant elements to properly excite the ground plane to solve the abovementioned shortcomings by minimizing the required Printed Circuit Board (PCB area while ensuring a multiband performance. These non-resonant elements are called here ground plane boosters since they excite an efficient mode of the ground plane. The proposed radiating system comprises two ground plane boosters of small dimensions of 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm. One is in charge of the low frequency region (0.824-0.960 GHz and the other is in charge of the high frequency region (1.710-2.170 GHz. With the aim of achieving a compact configuration, the two boosters are placed close to each other in a corner of the ground plane of a handset device (concentrated architecture. Several experiments related to the coupling between boosters have been carried out in two different platforms (barphone and smartphone, and the best position and the required matching network are presented. The novel proposal achieves multiband performance at GSM850/900/1800/1900 and UMTS.

  1. Electron with orbital angular momentum in a strong laser wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovets, Dmitry V.

    2012-12-01

    Electrons carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) have recently been discovered theoretically and obtained experimentally, which opens up possibilities for using them in high-energy physics. We consider such a twisted electron moving in the external field of a plane electromagnetic wave and study how this field influences the electron's OAM. Being motivated by the development of high-power lasers, we focus our attention on a classically strong-field regime for which -e2A2¯/(me2c4)≳1. It is shown that, along with the well-known “plane-wave” Volkov solution, the Dirac equation also has the “non-plane-wave” solutions, which possess OAM and spin-orbit coupling and generalize the free-electron's Bessel states. Motion of an electron with OAM in a circularly polarized laser wave reveals a twofold character: the wave-packet center moves along a classical helical trajectory with some quantum transverse broadening (due to OAM) existing even for a free electron. Using the twisted states, we calculate the electron's total angular momentum and predict its shift in the strong-field regime, which is analogous to the well-known shifts of the electron's momentum and mass (and to a less-known shift of its spin) in intense fields. Since the electron's effective angular momentum is conserved in a plane wave, as well as in some more general field configurations, we discuss several possibilities for accelerating nonrelativistic twisted electrons by using focused and combined electromagnetic fields.

  2. Coronary angioplasty of the unstable angina related vessel in patients with multivessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); W. Wijns (William); R. Geuskens; A. Soward; M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThis study is a retrospective analysis of the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty of the ischaemia-related vessel in patients with unstable angina. Forty-three patients had multivessel disease with dilatation of the ischaemia-related vessel only (group I; partial

  3. A study of unstable slopes in permafrost areas : Alaskan case studies used as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This report is the companion to the PowerPoint presentation for the project A Study of Unstable Slopes in Permafrost: Alaskan Case Studies Used as a Training Tool. The objectives of this study are 1) to provide a comprehensive review of literat...

  4. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The epidemiological data, angular deviations, leg shortening and bone consolidation were evaluated. The medical files of 113 cases operated between April 2002 and March 2008 were reassessed. From these, 24 cases of unstable femoral diaphysis fractures treated with elastic titanium intramedullary nails with retrograde insertion were included in the study. There were two bilateral fractures and two exposed fractures. Seven patients were female and 17 were male, and the mean age was 8.3 years. The following were presented at the end of the study: shortening, varus or valgus displacement, final retrocurvatum or antecurvatum of zero, and absence of delayed consolidation or pseudarthrosis. The elastic titanium intramedullary nails were easily placed and removed. We believe that using elastic titanium intramedullary nails is a good option for fixation of unstable femoral fractures in children.

  5. X-ray picture of unstable bone fractures and closed comporession-distraction osteosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoprienko, G.A.; Morozova, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Roentgenologic pictures of unstable bone fractures and the consolidation dynamics after closed compression-distraction osteosynthesis are analyzed. It is established that studying roentgenologic pictures of fractured bones in the early terms after the trauma permit to state unfavourable consolidation conditions and to predict the result of the treatment [ru

  6. High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.

    1985-07-01

    The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)

  7. The role of imaging in the choice of correct treatment of unstable thoraco-lumbar fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Busch, Rolf; Ferraris, Maria Maddalena; Venturi, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The concept of unstable burst fracture has been discussed since over 50 years and this injury has received much attention in the literature as regards its radiological diagnosis and clinical treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the way we use imaging to diagnose the injury and to guide treatment

  8. Modal control of unstable boiling states in three-dimensional nonlinear pool-boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, R.W.; Speetjens, M.F.M; Zwart, Heiko J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Topic is feedback stabilisation of a nonlinear pool-boiling system in three spatial dimensions (3D). Regulation of its unstable (non-uniform) equilibria has great potential for application in micro-electronics cooling and thermal-management systems. Here, as a first step, stabilisation of such 3D

  9. When will they ever make up their minds? The sociale structure of unstable decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, Andreas; Torenvliet, René

    2004-01-01

    French (1977), Harary (1959), and Abelson (1964) initiated a prominent line of social influence models to explain social norms or collective decisions from the structure of influence networks. These models fail to generate unstable decision dynamics, a phenomenon that can be observed in collective

  10. When will they ever make up their minds? The social structure of unstable decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flache, A; Torenvlied, R

    2004-01-01

    French (1977), Harary (1959), and Abelson (1964) initiated a prominent line of social influence models to explain social norms or collective decisions from the structure of influence networks. These models fail to generate unstable decision dynamics, a phenomenon that can be observed in collective

  11. Treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures : the balance between man and material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Schipper (Inger)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of unstable trochanteric fractures poses a challenge to surgeons in many ways. Accepting this challenge requires understanding of those parameters that determine the outcome. In operative fracture care at least four elements influence the outcome of treatment: the patient, the

  12. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  13. Treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures. Randomised comparison of the gamma nail and the proximal femoral nail.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, I.B.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Castelein, R.M.; Heijden, F.H. van der; Hoed, P.T. den; Kerver, A.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2004-01-01

    The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a recently introduced intramedullary system, designed to improve treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures of the hip. In a multicentre prospective clinical study, the intra-operative use, complications and outcome of treatment using the PFN (n = 211) were

  14. Migrant mothers in unstable environments balancing healthy life styles and parenting responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    ” as presented by health care professionals working with childhood weight interventions; the everyday life of vulnerable migrant families; the balance between attempts to promote a healthy life style and other needs and concerns in the family; the link between family conditions, unstable environments...

  15. Serum potassium values in relation to the use of diuretics in patients with unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gilst, W. H.; Tijssen, J. G.; van Es, G. A.; Lubsen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Transient hypokalaemia may occur in acutely ill patients and is associated with an increased incidence of life-threatening arrhythmias. Therefore, we performed a retrospective analysis of the serum potassium values of 538 patients with unstable angina included in the Holland Interuniversity

  16. Buoyant Unstable Behavior of Initially Spherical Lean Hydrogen-Air Premixed Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Yu Sun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Buoyant unstable behavior in initially spherical lean hydrogen-air premixed flames within a center-ignited combustion vessel have been studied experimentally under a wide range of pressures (including reduced, normal, and elevated pressures. The experimental observations show that the flame front of lean hydrogen-air premixed flames will not give rise to the phenomenon of cellular instability when the equivalence ratio has been reduced to a certain value, which is totally different from the traditional understanding of the instability characteristics of lean hydrogen premixed flames. Accompanied by the smoothened flame front, the propagation mode of lean hydrogen premixed flames transitions from initially spherical outwardly towards upwardly when the flames expand to certain sizes. To quantitatively investigate such buoyant instability behaviors, two parameters, “float rate (ψ” and “critical flame radius (Rcr”, have been proposed in the present article. The quantitative results demonstrate that the influences of initial pressure (Pint on buoyant unstable behaviors are different. Based on the effects of variation of density difference and stretch rate on the flame front, the mechanism of such buoyant unstable behaviors has been explained by the competition between the stretch force and the results of gravity and buoyancy, and lean hydrogen premixed flames will display buoyant unstable behavior when the stretch effects on the flame front are weaker than the effects of gravity and buoyancy.

  17. Research of Medical Expenditure among Inpatients with Unstable Angina Pectoris in a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Pan, Qi; Chen, Tong; Wei, Liang-Yu; Xuan, Yong; Wang, Qin; Li, Chao; Song, Jing-Chen

    2017-07-05

    With the rising incidence as well as the medical expenditure among patients with unstable angina pectoris, the research aimed to investigate the inpatient medical expenditure through the combination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) among patients with unstable angina pectoris in a Grade A tertiary hospital to conduct the referential standards of medical costs for the diagnosis. Single-factor analysis and multiple linear stepwise regression method were used to investigate 3933 cases between 2014 and 2016 in Beijing Hospital (China) whose main diagnosis was defined as unstable angina pectoris to determine the main factors influencing the inpatient medical expenditure, and decision tree method was adopted to establish the model of DRGs grouping combinations. The major influential factors of inpatient medical expenditure included age, operative method, therapeutic effects as well as comorbidity and complications (CCs) of the disease, and the 3933 cases were divided into ten DRGs by four factors: age, CCs, therapeutic effects, and the type of surgery with corresponding inpatient medical expenditure standards setup. Data of nonparametric test on medical costs among different groups were all significant (P unstable angina pectoris is conducive in standardizing the diagnosis and treatment behaviors of the hospital and reducing economic burdens among patients.

  18. [Effect of clopidogrel and aspigrel on ectopic cardiac activity in patients with unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval's'ka, T V

    2013-01-01

    The coronary circulation dysfunction in patients with unstable angina pectoris causes development of ventricular and supraventricular cardiac rhythm disorders. Findings from the current study suggest that antianginal therapy of patients with acute coronary syndrome which includes antiaggregant and anticoagulant is effective in the treatment of extrasystolic arrhythmias.

  19. Early treatment of unstable angina with nifedipine and metoprolol--the HINT trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, J. G.; Lubsen, J.

    1988-01-01

    A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of nifedipine, metoprolol, and their combination was conducted in a group of 338 patients with unstable angina not pretreated with a beta-blocker and of nifedipine in 177 patients who were. The main outcome event was recurrent

  20. Randomised, double-blind trial of intravenous diltiazem versus glyceryl trinitrate for unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gobel, EJAM; Hautvast, RWM; vanGilst, WH; Spanjaard, JN; Hillege, HL; DeJongste, MJL; Molhoek, GP; Lie, KI

    1995-01-01

    The effect of dihydropyridines in patients with unstable angina is discouraging. To find out the effect of the non- dihydropyridine-like calcium-channel blocker diltiazem, a randomised, double-blind trial was conducted comparing diltiazem with glyceryl trinitrate. both given intravenously, in 129

  1. Unstable Angina Pectoris in a 22-year-old Female Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hanae; Oba, Toyoharu; Nagata, Takanobu; Kumagai, Eita; Itaya, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Naohiro; Akagaki, Daiki; Ohshima, Hideki; Nishihara, Michihide; Ueno, Takafumi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-13

    Because of the protective effect of estrogen for atherosclerosis, the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome in women before menopause is low. We report a rare case of unstable angina in a young Japanese female who had a history of cigarette smoking and contraceptive use. Her coronary stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention.

  2. The construction of one unstable manifold for the dissipative Henon mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The unstable manifold of a saddle point of the Henon mapping is constructed analytically via a contraction mapping, for a range of parameter values where the second fixed point is a stable node. One invariant piece of this manifold connects the saddle with the second fixed point. Rigorous error

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with unstable angina: comparison with acute myocardial infarction and normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Johnson, R.F. Jr.; Fawcett, H.D.; Schreiber, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging in characterizing normal, ischemic and infarcted segments of myocardium was examined in 8 patients with unstable angina, 11 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 7 patients with stable angina. Eleven normal volunteers were imaged for comparison. Myocardial segments in short axis magnetic resonance images were classified as normal or abnormal on the basis of perfusion changes observed in thallium-201 images in 22 patients and according to the electrocariographic localization of infarction in 4 patients. T2 relaxation time was measured in 57 myocardial segments with abnormal perfusion (24 with reversible and 33 with irreversible perfusion changes) and in 25 normally perfused segments. T2 measurements in normally perfused segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and stable angina were within normal range derived from T2 measurements in 48 myocardial segments of 11 normal volunteers (42 +/- 10 ms). T2 in abnormal myocardial segments of patients with stable angina also was not significantly different from normal. T2 of abnormal segments in patients with unstable angina (64 +/- 14 in reversibly ischemic and 67 +/- 21 in the irreversibly ischemic segments) was prolonged when compared to normal (p less than 0.0001) and was not significantly different from T2 in abnormal segments of patients with acute myocardial infarction (62 +/- 18 for reversibly and 66 +/- 11 for irreversibly ischemic segments). The data indicate that T2 prolongation is not specific for acute myocardial infarction and may be observed in abnormally perfused segments of patients with unstable angina

  4. Directed mutagenesis under the action of mobile elements in unstable lines of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, T.I.; Mizrokhi, L.Yu.; Obolenkova, L.A.; Georgiev, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The unstable mutation ct/sup MR2/, obtained under hybrid dysgenesis and caused by the incorporation of MDG 4 into locus cut, was described earlier. A peculiarity of this line and its derivatives is that multiple transpositions of different mobile elements, the transposition spurts, take place in them with a frequency of 10 -2 -10 -4 . A consequence of this process is active insertion mutagenesis taking place under the action of different transposons with high locus specifity. The mutations are unstable and frequently revert to wild type. However, there are some unstable revertants in which the mobile element is eliminated almost completely, and yet unstable mutations appear at the same locus at a high rate. In the case of cut locus, this happens due to repeated integration of MDG 4. The authors report cases of such repeated directed mutagenesis for several loci. Reversions were observed in the homozygous line as well as during the process of obtaining homozygous lines of new mutations using the chromosome with multiple inversions FM4, Y/sup 31d/sc 8 dmB. In situ hybridization with the [ 3 H]-labeled DNA was carried out as described earlier. The plasmid DNA containing cloned MDG4 and their long terminal repeats were used as probes for hybridization. Hybridization was done on the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of larvae. The new spontaneous mutations appearing in the process of hybridization were tested for allelism with the standard mutations y, w, cm, ct, D, and g

  5. Brownian motion surviving in the unstable cubic potential and the role of Maxwell's demon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornigotti, Luca; Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor; Filip, Radim

    2018-03-01

    The trajectories of an overdamped particle in a highly unstable potential diverge so rapidly, that the variance of position grows much faster than its mean. A description of the dynamics by moments is therefore not informative. Instead, we propose and analyze local directly measurable characteristics, which overcome this limitation. We discuss the most probable particle position (position of the maximum of the probability density) and the local uncertainty in an unstable cubic potential, V (x ) ˜x3 , both in the transient regime and in the long-time limit. The maximum shifts against the acting force as a function of time and temperature. Simultaneously, the local uncertainty does not increase faster than the observable shift. In the long-time limit, the probability density naturally attains a quasistationary form. We interpret this process as a stabilization via the measurement-feedback mechanism, the Maxwell demon, which works as an entropy pump. The rules for measurement and feedback naturally arise from the basic properties of the unstable dynamics. All reported effects are inherent in any unstable system. Their detailed understanding will stimulate the development of stochastic engines and amplifiers and, later, their quantum counterparts.

  6. Unstable Morse code recognition with adaptive variable-ratio threshold prediction for physically disabled persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, M C; Luo, C H; Mao, C W

    2000-09-01

    With one or two switches, Morse code could provide an effective alternative communication channel for individuals with physical limitations. However, most of the physically disabled persons have difficulties in maintaining a stable typing of Morse code, and hence the automated recognition of unstable Morse code is becoming more on demand. In this study, an adaptive variable-ratio threshold prediction (AVRTP) algorithm is proposed to analyze the Morse code time series with variable unit time period and ratio. Two least-mean-square (LMS) predictors are applied to track the dot interval and the dot-dash difference concurrently, and then a predicted threshold based on a variable-ratio decision rule is used to distinguish between dots and dashes. The same method is also applied to identify character-spaces. By the adaptive prediction of variable-ratio threshold, AVRTP has successfully overcome the difficulty of analyzing severely unstable Morse code time series and outperformed the previously proposed adaptive unstable-speed prediction (AUSP) algorithm and LMS and matching (I,MS&M) algorithm. This study concludes with a computer simulation and a preliminary clinical evaluation that demonstrate AVRTP as an efficient and reliable method for unstable Morse code recognition.

  7. Research of Medical Expenditure among Inpatients with Unstable Angina Pectoris in a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo-Wei Wu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The classification of DRGs by adopting the type of surgery as the main branch node to develop cost control standards in inpatient treatment of unstable angina pectoris is conducive in standardizing the diagnosis and treatment behaviors of the hospital and reducing economic burdens among patients.

  8. Cluster features of stable and unstable nuclei in the p-shell region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanada-En’yo Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster aspects in light unstable nuclei as well as light stable nuclei are discussed. We focus on cluster structures of excited states in 12C, 9Li, and 10Be. The rotation of 3α cluster gas states in 12C and the 6He+t cluster resonances in 9Li are theoretically studied.

  9. Complex and Unstable Simple Elbow Dislocations: A Review and Quantitative Analysis of Individual Patient Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of

  10. Complex and unstable simple elbow dislocations: a review and quantitative analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels; Tuinebreijer, Wim; den Hartog, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of patients with

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of the occlusal plane related to the hamular-incisive-papilla occlusal plane in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P-S; Hung, C-C; Hong, J-M; Wang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    The planes which serve as references for cranium and face in dental clinical application included the occlusal plane, Frankfort plane, Camper's plane and hamular-incisive-papilla (HIP) plane. The HIP occlusal plane is a horizontal plane passing through the bilateral hamular notches and the incisive papilla (Dent Surv. 1975;51:60). The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between the various occlusal planes and the HIP plane in Taiwanese young adults with approximately optimal occlusion. Study casts of 100 young adults (50 men and 50 women) were selected in this study. All market points on the maxillary casts were measured by a three-dimensional precise measuring device. The angular relationship between the four various occlusal planes and the HIP plane were investigated. The vertical distances between the cusp tips and incisal edges of maxillary teeth to the HIP plane were measured. Data were performed by the Statistic analysis software programme (JMP 4.02). The Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation test were used to test the statistical significance (P occlusal plane defined as the incisal edge of maxillary central incisor to mesiobuccal cusp tips of maxillary second molars had the smallest included angle with the HIP plane (2.61 +/- 0.81 degrees). The incisal edge of maxillary right central incisal to mesiopalatal cusp tips of maxillary first molars had the largest included angle with the HIP plane (7.72 +/- 1.60 degrees). The curve is drawn through the buccal cusp tips of maxillary teeth had better parallelism with the HIP plane.

  12. Somatic aberrations of mismatch repair genes as a cause of microsatellite-unstable cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts-Giele, Willemina R R; Leenen, Celine H M; Dubbink, Hendrikus J; Meijssen, Isabelle C; Post, Edward; Sleddens, Hein F B M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Goverde, Anne; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Lier, Margot G F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Leerdam, Monique E; Wagner, Anja; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2014-12-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, resulting in microsatellite-unstable tumours. Approximately 35% of suspected LS (sLS) patients test negative for germline MMR gene mutations, hampering conclusive LS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate somatic MMR gene aberrations in microsatellite-unstable colorectal and endometrial cancers of sLS patients negative for germline MMR gene mutations. Suspected LS cases were selected from a retrospective Clinical Genetics Department diagnostic cohort and from a prospective multicentre population-based study on LS in The Netherlands. In total, microsatellite-unstable tumours of 40 sLS patients (male/female 20/20, median age 57 years) were screened for somatic MMR gene mutations by next-generation sequencing. In addition, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the affected MMR genes in these tumours as well as in 68 LS-associated tumours and 27 microsatellite-unstable tumours with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was studied. Of the sLS cases, 5/40 (13%) tumours had two pathogenic somatic mutations and 16/40 (40%) tumours had a (likely) pathogenic mutation and LOH. Overall, LOH of the affected MMR gene locus was observed in 24/39 (62%) tumours with informative LOH markers. Of the LS cases and the tumours with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, 39/61 (64%) and 2/21 (10%) tumours, respectively, demonstrated LOH. Half of microsatellite-unstable tumours of sLS patients without germline MMR gene mutations had two (likely) deleterious somatic MMR gene aberrations, indicating their sporadic origin. Therefore, we advocate adding somatic mutation and LOH analysis of the MMR genes to the molecular diagnostic workflow of LS. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. On the convergence of (ensemble) Kalman filters and smoothers onto the unstable subspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of the model dynamics are critical in the performance of (ensemble) Kalman filters and smoothers. In particular, as emphasised in the seminal work of Anna Trevisan and co-authors, the error covariance matrix is asymptotically supported by the unstable and neutral subspace only, i.e. it is span by the backward Lyapunov vectors with non-negative exponents. This behaviour is at the heart of algorithms known as Assimilation in the Unstable Subspace, although its formal proof was still missing. This convergence property, its analytic proof, meaning and implications for the design of efficient reduced-order data assimilation algorithms are the topics of this talk. The structure of the talk is as follows. Firstly, we provide the analytic proof of the convergence on the unstable and neutral subspace in the linear dynamics and linear observation operator case, along with rigorous results giving the rate of such convergence. The derivation is based on an expression that relates explicitly the covariance matrix at an arbitrary time with the initial error covariance. Numerical results are also shown to illustrate and support the mathematical claims. Secondly, we discuss how this neat picture is modified when the dynamics become nonlinear and chaotic and when it is not possible to derive analytic formulas. In this case an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is used and the connection between the convergence properties on the unstable-neutral subspace and the EnKF covariance inflation is discussed. We also explain why, in the perfect model setting, the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), as an efficient filtering and smoothing technique, has an error covariance matrix whose projection is more focused on the unstable-neutral subspace than that of the EnKF. This contribution results from collaborations with A. Carrassi, K. S. Gurumoorthy, A. Apte, C. Grudzien, and C. K. R. T. Jones.

  14. An evidence against the effect of chronic cytomegalovirus infection in unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Adel, Seyed Mohammad Hasan; Rajabzadeh, Ali Reza

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports have suggested that cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may contribute to risk of cardiovascular disease. However, relationship between CMV infection and unstable angina (UA) is controversial and studies about this subject in Iran and even region are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether unstable angina is related to seropositivity to chronic cytomegalovirus infection. We measured serum CMV IgG levels in a case control study participants in CCU in Razi Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran, from 2004 to 2005. Blood samples were drawn during study period from 96 patients (mean age 56 years) with UA according to American Heart Association Criteria and from 96 participants free of cardiovascular disease (mean age 58 years) and stored at -20°C. Blood samples of patients were undertaken for investigating the specific anti CMV-IgG by ELISA method. Data were analyzed in SPSS 11.5 by using chi square test, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Ninety three percent of patients with unstable angina and 96.7% in the control group presented a positive anti CMV-IgG. Odds ratio was 0.52 with 95% CI: 0.10 to 2.42. There was no significant correlation between CMV-IgG positivity and unstable angina (P>0.05). There was also no differences in CMV-IgG positivity in clinical groups of UA (P>0.05). The relationship between seropositivity of CMV-IgG and unstable angina has been restituted by the results of this study. However, further population based cohort studies for relationship between CMV infection and coronary artery disease must be conducted.

  15. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  16. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  17. Time-Resolved Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization of Rotating Naphthalene Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Dimitrovski, Darko

    2011-01-01

    A nanosecond laser pulse confines the spatial orientation of naphthalene in 1D or 3D while a femtosecond kick pulse initiates rotation of the molecular plane around the fixed long axis. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), resulting from ionization by an intense femtosecond...... probe pulse, exhibit pronounced changes as the molecular plane rotates. Enhanced 3D alignment, occurring shortly after the kick pulse, provides strongly improved contrast in molecular-frame PADs. Calculations in the strong-field approximation show that the striking structures observed in the PADs...

  18. Guide-Plane Retention in Designing Removable Partial Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothopi-Peri, Matshediso; Owen, C Peter

    To compare the influence of abutment teeth guide planes and guiding surfaces on retention of a removable partial denture (RPD). Extracted teeth embedded into a maxillary cast in the first premolar and second molar positions simulated two bounded saddles. Acrylic resin RPDs were made with no guide planes, then with guide planes, then with guiding surfaces added to directly contact the guide planes. The maximum loads on removal from the cast were recorded. There was a significant increase in retention force of 1.6 times when only guide planes were present and of 10.2 times when guiding surfaces intimately contacted the guide planes. The retention of acrylic resin RPDs can be substantially increased by making their guiding surfaces intimately contact the guide planes of the teeth.

  19. Plane grating monochromators for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The general background and theoretical basis of plane grating monochromators (PGM's) is reviewed and the particular case of grazing incidence PGM's suitable for use with synchrotron radiation is considered in detail. The theory of reflection filtering is described and the problem of the finite source distance is shown to be of special importance with high brightness storage rings. The design philosophy of previous instruments is discussed and a new scheme proposed, aimed at dealing with the problem of the finite source distance. This scheme, involving a parabolic collimating mirror fabricated by diamond turning, is considered in the context of Wolter-type telescopes and microscopes. Some practical details concerning an instrument presently under construction using the new design are presented

  20. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  1. Plane micropolar elasticity with surface flexural resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharahi, Alireza; Schiavone, Peter

    2018-03-01

    We propose a linear surface/interface model for plane deformations of a micropolar elastic solid based on a higher-order surface elasticity theory capable of incorporating bending and twisting effects. The surface/interface is modeled as a bending-resistant Kirchhoff micropolar thin shell perfectly bonded to the boundary of the solid. It is anticipated that by combining micropolar bulk and surface effects in this way, the enhanced model will most accurately capture the essential characteristics (in particular, size dependency) required in the modeling of materials with significant microstructure as well as in the modeling of classes of nanomaterials. The corresponding boundary value problems are particularly interesting in that they involve boundary conditions of order higher than that of the governing field equations. We illustrate our theory by analyzing the simple problem of a circular hole in a micropolar sheet noting, in particular, the extent to which surface effects and micropolar properties each contribute to the deformation of the sheet.

  2. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  3. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... to be necessary for localization in the sense that sources are localized well when the two types of cues are correct. When the cues are severely conflicting the localization performance is highly degraded....... manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  4. Unstable angina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain that you may also feel in the shoulder, arm, jaw, neck, back, or other area Discomfort that feels like tightness, squeezing, crushing, burning, choking, or aching Discomfort that occurs at rest and does not easily go away when you ...

  5. Theoretical study of in-plane response of magnetic field sensor to magnetic beads in an in-plane homogeneous field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the average in-plane magnetic field on square and rectangular magnetic field sensors from a single magnetic bead and a monolayer of magnetic beads magnetized by an in-plane externally applied homogeneous magnetic field. General theoretical expressions...... are derived such that the sensor response and its dependence on the sensor size, spacer layer thickness, bead diameter, and bead susceptibility can easily be evaluated. The average magnetic field from a single bead close to the sensor shows a strong dependence on the position of the bead and a change of sign...... when the bead passes the edge of the sensor in the direction of the applied field. Analytical approximations are derived for the average field from a homogeneous monolayer of beads for beads much smaller than the sensor dimension and for a bead size chosen to minimize the position sensitivity...

  6. Determining The Plane of The Kuiper Belt with OSSOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Kavelaars, J. J.; Volk, Kathryn; Gladman, Brett; Petit, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    We present the OSSOS-based measurement of the semi-major axes dependent orientation of the Kuiper Belt plane. A Kuiper Belt object's (KBO's) inclination can be broken down into a forced component and a free component. The inclination and longitude of ascending node of the forced inclination define the 'forced plane,' the plane about which the KBO's inclination will precess. Secular theory predicts that this forced plane should depend on semi-major axis. For example, the nu18 secular resonance should create a significant warp in the forced planet near 40.5 au (Chiang and Choi 2008). Not predicted by secular theory is a warp in the distant Kuiper Belt (semi-major axes greater than 50 au) seen by Volk and Malhotra 2016 using KBOs from the Minor Planet Catalog. We investigate what the inclination distribution is for objects beyond Neptune as a function of semi-major axis using the OSSOS characterized sample. Through use of the OSSOS survey simulator we test various underlying orbital distributions and compare how the survey would have observed those populations to the actual observed sample. In particular, we test various widths for the inclination distribution about various local forcing planes for the kernel, stirred, and hot classical Kuiper Belt. We find that the forced plane in matches well with the expected forced plane from secular theory. Through most of the main Kuiper Belt (between the 3:2 and 2:1 resonances), we can reject both the ecliptic plane and the invariable plane as the true forced plane. Only as the expected secularly forced plane approaches the invariable plane does the invariable plane become non-rejectable. In the outer Kuiper Belt we reject the nominal mean-plane measured by Volk and Malhotra, but smaller warps are still allowed by the data.

  7. In-plane resolved in-situ measurements of the membrane resistance in PEFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The conductivity of the membrane is a limiting factor for the efficiency and power density of PEFCs. Because this conductivity is strongly dependent on the membrane hydration, water management is an important aspect of PEFC optimisation. Single cell model experiments were made in order to determine the in-plane hydration of a Nafion{sup R} membrane under fuel cell conditions as function of the gas humidities. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  9. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  10. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  11. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  12. Influence of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zanyar; Allahyari, Teimour; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to stand for 2 h in three footwear conditions: barefoot, flat-bottomed shoe and unstable shoe. During standing, lower leg discomfort and EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were continuously monitored. Changes in lower leg volume over standing time also were measured. Lower leg discomfort rating reduced significantly while subjects standing on unstable shoe compared to the flat-bottomed shoe and barefoot condition. For lower leg volume, less changes also were observed with unstable shoe. The activity level and variation of right MG muscle was greater with unstable shoe compared to the other footwear conditions; however regarding the left MG muscle, significant difference was found between unstable shoe and flat-bottomed shoe only for activity level. Furthermore no significant differences were observed for the activity level and variation of TA muscles (right/left) among all footwear conditions. The findings suggested that prolonged standing with unstable footwear produces changes in lower leg muscles activity and leads to less volume changes. Perceived discomfort also was lower for this type of footwear and this might mean that unstable footwear can be used as ergonomic solution for employees whose work requires prolonged standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Cooper Pair Breakup in YBCO under Strong Terahertz Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Glossner, Andreas; Zhang, Caihong; Kikuta, Shinya; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Müller, Paul; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We show that strong electric fields of ~ 30 kV cm^(-1) at terahertz frequencies can significantly weaken the superconducting characteristics of cuprate superconductors. High-power terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to investigate the in-plane conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) with highly intense single-cycle terahertz pulses. Even though the terahertz photon energy (~ 1.5 meV) was significantly smaller than the energy gap in YBCO (~ 20-30 meV), the optical conductivity...

  14. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  15. Four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation and the unstable subspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquet, Marc; Carrassi, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    The performance of (ensemble) Kalman filters used for data assimilation in the geosciences critically depends on the dynamical properties of the evolution model. A key aspect, emphasized in the seminal work of Anna Trevisan and co-authors, is that the error covariance matrix is asymptotically supported by the unstable-neutral subspace only, i.e. it is spanned by the backward Lyapunov vectors with non- negative exponents. The analytic proof of such a property for the Kalman filter error covariance has been recently given, and in particular that of its confinement to the unstable-neutral subspace. In this paper, we first generalize those results to the case of the Kalman smoother in a linear, Gaussian and perfect model scenario. We also provide square-root formulae for the filter and smoother that make the connection with ensemble formulations of the Kalman filter and smoother, where the span of the error covariance is described in terms of the ensemble deviations from the mean. We then discuss how this neat picture is modified when the dynamics are nonlinear and chaotic, and for which analytic results are precluded or difficult to obtain. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the approximate confinement of the anomalies for both a deterministic ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and a four-dimensional ensemble variational method, the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), in a perfect model scenario. The confinement is characterized using geometrical angles that determine the relative position of the anomalies with respect to the unstable-neutral subspace. The alignment of the anomalies and of the unstable-neutral subspace is more pronounced when observation precision or frequency, as well as the data assimilation window length for the IEnKS, are increased. This leads to the increase of the data assimilation accuracy and shows that, under perfect model assumptions, spanning the full unstable-neutral subspace is sufficient to achieve satisfactorily

  16. Minimal gain marching schemes: searching for unstable steady-states with unsteady solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S. Teixeira, Renan; S. de B. Alves, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Reference solutions are important in several applications. They are used as base states in linear stability analyses as well as initial conditions and reference states for sponge zones in numerical simulations, just to name a few examples. Their accuracy is also paramount in both fields, leading to more reliable analyses and efficient simulations, respectively. Hence, steady-states usually make the best reference solutions. Unfortunately, standard marching schemes utilized for accurate unsteady simulations almost never reach steady-states of unstable flows. Steady governing equations could be solved instead, by employing Newton-type methods often coupled with continuation techniques. However, such iterative approaches do require large computational resources and very good initial guesses to converge. These difficulties motivated the development of a technique known as selective frequency damping (SFD) (Åkervik et al. in Phys Fluids 18(6):068102, 2006). It adds a source term to the unsteady governing equations that filters out the unstable frequencies, allowing a steady-state to be reached. This approach does not require a good initial condition and works well for self-excited flows, where a single nonzero excitation frequency is selected by either absolute or global instability mechanisms. On the other hand, it seems unable to damp stationary disturbances. Furthermore, flows with a broad unstable frequency spectrum might require the use of multiple filters, which delays convergence significantly. Both scenarios appear in convectively, absolutely or globally unstable flows. An alternative approach is proposed in the present paper. It modifies the coefficients of a marching scheme in such a way that makes the absolute value of its linear gain smaller than one within the required unstable frequency spectra, allowing the respective disturbance amplitudes to decay given enough time. These ideas are applied here to implicit multi-step schemes. A few chosen test cases

  17. Effects of Strong Turbulence on the Spiral Plane Mode of Whittaker-Gaussian Beam through Terrene-Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Yi-Xin, Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Not Available Supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No JUSRP51517, and the Graduate Student Research Innovation Project of Jiangsu-Province General University under Grant No KYLX15_1187.

  18. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  19. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  20. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  1. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  2. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  3. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  4. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  5. Soliton instabilities in the easy plane ferromagnet Heisenberg chain with out-of-plane spin deviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozo, J.; Leon, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Casilla 298-V, Santiago (Chile)]. e-mail: julio.pozo@udp.cl

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the presence of out-of-plane spin deviation {rho}({xi}) in the easy-plane ferromagnetic Heisenberg chain by using the coupled-boson operators together with the Schwinger transformation for the spin operator; this method allows us to conclude that the critical behaviour of the instability is due to the velocity of the nonlinear excitations (solitons) only for an appropriate range of the magnetic field. In this case, when the velocity becomes lower, the stable soliton corresponding to {rho}({xi}) is distorted by magnons and loses stability. If we increase the velocity of {rho}({xi}), it then decays into high frequency-oscillations. Nevertheless, we find an opposite competence effect produced by the velocity and the magnetic field on {rho}({xi}). (Author)

  6. Unstability of the Fulde-Ferrell state in d-wave superconductors by calculating the magnetic penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabani, H.; Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Fulde, Ferrell, Larkin and Ovchnnikov (FFLO), first proposed the possibility that a superconducting state with a periodic spatial variation of the gap parameter would become stable when a large Zeeman splinting is present [1,2]. The order parameter varies periodically in space when the Pauli paramagnetism or the Zeeman term dominates the orbital effect. The Zeeman splitting could be due to either a strong magnetic field or an internal exchange field. Under these fields there is a splitting of the Fermi surfaces of spin up and spin down electrons, and the condensed pair has a non-zero total momentum, 2q, which causes the phase of the superconducting order parameter to vary. This state is known as the FF state. We determine the penetration depth of the Fulde-Ferrell State (FF) for quasi-two dimensional (2D) d-wave superconductor by calculating the electromagnetic nonlocal kernel response function. The behavior of the penetration depth at low temperatures is an important probe to determine the stability of the FF state. We start from a mean field Hamiltonian for the FF state and we calculate the electromagnetic nonlocal response tensor relating the current density to an applied vector potential to determine the magnetic penetration depth. We show that a linear T dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in the FF state superconductor violates indeed the third law of thermodynamics and the FF state is unstable due to Nernst theorem. (authors)

  7. Semantic stability is more pleasurable in unstable episodic contexts. On the relevance of perceptual challenge in art appreciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMuth

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of psychological aesthetics points to the appeal of stimuli which defy easy recognition by being semantically unstable but which still allow for creating meaning—in the ongoing process of elaborative perception or as an end product of the entire process. Such effects were reported for hidden images (Muth & Carbon, 2013 as well as Cubist artworks concealing detectable—although fragmented—objects (Muth, Pepperell, & Carbon, 2013. To test the stability of the relationship between semantic determinacy and appreciation across different episodic contexts, 30 volunteers evaluated an artistic movie continuously on visual determinacy or liking via the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP, Muth, Raab, & Carbon, 2015. The movie consisted of five episodes with emerging Gestalts. In the first between-participants condition, the hidden Gestalts in the movie episodes were of increasing determinacy, in the second condition, the episodes showed decreasing determinacies of hidden Gestalts. In the increasing-determinacy group, visual determinacy was rated higher and showed better predictive quality for liking than in the decreasing-determinacy group. Furthermore, when the movie started with low visual determinacy of hidden Gestalts, unexpectedly strong increases in visual determinacy had a bigger effect on liking than in the condition which allowed for weaker Gestalt recognition after having started with highly determinate Gestalts. The resulting pattern calls for consideration of the episodic context when examining art appreciation.

  8. Surveys Of The Galactic Plane For Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, S. D.

    2011-03-01

    Since their discovery in 1968, the known population of radio pulsars has grown to ~2000, and comprises several different groups which display markedly different behaviour from one another. Despite the large number of known sources, there are several scientific justifications for new wide-area searches for pulsars. These are outlined in this work, but include population studies, the evolutionary history of pulsars, and the possible detection of gravitational waves through high-precision timing.Previous pulsar surveys have been limited by (a) the hardware used to record the survey data; and, (b) the computational power that has been available to process this data. This has resulted in an observational bias which made the discovery of distant, highly dispersed pulsars, very difficult. Particularly affected by this are the most rapidly-rotating pulsars --- the millisecond pulsars --- which are known to rotate with spin periods as short as 1.4 ms. Since these are also some of the most interesting sources, with the greatest potential for high-precision timing, it is important to perform searches both deep into the Galactic plane and covering the whole sky, with sufficient time resolution to discover more millisecond pulsars. This thesis describes two such pulsar surveys, in which several discoveries have been made.The first is a survey of the Galactic plane at an observing frequency of 6.5 GHz, motivated by the need to discover pulsars at the Galactic centre. This survey resulted in the discovery of three pulsars, all of which are at distances > 9.5 kpc.The second is the ongoing High Time Resolution Universe pulsar survey using the 64-metre telescope at Parkes. This survey will make observations of the whole of the Southern sky using extremely high time resolution and narrow frequency channels. Preliminary results from the survey are presented here, including the discovery of 5 millisecond pulsars at relatively large distances, including one for which regular eclipses

  9. Effects of an unstable shoe construction on balance in women aged over 50 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn; Thuesen, Anna Helena; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shoes with an unstable sole construction are commonly used as a therapeutic tool by physiotherapists and are widely available from shoe and sporting goods retailers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using an unstable shoe (Masai Barefoot Technology) on standing...... balance, reactive balance and stability limits. METHODS: Thirty-one subjects agreed to participate in the study and underwent balance tests on three different occasions. After test occasion one (baseline) 20 subjects received Masai Barefoot Technology shoes and were requested to wear them as much...... as possible for the remaining eight weeks of the study. Three specific balance tests were administered on each test occasion using a Pro Balance Master (NeuroCom International Inc., Oregon, USA). Tests included; a modified sensory organization test, reactive balance test and limits of stability test. FINDINGS...

  10. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-16

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  11. Comparison between bipolar hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Fan

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare bipolar hemiarthroplasty (BA with total hip arthroplasty (THA in treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients. The THA group included 14 males and 26 females with a mean age of 73.4 years, and the BA group included 27 males and 45 females with a mean age of 76.5 years. Significant difference existed between the two groups in operation time, blood loss, transfusion volume and cost of hospitalization, while no remarkable difference was identified in hospitalization period, general complications, joint function, pain, rate of revision and mortality. No dislocation was observed in BA group while 3 occurred in THA group. The results indicated that for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients, BA seems to be a better or more reasonable choice compared with THA for the reason of less blood loss, shorter operation time, lower cost and no dislocation.

  12. Effect of wobble board training on movement strategies to maintain equilibrium on unstable surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Oliveira, Anderson Souza

    2018-01-01

    Standing on unstable surfaces requires more complex motor control mechanisms to sustain balance when compared to firm surfaces. Surface instability enhances the demand to maintain equilibrium and is often used to challenge balance, but little is known about how balance training affects movement...... strategies to control posture while standing on unstable surfaces. This study aimed at assessing the effects of isolated wobble board (WB) training on movement strategies to maintain balance during single-leg standing on a WB. Twenty healthy men were randomly assigned to either a control or a training group....... The training group took part in four weeks of WB training and both groups were tested pre and post the intervention. Electromyography from the supporting lower limb muscles, full-body kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded during firm surface (FS) and WB single-leg standing. WB training did...

  13. Nuclear structure and magnetic moment of the unstable 12B-12N mirror pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongnan; Zhou Dongmei; Yuan Daqing; Zuo Yi; Fan Ping; Xu Yongjun; Zhu Jiazheng; Wang Zhiqiang; Luo Hailong; Zhang Xizhen; Zhu Shengyun; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Minamisono, T.; Suzuki, T.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic moments of the A=12 unstable mirror pair nuclides 12 B and 12 N have been measured by the β-NMR technique. The experimentally measured magnetic moments are μ( 12 B)=1.00(17)μ N and μ( 12 N)=0.4571(1)μ N . The improved shell model using an SFO Hamiltonian with enhanced spin-isospin monopole proton-neutron interaction and modified single-particle energies is employed to calculate the magnetic moments of 12 B and 12 N. The calculation yields μ( 12 B)=0.929μ N and μ( 12 N)=0.452μ N and has produced a new magic number 6 for the short-lived unstable mirror pair nuclides 12 B and 12 N. (authors)

  14. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with unstable angina pectoris and bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takeshi; Yasunaga, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Yasuo; Watanabe, Genki; Zaima, Yasuyuki; Takaseya, Tohru; Wada, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is characterized by the abnormal and permanent dilatation of bronchi. Clinical manifestations of bronchiectasis include persistent or recurrent cough, purulent sputum, hemosputum, and hemoptysis. A 75-year-old man with bronchiectasis required coronary bypass grafting for unstable angina pectoris with severe stenosis of the left main trunk. Computed tomography showed fistulae between the dilated bronchial arteries and the left pulmonary artery. Cardiac catheter examination showed significant left-right shunt and left ventricular dilatation. To avoid perioperative massive hemoptysis, embolizations of 2 bronchial arteries and an inferior phrenic artery were performed preceding the coronary artery bypass grafting. Both transcatheter embolization and coronary artery bypass grafting were successfully performed without any complications. Herein, we illustrate a very rare case of bronchiectasis in a patient with unstable angina pectoris who underwent transcatheter embolization for a systemic-pulmonary shunt preceding coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass.

  15. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  16. Analysis of unstable DNA sequence in FRM1 gene in Polish families with fragile X syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, Michal; Bal, Jerzy; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Zygulska, Marta; Horst, Juergen; Deelen, Wout H.; Halley, Dicky J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The unstable DNA sequence in the FMR1 gene was analyzed in 85 individuals from Polish families with fragile X syndrome in order to characterize mutations responsible for the disease in Poland. In all affected individuals classified on the basis of clinical features and expression of the fragile site at X(q27.3) a large expansion of the unstable sequence (full mutation) was detected. About 5% (2 of 43) of individuals with full mutation did not express the fragile site. Among normal alleles, ranging in size from 20 to 41 CGC repeats, allele with 29 repeats was the most frequent (37%). Transmission of premutated and fully mutated alleles to the offspring was always associated with size increase. No change in repeat number was found when normal alleles were transmitted. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Explosion and Final State of an Unstable Reissner-Nordström Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2016-04-08

    A Reissner-Nordström black hole (BH) is superradiantly unstable against spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field enclosed in a cavity, with a frequency lower than a critical value. We use numerical relativity techniques to follow the development of this unstable system-dubbed a charged BH bomb-into the nonlinear regime, solving the full Einstein-Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations, in spherical symmetry. We show that (i) the process stops before all the charge is extracted from the BH, and (ii) the system settles down into a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. For a low scalar field charge q, the final state is approached smoothly and monotonically. For large q, however, the energy extraction overshoots, and an explosive phenomenon, akin to a bosenova, pushes some energy back into the BH. The charge extraction, by contrast, does not reverse.

  18. Initial and regime situations in the decay of unstable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimini, A.; Zambotti, G.

    1980-01-01

    Two different definitions of survival probability in the decay of an unstable quantum system are considered and the equations for them are deduced from the equation for the density operator. The regime situation for the ensemble of unstable systems is studied and the density operator in such a situation is derived. The possible definitions of lifetime are discussed. If the adopted definition makes reference to all time including the early ones, then it is compulsory to specify exactly the state at the initial time. The correct equations for the survival probabilities in such conditions are derived. Two typical examples of decay experiments are considered and the influence of the initial preparation on the mean life is discussed. Numerical examples are given. (author)

  19. Magneto-transport Characterization of Thin Film In-plane and Cross-plane Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Grayson, Matthew

    Thin films with highly anisotropic in-plane and cross-plane conductivities are widely used in devices, such as infrared emitters and detectors, and the proper magneto-transport characterization in both directions can reveal information about the doping density, impurities, carrier life times and band structure. This work introduces a novel method for deducing the complete anisotropic electrical conductivity tensor of such an anisotropic resistive layer atop a highly conducting bottom contact, which is a standard part of the device structure. Three strip-line contacts separated by a length scale comparable to the film thickness are applied atop the resistive thin film layer of interest, with the highly conducting back-plane as a back-contact. The potential distribution in the device is modeled, using both scaling and conformal transformation to minimize the calculated volume. As a proof of concept, triple strip-line devices for GaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice thin films are fabricated. To achieve narrow strip-line contacts with sub-micron scale widths, non-annealed Ni/Au contacts form ohmic contacts to a patterned n+-GaAs cap layer atop the anisotropic thin films. Preliminary experimental data will be presented as a validation of this method. Acknowledgment: Funded by AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0377 and AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0247.

  20. In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.

    1979-01-01

    The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)

  1. The DECam Plane Survey: Optical Photometry of Two Billion Objects in the Southern Galactic Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlafly, E. F.; Green, G. M.; Lang, D.; Daylan, T.; Finkbeiner, D. P.; Lee, A.; Meisner, A. M.; Schlegel, D.; Valdes, F.

    2018-02-01

    The DECam Plane Survey is a five-band optical and near-infrared survey of the southern Galactic plane with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo. The survey is designed to reach past the main-sequence turn-off of old populations at the distance of the Galactic center through a reddening E(B-V) of 1.5 mag. Typical single-exposure depths are 23.7, 22.8, 22.3, 21.9, and 21.0 mag (AB) in the grizY bands, with seeing around 1\\prime\\prime . The footprint covers the Galactic plane with | b| ≲ 4^\\circ , 5^\\circ > l> -120^\\circ . The survey pipeline simultaneously solves for the positions and fluxes of tens of thousands of sources in each image, delivering positions and fluxes of roughly two billion stars with better than 10 mmag precision. Most of these objects are highly reddened and deep in the Galactic disk, probing the structure and properties of the Milky Way and its interstellar medium. The fully-processed images and derived catalogs are publicly available.

  2. Closed reduction with CT-guided screw fixation for unstable sacroiliac joint fracture-dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Kevin M; Cahill, Ann Marie; Kaye, Robin D; Born, Christopher T; Grudziak, Jan S; Towbin, Richard B

    2004-12-01

    Unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures and dislocations are uncommon but potentially life-threatening injuries in children. Early definitive management reduces risk of immediate complications as well as chronic pain and gait dysfunction. Conventional operative therapy carries substantial risk of extensive blood loss and iatrogenic neurological and vascular injury. Minimally invasive image-guided intervention may further reduce immediate risk and improve long-term outcome. To describe CT-guided closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) and review outcomes of unstable fracture-dislocation of the sacroiliac (SI) joint in children. Between 2000 and 2003, three children (two girls, one boy) age 8-14 years were referred to interventional radiology for treatment of unstable SI joint fracture-dislocation not adequately treated with anterior external fixation alone. The three affected SI joints (two left, one right) were treated in a combined approach by pediatric interventional radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, using a percutaneous approach under CT guidance. Over a threaded guiding pin, 7.3 mm cannulated screws were used to achieve stable reduction of the affected SI joints. One screw was removed after slight (2 mm) migration. No neurovascular or other complications occurred. All patients had satisfactory healing with near-anatomic reduction, although recovery of the youngest was delayed by associated spinal injury. Compared to open surgical alternatives, CRIF under CT guidance reduces operating time, decreases blood loss, and allows early definitive fixation and immediate non-weight-bearing mobilization with a low rate of complication for unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures. In addition, CT-guided placement of the guide pin may allow safer screw positioning and may minimize the total number of screws needed to achieve pelvic stability.

  3. Unstable Surface Improves Quadriceps:Hamstring Co-contraction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Rebecca; Silder, Amy; Malone, Maria; Braun, Hillary Jane; Dragoo, Jason Logan

    2015-03-01

    Increasing quadriceps:hamstring muscular co-contraction at the knee may reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine muscle activation in the quadriceps and hamstrings and peak kinematics of the knee, hip, and trunk when performing a single-leg drop (SLD) on to a Bosu ball (unstable surface) compared with on to the floor (stable surface). (1) The SLD on an unstable surface would lower the quadriceps to hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activation ratio (Q:H EMG activation ratio) compared with being performed on the floor. (2) Lower Q:H EMG activation ratio would be caused by a relative increase in hamstring activation, with no significant change in quadriceps activation. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-nine Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) female athletes performed 3 SLDs per leg onto a Bosu ball and onto the floor. Muscle activity of the vastus lateralis and lateral hamstrings were used to estimate peak quadriceps and hamstring activation, along with the Q:H EMG activation ratio. Kinematic measures at the knee, hip, and trunk were also estimated. Differences between landings were assessed using a 2-level analysis of variance (limb and surface). The maximum Q:H EMG activation ratio was significantly reduced when athletes performed an SLD onto the Bosu ball (20%, P hamstring activity was higher when athletes landed on a Bosu ball (18% higher, P = 0.029) compared with when they landed on the floor. Compared with landing on the floor (a stable surface), landing on a Bosu ball (unstable surface) changed the athlete's co-contraction at the knee and increased hamstring activity. However, landing on a Bosu ball also decreased the athlete's knee flexion, which was an undesired effect. These findings highlight the potential utility of unstable surfaces as a training tool to reduce the risk of ACL injury in female athletes.

  4. Order Parameter as an Additional State Variable of Unstable Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Lubashevsky, Ihor A.; Mahnke, Reinhard

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a phenomenological approach to the description of unstable vehicle motion on multilane highways that could explain in a simple way such observed self-organizing phenomena as the sequence of the phase transitions "free flow -> synchronized motion -> jam" and the hysteresis in them. We introduce a new variable called order parameter that accounts for possible correlations in the vehicle motion at different lanes. So, it is principally due to "many-body" effects in the car interaction...

  5. Closed reduction with CT-guided screw fixation for unstable sacroiliac joint fracture-dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Cahill, Ann Marie; Kaye, Robin D.; Born, Christopher T.; Grudziak, Jan S.; Towbin, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures and dislocations are uncommon but potentially life-threatening injuries in children. Early definitive management reduces risk of immediate complications as well as chronic pain and gait dysfunction. Conventional operative therapy carries substantial risk of extensive blood loss and iatrogenic neurological and vascular injury. Minimally invasive image-guided intervention may further reduce immediate risk and improve long-term outcome. To describe CT-guided closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) and review outcomes of unstable fracture-dislocation of the sacroiliac (SI) joint in children. Between 2000 and 2003, three children (two girls, one boy) age 8-14 years were referred to interventional radiology for treatment of unstable SI joint fracture-dislocation not adequately treated with anterior external fixation alone. The three affected SI joints (two left, one right) were treated in a combined approach by pediatric interventional radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, using a percutaneous approach under CT guidance. Over a threaded guiding pin, 7.3 mm cannulated screws were used to achieve stable reduction of the affected SI joints. One screw was removed after slight (2 mm) migration. No neurovascular or other complications occurred. All patients had satisfactory healing with near-anatomic reduction, although recovery of the youngest was delayed by associated spinal injury. Compared to open surgical alternatives, CRIF under CT guidance reduces operating time, decreases blood loss, and allows early definitive fixation and immediate non-weight-bearing mobilization with a low rate of complication for unstable posterior pelvic ring fractures. In addition, CT-guided placement of the guide pin may allow safer screw positioning and may minimize the total number of screws needed to achieve pelvic stability. (orig.)

  6. Unstable even-parity eigenmodes of the regular static SU(2) Yang-Mills-Dilaton solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsova, O.I.; Donets, E.E.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Boyadzhiev, T.L.; Georgieva, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain unstable even-parity eigenmodes of the regular static spherically symmetric solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-dilation coupled system of equations in the 3+1 Minkowski space-time. The corresponding matrix Sturm-Liouville problem is solved numerically by means of the continuous analogue of Newton's method. The method, being a powerful tool for solving both boundary-value and Sturm-Liouville problems, is described in detail

  7. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  8. When may unstable gravitating disk be considered an infinitely thin gravitating disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M. (AN SSSR, Irkutsk. Sibirskij Inst. Zemnogo Magnetizma Ionosfery i Rasprostraneniya Radiovoln; AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1981-03-01

    It is shown that the model of an infinitely thin gravitating disk is valid for investigation of its stability only if a massive halo is present. Conditions for main parameters of the disk and halo are obtained when, firstly, most unstable wavelengths are much larger than the disk thickness (approximation of an infinitely thin disk) and, secondary, the contribution of a halo to the perturbed gravitational potential can be neglected. Density distributions of the disk and halo are obtained.

  9. Fixation of Trochanteric Fragments in Cementless Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty of Unstable Intertrochanteric Fracture: Cerclage Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Park, Chan Ho; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an option for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fracture in elderly patients. There is a raising concern regarding cable-grip related complications for the fixation of trochanteric fragments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate outcome of cementless HA with fixation for the trochanteric fragments using monofilament wires in unstable intertrochanteric fracture. We reviewed 92 cementless bipolar HAs using a grit-blasted long stem design for unstable intertrochanteric fractures in 91 elderly patients with a mean age of 81.7 years. During the arthroplasty, trochanteric fracture fragments were fixed using 1 or 2 vertical wires and transverse wires. We evaluated the clinical outcomes such as abductor power, ambulatory ability and wire-related complications, and radiologic outcomes including the union of the trochanteric fragment and subsidence of stem. Sixty-two patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 59 months) postoperatively. The mean abductor power and Koval category was 4.1 (range, 3 to 5) and 4.6 (range, 1 to 6). The wire was broken in 3 hips (4.8%) and the nonunion of the greater trochanter occurred in 1 hips (1.6%). Two stems subsided by 3 mm and 8 mm, respectively, during postoperative 6 weeks, after which the subsidence was not progressive. Cerclage wiring of the trochanter using monofilament wire leads to acceptable outcome in cementless HA for senile patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture. Cerclage wiring using a monofilament wire is recommended for the fixation of trochanteric fragments.

  10. Calculation of a CO sub 2 gasdynamic laser with selective thermal excitation and an unstable resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuz' min, A.I.; Lavrov, A.V.; Chernysheva, N.V. (Leningradskii Gosudarstvennyi Universitet, Leningrad (USSR))

    1989-03-01

    The problem of calculating an unstable telescopic resonator for a CO{sub 2} gasdynamic laser with selective thermal excitation is studied. Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations and equations of field propagation in the resonator are used to describe the GDL in the geometric optic approximation. The efficiency is studied as a function of the magnification factor and of the distance between the mirrors. 19 refs.

  11. Development of a helium cryostat for laser spectroscopy of atoms with unstable nuclei in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Kei, E-mail: kimamura@riken.jp [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Furukawa, Takeshi [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakui, Takashi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Yang, Xiaofei [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); School of Physics, Peking University, Chengfu Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tetsuka, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Mitsuya, Yosuke [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Tsutsui, Yoshiki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Fujita, Tomomi [Department of Physics, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ebara, Yuta; Hayasaka, Miki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Arai, Shino; Muramoto, Sosuke [Department of Physics, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571 (Japan); Ichikawa, Yuichi [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Instutute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Ishibashi, Yoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); and others

    2013-12-15

    We are developing a new nuclear laser spectroscopic technique for the study of nuclear structure that can be applied to short-lived low-yield atoms with unstable nuclei. The method utilizes superfluid helium (He II) as a trapping medium for high-energy ion beams. A liquid helium cryostat with optical windows is a key apparatus for this type of experiment. We describe the design and the performance of the cryostat which is developed for the present project.

  12. Unstable light particles and thermal evolution of the universe - 10 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselin, X.; Girardi, G.; Salati, P.

    1987-02-01

    In this paper we investigate an appealing scenario where the universe is filled with light radiatively unstable particles. Depending on their lifetime the thermal history of the universe since the hydrogen recombination may be drastically changed. In particular for plausible lifetime τ >∼ 10 24 s, the intergalactic medium is fully ionised. This in turn lowers the level of detectable temperature fluctuation of the 3 0 K fossil radiation a case in favour of galaxy formation in the presence of warm dark matter

  13. Research on output beam characteristic from unstable resonator of DF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei-yan; Wang, Hui; Cai, Lei; Zhou, Song-qing; Zhang, Zheng; Qv, Pu-bo

    2015-10-01

    The spot profile and intensity distribution of output beam from unstable resonator of a DF Laser were measured. The results showed the spot was a ring with 45mm external diameter and the measurement data sufficed for the design requests. But the spot was asymmetric seriously on horizontal direction, which was arose by two possible reason, one was non-uniform distribution of the gain medium , the other was the optic-axis migration to upstream of gain medium.

  14. How to Treat the Complex Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures in Elderly Patients? DHS or Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hasankhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Due to difficulty in obtaining anatomical reduction, management of the unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients is challenging. The purpose of this study is to compare the results of hip arthroplasty (total, hemi, or bipolar with DHS in the elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures.   Methods:  We prospectively studied and followed-up 80 old patients with complex unstable intertrochanteric fracture from January 2007 to December 2010. Depending on the time of the patients’ admission, we alternatively treated them by DHS and arthroplasty, and placed them in Groups A and B, respectively. We followed them up radiologically and also clinically by Harris Hip Score for more than 24 months. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows.  Results: The mean length of follow-up and age were 34.3±4.1 months (ranged; 24-59 and the 75.2±5.2 years (ranged; 58-96, respectively. Comparing Group A with B, demographic data, mean blood loss, duration of operation, time to walking and duration of hospital stay had no significant difference but overall device related complications were significantly higher in Group A. Functional scores were also higher in Group B, but this difference was not significant statistically. In both groups, the patients with Type A3 compared with Type A2, had more duration of surgery and blood loss.  Conclusions:  Arthroplasty is an alternative treatment in elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fractures and can provide good and satisfactory clinical outcomes associated with low complication and mortality rates.

  15. The comparison of abdominal muscle activation on unstable surface according to the different trunk stability exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Da-yeon; Kim, Tae-ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effect of abdominal muscle activities and the activation ratio related to trunk stabilization to compare the effects between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and lumbar stabilization exercises on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain, who were equally and randomly assigned to either the abdominal drawing-in maneuver group and the lumbar stabilization exe...

  16. Occurrence of unstable milk not acid in the north state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helem Priscilla Martins Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to detect the occurrence of unstable nonacid milk (LINA in the northern region of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 486 milk samples between November/2012 to June/2013, coming from 180 different producers. The results obtained showed an incidence of 13.93% of LINA milk and revealed a low occurrence when the samples were collected.

  17. [Clinical study of orientation and reference planes in cephalometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hayeck, E; Bou Assi, S; Bou-Serhal, J

    2005-09-01

    A critical study of orientation and reference planes used in cephalometrics is undergone. The data consists of cephalometric measurements evaluated in a sample of 90 young lebanese adults, divided into 43 girls and 47 boys, whose lateral cephalograms were registered according to the natural head position. This study shows the importance of the true horizontal as orientation and reference planes, due to the high reproducibility of the natural head position, and the high variability of the intra-cranial reference planes as compared to the true vertical, as well as the low correlation among measurements based on the true horizontal as a reference plane (AB-horizontal), and the measurements based on the intra-cranial planes and points (ANB) as reference. This study also evaluated the variations of some angular and sagittal measurements (SNA, SNB, SNPog) registered according to two orientations: Frankfort plane and the natural head position.

  18. Variable Mass Structure and the Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Colless, M.

    We examine the influence of broken structural homology upon the Fundamental Plane (FP). We fit the Sersic R1/n law, being the generalized R1/4 law, where `n' is a free parameter that accommodates structural differences between different galaxies. The galaxy light profiles show a trend of systematic departures from the de Vaucouleurs R1/4 law, such that the larger galaxies have less curvature in their profiles than the R1/4 profile and the smaller galaxies have greater curvature, as found by Caon, Capaccioli & D'Onofrio (1993) and Graham et al. (1996). This results in the effective half-light radii, Re, and the mean surface brightness within these radii, having systematic biases if obtained from the R1/4 law. The observed range in structural shapes implies a corresponding range in galaxy dynamics required to support the observed galaxy structure. Allowing for this, we find that broken structural and dynamical homology are partly responsible for the `tilt' of the FP.

  19. Elasticplastic discs under plane stress conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This Volume presents a unified approach to calculate the plane stress distribution of stress and strain in thin elastic/plastic discs subject to various loading conditions. There is a vast amount of literature on analytical and semi-analytical solutions for such discs obeying Tresca’s yield criterion and its associated flow rule. On the other hand, most of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for Mises yield criterion are based on the deformation theory of plasticity. A distinguished feature of the solutions given in the present volume is that the flow theory of plasticity and Mises yield criterion are adopted. The solutions are semi-analytical in the sense that numerical methods are only necessary to evaluate ordinary integrals and solve transcendental equations. The book shows that under certain conditions solutions based on the deformation and flow theories of plasticity coincide. All the solutions are illustrated with numerical examples. The goal of the book is to provide the reader with a vision an...

  20. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringen, S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow is reported. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time-evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on the CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction-blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  1. Transition to turbulence in plane channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biringen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from a numerical simulation of the final stages of transition to turbulence in plane channel flow are described. Three dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated to obtain the time evolution of two and three dimensional finite amplitude disturbances. Computations are performed on CYBER-203 vector processor for a 32x51x32 grid. Results are presented for no-slip boundary conditions at the solid walls as well as for periodic suction blowing to simulate active control of transition by mass transfer. Solutions indicate that the method is capable of simulating the complex character of vorticity dynamics during the various stages of transition and final breakdown. In particular, evidence points to the formation of a lambda-shape vortex and the subsequent system of horseshoe vortices inclined to the main flow direction as the main elements of transition. Calculations involving periodic suction-blowing indicate that interference with a wave of suitable phase and amplitude reduces the disturbance growth rates.

  2. [Choices of the internal fixation and approaches on unstable pelvic ring fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Da-Wei; Zu, Gang; Han, Lei; Chen, Yi-Min; Ma, Hai-Tao; Hu, Gang-Feng; Zhu, Yuan

    2017-03-25

    To discuss the suitable surgical approach and the internal fixation of unstable pelvic pelvic fractures. From May 2010 to May 2015, 45 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were treated with different approaches and fixations, including 38 males and 7 females with an average age of 45 years ranging from 21 to 61 years. The course was within 2 weeks. According to Young-Burg classification, 23 patients were lateral compression injuries, 6 patients were vertical shearing injuries, 16 patients were anterior-posterior compression injuries. All patients had hip pain and limitation of motion, the X-rays showed the pelvic ring fracture. All wounds healed well without complications, 45 cases were followed up for a mean period of 13 months (ranged 9 to 21 months). Patients with hip pain had a good postoperative pain relief. The post-operative X-rays showed the reduction was satisfied and the pelvic ring shaped well. According to Majeed standards, the final follow-up score was 93.5±11.6, 35 cases got excellent results, 8 were good, 2 were fare. The unstable pelvic and acetabular fractures are always with compound injury. Beside the reduction, to decrease the second surgery trauma should take into consideration as well, the intra-articular reduction and the stability of the pelvic were especially valued, so combined the different approach with minimal invasive technique can get good clinical result.

  3. Search for unstable DNA in schizophrenia families with evidence for genetic anticipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petronis, A.; Vincent, J.B.; Tatuch, Y.; Sasaki, Tsukasa [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Evidence for genetic anticipation has recently become an important subject of research in clinical psychiatric genetics. Renewed interest in anticipation was evoked by molecular genetic findings of a novel type of mutation termed {open_quotes}unstable DNA.{close_quotes} The unstable DNA model can be construed as the {open_quotes}best fit{close_quotes} for schizophrenia twin and family epidemiological data. We have performed a large-scale Southern blot hybridization, asymmetrical PCR-based, and repeat expansion-detection screening for (CAG){sub n}/(CTG){sub n} and (CCG){sub n}/(CGG){sub n} expansions in eastern Canadian schizophrenia multiplex families demonstrating genetic anticipation. There were no differences in (CAG){sub n}/(CTG){sub n} and (CCG){sub n}/(CGG){sub n} pattern distribution either between affected and unaffected individuals or across generations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that large (CAG){sub n}/(CTG){sub n} or (CCG){sub n}/(CGG){sub n} expansions are the major etiologic factor in schizophrenia. A separate set of experiments directed to the analysis of small (30-130 trinucleotides), Huntington disease-type expansions in individual genes is required in order to fully exclude the presence of (CAG){sub n}/(CTG){sub n}- or (CCG){sub n}/(CGG){sub n}-type unstable mutation. 38 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Modulation instability analysis of modify unstable nonlinear schrodinger dynamical equation and its optical soliton solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLSEs describe the promulgation of ultra-short pluse in optical fibers. The modify unstable nonlinear Schrödinger equation (mUNLSE is a universal equation of the class of nonlinear integrable systems in NLSEs, which governs certain instabilities of modulated wave-trains. This equation also describes the time evolution of disturbances in marginally stable or unstable media. In the current work, the aim is to investigate the mUNLSE analytically by utilizing proposed modified extended mapping method. New exact solutions are constructed in the different form such as exact dark soliton, exact bright soliton, bright-dark soliton, solitary wave, elliptic function in different form and periodic solutions of mUNLSE. Furthermore, we also present the formation conditions of the bright soliton and dark soliton of this equation. The modulation instability analysis is implemented to discuss the stability analysis of the attained solutions and the movement role of the waves is examined, which confirms that all constructed solutions are exact and stable. Keywords: Modify unstable nonlinear schrödinger equation, Modified extended mapping method, bright and dark solitons, Solitary wave solutions, Elliptic function solutions, periodic solutions

  5. Does Unstable Employment Have an Association with Suicide Rates among the Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2017-04-28

    Although a growing body of literature has indicated that unemployment has a positive association with suicide, the dynamic aspects of unstable employment have not yet been considered in suicidology. This study explored the association between employment stability and completed suicide among people aged 25-34 years in 20 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries with time-series data (1994-2010). In order to consider the different aspects of unstable employment, we tested the impacts of employment protection legislation indicators as another proxy of job insecurity (employed, but unstable) apart from unemployment rates. Covariates, including economic growth rates, GDP per capita, fertility rates, and divorce rate, were controlled for. The analysis was designed to be gender- and age-specific, where observations with ages of 25-29 were separated from those with ages of 30-34. Random effect models were applied to examine changes over time in suicide rates, and other models were presented to check robustness. The results showed that it is a low level of employment protection, rather than unemployment itself, that was associated with increased suicide rates among all of the studied populations. The magnitude of the effect differed by gender.

  6. Unstable chromosome aberrations on peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with cervical uterine cancer following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnata, Simey de Souza Leao Pereira

    2002-09-01

    Absorbed dose determination is an important step for risk assessment related to an exposure to ionizing radiation. However, physical dosimetry cannot be always performed, principally in the case of retrospective estimates. In this context, the use of bioindicators (biological effects) has been proposed, which defines the so-called biological dosimetry. In particular, scoring of unstable chromosomes aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and fragments) of peripheral blood lymphocytes, while is the most reliable biological method for estimating individual exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, blood samples from 5 patients, with cervical uterine cancer, were evaluated after partial-body radiotherapy with a source of 69 Co. For this, conventional cytogenetic method was employed, based on Giemsa coloration and fluorescence in situ hybridization, in order to correlate the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations of blood lymphocytes with absorbed dose, as a result of the radiotherapy. A good agreement was observed between the frequency of chromosome aberrations scored and the values of dose previously calculated by physical dosimetry during patient's radiotherapy. The results presented in this work point out the importance of concerning analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations as biological dosimeter in the investigation of partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Treatment options for unstable trochanteric fractures: Screw or helical proxima femoral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Jeetendra; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Bajpai, Akansha; Saini, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To compare treatment outcome of screw proximal femoral nail (PFN) system with that of a helical PFN. The study included 77 patients with closed unstable intertrochanteric fracture classified as AO 31A2&31A3, between June 2008 to August 2011. Inclusion criteria were: all mature skeletons above 50 years of age; closed unstable trochanteric fracture classified as AO 31A2&A3. Exclusion criteria were: immature skeleton, pathological fracture of any cause other than osteoporosis, inability to walk inde- pendently prior to injury. Patients were randomized to 2 treatment groups based on admission sequence. Forty patients were treated with screw PFN and thirty seven were treated with helical PFN. Both groups were similar in respect of time of surgery, blood loss and functional assessment and duration of hospitalization. In screw PFN group 2 patients had superficial wound infection, 1 patient had persistent hip pain and 1 patient had shortening>1 cm buttrochanteric fractures even in Indian patients where the bones are narrow and neck diameter is small. It is an implant of choice for osteoporotic and unstable trochanteric fractures.

  8. Muscle activation during push-ups performed under stable and unstable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan Carlos; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Triplett, N Travis; Martin, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions. Physically fit young male university students ( N  = 30) performed five push-ups under stable conditions (on the floor) and using four unstable devices (wobble board, stability disc, fitness dome, and the TRX Suspension Trainer). The push-up speed was controlled using a metronome, and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic (EMG) root mean square of the anterior deltoid (DELT), serratus anterior (SERRA), lumbar multifidus (LUMB), and rectus femoris (FEM) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). No significant differences were found for the DELT [ F (4,112) = 1.978; p  = 0.130] among the conditions. However, statistically significant differences were found among the different conditions for the SERRA [ F (4,60) = 17.649; p  ups performed on the floor showed lower SERRA activation than those performed with all unstable devices. Not all unstable devices enhance muscle activation compared to traditional push-ups.

  9. Finite-width effects in unstable-particle production at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgari, P. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Spinoza Inst.; Papanastasiou, A.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Signer, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a general formalism for the calculation of finite-width contributions to the differential production cross sections of unstable particles at hadron colliders. In this formalism, which employs an effective-theory description of unstable-particle production and decay, the matrix element computation is organized as a gauge-invariant expansion in powers of {Gamma}{sub X}/m{sub X}, with {Gamma}{sub X} and m{sub X} the width and mass of the unstable particle. This framework allows for a systematic inclusion of off-shell and non-factorizable effects whilst at the same time keeping the computational effort minimal compared to a full calculation in the complex-mass scheme. As a proof-of-concept example, we give results for an NLO calculation of top-antitop production in the q anti q partonic channel. As already found in a similar calculation of single-top production, the finite-width effects are small for the total cross section, as expected from the naive counting {proportional_to}{Gamma}{sub t}/m{sub t}{proportional_to}1%. However, they can be sizeable, in excess of 10%, close to edges of certain kinematical distributions. The dependence of the results on the mass renormalization scheme, and its implication for a precise extraction of the top-quark mass, is also discussed.

  10. Logistic regression analysis of syndrome essential factors in patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui-Wu; He, Qing-Yong; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jie

    2011-12-01

    To explore the correlation between common syndrome essential factors and the symptoms and signs of unstable angina (UA). Eight hundred and fifteen patients with UA confirmed by coronary angiography were identified from several centers. Common syndrome essential factors were selected on the basis of expert experience. The correlations between common syndrome essential factors and symptoms and signs of UA were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. The common syndrome essential factors in unstable angina were blood stasis, qi stagnation, phlegm turbidity, heat stagnancy, qi deficiency, yin deficiency, and yang deficiency. Symptoms such as chest pain, hypochondriac distention, ecchymosis, dark orbits, dark and purplish tongue, and tongue with ecchymosis and petechiae were significant diagnostic features of "blood stasis". Aversion to cold and cool limbs, weakness in the waist and knees, and clear abundant urine were significant diagnostic features of"yang deficiency". These results were in accordance with the understanding of traditional clinical Chinese medical practice. This clinical study analyzed the correlations between common syndrome essential factors and the symptoms and signs of unstable angina. The results provide the basis for establishing diagnostic criteria for syndrome essential factors.

  11. [Meta-analysis of Dengzhanxixin injection treatment for unstable angina pectoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Lu; Shen, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Yue-Lun; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2012-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of Dengzhanxixin injection for unstable angina pectoris. All clinical studies of Dengzhanxixin injection for unstable angina pectoris (UAP) were searched from Cochrane library, Medline, EM-base, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP. Quality assessment and information extraction were done by two independent screening . The quality of the included documents was evaluated by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and allocation concealment. Revman 5.1.4 software was used for data analysis. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials were included (1 644 patients), in which, only 2 studies were true RCT, 1 study used single blind method, while other studies did not mention allocation concealment, blind and loss-up information. Meta-analysis showed that the Dengzhanxixin injection group was better than the conventional treatment group in efficiency (OR = 3.54, 95% CI [2.60-4.82]) and ECG (OR = 2.36, 95% CI[1.88-2.96]). Researches with ADR/AE information of Dengzhanxixin injection showed that the symptoms of ADR/AE were slight. This study may exist publication bias. Dengzhanxixin injection on the basis of conventional treatment can improve the efficacy of the treatment of unstable angina pectoris. However, due to the sample size of included studies were small and of lower quality, conclusions above still need high-qualitied randomized, double-blind, controlled trials be confirmed.

  12. Use of unstable chromosome aberrations for biological dosimetry after the first postirradiation mitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doloy, M.T.; Malarbet, J.L.; Guedeney, G.; Bourguignon, M.; Leroy, A.; Reillaudou, M.; Masse, R.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of unstable chromosome aberrations after the first postirradiation mitosis makes their use difficult in radiation dosimetry. We describe here a method which, in a cell population observed at this stage, allows retrospective estimation of the frequencies of the unstable aberrations induced at the time of irradiation, and their use as a dosimeter. The laws controlling the behavior of unstable aberrations during mitosis were defined from a large-scale experiment on irradiated human lymphocytes. For cells undergoing the first, second, or third mitosis after irradiation, relationships were determined between the frequency, at irradiation time, of acentric fragments not arising from formation of dicentrics or rings, and the ratio of dicentrics and centric rings appearing without acentric fragments to the total number of dicentrics plus rings. On the basis of this ratio, the method described here provides an assessment of the postirradiation mitotic activity in a cell population. This assessment permitted estimation of the cell distribution and frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings, and of the frequency of acentric fragments at the time of irradiation. The use of this method for retrospective dosimetry after whole-body irradiation under various conditions of exposure is illustrated

  13. Immediate percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion for unstable pelvic fractures: is it safe enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, A; Perry, Z H; Blum, S; Shaked, G; Korngreen, A

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results of immediate and delayed percutaneous sacroiliac screws surgery for unstable pelvic fractures, regarding technical results and complication rate. Retrospective study. The study was conducted at the Soroka University Medical center, Beer Sheva, Israel, which is a level 1 trauma Center. 108 patients with unstable pelvic injuries were operated by the orthopedic department at the Soroka University Medical Center between the years 1999-2010. A retrospective analysis found 50 patients with immediate surgery and 58 patients with delayed surgery. Preoperative and postoperative imaging were analyzed and data was collected regarding complications. All patients were operated on by using the same technique-percutaneous fixation of sacroiliac joint with cannulated screws. The study's primary outcome measure was the safety and quality of the early operation in comparison with the late operation. A total of 156 sacroiliac screws were inserted. No differences were found between the immediate and delayed treatment groups regarding technical outcome measures (P value = 0.44) and complication rate (P value = 0.42). The current study demonstrated that immediate percutaneous sacroiliac screw insertion for unstable pelvic fractures produced equally good technical results, in comparison with the conventional delayed operation, without additional complications.

  14. Unstable Morse Code recognition system with back propagation neural network for person with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, D T; Luo, C H

    2001-01-01

    A Morse code auto-recognition system is limited by stable typing speed and stable typing ratio from long to short intervals. For an unstable Morse code typing pattern, the auto-recognition algorithms in the literature are not good enough for applications. This paper adopted a neural network to recognize unstable Morse codes. From an experiment on a teenager with cerebral palsy, the neural network has an average recognition rate up to 93.2%. The recognition rate from an amputee aged 40, who used a prosthesis for typing, it is 97.2% on average. When we compare this to 99.2% for the recognition rate from a skilled expert, the result is quite promising. The neural network has successfully overcome the difficulty of analysing a severely unstable Morse code time series. Since the human typing speed is quite slow in comparison to signal processing by the computer, it also makes it possible to use a neural network for real-time signal recognition.

  15. Conventional radiation-biological dosimetry using frequencies of unstable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.

    1998-01-01

    Frequency of chromosome aberrations detected by conventional cytogenetics is a very useful parameter in biological radiodosimetry. It can be used for estimating absorbed doses in individuals working with radioactive sources and individuals accidentally exposed to radiation. In the first case subjects wear physical dosimeters as a routine safety habit. The laboratory at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD, Brazil) has been using conventional cytogenetic analysis to complement data obtained by physical dosimetry since 1983. Until now, more than one hundred cases were investigated where individual physical dosimeters detected occupational exposure (above the safety limits allowed). In total, only 34% of these cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic dosimetry. Also, conventional cytogenetic analysis following the radiation accident of Goiania (Brazil) in 1987 have been used. Peripheral lymphocytes from 129 exposed or potentially exposed individuals were analyzed for the frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and acentrics fragments) to estimate absorbed radiation doses. During the emergency period, doses were estimated to help immediate medical treatment using in vitro calibration curves produced before the accident. Later on, doses were assessed once more using new in vitro calibration curves. A drawback of this technique is that unstable aberrations are lost after exposure. To investigate the mean lifespan of lymphocytes containing dicentric and ring aberrations, we have followed 15 victims of the Goiania accident over all these years. Results suggest that the disappearance of unstable aberrations is dose-dependent. This could explain the variation in the results found among studies in this field

  16. Effects of unstable shoes on chronic low back pain in health professionals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Stéphane; Tavcar, Ziva; Turcot, Katia; Allet, Lara; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Genevay, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of unstable shoes in reducing low back pain in health professionals. Of a volunteer sample of 144 participants, 40 with nonspecific chronic low back pain were eligible and enrolled in this study. Participants were randomized to an intervention group, who wore unstable shoes (model MBT Fora), or a control group, who wore conventional sports shoes (model Adidas Bigroar). The participants had to wear the study shoes during their work hours, and at least 6 hours per workday, over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was low back pain assessed on a Visual Analog Scale. The secondary outcomes were patient satisfaction, disability evaluated using Roland-Morris questionnaire and quality of life evaluated using EQ-VAS. The intervention group showed a significant decrease in pain scores compared to the control group. The rate of satisfaction was higher in the intervention group (79%) compared to the control group (25%). There was no significant difference for the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire score and the EQ-VAS scale. The results of this clinical trial suggest that wearing unstable shoes for 6 weeks significantly decreases low back pain in patients suffering from chronic low back pain but had no significant effect on quality of life and disability scores. Copyright © 2014 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of unstable periodic orbits and the stickiness in the two-dimensional piecewise linear map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaishi, A; Shudo, A

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the stickiness of the two-dimensional piecewise linear map with a family of marginal unstable periodic orbits (FMUPOs), and show that a series of unstable periodic orbits accumulating to FMUPOs plays a significant role to give rise to the power law correlation of trajectories. We can explicitly specify the sticky zone in which unstable periodic orbits whose stability increases algebraically exist, and find that there exists a hierarchy in accumulating periodic orbits. In particular, the periodic orbits with linearly increasing stability play the role of fundamental cycles as in the hyperbolic systems, which allows us to apply the method of cycle expansion. We also study the recurrence time distribution, especially discussing the position and size of the recurrence region. Following the definition adopted in one-dimensional maps, we show that the recurrence time distribution has an exponential part in the short time regime and an asymptotic power law part. The analysis on the crossover time T(c)(*) between these two regimes implies T(c)(*) approximately -log[micro(R)] where micro(R) denotes the area of the recurrence region.

  18. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  19. Simplified Light Plane Determination during Structured Light Scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribanić, Tomislav; Cifrić, Ivan; Cifrek, Mario; Goldberger, Goran; Peharec, Stanislav

    2006-01-01

    Structured light illumination is a widely spread approach for 3D shape reconstruction. Scanning the scene of interest with hard edge stripe via video projector is a very common implementation. During the scanning light planes are being projected across the space and their positions in time are needed to triangulate 3D position of some point. Traditionally, light plane equation is readily obtained in case of calibrated video projector. This paper presents a method where light plane positions a...

  20. On the Plane Geometry with Generalized Absolute Value Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metric spaces are among the most important widely studied topics in mathematics. In recent years, Mathematicians began to investigate using other metrics different from Euclidean metric. These metrics also find their place computer age in addition to their importance in geometry. In this paper, we consider the plane geometry with the generalized absolute value metric and define trigonometric functions and norm and then give a plane tiling example for engineers underlying Schwarz's inequality in this plane.