Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E
2003-01-01
Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass
Non-equilibrium magnetic interactions in strongly correlated systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Secchi, A., E-mail: a.secchi@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brener, S.; Lichtenstein, A.I. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universitat Hamburg, Jungiusstraße 9, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Katsnelson, M.I. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)
2013-06-15
We formulate a low-energy theory for the magnetic interactions between electrons in the multi-band Hubbard model under non-equilibrium conditions determined by an external time-dependent electric field which simulates laser-induced spin dynamics. We derive expressions for dynamical exchange parameters in terms of non-equilibrium electronic Green functions and self-energies, which can be computed, e.g., with the methods of time-dependent dynamical mean-field theory. Moreover, we find that a correct description of the system requires, in addition to exchange, a new kind of magnetic interaction, that we name twist exchange, which formally resembles Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya coupling, but is not due to spin–orbit, and is actually due to an effective three-spin interaction. Our theory allows the evaluation of the related time-dependent parameters as well. -- Highlights: •We develop a theory for magnetism of strongly correlated systems out of equilibrium. •Our theory is suitable for laser-induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics. •We write time-dependent exchange parameters in terms of electronic Green functions. •We find a new magnetic interaction, a “twist exchange”. •We give general expressions for magnetic noise in itinerant-electron systems.
Renormalisation of Nonequilibrium Phonons Under Strong Perturbative Influences.
Mehta, Sushrut Madhukar
Effects of strong perturbative influences, namely the presence of a narrow distribution of acoustic phonons, and the presence of an electron plasma, on the dynamics of nonequilibrium, near zone center, longitudinal optical phonons in GaP have been investigated in two separate experiments. The study of the effects of the interaction between the LO phonons and a heavily populated, narrow distribution of acoustic phonons lead to the observation of a new optically driven nonequilibrium phonon state. Time Resolved Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (TR-CARS), with picosecond resolution, was used to investigate the new mode. In order to achieve high occupation numbers in the acoustic branch, the picosecond laser pulses used were amplified up to 1.0 GW/cm^2 peak power per laser beam. An important characteristic property of the new state which differentiates it from the well known LO phonon state is the fact that rather than having the single decay rate observed under thermal equilibrium, the new state has two decay rates. Moreover, these two decay rates depend strongly on the distribution of the acoustic phonon occupation number. The coupling of the LO phonons with an electron plasma, on the other hand, was investigated by measurements of the shape of the Raman scattered line associated with the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. The plasma was generated by thermal excitation of carriers in doped samples. It was possible to study a large variety of plasma excitations by controlling the concentration of the dopant and the ambient temperature. A complete, self consistant model based on standard dielectric response theory is presented, and applied to the measurements of the phonon-plasmon coupled mode. It is possible to recover, via this model, the effective coupled mode damping rate, the plasma damping rate, and the plasma frequency as functions of ambient temperature, or the carrier concentration.
A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-08
We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Wildt, Morten; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef
1999-01-01
A biased superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction is known to be a strong nonequilibrium system, where Andreev scattering at the interfaces creates a quasiparticle distribution function far from equilibrium, a manifestation of this is the well-known subgap structure in the I...
Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys
Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.
Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium of ternary gas mixtures in free jet expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cattolica, R.J.; Gallagher, R.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Talbot, L.
1977-05-01
An aerodynamic isotope separation technique based on the velocity slip between gases in a rarefied flow has been proposed. To evaluate the efficiency of this separation technique, the velocity and translational temperature of the individual species in binary and ternary gas mixtures of argon and neon in helium have been studied in a low density hypersonic free jet. The velocity and temperature of the gas were determined from the Doppler shift and broadening of the fluorescence excited by an electron beam. Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium were observed over a range of source pressures. A separation factor based on the velocity slip and temperatures was also determined. A comparison of the velocity slip, temperatures, and separation factor with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the flow field is presented
Nonequilibrium Energy Transfer at Nanoscale: A Unified Theory from Weak to Strong Coupling
Wang, Chen; Ren, Jie; Cao, Jianshu
2015-07-01
Unraveling the microscopic mechanism of quantum energy transfer across two-level systems provides crucial insights to the optimal design and potential applications of low-dimensional nanodevices. Here, we study the non-equilibrium spin-boson model as a minimal prototype and develop a fluctuation-decoupled quantum master equation approach that is valid ranging from the weak to the strong system-bath coupling regime. The exact expression of energy flux is analytically established, which dissects the energy transfer as multiple boson processes with even and odd parity. Our analysis provides a unified interpretation of several observations, including coherence-enhanced heat flux and negative differential thermal conductance. The results will have broad implications for the fine control of energy transfer in nano-structural devices.
Non-equilibrium coupling of protein structure and function to translation-elongation kinetics.
Sharma, Ajeet K; O'Brien, Edward P
2018-04-01
Protein folding research has been dominated by the assumption that thermodynamics determines protein structure and function. And that when the folding process is compromised in vivo the proteostasis machinery-chaperones, deaggregases, the proteasome-work to restore proteins to their soluble, functional form or degrade them to maintain the cellular pool of proteins in a quasi-equilibrium state. During the past decade, however, more and more proteins have been identified for which altering only their speed of synthesis alters their structure and function, the efficiency of the down-stream processes they take part in, and cellular phenotype. Indeed, evidence has emerged that evolutionary selection pressures have encoded translation-rate information into mRNA molecules to coordinate diverse co-translational processes. Thus, non-equilibrium physics can play a fundamental role in influencing nascent protein behavior, mRNA sequence evolution, and disease. Here, we discuss how our understanding of this phenomenon is being advanced by the application of theoretical tools from the physical sciences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senf, Fabian; Altrock, Philipp M; Behn, Ulrich
2009-01-01
A finite array of N globally coupled Stratonovich models exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition. In the limit of strong coupling, there is a clear separation of timescales of centre of mass and relative coordinates. The latter relax very fast to zero and the array behaves as a single entity described by the centre of mass coordinate. We compute analytically the stationary probability distribution and the moments of the centre of mass coordinate. The scaling behaviour of the moments near the critical value of the control parameter a c (N) is determined. We identify a crossover from linear to square root scaling with increasing distance from a c . The crossover point approaches a c in the limit N→∞ which reproduces previous results for infinite arrays. Our results are obtained in both the Fokker-Planck and the Langevin approach and are corroborated by numerical simulations. For a general class of models we show that the transition manifold in the parameter space depends on N and is determined by the scaling behaviour near a fixed point of the stochastic flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Felix
2016-07-05
The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is extended to the nonequilibrium case and applied to the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated lattice-fermions. Exploiting the basic structure of the well established equilibrium theory the entire formalism is reformulated in the language of Keldysh-Matsubara Green's functions. To this end, a functional of general nonequilibrium self-energies is constructed which is stationary at the physical point where it moreover yields the physical grand potential of the initial thermal state. Nonperturbative approximations to the full self-energy can be constructed by reducing the original lattice problem to smaller reference systems and varying the functional on the space of the respective trial self-energies, which are parametrized by the reference system's one-particle parameters. Approximations constructed in this way can be shown to respect the macroscopic conservation laws related to the underlying symmetries of the original lattice model. Assuming thermal equilibrium, the original SFT is recovered from the extended formalism. However, in the general case, the nonequilibrium variational principle comprises functional derivatives off the physical parameter space. These can be carried out analytically to derive inherently causal conditional equations for the optimal physical parameters of the reference system and a computationally realizable propagation scheme is set up. As a benchmark for the numerical implementation the variational cluster approach is applied to the dynamics of a dimerized Hubbard model after fast ramps of its hopping parameters. Finally, the time-evolution of a homogeneous Hubbard model after sudden quenches and ramps of the interaction parameter is studied by means of a dynamical impurity approximation with a single bath site. Sharply separated by a critical interaction at which fast relaxation to a thermal final state is observed, two differing response regimes can be distinguished, where the
Many-body Tunneling and Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Doublons in Strongly Correlated Quantum Dots.
Hou, WenJie; Wang, YuanDong; Wei, JianHua; Zhu, ZhenGang; Yan, YiJing
2017-05-30
Quantum tunneling dominates coherent transport at low temperatures in many systems of great interest. In this work we report a many-body tunneling (MBT), by nonperturbatively solving the Anderson multi-impurity model, and identify it a fundamental tunneling process on top of the well-acknowledged sequential tunneling and cotunneling. We show that the MBT involves the dynamics of doublons in strongly correlated systems. Proportional to the numbers of dynamical doublons, the MBT can dominate the off-resonant transport in the strongly correlated regime. A T 3/2 -dependence of the MBT current on temperature is uncovered and can be identified as a fingerprint of the MBT in experiments. We also prove that the MBT can support the coherent long-range tunneling of doublons, which is well consistent with recent experiments on ultracold atoms. As a fundamental physical process, the MBT is expected to play important roles in general quantum systems.
Escape rate for nonequilibrium processes dominated by strong non-detailed balance force
Tang, Ying; Xu, Song; Ao, Ping
2018-02-01
Quantifying the escape rate from a meta-stable state is essential to understand a wide range of dynamical processes. Kramers' classical rate formula is the product of an exponential function of the potential barrier height and a pre-factor related to the friction coefficient. Although many applications of the rate formula focused on the exponential term, the prefactor can have a significant effect on the escape rate in certain parameter regions, such as the overdamped limit and the underdamped limit. There have been continuous interests to understand the effect of non-detailed balance on the escape rate; however, how the prefactor behaves under strong non-detailed balance force remains elusive. In this work, we find that the escape rate formula has a vanishing prefactor with decreasing friction strength under the strong non-detailed balance limit. We both obtain analytical solutions in specific examples and provide a derivation for more general cases. We further verify the result by simulations and propose a testable experimental system of a charged Brownian particle in electromagnetic field. Our study demonstrates that a special care is required to estimate the effect of prefactor on the escape rate when non-detailed balance force dominates.
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Treatment of a Warm Plasma in Strong Magnetic and Electric Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abourabia, A.M.; Shahein, R.A.
2008-01-01
In the framework of the irreversible thermodynamics we study a rarefied and collisional warm electron plasma under the effects of external strong magnetic and electric fields which generate small wave amplitudes. We adopt the linear theory and normal mode solution in the MHD model to calculate the perturbations in pressure, mass density, components of velocity, electric and magnetic fields. By applying the second law of thermodynamics it is concluded that the change in the internal energy of the plasma particles predicts whether they gain from or lose energy to the generated waves .The obtained results agree with the physical ground bounded by the positive nature of the entropy production. The predictions have been carried out within the range of the frequency of the generated waves and the distance from the Debye sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes
Strong thermal nonequilibrium in hypersonic CO and CH4 probed by CRDS.
Louviot, M; Suas-David, N; Boudon, V; Georges, R; Rey, M; Kassi, S
2015-06-07
A new experimental setup coupling a High Enthalpy Source (HES) reaching 2000 K to a cw-cavity ring-down spectrometer has been developed to investigate rotationally cold hot bands of polyatomic molecules in the [1.5, 1.7] μm region. The rotational and vibrational molecular degrees of freedom are strongly decoupled in the hypersonic expansion produced by the HES and probed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Carbon monoxide has been used as a first test molecule to validate the experimental approach. Its expansion in argon led to rotational and vibrational temperatures of 6.7 ± 0.8 K and 2006 ± 476 K, respectively. The tetradecad polyad of methane (1.67 μm) was investigated under similar conditions leading to rotational and vibrational temperatures of 13 ± 5 K and 750 ± 100 K, respectively. The rotationally cold structure of the spectra reveals many hot bands involving highly excited vibrational states of methane.
Formation of non-equilibrium structures in R6M5 steel under strong pulse beams action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rusin, Yu.G.; Plotnikov, S.V.
2001-01-01
Formation of non-equilibrium structures in R6M5 steel surface layer in the supply state under irradiation by strong pulse beams (SPB) is examined. Cylindric samples with diameter 10 mm and height 15 mm of R6M5 fast-cutting steel with following content (weight %): 0.85% C, 0.4% Mn, 0.5% Si, 4.0 Cr; 2.1% V; 5.3% Mo, 6.0% W; 0.4% Ni, Fe (the rest) were examined. Irradiation by SPB was conducted on the 'TEMP' modified accelerator operating in a technological regime with carbon beams parameters: energy from 0.3 up o 0.4 MeV, beam density in an impulse from 20 to 250 A/cm 2 , pulse duration from 60 tp 100 ns. The beam consists of 70 % carbon ions and 30 % hydrogen ions. Phase identification and its structural phase analysis have been studied on the DRON-3 X-ray diffractometer of common assignment. Topography of metallographic specimen surface has been examined on the REM-200 scanning electron microscope. Doping elements redistribution and phases quantitative characteristics after SPB action were studied with help of the X-ray spectral microanalysis (XRSA) on the MS-46 Camebax microanalyzer. Character of doping elements redistribution in the alloy (XRSA data) show its appreciably redistribution, moreover in the melted zone the increased content of molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium is observing, and in the zone of thermal action its increase relatively to matrix values
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, Cecile; Garel, Thomas
2008-01-01
We show that an appropriate description of the non-equilibrium dynamics of disordered systems is obtained through a strong disorder renormalization procedure in configuration space that we define for any master equation with transitions rates W(C→C') between configurations. The idea is to eliminate iteratively the configuration with the highest exit rate W out (C)+Σ C' W(C→C') to obtain renormalized transition rates between the remaining configurations. The multiplicative structure of the new generated transition rates suggests that for a very broad class of disordered systems, the distribution of renormalized exit barriers defined as B out (C)≡-ln W out (C) will become broader and broader upon iteration, so that the strong disorder renormalization procedure should become asymptotically exact at large time scales. We have checked numerically this scenario for the non-equilibrium dynamics of a directed polymer in a two-dimensional random medium
Holographic fermions at strong translational symmetry breaking: a Bianchi-VII case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagrov, A. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, Nijmegen 6525 AJ (Netherlands); Kaplis, N.; Krikun, A.; Schalm, K.; Zaanen, J. [Institute Lorentz ITP, Leiden University, PO Box 9506, Leiden 2300 RA (Netherlands)
2016-11-09
It is presently unknown how strong lattice potentials influence the fermion spectral function of the holographic strange metals predicted by the AdS/CFT correspondence. This embodies a crucial test for the application of holography to condensed matter experiments. We show that for one particular momentum direction this spectrum can be computed for arbitrary strength of the effective translational symmetry breaking potential of the so-called Bianchi-VII geometry employing ordinary differential equations. Deep in the strange metal regime we find rather small changes to the single-fermion response computed by the emergent quantum critical IR, even when the potential becomes relevant in the infra-red. However, in the regime where holographic quasi-particles occur, defining a Fermi surface in the continuum, they acquire a finite lifetime at any finite potential strength. At the transition from irrelevancy to relevancy of the Bianchi potential in the deep infra-red the quasi-particle remnants disappear completely and the fermion spectrum exhibits a purely relaxational behaviour.
Ran, Shi-Ju
2016-05-01
In this work, a simple and fundamental numeric scheme dubbed as ab initio optimization principle (AOP) is proposed for the ground states of translational invariant strongly correlated quantum lattice models. The idea is to transform a nondeterministic-polynomial-hard ground-state simulation with infinite degrees of freedom into a single optimization problem of a local function with finite number of physical and ancillary degrees of freedom. This work contributes mainly in the following aspects: (1) AOP provides a simple and efficient scheme to simulate the ground state by solving a local optimization problem. Its solution contains two kinds of boundary states, one of which play the role of the entanglement bath that mimics the interactions between a supercell and the infinite environment, and the other gives the ground state in a tensor network (TN) form. (2) In the sense of TN, a novel decomposition named as tensor ring decomposition (TRD) is proposed to implement AOP. Instead of following the contraction-truncation scheme used by many existing TN-based algorithms, TRD solves the contraction of a uniform TN in an opposite way by encoding the contraction in a set of self-consistent equations that automatically reconstruct the whole TN, making the simulation simple and unified; (3) AOP inherits and develops the ideas of different well-established methods, including the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD), network contractor dynamics, density matrix embedding theory, etc., providing a unified perspective that is previously missing in this fields. (4) AOP as well as TRD give novel implications to existing TN-based algorithms: A modified iTEBD is suggested and the two-dimensional (2D) AOP is argued to be an intrinsic 2D extension of DMRG that is based on infinite projected entangled pair state. This paper is focused on one-dimensional quantum models to present AOP. The benchmark is given on a transverse Ising
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian
2012-01-01
In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.
The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-03-01
MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glowacki, David R., E-mail: drglowacki@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); PULSE Institute and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Orr-Ewing, Andrew J. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jeremy N. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)
2015-07-28
We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD{sub 3}CN → DF + CD{sub 2}CN reaction in CD{sub 3}CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD{sub 3}CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD{sub 3}CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol{sup −1} localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD{sub 3}CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational
Glowacki, David R; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Harvey, Jeremy N
2015-07-28
We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN → DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD3CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD3CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol(-1) localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD3CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results in a spectral
Nonequilibrium Molecular Energy Coupling and Conversion Mechanisms
2016-08-28
resolved temperature measurements, by pure rotational picosecond broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy ( CARS ), and kinetic modeling...rotational ps CARS for thermometry measurements in highly transient nonequilibrium plasmas. Rotational-translational temperatures are measured for time...primarily on localized flow heating on sub-acoustic time scale, and for assessing feasibility of high-speed aerodynamic flow control by vibrational
Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.
Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael
2015-02-27
We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit.
Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas
Sharma, A Surjalal
2005-01-01
The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.
Nonequilibrium quantum field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1988-01-01
Combining the Feynman-Vernon influence functional formalism with the real-time formulation of finite-temperature quantum field theories we present a general approach to relativistic quantum field theories out of thermal equilibrium. We clarify the physical meaning of the additional fields encountered in the real-time formulation of quantum statistics and outline diagrammatic rules for perturbative nonequilibrium computations. We derive a generalization of Boltzmann's equation which gives a complete characterization of relativistic nonequilibrium phenomena. (orig.)
Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows
Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.
2018-03-01
The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.
Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A
2003-01-01
Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations
Nonequilibrium statistical physics
Röpke, Gerd
2013-01-01
Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications
Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghorui, S; Das, A K
2012-01-01
Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation
Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.
2014-01-01
We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a
Lempert, Walter R.; Adamovich, Igor V.
2014-10-01
The paper provides an overview of the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and spontaneous Raman scattering for diagnostics of low-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas and nonequilibrium high-enthalpy flows. A brief review of the theoretical background of CARS, four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, as well as a discussion of experimental techniques and data reduction, are included. The experimental results reviewed include measurements of vibrational level populations, rotational/translational temperature, electric fields in a quasi-steady-state and transient molecular plasmas and afterglow, in nonequilibrium expansion flows, and behind strong shock waves. Insight into the kinetics of vibrational energy transfer, energy thermalization mechanisms and dynamics of the pulse discharge development, provided by these experiments, is discussed. Availability of short pulse duration, high peak power lasers, as well as broadband dye lasers, makes possible the use of these diagnostics at relatively low pressures, potentially with a sub-nanosecond time resolution, as well as obtaining single laser shot, high signal-to-noise spectra at higher pressures. Possibilities for the development of single-shot 2D CARS imaging and spectroscopy, using picosecond and femtosecond lasers, as well as novel phase matching and detection techniques, are discussed.
On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.
1985-01-01
The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt
Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.
Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken
2018-03-19
Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.
Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids
Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R
1990-01-01
Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,
Nonequilibrium effects in Isoscaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C. O.; Lopez, J. A.
2007-01-01
In this work we study within a simple model different properties of the system that allow us to understand the properties of the isoscaling observable. We first show that isoscaling is a general property of fragmenting systems. We show this by using a simple generalized percolation model. We show that the usual isoscaling property can be obtained in the case of bond percolation in bichromatic lattices with any regular topology. In this case the probabilities of each color (isospin) are independent. We then explore the effect of introducing 'non-equilibrium' effects
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
De Groot, Sybren Ruurds
1984-01-01
The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Kostrobii
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.
Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems
Mei, Xiaochun
1999-01-01
The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukeš, Julius; Paris, Zdeněk; Regmi, Sandesh; Breitling, R.; Mureev, S.; Kushnir, S.; Pyatkov, K.; Jirků, Milan; Alexandrov, K. A.
2006-01-01
Roč. 148, č. 2 (2006), s. 125-132 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS600220554 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) AL484/5-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * translation * initiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2006
The second-order description of rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases
Myong, Rho Shin
2017-11-01
The conventional description of gases is based on the physical laws of conservation (mass, momentum, and energy) in conjunction with the first-order constitutive laws, the two-century old so-called Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equation based on a critical assumption made by Stokes in 1845 that the bulk viscosity vanishes. While the Stokes' assumption is certainly legitimate in the case of dilute monatomic gases, ever increasing evidences, however, now indicate that such is not the case, in particular, in the case of polyatomic gases-like nitrogen and carbon dioxide-far-from local thermal equilibrium. It should be noted that, from room temperature acoustic attenuation data, the bulk viscosity for carbon dioxide is three orders of magnitude larger than its shear viscosity. In this study, this fundamental issue in compressible gas dynamics is revisited and the second-order constitutive laws are derived by starting from the Boltzmann-Curtiss kinetic equation. Then the topology of the second-order nonlinear coupled constitutive relations in phase space is investigated. Finally, the shock-vortex interaction problem where the strong interaction of two important thermal (translational and rotational) non-equilibrium phenomena occurs is considered in order to highlight the rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (NRF 2017-R1A2B2-007634).
Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor
Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.
2018-02-01
We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.
De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.
2014-01-01
In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant
Translation Theory 'Translated'
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe
2016-01-01
Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
State resolved vibrational relaxation modeling for strongly nonequilibrium flows
Boyd, Iain D.; Josyula, Eswar
2011-05-01
Vibrational relaxation is an important physical process in hypersonic flows. Activation of the vibrational mode affects the fundamental thermodynamic properties and finite rate relaxation can reduce the degree of dissociation of a gas. Low fidelity models of vibrational activation employ a relaxation time to capture the process at a macroscopic level. High fidelity, state-resolved models have been developed for use in continuum gas dynamics simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). By comparison, such models are not as common for use with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In this study, a high fidelity, state-resolved vibrational relaxation model is developed for the DSMC technique. The model is based on the forced harmonic oscillator approach in which multi-quantum transitions may become dominant at high temperature. Results obtained for integrated rate coefficients from the DSMC model are consistent with the corresponding CFD model. Comparison of relaxation results obtained with the high-fidelity DSMC model shows significantly less excitation of upper vibrational levels in comparison to the standard, lower fidelity DSMC vibrational relaxation model. Application of the new DSMC model to a Mach 7 normal shock wave in carbon monoxide provides better agreement with experimental measurements than the standard DSMC relaxation model.
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-01-01
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions
Open problems in non-equilibrium physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kusnezov, D.
1997-09-22
The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.
Nonequilibrium and irreversibility
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2014-01-01
This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...
Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick R Zulkowski
Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.
Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.
van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard
2017-08-01
A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.
Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.
Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M
2017-09-18
Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.
Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1982-10-01
The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-01-01
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-12-21
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckstein, Martin
2009-01-01
The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium many body dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.
1997-09-22
This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.
Theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium processes in shock wave in bubbly liquid
Bityurin, V. A.; Velikodnyi, V. Yu.; Bykov, A. A.
The effects related to a translational nonequilibrium at the shock wave front in a bubbly liquid flow with volume gas contents within 0.3 a parts per thousand currency sign phi a parts per thousand currency sign 0.98 have been theoretically studied. Analytical expressions for the longitudinal and
Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying
2000-01-01
A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects
A two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium modeling of DC arc plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Haiyang; Wu Bin
2011-01-01
To a better understanding of non-equilibrium characteristics of DC arc plasma,a two-dimensional axisymmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium (2T-NCE) model is applied for direct current arc argon plasma generator with water-cooled constrictor at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the electron temperature and heavy particle temperature has a relationship under different working parameters, indicating that DC arc plasma has a strong non-equilibrium characteristic, and the variation is obvious. (authors)
Nonequilibrium shock-heated nitrogen flows using a rovibrational state-to-state method
Panesi, M.; Munafò, A.; Magin, T. E.; Jaffe, R. L.
2014-07-01
A rovibrational collisional model is developed to study the internal energy excitation and dissociation processes behind a strong shock wave in a nitrogen flow. The reaction rate coefficients are obtained from the ab initio database of the NASA Ames Research Center. The master equation is coupled with a one-dimensional flow solver to study the nonequilibrium phenomena encountered in the gas during a hyperbolic reentry into Earth's atmosphere. The analysis of the populations of the rovibrational levels demonstrates how rotational and vibrational relaxation proceed at the same rate. This contrasts with the common misconception that translational and rotational relaxation occur concurrently. A significant part of the relaxation process occurs in non-quasi-steady-state conditions. Exchange processes are found to have a significant impact on the relaxation of the gas, while predissociation has a negligible effect. The results obtained by means of the full rovibrational collisional model are used to assess the validity of reduced order models (vibrational collisional and multitemperature) which are based on the same kinetic database. It is found that thermalization and dissociation are drastically overestimated by the reduced order models. The reasons of the failure differ in the two cases. In the vibrational collisional model the overestimation of the dissociation is a consequence of the assumption of equilibrium between the rotational energy and the translational energy. The multitemperature model fails to predict the correct thermochemical relaxation due to the failure of the quasi-steady-state assumption, used to derive the phenomenological rate coefficient for dissociation.
Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links
Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.
2017-09-01
We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.
Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate
Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał
2017-09-01
We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.
Anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrante, G; Zarcone, M; Uryupin, S A
2005-01-01
A concise overview of a number of anomalous properties of hot dense nonequilibrium plasmas is given. The possibility of quasistationary megagauss magnetic field generation due to Weibel instability is discussed for plasmas created in atom tunnel ionization. The collisionless absorption and reflection of a test electromagnetic wave normally impinging on the plasma with two-temperature bi-maxwellian electron velocity distribution function are studied. Due to the wave magnetic field influence on the electron kinetics in the skin layer the wave absorption and reflection significantly depend on the degree of the electron temperature anisotropy. The linearly polarized impinging wave during reflection transforms into an elliptically polarized one. The problem of transmission of an ultrashort laser pulse through a layer of dense plasma, formed as a result of ionization of a thin foil, is considered. It is shown that the strong photoelectron distribution anisotropy yields an anomalous penetration of the wave field through the foil
Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis
Landry, John Gary
1995-01-01
Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida
Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....
Nonequilibrium mesoscopic transport: a genealogy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Mukunda P; Green, Frederick
2012-01-01
Models of nonequilibrium quantum transport underpin all modern electronic devices, from the largest scales to the smallest. Past simplifications such as coarse graining and bulk self-averaging served well to understand electronic materials. Such particular notions become inapplicable at mesoscopic dimensions, edging towards the truly quantum regime. Nevertheless a unifying thread continues to run through transport physics, animating the design of small-scale electronic technology: microscopic conservation and nonequilibrium dissipation. These fundamentals are inherent in quantum transport and gain even greater and more explicit experimental meaning in the passage to atomic-sized devices. We review their genesis, their theoretical context, and their governing role in the electronic response of meso- and nanoscopic systems. (topical review)
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics ensemble method
Eu, Byung Chan
1998-01-01
In this monograph, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics is developed by means of ensemble methods on the basis of the Boltzmann equation, the generic Boltzmann equations for classical and quantum dilute gases, and a generalised Boltzmann equation for dense simple fluids The theories are developed in forms parallel with the equilibrium Gibbs ensemble theory in a way fully consistent with the laws of thermodynamics The generalised hydrodynamics equations are the integral part of the theory and describe the evolution of macroscopic processes in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics of systems far removed from equilibrium Audience This book will be of interest to researchers in the fields of statistical mechanics, condensed matter physics, gas dynamics, fluid dynamics, rheology, irreversible thermodynamics and nonequilibrium phenomena
Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.
Allahverdyan, A E
2014-09-01
The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.
Marcia Pinheiro
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique. Because a...
Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallace, D.C.
1985-07-01
The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed
Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saida, Hiromi
2007-01-01
We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate
Thermochemical nonequilibrium analysis of O2+Ar based on state-resolved kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jae Gang; Boyd, Iain D.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermochemical nonequilibrium studies for three lowest lying electronic states of O 2 . • The complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rates of O 2 +Ar. • Rovibrational relaxations and coupled chemical reactions of O 2 . • Nonequilibrium reaction rates of O 2 derived from the quasi-steady state assumption. - Abstract: The thermochemical nonequilibrium of the three lowest lying electronic states of molecular oxygen, O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ,a 1 Δ g ,b 1 Σ g + ), through interactions with argon is studied in the present work. The multi-body potential energy surfaces of O 2 +Ar are evaluated from the semi-classical RKR potential of O 2 in each electronic state. The rovibrational states and energies of each electronic state are calculated by the quantum mechanical method based on the present inter-nuclear potential of O 2 . Then, the complete sets of the rovibrational state-to-state transition rate coefficients of O 2 +Ar are calculated by the quasi-classical trajectory method including the quasi-bound states. The system of master equations constructed by the present state-to-state transition rate coefficients are solved to analyze the thermochemical nonequilibrium of O 2 +Ar in various heat bath conditions. From these studies, it is concluded that the vibrational relaxation and coupled chemical reactions of each electronic state needs to be treated as a separate nonequilibrium process, and rotational nonequilibrium needs to be considered at translational temperatures above 10,000 K
Non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dean, David S
2012-01-01
We discuss non-equilibrium aspects of fluctuation-induced interactions. While the equilibrium behavior of such interactions has been extensively studied and is relatively well understood, the study of these interactions out of equilibrium is relatively new. We discuss recent results on the non-equilibrium behavior of systems whose dynamics is of the dissipative stochastic type and identify a number of outstanding problems concerning non-equilibrium fluctuation-induced interactions.
A Study of Translation Institutional Ethics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LuoXianfeng; ZhouJin
2017-01-01
Traditional translation ethics characterized by translators' ethics cannot provide a strong moral support to the translation practice,or guarantee the moral requirement towards translation activities in the social transformation caused by the market economy,because it does not have the power of punishment.Translation institutional ethics,however,a new form of translation ethics,integrates the translation ethic norm,translation regulations and relative laws together.As an inevitable outcome in the new era,it can escort the orderly and healthy translation activities.Its purpose is to strengthen the translators' moral consciousness,to sublimate their moral notions and to transfer from heteronomy to autonomy.
Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merzhanov, A.G.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Sandro
2010-01-01
A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.
Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M
2014-11-07
Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.
Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitrano, Matteo
2015-07-15
The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through
Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua
2014-01-01
Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)
Non-equilibrium phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.M.; Bishop, A.R.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Jensen, N.G.
1998-01-01
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Non-equilibrium phase transitions play a central role in a very broad range of scientific areas, ranging from nuclear, particle, and astrophysics to condensed matter physics and the material and biological sciences. The aim of this project was to explore the path to a deeper and more fundamental understanding of the common physical principles underlying the complex real time dynamics of phase transitions. The main emphasis was on the development of general theoretical tools to deal with non-equilibrium processes, and of numerical methods robust enough to capture the time-evolving structures that occur in actual experimental situations. Specific applications to Laboratory multidivisional efforts in relativistic heavy-ion physics (transition to a new phase of nuclear matter consisting of a quark-gluon plasma) and layered high-temperature superconductors (critical currents and flux flow at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) were undertaken
Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems
Maes, Christian
2018-01-01
This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Kulasegaran-Shylini, Raghavendran; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Frolov, Ilya
2009-04-25
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is one of the most pathogenic members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Viruses in the VEEV serocomplex continuously circulate in the Central and South America. The only currently available attenuated strain VEEV TC-83 is being used only for vaccination of at-risk laboratory workers and military personnel. Its attenuated phenotype was shown to rely only on two point mutations, one of which, G3A, was found in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the viral genome. Our data demonstrate that the G3A mutation strongly affects the secondary structure of VEEV 5'UTR, but has only a minor effect on translation. The indicated mutation increases replication of the viral genome, downregulates transcription of the subgenomic RNA, and, thus, affects the ratio of genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis. These findings and the previously reported G3A-induced, higher sensitivity of VEEV TC-83 to IFN-alpha/beta suggest a plausible explanation for its attenuated phenotype.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.
Design and Synthesis of Nonequilibrium Systems.
Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R; Stoddart, J Fraser; Astumian, R Dean
2015-09-22
The active transport of ions and molecules across cell membranes is essential to creating the concentration gradients that sustain life in all living organisms, be they bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or Homo sapiens. Nature uses active transport everywhere for everything. Molecular biologists have long been attracted to the study of active transport and continue to this day to investigate and elucidate the tertiary structures of the complex motor proteins that sustain it, while physicists, interested in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, have developed theoretical models to describe the driven ratcheting motions that are crucial to its function. The increasingly detailed understanding that contemporary science has acquired relating to active transport, however, has yet to lead to the design and construction of artificial molecular motors capable of employing ratchet-driven motions that can also perform work against concentration gradients. Mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) in the form of pseudo- and semirotaxanes are showing some encouraging signs in meeting these goals. This review summarizes recent progress in making artificial molecular motors that can perform work by "pumping" tetracationic rings into high-energy states. The launching pad is a bistable [2]rotaxane whose dumbbell component contains two electron-donating recognition sites, one, a tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) unit, which interacts more strongly with the ring component, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT(4+)), containing two electron-accepting bipyridinium units, than does the other 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit. Switching can be induced electrochemically by oxidizing the TTF unit to a TTF(•+) radical cation, whereupon Coulombic repulsion takes care of moving the ring to the DNP unit. Reduction of the radical cation resets the switch. Molecular switches operate at, or close to, equilibrium. Any work done during one switching event is undone during the reset. Molecular motors, on the
INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas
Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana
2009-07-01
This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagao, M
1982-04-01
Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.
Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes
Keizer, Joel
1987-01-01
The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.
Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S
2005-06-01
In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.
Kothari, Rita
2014-01-01
The cultural universe of urban, English-speaking middle class in India shows signs of growing inclusiveness as far as English is concerned. This phenomenon manifests itself in increasing forms of bilingualism (combination of English and one Indian language) in everyday forms of speech - advertisement jingles, bilingual movies, signboards, and of course conversations. It is also evident in the startling prominence of Indian Writing in English and somewhat less visibly, but steadily rising, activity of English translation from Indian languages. Since the eighties this has led to a frenetic activity around English translation in India's academic and literary circles. Kothari makes this very current phenomenon her chief concern in Translating India. The study covers aspects such as the production, reception and marketability of English translation. Through an unusually multi-disciplinary approach, this study situates English translation in India amidst local and global debates on translation, representation an...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus
2018-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...
Link prediction based on nonequilibrium cooperation effect
Li, Lanxi; Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui
2018-04-01
Link prediction in complex networks has become a common focus of many researchers. But most existing methods concentrate on neighbors, and rarely consider degree heterogeneity of two endpoints. Node degree represents the importance or status of endpoints. We describe the large-degree heterogeneity as the nonequilibrium between nodes. This nonequilibrium facilitates a stable cooperation between endpoints, so that two endpoints with large-degree heterogeneity tend to connect stably. We name such a phenomenon as the nonequilibrium cooperation effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a link prediction method based on the nonequilibrium cooperation effect to improve accuracy. Theoretical analysis will be processed in advance, and at the end, experiments will be performed in 12 real-world networks to compare the mainstream methods with our indices in the network through numerical analysis.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1992-08-01
Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments
Non-equilibrium dog-flea model
Ackerson, Bruce J.
2017-11-01
We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.
Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2016-01-01
We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....
Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauser, R.
1995-11-01
The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)
Integer channels in nonuniform non-equilibrium 2D systems
Shikin, V.
2018-01-01
We discuss the non-equilibrium properties of integer channels in nonuniform 2D electron (hole) systems in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The results are applied to a qualitative explanation of the Corbino disk current-voltage characteristics (IVC) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. Special consideration is paid to the so-called "QHE breakdown" effect, which is readily observed in both the Hall bar and Corbino geometries of the tested cells. The QHE breakdown is especially evident in the Corbino samples, allowing for a more in-depth study of these effects.
Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma
Blankson, Isaiah M.
2016-01-01
Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).
Appelo, Lisette; Janssen, Theo; Jong, de F.M.G.; Landsbergen, S.P.J.
1994-01-01
This book provides an in-depth review of machine translation by discussing in detail a particular method, called compositional translation, and a particular system, Rosetta, which is based on this method. The Rosetta project is a unique combination of fundamental research and large-scale
Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)
2016-07-15
This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.
X-RAY SIGNATURES OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS IN GALAXY CLUSTER ACCRETION SHOCK REGIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Ka-Wah; Sarazin, Craig L.; Ji Li
2011-01-01
The densities in the outer regions of clusters of galaxies are very low, and the collisional timescales are very long. As a result, heavy elements will be under-ionized after they have passed through the accretion shock. We have studied systematically the effects of non-equilibrium ionization for relaxed clusters in the ΛCDM cosmology using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium ionization effects do not depend on cluster mass, but depend strongly on redshift which can be understood by self-similar scaling arguments. The effects are stronger for clusters at lower redshifts. We present X-ray signatures such as surface brightness profiles and emission lines in detail for a massive cluster at low redshift. In general, soft emission (0.3-1.0 keV) is enhanced significantly by under-ionization, and the enhancement can be nearly an order of magnitude near the shock radius. The most prominent non-equilibrium ionization signature we found is the O VII and O VIII line ratio. The ratios for non-equilibrium ionization and collisional ionization equilibrium models are different by more than an order of magnitude at radii beyond half of the shock radius. These non-equilibrium ionization signatures are equally strong for models with different non-adiabatic shock electron heating efficiencies. We have also calculated the detectability of the O VII and O VIII lines with the future International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Depending on the line ratio measured, we conclude that an exposure of ∼130-380 ks on a moderate-redshift, massive regular cluster with the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) on the IXO will be sufficient to provide a strong test for the non-equilibrium ionization model.
Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes
Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina
2009-01-01
This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.
Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.
2007-06-01
range of topics with the common thread of non- equilibrium phenomena playing a major part in the basic physics and also in the technological applications. The universal symbol of non-equilibrium phenomena is Maxwell's demon and it was selected, as designed by Professor Rastko Ćirić (of Belgrade's University for Fine Arts), to be the symbol of the conference. In plasma physics, the field is usually divided between equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasmas. The advantage of studying plasmas in thermal equilibrium is that they may be described by universal laws, such as Saha and Boltzmann equations. The only problem is that, apart from the very early stages in the development of the universe, such plasmas do not exist, although there are plasmas that come very close and at least satisfy the thermal laws locally. Non-equilibrium plasmas have laws unique to each situation and studies of their idiosyncrasies continue to provide a lot of food for thought for scientists, possibilities for applications and job opportunities. Or as Tolstoy wrote, `Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way?'. So, while making analogy of the non-equilibrium with the lack of happiness may sound discouraging, the scientists who try to observe these phenomena (like psychologists in the case of families) have plenty to study and are, therefore, likely to be happy. At the same time non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the atmosphere are extremely important. A fact we should be aware of every time we use an integrated circuit manufactured after the late 1970s or whenever weather changes, wind blows and pollution is carried in from some distant locations. This volume starts with a paper by D Batani (Milano, Italy) on shock waves, an example of plasmas that may be locally thermal but display very strong gradients, M Pinheiro (Lisboa, Portugal) contributed an article on anomalous diffusion in magnetized plasmas, a problem that has been addressed in the literature
One-loop calculation in time-dependent non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umezawa, H.; Yamanaka, Y.
1989-01-01
This paper is a review on the structure of thermo field dynamics (TFD) in which the basic concepts such as the thermal doublets, the quasi-particles and the self-consistent renormalization are presented in detail. A strong emphasis is put on the computational scheme. A detailed structure of this scheme is illustrated by the one-loop calculation in a non-equilibrium time-dependent process. A detailed account of the one-loop calculation has never been reported anywhere. The role of the self-consistent renormalization is explained. The equilibrium TFD is obtained as the long-time limit of non-equilibrium TFD. (author)
Binary translation using peephole translation rules
Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex
2010-05-04
An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.
Modelling Thomson scattering for systems with non-equilibrium electron distributions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chapman D.A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of non-equilibrium electron distributions in the analysis of Thomson scattering for a range of conditions of interest to inertial confinement fusion experiments. Firstly, a generalised one-component model based on quantum statistical theory is given in the random phase approximation (RPA. The Chihara expression for electron-ion plasmas is then adapted to include the new non-equilibrium electron physics. The theoretical scattering spectra for both diffuse and dense plasmas in which non-equilibrium electron distributions are expected to arise are considered. We find that such distributions strongly influence the spectra and are hence an important consideration for accurately determining the plasma conditions.
Generic finite size scaling for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states
de Oliveira, M. M.; da Luz, M. G. E.; Fiore, C. E.
2015-12-01
Based on quasistationary distribution ideas, a general finite size scaling theory is proposed for discontinuous nonequilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states. Analogously to the equilibrium case, we show that quantities such as response functions, cumulants, and equal area probability distributions all scale with the volume, thus allowing proper estimates for the thermodynamic limit. To illustrate these results, five very distinct lattice models displaying nonequilibrium transitions—to single and infinitely many absorbing states—are investigated. The innate difficulties in analyzing absorbing phase transitions are circumvented through quasistationary simulation methods. Our findings (allied to numerical studies in the literature) strongly point to a unifying discontinuous phase transition scaling behavior for equilibrium and this important class of nonequilibrium systems.
NON-EQUILIBRIUM HELIUM IONIZATION IN AN MHD SIMULATION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit
2016-01-01
The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyα and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wavefronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behavior with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. Comparison of DEM curves computed from our models shows that non-equilibrium ionization leads to more radiating material in the temperature range 11–18 kK, compared to models with LTE helium ionization. We conclude that non-equilibrium helium ionization is important for the dynamics and thermal structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region. It might also help resolve the problem that intensities of chromospheric lines computed from current models are smaller than those observed
Sobolev, S. L.
2018-02-01
Some analogies between different nonequilibrium heat conduction models, particularly random walk, the discrete variable model, and the Boltzmann transport equation with the single relaxation time approximation, have been discussed. We show that, under an assumption of a finite value of the heat carrier velocity, these models lead to the hyperbolic heat conduction equation and the modified Fourier law with relaxation term. Corresponding effective temperature and entropy have been introduced and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the effective temperature, defined as a geometric mean of the kinetic temperatures of the heat carriers moving in opposite directions, acts as a criterion for thermalization and is a nonlinear function of the kinetic temperature and heat flux. It is shown that, under highly nonequilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature, heat capacity, and local entropy go to zero even at a nonzero equilibrium temperature. This provides a possible generalization of the third law to nonequilibrium situations. Analogies and differences between the proposed effective temperature and some other definitions of a temperature in nonequilibrium state, particularly for active systems, disordered semiconductors under electric field, and adiabatic gas flow, have been shown and discussed. Illustrative examples of the behavior of the effective temperature and entropy during nonequilibrium heat conduction in a monatomic gas and a strong shockwave have been analyzed.
Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.
Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin
2016-03-01
Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.
Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.
1984-01-01
A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.
Exploring the nonequilibrium dynamics of ultracold quantum gases by using numerical tools
Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian
Numerical tools such as exact diagonalization or the density matrix renormalization group method have been vital for the study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. Moreover, they provided unique insight for the interpretation of quantum gas experiments, whenever a direct comparison with theory is possible. By considering the example of the experiment by Ronzheimer et al., in which both an interaction quench and the release of bosons from a trap into an empty optical lattice (sudden expansion) was realized, I discuss several nonequilibrium effects of strongly interacting quantum gases. These include the thermalization of a closed quantum system and its connection to the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, nonequilibrium mass transport, dynamical fermionization, and transient phenomena such as quantum distillation or dynamical quasicondensation. I highlight the role of integrability in giving rise to ballistic transport in strongly interacting 1D systems and in determining the asymptotic state after a quantum quench. The talk concludes with a perspective on open questions concerning 2D systems and the numerical simulation of their nonequilibrium dynamics. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 801.
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows
Mauri, Roberto
2013-01-01
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...
Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective
Livi, Roberto
2017-01-01
Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications
Todd, Billy D
2017-01-01
Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines
Salazar, Domingos S. P.
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.
Salazar, Domingos S P
2017-08-01
In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
Linking Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Glass-Forming Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mauro, John C.; Guo, Xiaoju; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup
, we show that the nonequilibrium glassy dynamics are intimately connected with the equilibrium liquid dynamics. This is accomplished by deriving a new functional form for the thermal history dependence of nonequilibrium viscosity, which is validated against experimental measurements of industrial...
Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehrafarin, M.
1992-09-01
A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs
On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timofeev, A. V.
2012-01-01
The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.
Two-temperature chemically non-equilibrium modelling of an air supersonic ICP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Morsli, Mbark; Proulx, Pierre [Laboratoire de Modelisation de Procedes Chimiques par Ordinateur Oppus, Departement de Genie Chimique, Universite de Sherbrooke (Ciheam) J1K 2R1 (Canada)
2007-08-21
In this work, a non-equilibrium mathematical model for an air inductively coupled plasma torch with a supersonic nozzle is developed without making thermal and chemical equilibrium assumptions. Reaction rate equations are written, and two coupled energy equations are used, one for the calculation of the translational-rotational temperature T{sub hr} and one for the calculation of the electro-vibrational temperature T{sub ev}. The viscous dissipation is taken into account in the translational-rotational energy equation. The electro-vibrational energy equation also includes the pressure work of the electrons, the Ohmic heating power and the exchange due to elastic collision. Higher order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method are used to obtain better accuracy for transport properties, taking advantage of the most recent sets of collisions integrals available in the literature. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using a chemical equilibrium model and a one-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model. The influence of the power and the pressure chamber on the chemical and thermal non-equilibrium is investigated.
Characterization of nonequilibrium states of trapped Bose–Einstein condensates
Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.
2018-06-01
The generation of different nonequilibrium states in trapped Bose–Einstein condensates is studied by numerically solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Inducing nonequilibrium states by shaking a trap creates the following states: weak nonequilibrium, the state of vortex germs, the state of vortex rings, the state of straight vortex lines, the state of deformed vortices, vortex turbulence, grain turbulence, and wave turbulence. A characterization of nonequilibrium states is advanced by introducing effective temperature, Fresnel number, and Mach number.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic models and applications to hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, K.Y.
1988-01-01
A generalized multithermal equilibrium (GMTE) thermodynamic model is developed and presented with applications to hydrogen. A new chemical equilibrium equation for GMTE is obtained without the ensemble temperature concept, used by a previous MTE model. The effects of the GMTE model on the derivation and calculation of the thermodynamic, transport, and radiative properties are presented and significant differences from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and two temperature model are discussed. When the electron translational temperature (T e ) is higher than the translational temperature of the heavy particles, the effects of hydrogen molecular species to the properties are significant at high T e compared with LTE results. The density variations of minor species are orders of magnitude with kinetic nonequilibrium at a constant electron temperature. A collisional-radiative model is also developed with the GMTE chemical equilibrium equation to study the effects of radiative transfer and the ambipolar diffusion on the population distribution of the excited atoms. The nonlocal radiative transfer effect is parameterized by an absorption factor, which is defined as a ratio of the absorbed intensity to the spontaneous emission coefficient
Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.
Melby, Alan
1996-01-01
Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…
Wall ablation of heated compound-materials into non-equilibrium discharge plasmas
Wang, Weizong; Kong, Linghan; Geng, Jinyue; Wei, Fuzhi; Xia, Guangqing
2017-02-01
The discharge properties of the plasma bulk flow near the surface of heated compound-materials strongly affects the kinetic layer parameters modeled and manifested in the Knudsen layer. This paper extends the widely used two-layer kinetic ablation model to the ablation controlled non-equilibrium discharge due to the fact that the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation is often violated as a result of the interaction between the plasma and solid walls. Modifications to the governing set of equations, to account for this effect, are derived and presented by assuming that the temperature of the electrons deviates from that of the heavy particles. The ablation characteristics of one typical material, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are calculated with this improved model. The internal degrees of freedom as well as the average particle mass and specific heat ratio of the polyatomic vapor, which strongly depends on the temperature, pressure and plasma non-equilibrium degree and plays a crucial role in the accurate determination of the ablation behavior by this model, are also taken into account. Our assessment showed the significance of including such modifications related to the non-equilibrium effect in the study of vaporization of heated compound materials in ablation controlled arcs. Additionally, a two-temperature magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model accounting for the thermal non-equilibrium occurring near the wall surface is developed and applied into an ablation-dominated discharge for an electro-thermal chemical launch device. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the non-equilibrium plasma and the solid propellant surface. Both the mass exchange process caused by the wall ablation and plasma species deposition as well as the associated momentum and energy exchange processes are taken into account. A detailed comparison of the results of the non-equilibrium model with those of an equilibrium model is presented. The non-equilibrium results
Non-equilibrium dynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langen, T.
2013-01-01
Understanding the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems is an open problem on vastly different energy, length, and time scales. Examples range from the dynamics of the early universe and heavy-ion collisions to the subtle coherence and transport properties in condensed matter physics. However, realizations of such quantum many-body systems, which are both well isolated from the environment and accessible to experimental study are scarce. This thesis presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases. These gases combine a nearly perfect isolation from the environment with many well-established methods to manipulate and probe their quantum states. This makes them an ideal model system to explore the physics of quantum many body systems out of equilibrium. In the experiments, a well-defined non-equilibrium state is created by splitting a single one-dimensional gas coherently into two parts. The relaxation of this state is probed using matter-wave interferometry. The Observations reveal the emergence of a prethermalized steady state which differs strongly from thermal equilibrium. Such thermal-like states had previously been predicted for a large variety of systems, but never been observed directly. Studying the relaxation process in further detail shows that the thermal correlations of the prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate through the system in a light-cone-like evolution. This provides first experimental evidence for the local relaxation conjecture, which links relaxation processes in quantum many-body systems to the propagation of correlations. Furthermore, engineering the initial state of the evolution demonstrates that the prethermalized state is described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble, an observation which substantiates the importance of this ensemble as an extension of standard statistical mechanics. Finally, an experiment is presented, where pairs of gases with an atom
Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.
Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F
2013-07-28
It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other
The photon Green's function for bounded media: Splitting property and nonequilibrium radiation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, F; Semkat, D; Henneberger, K
2010-01-01
The presence of a medium boundary has been a major obstacle for the theoretical description of the propagation, emission and absorption of light due to the loss of translational invariance. We present a nonequilibrium photon Green's function theory that is valid for bounded (i.e., spatially inhomogeneous) media systems and also yields an energy flow law which can be seen as a generalization of the Kirchhoff and Planck laws to nonequilibrium. With the help of this law, we discuss mechanisms of emission and optical signatures of quantum condensates. An important finding is that the D>< components of the photon GF, which describe field-field fluctuations, decompose universally into two parts related to medium kinetics and external light sources. Thanks to their specific structure, the propagation of arbitrary (even nonclassical) light can be analyzed straightforwardly. These properties are used to demonstrate the energy flux and scattering of squeezed light incident on the medium.
Quantum distribution function of nonequilibrium system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogo, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Yasushi.
1990-03-01
A path integral representation is derived for the Wigner distribution function of a nonequilibrium system coupled with heat bath. Under appropriate conditions, the Wigner distribution function approaches an equilibrium distribution, which manifests shifting and broadening of spectral lines due to the interaction with heat bath. It is shown that the equilibrium distribution becomes the quantum canonical distribution in the vanishing coupling constant limit. (author)
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics
Bikkin, Halid
2014-01-01
This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.
Introduction to the nonequilibrium functional renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berges, J.; Mesterházy, D.
2012-01-01
In these lectures we introduce the functional renormalization group out of equilibrium. While in thermal equilibrium typically a Euclidean formulation is adequate, nonequilibrium properties require real-time descriptions. For quantum systems specified by a given density matrix at initial time, a generating functional for real-time correlation functions can be written down using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path. This can be used to construct a nonequilibrium functional renormalization group along similar lines as for Euclidean field theories in thermal equilibrium. Important differences include the absence of a fluctuation-dissipation relation for general out-of-equilibrium situations. The nonequilibrium renormalization group takes on a particularly simple form at a fixed point, where the corresponding scale-invariant system becomes independent of the details of the initial density matrix. We discuss some basic examples, for which we derive a hierarchy of fixed point solutions with increasing complexity from vacuum and thermal equilibrium to nonequilibrium. The latter solutions are then associated to the phenomenon of turbulence in quantum field theory.
Generators of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dautov, G.Yu.
1988-01-01
Results are described of a study and of the characteristics of sources of a non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma. The plasma generators considered include glow, high frequency, and arc discharge generators. Thermodynamic, ionic, and electronic processes occurring in the plasmas are evaluated
Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation
Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R
1997-01-01
There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase
Evolution and non-equilibrium physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo
2014-01-01
We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...
Amplitude oscillations in a non-equilibrium polariton condensate
Brierley, Richard; Littlewood, Peter; Eastham, Paul
2011-03-01
Like cold atomic gases, semiconductor nanostructures provide new opportunities for exploring non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. In semiconductor microcavities the strong coupling between trapped photons and excitons produces new quasiparticles, polaritons, which can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Quantum quenches can be realised by rapidly creating cold exciton populations with a laser [Eastham and Phillips, PRB 79 165303 (2009)]. The mean field theory of non-equilibrium polariton condensates predicts oscillations in the condensate amplitude due to the excitation of a Higgs mode. These oscillations are the analogs of those predicted in quenched cold atomic gases and may occur in the polariton system after performing a quench or by direct excitation of the amplitude mode. We have studied the stability of these oscillations beyond mean field theory. We show that homogeneous amplitude oscillations are unstable to decay into lower energy phase modes at finite wavevectors, suggesting the onset of chaotic behaviour. The resulting hierarchy of decay processes can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators in microcavities. Polariton systems thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the dynamics of Higgs-like modes in a solid state system.
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.
Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain
2015-07-14
We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce
2014-01-01
After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diedrich, Lisa Babette
-specific design are proposed for all actors involved in harbour transformation. The study ends with an invitation to further investigate translation as a powerful metaphor for the way existing qualities of a site can be transformed, rather than erased or rewritten, and to explore how this metaphor can foster new...
Word translation entropy in translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
2016-01-01
This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied....... In particular, the current study investigates the effect of these variables on early and late eye movement measures. Early eye movement measures are indicative of processes that are more automatic while late measures are more indicative of conscious processing. Most studies that found evidence of target...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe Agger
structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study......This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... finds that translation does not necessarily imply transformation of the management idea, pointing instead to aspects of exact imitation and copying of an ”original” idea. It also highlights how translation is likely to involve multiple and successive translation modes and, furthermore, that strongly...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Kussmann
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olwig, Mette Fog
2013-01-01
This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne
2011-01-01
The paper explains the theoretical background and findings of an empirical study of revision policies, using Denmark as a case in point. After an overview of important definitions, types and parameters, the paper explains the methods and data gathered from a questionnaire survey and an interview...... survey. Results clearly show that most translation companies regard both unilingual and comparative revisions as essential components of professional quality assurance. Data indicate that revision is rarely fully comparative, as the preferred procedure seems to be a unilingual revision followed by a more...... or less comparative rereading. Though questionnaire data seem to indicate that translation companies use linguistic correctness and presentation as the only revision parameters, interview data reveal that textual and communicative aspects are also considered. Generally speaking, revision is not carried...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.
2004-01-01
The prediction of two-phase choking flow at low pressure (<1MPa) is much more difficult than at relatively higher pressure due to the large density ratio and relatively large thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium between the phases. At low pressure currently available choking flow models are not reliable and satisfactory. In view of this, separate effect tests were conducted to systematically investigate the effects of mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium on the two-phase choking flow in a pipe. The systematic studies is not available in literature, therefore no clear understanding of these effects has been attained until now. A scaled integral facility called PUMA was used for these tests with specific boundary condition with several unique in-;line instruments. The mechanical non-equilibrium effect was studied with air-water choking flow. Subcooled water two-phase choking flow was studied to identify the effects of mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium. A typical nozzle and orifice were used as the choking flow section to evaluate the degree of non-equilibrium due to geometry. The slip ratio, which is a key parameter to express the mechanical non-equilibrium, is obtained upstream of the choking section in the air-water test. The measured choking mass flux for the nozzle was higher than the orifice at low flow quality (<0.05) for the same upstream flow quality indicating that there is a strong mechanical non-equilibrium at the choking plane. The thermal non-equilibrium effect was very strong at low pressure, however, no major influence of the geometry on this effect was observed. Experimental data were compared with RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2, MOD3.3 beta and TRAC-M code predictions. The code predictions in general were not in agreement with the air-water choking flow test data. This indicated that the mechanical non-equilibrium effects were not properly modeled in the codes. The test data for subcooled water showed moderate decrease of choking mass flux with decrease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
Nonequilibrium Transport through a Spinful Quantum Dot with Superconducting Leads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Brian Møller; Flensberg, Karsten; Koerting, Verena
2011-01-01
We study the nonlinear cotunneling current through a spinful quantum dot contacted by two superconducting leads. Applying a general nonequilibrium Green function formalism to an effective Kondo model, we study the rich variation in the IV characteristics with varying asymmetry in the tunnel...... coupling to source and drain electrodes. The current is found to be carried, respectively, by multiple Andreev reflections in the symmetric limit, and by spin-induced Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states in the strongly asymmetric limit. The interplay between these two mechanisms leads to qualitatively different...... IV characteristics in the crossover regime of intermediate symmetry, consistent with recent experimental observations of negative differential conductance and repositioned conductance peaks in subgap cotunneling spectroscopy....
Non-equilibrium dilepton production in hadronic transport approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staudenmaier, Jan; Weil, Janus; Petersen, Hannah
2017-01-01
In this work the non-equilibrium dilepton production from a hadronic transport approach (SMASH) is presented. The dilepton emission from the hadronic stage is of interest for current HADES results measured at GSI in the beam energy range from 1.25 - 3.5 GeV. Also at high collision energies (RHIC/LHC) the later dilute stages of the reaction are dominated by hadronic dynamics. The newly developed hadronic transport approach called SMASH (=Simulating Many Accelerated Strongly-interacting Hadrons) is introduced first. After explaining the basic interaction mechanisms, a comparison of elementary cross sections for pion production to experimental data is shown. The dilepton production within SMASH is explained in detail. The main contribution to the dilepton spectra in the low energy regime of GSI/FAIR/RHIC-BES originates from resonance decays. Results of the dilepton production with SMASH such as invariant mass spectra are shown. (paper)
Chaotic Dynamical Ferromagnetic Phase Induced by Nonequilibrium Quantum Fluctuations
Lerose, Alessio; Marino, Jamir; Žunkovič, Bojan; Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro
2018-03-01
We investigate the robustness of a dynamical phase transition against quantum fluctuations by studying the impact of a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin interaction in one spatial dimension on the nonequilibrium dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected quantum Ising model. In particular, we focus on the transient dynamics after a quantum quench and study the prethermal state via a combination of analytic time-dependent spin wave theory and numerical methods based on matrix product states. We find that, upon increasing the strength of the quantum fluctuations, the dynamical critical point fans out into a chaotic dynamical phase within which the asymptotic ordering is characterized by strong sensitivity to the parameters and initial conditions. We argue that such a phenomenon is general, as it arises from the impact of quantum fluctuations on the mean-field out of equilibrium dynamics of any system which exhibits a broken discrete symmetry.
Non-equilibrium spin and charge transport in superconducting heterojunctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalmann, Marcel; Rudolf, Marcel; Braun, Julian; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheer, Elke [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)
2015-07-01
Ferromagnet Superconductance (F/S) junctions are rich in exciting quantum-physical-phenomena, which are still poorly understood but may provide bright prospects for new applications. In contrast to conventional normal-metal proximity systems, Andreev reflection is suppressed for singlet cooper pairs in F/S heterostructures. However, long-range triplet pairing may be observed in S/F systems with non-collinear magnetization or spin-active interfaces. Herein, we investigate non-equilibrium transport properties of lateral S/F heterojunctions, defined via electron beam lithography. In particular we focus microwave- and magneto-transport spectroscopy on conventional type-I (Al, Pb, Zn) and type-II (Nb) superconductors in combination with strong transition metal ferromagnets (Ni, Co, Fe). A cryogenic HF readout platform and advanced electronic filtering is developed and results on Al-based heterojunctions are shown.
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Nonequilibrium recombination after a curved shock wave
Wen, Chihyung; Hornung, Hans
2010-02-01
The effect of nonequilibrium recombination after a curved two-dimensional shock wave in a hypervelocity dissociating flow of an inviscid Lighthill-Freeman gas is considered. An analytical solution is obtained with the effective shock values derived by Hornung (1976) [5] and the assumption that the flow is ‘quasi-frozen’ after a thin dissociating layer near the shock. The solution gives the expression of dissociation fraction as a function of temperature on a streamline. A rule of thumb can then be provided to check the validity of binary scaling for experimental conditions and a tool to determine the limiting streamline that delineates the validity zone of binary scaling. The effects on the nonequilibrium chemical reaction of the large difference in free stream temperature between free-piston shock tunnel and equivalent flight conditions are discussed. Numerical examples are presented and the results are compared with solutions obtained with two-dimensional Euler equations using the code of Candler (1988) [10].
Comparing two non-equilibrium approaches to modelling of a free-burning arc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baeva, M; Uhrlandt, D; Benilov, M S; Cunha, M D
2013-01-01
Two models of high-pressure arc discharges are compared with each other and with experimental data for an atmospheric-pressure free-burning arc in argon for arc currents of 20–200 A. The models account for space-charge effects and thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in somewhat different ways. One model considers space-charge effects, thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the near-cathode region and thermal non-equilibrium in the bulk plasma. The other model considers thermal and ionization non-equilibrium in the entire arc plasma and space-charge effects in the near-cathode region. Both models are capable of predicting the arc voltage in fair agreement with experimental data. Differences are observed in the arc attachment to the cathode, which do not strongly affect the near-cathode voltage drop and the total arc voltage for arc currents exceeding 75 A. For lower arc currents the difference is significant but the arc column structure is quite similar and the predicted bulk plasma characteristics are relatively close to each other. (paper)
Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.
Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S
2015-10-01
We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.
Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2013-01-01
We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes
Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication
2011-02-11
polymerases) catalyzing the growth of a DNA primer strand (the nascent chain of nucleotides complementary to the template strand) based on the Watson ...the fraction (error rate) of monomers for which y, where y is the correct Watson - Crick complementary base of , can be obtained by ¼ X...Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication Hyung-June Woo* and Anders Wallqvist Biotechnology High Performance Computing
Nonequilibrium statistical averages and thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinaro, A.; Scarpetta, Q.
1984-01-01
An extension of thermo field dynamics is proposed, which permits the computation of nonequilibrium statistical averages. The Brownian motion of a quantum oscillator is treated as an example. In conclusion it is pointed out that the procedure proposed to computation of time-dependent statistical average gives the correct two-point Green function for the damped oscillator. A simple extension can be used to compute two-point Green functions of free particles
A coupled implicit method for chemical non-equilibrium flows at all speeds
Shuen, Jian-Shun; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Choi, Yunho
1993-01-01
The present time-accurate coupled-solution procedure addresses the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide Mach-number range uses, in conjunction with the strong conservation form of the governing equations, five unknown primitive variables. The numerical tests undertaken address steady convergent-divergent nozzle flows with air dissociation/recombination, dump combustor flows with n-pentane/air chemistry, and unsteady nonreacting cavity flows.
Translational research in medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakir Mehić
2011-05-01
t continue to be regarded as independent disciplines. Integrated training in translational research methods is needed for clinicians, guideline writers, grant awarding bodies, and policy makers, in order to redress current biases in funding and research publications, in order to reflect better the balance of research efforts which are necessary for better assessment of complex evidence-bases, to integrate effective and sensitive interventions with supporting environmental changes, and to encourage continuous improvement of evidence based public policies.[5]There are three major obstacles to effective translational medicine. The first is the challenge of translating basic science discoveries into clinical studies. The second hurdle is the translation of clinical studies into medical practice and health care policy.[6] A third obstacle to effective translational medicine is also philosophical. It is a fact that the available standard therapies for most common diseases are less efficacious than they are believed by the Public to be and significant funds are allocated to maintain this “placebo” effect through standard care. Proportionately, very little is spent to identify truly effective therapies. Finally, it may be a mistake to think that basic science, without observations from the clinic and without epidemiological findings of possible associations between different noxes and disease, will efficiently produce the novel therapies that we are eager to test.To pursue the promotion of translational research, the Editorial Board strongly supports basic scientific work and such that is a combination of basic research and clinical praxis.
Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2018-01-01
We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.
Unifying quantum heat transfer in a nonequilibrium spin-boson model with full counting statistics
Wang, Chen; Ren, Jie; Cao, Jianshu
2017-02-01
To study the full counting statistics of quantum heat transfer in a driven nonequilibrium spin-boson model, we develop a generalized nonequilibrium polaron-transformed Redfield equation with an auxiliary counting field. This enables us to study the impact of qubit-bath coupling ranging from weak to strong regimes. Without external modulations, we observe maximal values of both steady-state heat flux and noise power in moderate coupling regimes, below which we find that these two transport quantities are enhanced by the finite-qubit-energy bias. With external modulations, the geometric-phase-induced heat flux shows a monotonic decrease upon increasing the qubit-bath coupling at zero qubit energy bias (without bias). While under the finite-qubit-energy bias (with bias), the geometric-phase-induced heat flux exhibits an interesting reversal behavior in the strong coupling regime. Our results unify the seemingly contradictory results in weak and strong qubit-bath coupling regimes and provide detailed dissections for the quantum fluctuation of nonequilibrium heat transfer.
Numerical experiments on 2D strongly coupled complex plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Lujing; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E
2010-01-01
The Brownian Dynamics simulation method is briefly reviewed at first and then applied to study some non-equilibrium phenomena in strongly coupled complex plasmas, such as heat transfer processes, shock wave excitation/propagation and particle trapping, by directly mimicking the real experiments.
Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review
Gnesotto, F. S.; Mura, F.; Gladrow, J.; Broedersz, C. P.
2018-06-01
Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems.
Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review.
Gnesotto, F S; Mura, F; Gladrow, J; Broedersz, C P
2018-03-05
Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Doerr, Nicole
2012-01-01
Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...
Lamiell, James T
2013-08-01
Presents a preface from James T. Lamiell, who translates Wilhelm Wundt's Psychology's Struggle for Existence (Die Psychologie im Kampf ums Dasein), in which Wundt advised against the impending divorce of psychology from philosophy, into English. Lamiell comments that more than a decade into the 21st century, it appears that very few psychologists have any interest at all in work at the interface of psychology and philosophy. He notes that one clear indication of this is that the Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, which is Division 24 of the American Psychological Association (APA), remains one of the smallest of the APA's nearly 60 divisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Nonequilibrium 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid monolayers: effect of electrolytes.
Lendrum, Conrad D; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F; McGrath, Kathryn M
2011-04-19
2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position α to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of ∼6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian
2017-01-01
section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...
Advancing non-equilibrium ARPES experiments by a 9.3 eV coherent ultrafast photon source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cilento, F., E-mail: federico.cilento@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Crepaldi, A. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Manzoni, G.; Sterzi, A. [Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Zacchigna, M. [C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Bugnon, Ph.; Berger, H. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parmigiani, F. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); International Faculty, University of Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany)
2016-02-15
The quest for investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of the band structure of strongly-correlated materials over their entire Brillouin zone is a primary objective. However, the actual ultrafast UV light sources are not suitable for addressing several critical questions in the field. Here we report on a novel light source generating sub-250 fs, 9.3 eV photon energy light pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate, obtained via third-harmonic generation in Xe of frequency-doubled 50 fs laser pulses at 1.55 eV. By reporting the measured band dispersion of a Cu(111) crystal and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator, we prove that this source is suitable for studying the non-equilibrium dynamics of the entire Fermi surface of several complex materials, with high signal statistics and limited space-charge effect.
Les Houches Summer School : Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium
Millis, Andrew J; Parcollet, Olivier; Saleur, Hubert; Cugliandolo, Leticia F
2016-01-01
Over the last decade new experimental tools and theoretical concepts are providing new insights into collective nonequilibrium behavior of quantum systems. The exquisite control provided by laser trapping and cooling techniques allows us to observe the behavior of condensed bose and degenerate Fermi gases under nonequilibrium drive or after quenches' in which a Hamiltonian parameter is suddenly or slowly changed. On the solid state front, high intensity short-time pulses and fast (femtosecond) probes allow solids to be put into highly excited states and probed before relaxation and dissipation occur. Experimental developments are matched by progress in theoretical techniques ranging from exact solutions of strongly interacting nonequilibrium models to new approaches to nonequilibrium numerics. The summer school Strongly interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium' held at the Les Houches School of Physics as its XCIX session was designed to summarize this progress, lay out the open questions and define dir...
Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebowitz, J.L.
1987-01-01
This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-01-01
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations
Ódor, Géza
2008-01-01
Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m
Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruschke, Jens
2010-06-16
The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio
A Lagrangian formalism for nonequilibrium ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobouti, Y.
1989-08-01
It is suggested to formulate a nonequilibrium ensemble theory by maximizing a time-integrated entropy constrained by Liouville's equation. This leads to distribution functions of the form f = Z -1 exp(-g/kT), where g(p,q,t) is a solution of Liouville's equation. A further requirement that the entropy should be an additivie functional of the integrals of Liouville's equation, limits the choice of g to linear superpositions of the nonlinearly independent integrals of motion. Time-dependent and time-independent integrals may participate in this superposition. (author). 14 refs
Origins of scaling relations in nonequilibrium growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escudero, Carlos; Korutcheva, Elka
2012-01-01
Scaling and hyperscaling laws provide exact relations among critical exponents describing the behavior of a system at criticality. For nonequilibrium growth models with a conserved drift, there exist few of them. One such relation is α + z = 4, found to be inexact in a renormalization group calculation for several classical models in this field. Herein, we focus on the two-dimensional case and show that it is possible to construct conserved surface growth equations for which the relation α + z = 4 is exact in the renormalization group sense. We explain the presence of this scaling law in terms of the existence of geometric principles dominating the dynamics. (paper)
Teaching at the edge of knowledge: Non-equilibrium statistical physics
Schmittmann, Beate
2007-03-01
As physicists become increasingly interested in biological problems, we frequently find ourselves confronted with complex open systems, involving many interacting constituents and characterized by non-vanishing fluxes of mass or energy. Faced with the task of predicting macroscopic behaviors from microscopic information for these non-equilibrium systems, the familiar Gibbs-Boltzmann framework fails. The development of a comprehensive theoretical characterization of non-equilibrium behavior is one of the key challenges of modern condensed matter physics. In its absence, several approaches have been developed, from master equations to thermostatted molecular dynamics, which provide key insights into the rich and often surprising phenomenology of systems far from equilibrium. In my talk, I will address some of these methods, selecting those that are most relevant for a broad range of interdisciplinary problems from biology to traffic, finance, and sociology. The ``portability'' of these methods makes them valuable for graduate students from a variety of disciplines. To illustrate how different methods can complement each other when probing a problem from, e.g., the life sciences, I will discuss some recent attempts at modeling translation, i.e., the process by which the genetic information encoded on an mRNA is translated into the corresponding protein.
Leaching from MSWI bottom ash: Evaluation of non-equilibrium in column percolation experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas Højlund
2009-01-01
-equilibrium-induced changes in the solubility control. Despite both physical and chemical non-equilibrium, the Columns were found to provide adequate information for readily soluble compounds (i.e., Na, Cl-, and K) and solubility-controlled elements (i.e., Ca, SO42-, Ba, Si, Al, Zn, and Pb). The leaching Of Cu and Ni...... was shown to depend strongly on DOC leaching, which was likely affected by physical non-equilibrium during flow interruptions. Consequently, the leaching of Cu and Ni in the undisturbed Columns Was shown to be by about one order of magnitude lower compared with the interrupted column. The results indicate...... in turn appeared to be controlled by diffusion from the stagnant zone: no Mo controlling minerals were predicted by the geochemical modeling....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haertle, Rainer [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany); Millis, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York (United States)
2016-07-01
We present a new impurity solver for real-time and nonequilibrium dynamical mean field theory applications, based on the recently developed hierarchical quantum master equation approach. Our method employs a hybridization expansion of the time evolution operator, including an advanced, systematic truncation scheme. Convergence to exact results for not too low temperatures has been demonstrated by a direct comparison to quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is time-local, which gives us access to slow dynamics such as, e.g., in the presence of magnetic fields or exchange interactions and to nonequilibrium steady states. Here, we present first results of this new scheme for the description of strongly correlated materials in the framework of dynamical mean field theory, including benchmark and new results for the Hubbard and periodic Anderson model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Shixiao W; Lu, Haihao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2016-01-01
Characterizing dispersive wave turbulence in the long time dynamics is central to understanding of many natural phenomena, e.g., in atmosphere ocean dynamics, nonlinear optics, and plasma physics. Using the β -Fermi–Pasta–Ulam nonlinear system as a prototypical example, we show that in thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium steady state the turbulent state even in the strongly nonlinear regime possesses an effective linear stochastic structure in renormalized normal variables. In this framework, we can well characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics, which are dominated by long-wavelength renormalized waves. We further demonstrate that the energy flux is nearly saturated by the long-wavelength renormalized waves in non-equilibrium steady state. The scenario of such effective linear stochastic dynamics can be extended to study turbulent states in other nonlinear wave systems. (paper)
Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.
2015-01-01
The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.
2000-01-01
Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...
Non-equilibrium spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, V M
2009-01-01
In superconductors, recombination of two non-equilibrium quasiparticles into a Cooper pair results in emission of excitation that mediates superconductivity. This is the basis of the proposed new type of 'non-equilibrium' spectroscopy of high T c superconductors, which may open a possibility for direct and unambiguous determination of the coupling mechanism of high T c superconductivity. In case of low T c superconductors, the feasibility of such the non-equilibrium spectroscopy was demonstrated in classical phonon generation-detection experiments almost four decades ago. Recently it was demonstrated that a similar technique can be used for high T c superconductors, using natural intrinsic Josephson junctions both for injection of non-equilibrium quasiparticles and for detection of the non-equilibrium radiation. Here I analyze theoretically non-equilibrium phenomena in intrinsic Josephson junctions. It is shown that extreme non-equilibrium state can be achieved at bias equal to integer number of the gap voltage, which can lead to laser-like emission from the stack. I argue that identification of the boson type, constituting this non-equilibrium radiation would unambiguously reveal the coupling mechanism of high Tc superconductors.
Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate
Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.
2013-11-01
In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.
Phase transitions in nonequilibrium traffic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, H.M.
2000-02-01
This paper uses the center difference scheme of Lax-Friedrichs to numerically solve a newly developed continuum traffic flow theory and the kinematic theory of Lighthill and Whitham, and Richards, and it studies the flow-concentration phase transitions in flow containing both shock and rarefaction waves. A homogeneous road with finite length was modeled by both theories. Numerical simulations show that both theories yield nearly identical results for two representative Riemann problems--one has a shock solution and the other a rarefaction wave solution. Their phase transition curves, however, are different: those derived from the new theory have two branches--one for acceleration flow and one for deceleration flow, whereas those derived from the LWR theory comprise a single curve--the equilibrium curve. The phase transition curves in the shock case agree well with certain experimental observations but disagree with others. This disagreement may be resolved by studying transitions among nonequilibrium states, which awaits further development of a more accurate finite difference approximation of the nonequilibrium theory.
Depletion of superfluidity in a disordered non-equilibrium quantum condensate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janot, Alexander; Rosenow, Bernd [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, 04009 Leipzig (Germany); Hyart, Timo [Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Eastham, Paul [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2013-07-01
Observations of quantum coherence in driven systems, e.g. polariton condensates, have strongly stimulated experimental as well as theoretical efforts during the last decade. We analyze the superfluid stiffness of a non-equilibrium quantum-condensate in a disordered environment taking gain and loss of particles into account. To this end a modified effective Gross-Pitaevskii equation is employed. We find that the disorder-driven depletion of superfluidity is strongly enhanced due to the gain-loss mechanism. It turns out that the condensate remains stiff at finite length scales only.
Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory
Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael
2017-05-01
Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium metal-ceramic interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Y.; Merkle, K.L.
1992-01-01
Metal-ceramic interfaces in thermodynamic equilibrium (Au/ZrO 2 ) and non-equilibrium (Au/MgO) have been studied by TEM and HREM. In the Au/ZrO 2 system, ZrO 2 precipitates formed by internal oxidation of a 7%Zr-Au alloy show a cubic ZrO 2 phase. It appears that formation of the cubic ZrO 2 is facilitated by alignment with the Au matrix. Most of the ZrO 2 precipitates have a perfect cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the Au matrix. The large number of interfacial steps observed in a short-time annealing experiment indicate that the precipitates are formed by the ledge growth mechanism. The lowest interfacial energy is indicated by the dominance of closed-packed [111] Au/ZrO 2 interfaces. In the Au/MgO system, composite films with small MgO smoke particles embedded in a Au matrix were prepared by a thin film technique. HREM observations show that most of the Au/MgO interfaces have a strong tendency to maintain a dense lattice structure across the interfaces irrespective of whether the interfaces are incoherent or semi-coherent. This paper reports that this indicates that there may be a relatively strong bond between MgO and Au
Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.
1995-01-01
The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) under non-equilibrium conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oberthur, R.C.
1984-01-01
The use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) for the study of systems under non-equilibrium conditions is illustrated by three types of experiments in the field of polymer research: - the relaxation of a system from an initial non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium, - the cyclic or repetitive installation of a series of non-equilibrium states in a system, - the steady non-equilibrium state maintained by a constant dissipation of energy within the system. Characteristic times obtained in these experiments with SANS are compared with the times obtained from quasi-elastic neutron and light scattering, which yield information about the equilibrium dynamics of the system. The limits of SANS applied to non-equilibrium systems for the measurement of relaxation times at different length scales are shown and compared to the limits of quasielastic neutron and light scattering
Ebola: translational science considerations.
Chiappelli, Francesco; Bakhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Manfrini, Ercolano; Piva, Francesco; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Maida, Carl A
2015-01-16
We are currently in the midst of the most aggressive and fulminating outbreak of Ebola-related disease, commonly referred to as "Ebola", ever recorded. In less than a year, the Ebola virus (EBOV, Zaire ebolavirus species) has infected over 10,000 people, indiscriminately of gender or age, with a fatality rate of about 50%. Whereas at its onset this Ebola outbreak was limited to three countries in West Africa (Guinea, where it was first reported in late March 2014, Liberia, where it has been most rampant in its capital city, Monrovia and other metropolitan cities, and Sierra Leone), cases were later reported in Nigeria, Mali and Senegal, as well as in Western Europe (i.e., Madrid, Spain) and the US (i.e., Dallas, Texas; New York City) by late October 2014. World and US health agencies declared that the current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has a strong likelihood of growing exponentially across the world before an effective vaccine, treatment or cure can be developed, tested, validated and distributed widely. In the meantime, the spread of the disease may rapidly evolve from an epidemics to a full-blown pandemic. The scientific and healthcare communities actively research and define an emerging kaleidoscope of knowledge about critical translational research parameters, including the virology of EBOV, the molecular biomarkers of the pathological manifestations of EVD, putative central nervous system involvement in EVD, and the cellular immune surveillance to EBOV, patient-centered anthropological and societal parameters of EVD, as well as translational effectiveness about novel putative patient-targeted vaccine and pharmaceutical interventions, which hold strong promise, if not hope, to curb this and future Ebola outbreaks. This work reviews and discusses the principal known facts about EBOV and EVD, and certain among the most interesting ongoing or future avenues of research in the field, including vaccination programs for the wild animal vectors of the virus
Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Einfeld, D.
1975-01-01
Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de
Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, J.C.M. de.
1986-01-01
This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)
Landau superfluids as nonequilibrium stationary states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wreszinski, Walter F.
2015-01-01
We define a superfluid state to be a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS), which, at zero temperature, satisfies certain metastability conditions, which physically express that there should be a sufficiently small energy-momentum transfer between the particles of the fluid and the surroundings (e.g., pipe). It is shown that two models, the Girardeau model and the Huang-Yang-Luttinger (HYL) model, describe superfluids in this sense and, moreover, that, in the case of the HYL model, the metastability condition is directly related to Nozières’ conjecture that, due to the repulsive interaction, the condensate does not suffer fragmentation into two (or more) parts, thereby assuring its quantum coherence. The models are rigorous examples of NESS in which the system is not finite, but rather a many-body system
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-11-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound.
Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki
2013-01-01
We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)
Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Driven Disordered Materials
Bouchbinder, Eran
2011-03-01
We present a nonequilibrium thermodynamic framework for describing the dynamics of driven disordered solids (noncrystalline solids near and below their glass temperature, soft glassy materials such as colloidal suspensions and heavily dislocated polycrystalline solids). A central idea in our approach is that the set of mechanically stable configurations, i.e. the part of the system that is described by inherent structures, evolves slowly as compared to thermal vibrations and is characterized by an effective disorder temperature. Our thermodynamics-motivated equations of motion for the flow of energy and entropy are supplemented by coarse-grained internal variables that carry information about the relevant microscopic physics. Applications of this framework to amorphous visco-plasticity (Shear-Transformation-Zone theory), glassy memory effects (the Kovacs effect) and dislocation-mediated polycrystalline plasticity will be briefly discussed.
Non-equilibrium quantum heat machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alicki, Robert; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David
2015-01-01
Standard heat machines (engine, heat pump, refrigerator) are composed of a system (working fluid) coupled to at least two equilibrium baths at different temperatures and periodically driven by an external device (piston or rotor) sometimes called the work reservoir. The aim of this paper is to go beyond this scheme by considering environments which are stationary but cannot be decomposed into a few baths at thermal equilibrium. Such situations are important, for example in solar cells, chemical machines in biology, various realizations of laser cooling or nanoscopic machines driven by laser radiation. We classify non-equilibrium baths depending on their thermodynamic behavior and show that the efficiency of heat machines powered by them is limited by the generalized Carnot bound. (paper)
MMS two-phase nonequilibrium pressurizer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, S.J.; Sursock, J.P.
1987-01-01
The pressurizer of a nuclear steam supply system establishes and maintains the nuclear plant primary loop pressure within the prescribed limit. It is a vertical cylindrical vessel which provides a water reserve and a steam surge chamber to accommodate coolant density changes during operation. To adjust the pressure to a desired value, electric heaters are provided in its lower section and the spray nozzles are provided in its upper section. Also, to protect against the buildup of the excess pressure, the pressurizer has two different types of relief valves, i.e., power operated relief valve and the safety relief valve. The pressurizer model implemented to the MMS is described in detail. In particular, the handling of the nonequilibrium condition, surgeline CCFL (Counter-current Flooding Limitation), and the level tracking model are described in detail. Next, the simulation of the Shippingport pressurizer load drop test is reported
Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J
2015-04-01
We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.
Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.
2004-01-01
Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal
Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian
2017-01-01
/Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...... technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation...
Radiation accompanied by self absorption in nonequilibrium argon plasma flow in a circular tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirai, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Katsuine; Koaizawa, Hisashi.
1983-01-01
In high temperature, nonequilibrium plasma flow, generally strong radiation arises, but the radiation phenomena are complicated by the thermo-chemical nonequilibrium of gas and the self absorption in light path, accordingly it is important to correctly understand and estimate their effects. In this research, for the radiation from the argon afterglow plasma flow with large nonequilibrium property in a circular tube, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out taking the self absorption in consideration. Experimentally, the absolute intensity distribution of the radiated spectrum lines was measured from outside of the tube, and converted to the true radial distribution of atom number density at excited level using the mathematical conversion theory for the radiation accompanied by absorption of Elder et al. Theoretically, the radial distributions of electron temperature, electron density and atom temperature measured in the tube were applied to the collision-radiation process model including self absorption, and the distribution of the atom number density at excited level was calculated. Fairly good agreement was obtained between both results, and it was found that the consideration of self absorption was important. The theory, the experiment, the numerical examination of a number of physical quantities and the simplification of the theory, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)
Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich
2016-07-27
An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.
Physical mechanism for biopolymers to aggregate and maintain in non-equilibrium states.
Ma, Wen-Jong; Hu, Chin-Kun
2017-06-08
Many human or animal diseases are related to aggregation of proteins. A viable biological organism should maintain in non-equilibrium states. How protein aggregate and why biological organisms can maintain in non-equilibrium states are not well understood. As a first step to understand such complex systems problems, we consider simple model systems containing polymer chains and solvent particles. The strength of the spring to connect two neighboring monomers in a polymer chain is controlled by a parameter s with s → ∞ for rigid-bond. The strengths of bending and torsion angle dependent interactions are controlled by a parameter s A with s A → -∞ corresponding to no bending and torsion angle dependent interactions. We find that for very small s A , polymer chains tend to aggregate spontaneously and the trend is independent of the strength of spring. For strong springs, the speed distribution of monomers in the parallel (along the direction of the spring to connect two neighboring monomers) and perpendicular directions have different effective temperatures and such systems are in non-equilibrium states.
Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons
Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael
The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.
Nonequilibrium quantum solvation with a time-dependent Onsager cavity
Kirchberg, H.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2018-04-01
We formulate a theory of nonequilibrium quantum solvation in which parameters of the solvent are explicitly depending on time. We assume in a simplest approach a spherical molecular Onsager cavity with a time-dependent radius. We analyze the relaxation properties of a test molecular point dipole in a dielectric solvent and consider two cases: (i) a shrinking Onsager sphere and (ii) a breathing Onsager sphere. Due to the time-dependent solvent, the frequency-dependent response function of the dipole becomes time-dependent. For a shrinking Onsager sphere, the dipole relaxation is in general enhanced. This is reflected in a temporally increasing linewidth of the absorptive part of the response. Furthermore, the effective frequency-dependent response function shows two peaks in the absorptive part which are symmetrically shifted around the eigenfrequency. By contrast, a breathing sphere reduces damping as compared to the static sphere. Interestingly, we find a non-monotonous dependence of the relaxation rate on the breathing rate and a resonant suppression of damping when both rates are comparable. Moreover, the linewidth of the absorptive part of the response function is strongly reduced for times when the breathing sphere reaches its maximal extension.
Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter
2018-03-01
Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okumura, M; Onishi, H; Yamada, S; Machida, M, E-mail: okumura@riken.j
2010-11-01
We study non-equilibrium properties of one-dimensional Hubbard model by the density-matrix renormalization-group method. First, we demonstrate stability of 'doublon', which characterized by double occupation on a site due to the integrability of the model. Next, we present a kind of anomalous transport caused by the doublons created under strong non-equilibrium conditions in an optical lattice system regarded as an ideal testbed to investigate fundamental properties of the Hubbard model. Finally, we give a result on development of the pair correlation function in a strong non-equilibrium condition. This can be understood as a development of coherence among many excited doublons.
Nonequilibrium radiation behind a strong shock wave in CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rond, C. [Universite de Provence - IUSTI, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13013 (France)], E-mail: rond@coria.fr; Boubert, P.; Felio, J.-M.; Chikhaoui, A. [Universite de Provence - IUSTI, 5 rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13013 (France)
2007-11-09
This work presents experiments reproducing plasma re-entry for one trajectory point of a Martian mission. The typical facility to investigate such hypersonic flow is shock tube; here we used the free-piston shock tube TCM2. Measurements of radiative flux behind the shock wave are realized thanks to time-resolved emission spectroscopy which is calibrated in intensity. As CN violet system is the main radiator in near UV-visible range, we have focused our study on its spectrum. Moreover a physical model, based on a multi-temperature kinetic code and a radiative code, for calculation of non equilibrium radiation behind a shock wave is developed for CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}-Ar mixtures. Comparisons between experiments and calculations show that standard kinetic models (Park, McKenzie) are inefficient to reproduce our experimental results. Therefore we propose new rate coefficients in particular for the dissociation of CO{sub 2}, showing the way towards a better description of the chemistry of the mixture.
Nonequilibrium radiation behind a strong shock wave in CO 2-N 2
Rond, C.; Boubert, P.; Félio, J.-M.; Chikhaoui, A.
2007-11-01
This work presents experiments reproducing plasma re-entry for one trajectory point of a Martian mission. The typical facility to investigate such hypersonic flow is shock tube; here we used the free-piston shock tube TCM2. Measurements of radiative flux behind the shock wave are realized thanks to time-resolved emission spectroscopy which is calibrated in intensity. As CN violet system is the main radiator in near UV-visible range, we have focused our study on its spectrum. Moreover a physical model, based on a multi-temperature kinetic code and a radiative code, for calculation of non equilibrium radiation behind a shock wave is developed for CO 2-N 2-Ar mixtures. Comparisons between experiments and calculations show that standard kinetic models (Park, McKenzie) are inefficient to reproduce our experimental results. Therefore we propose new rate coefficients in particular for the dissociation of CO 2, showing the way towards a better description of the chemistry of the mixture.
Comparison of Vibrational Relaxation Modeling for Strongly Non-Equilibrium Flows
2014-01-01
important pro- cess in a wide range of high speed flows. High temperature shock layers that form in front of hypersonic vehicles can lead to significant...continuum flows for use in traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) and non-continuum flows for use with rarefied flow de- scriptions, such as the...145 .98 4396 V. Summary and Conclusions The form of two vibrational relaxation models that are commonly used in DSMC and CFD simula- tions have been
On Various Negative Translations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilda Ferreira
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.
Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansari, Mohammad H
2015-01-01
In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)
Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim
2005-01-01
Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how...
Nonequilibrium constitutive models for RELAP5/MOD2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, J.C.; Trapp, J.A.; Riemke, R.A.; Ransom, V.H.
1983-01-01
RELAP5/MOD2 is a new version of RELAP5 containing improved modeling features that provide a generic pressurized-water transient simulation capability. In particular, the nonequilibrium modeling capability has been generalized to include conditions that occur in operational transients including repressurization and emergency-feed-water injection with loss-of-coolant accidents. The improvements include addition of a second energy equation to the hydrodynamic model, addition of nonequilibrium heat-transfer models, and the associated nonequilibrium vapor-generation models. The objective of this paper is to describe these models and to report the developmental assessment results obtained from similar of several separate effects experiments. The assessment shows that RELAP5 calculated results are in good agreement with data and the nonequilibrium phenomena are properly modeled
Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs
2018-01-01
We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, D.G.
1980-12-01
This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions
Foundations of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas
Bruggeman, Peter J.; Iza, Felipe; Brandenburg, Ronny
2017-12-01
Non-equilibrium plasmas have been intensively studied over the past century in the context of material processing, environmental remediation, ozone generation, excimer lamps and plasma display panels. Research on atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas intensified over the last two decades leading to a large variety of plasma sources that have been developed for an extended application range including chemical conversion, medicine, chemical analysis and disinfection. The fundamental understanding of these discharges is emerging but there remain a lot of unexplained phenomena in these intrinsically complex plasmas. The properties of non-equilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure span over a huge range of electron densities as well as heavy particle and electron temperatures. This paper provides an overview of the key underlying processes that are important for the generation and stabilization of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. The unique physical and chemical properties of theses discharges are also summarized.
Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
: ... This canonical prescription is the starting point for studying a system in ... abilistic approach to non-equilibrium dynamics by treating the case of Markovian ..... equation in this network between the incoming flux and the outgoing flux at each.
ERGASHEVA G.I.
2015-01-01
The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials
Cultural Context and Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张敏
2009-01-01
cultural context plays an important role in translation. Because translation is a cross-culture activity, the culture context that influ-ences translating is consisted of both the culture contexts of source language and target language. This article firstly analyzes the concept of context and cultural context, then according to the procedure of translating classifies cultural context into two stages and talks about how they respectively influence translating.
Holography without translational symmetry
Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.
Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.
2002-01-01
the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...... wires connected to aluminum electrodes with extended or finite cross section, (ii) single atom gold wires, and finally (iii) large carbon nanotube systems with point defects....
Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.
Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F
2016-11-28
We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.
Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel
2013-11-05
Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bystrenko, O; Bystrenko, T
2010-01-01
The properties of non-equilibrium magnetized plasmas confined in planar geometry are studied on the basis of first-principle microscopic Langevin dynamics computer simulations. The non-equilibrium state of plasmas is maintained due to the recombination and generation of charges. The intrinsic microscopic structure of non-equilibrium steady-state magnetized plasmas, in particular the inter-particle correlations and self-organization of vortex structures, are examined. The simulations have been performed for a wide range of parameters including strong plasma coupling, high charge recombination and generation rates and intense magnetic field. As is shown in simulations, the non-equilibrium recombination and generation processes trigger the formation of ordered dissipative or coherent drift vortex states in 2D plasmas with distinctly spatially separated components, which are far from thermal equilibrium. This is evident from the unusual properties of binary distributions and behavior of the Coulomb energy of the system, which turn out to be quite different from the ones typical for the equilibrium state of plasmas under the same conditions.
Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry
Wen, Kehong
Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surzhikov, S.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.
A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munafò, A.; Alfuhaid, S. A.; Panesi, M.; Cambier, J.-L.
2015-01-01
The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients
Numerical simulations of a nonequilibrium argon plasma in a shock-tube experiment
Cambier, Jean-Luc
1991-01-01
A code developed for the numerical modeling of nonequilibrium radiative plasmas is applied to the simulation of the propagation of strong ionizing shock waves in argon gas. The simulations attempt to reproduce a series of shock-tube experiments which will be used to validate the numerical models and procedures. The ability to perform unsteady simulations makes it possible to observe some fluctuations in the shock propagation, coupled to the kinetic processes. A coupling mechanism by pressure waves, reminiscent of oscillation mechanisms observed in detonation waves, is described. The effect of upper atomic levels is also briefly discussed.
Fleming, R M T; Maes, C M; Saunders, M A; Ye, Y; Palsson, B Ø
2012-01-07
We derive a convex optimization problem on a steady-state nonequilibrium network of biochemical reactions, with the property that energy conservation and the second law of thermodynamics both hold at the problem solution. This suggests a new variational principle for biochemical networks that can be implemented in a computationally tractable manner. We derive the Lagrange dual of the optimization problem and use strong duality to demonstrate that a biochemical analogue of Tellegen's theorem holds at optimality. Each optimal flux is dependent on a free parameter that we relate to an elementary kinetic parameter when mass action kinetics is assumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Synthesis of silane and silicon in a non-equilibrium plasma jet
Calcote, H. F.; Felder, W.
1977-01-01
The feasibility of using a non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma jet as a chemical synthesis tool was investigated. Four possible processes were identified for further study: (1) production of polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic surfaces, (2) production of SiHCl3 from SiCl4, (3) production of SiH4 from SiHCl3, and (4) purification of SiCl4 by metal impurity nucleation. The most striking result was the recognition that the strongly adhering silicon films, amorphous or polycrystalline, produced in our studies could be the basis for preparing a photovoltaic surface directly; this process has potential advantages over other vapor deposition processes.
Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.
Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L
2017-09-25
Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.
Writing Through: Practising Translation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Scott
2010-05-01
Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks.
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-11-05
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape-flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments.
Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks
Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin
2013-01-01
The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451
Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States
Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.
2017-08-01
Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.
1976-01-01
The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas
2017-01-01
The paper develops a definition of translation literality that is based on the syntactic and semantic similarity of the source and the target texts. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that absolute literal translations are easy to produce. Based on a multilingual corpus of alternative...... translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....
A real-time extension of density matrix embedding theory for non-equilibrium electron dynamics
Kretchmer, Joshua S.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2018-02-01
We introduce real-time density matrix embedding theory (DMET), a dynamical quantum embedding theory for computing non-equilibrium electron dynamics in strongly correlated systems. As in the previously developed static DMET, real-time DMET partitions the system into an impurity corresponding to the region of interest coupled to the surrounding environment, which is efficiently represented by a quantum bath of the same size as the impurity. In this work, we focus on a simplified single-impurity time-dependent formulation as a first step toward a multi-impurity theory. The equations of motion of the coupled impurity and bath embedding problem are derived using the time-dependent variational principle. The accuracy of real-time DMET is compared to that of time-dependent complete active space self-consistent field (TD-CASSCF) theory and time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory for a variety of quantum quenches in the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM), in which the Hamiltonian is suddenly changed (quenched) to induce a non-equilibrium state. Real-time DMET shows a marked improvement over the mean-field TDHF, converging to the exact answer even in the non-trivial Kondo regime of the SIAM. However, as expected from analogous behavior in static DMET, the constrained structure of the real-time DMET wavefunction leads to a slower convergence with respect to active space size, in the single-impurity formulation, relative to TD-CASSCF. Our initial results suggest that real-time DMET provides a promising framework to simulate non-equilibrium electron dynamics in which strong electron correlation plays an important role, and lays the groundwork for future multi-impurity formulations.
Non-equilibrium transport in the quantum dot: quench dynamics and non-equilibrium steady state
Culver, Adrian; Andrei, Natan
We present an exact method of calculating the non-equilibrium current driven by a voltage drop across a quantum dot. The system is described by the two lead Anderson model at zero temperature with on-site Coulomb repulsion and non-interacting, linearized leads. We prepare the system in an initial state consisting of a free Fermi sea in each lead with the voltage drop given as the difference between the two Fermi levels. We quench the system by coupling the dot to the leads at t = 0 and following the time evolution of the wavefunction. In the long time limit a new type of Bethe Ansatz wavefunction emerges, which satisfies the Lippmann-Schwinger equation with the two Fermi seas serving as the boundary conditions. This exact, non-perturbative solution describes the non-equilibrium steady state of the system. We describe how to use this solution to compute the infinite time limit of the expectation value of the current operator at a given voltage, which would yield the I-V characteristic of the dot. Research supported by NSF Grant DMR 1410583.
Determinants of translation ambiguity
Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha
2016-01-01
Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nagy Imola Katalin
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.
Translation and Quality Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Margrethe
1996-01-01
theory which would seem likely to be of interest in this connection and section 2. gives a linguist's introduction to the part of the area of quality management which I consider relevant for present purposes. Section 3. is devoted to the case study of a small translation firm which has been certified......The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching...... of translation would be. To provide a backdrop against which the issue may be discussed, I present an overview of the two areas which seem most likely to hold potential answers, viz., that of translation theory and that of quality management. Section 1. gives a brief outline of some contributions to translation...
Memetics and Translation Studies
Andrew, Chesterman
2000-01-01
Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge
2015-01-01
), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...
Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.
Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B
2017-06-01
We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.
The Temple Translator's Workstation Project
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi
1996-01-01
.... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge
2013-01-01
On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2011-01-01
of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge
2011-01-01
In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...
Progress in Non-equilibrium Green's Functions (PNGF VI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
The sixth interdisciplinary conference 'Progress in Non-equilibrium Green's Functions' (PNGF6) took place at Lund University, Sweden, on 17-21 August 2015. The conference was attended by 60 scientists, from Europe and overseas, sharing an interest in Green's function methods and/or non-equilibrium phenomena. At the conference, 34 invited and contributed talks were given, together with a poster session with 17 contributions. As its predecessors (Rostock 1999, Dresden 2002, Kiel 2005, Glasgow 2009, Jyväskylä 2012) did, the conference succeeded in gathering different communities for the exchange of recent developments and results. Among the topics of the conference, we mention approaches for strongly correlated systems, improvements of existing perturbative many-body schemes, electron-phonon/-photon interactions in time-dependent treatments, numerical scalability of NEGF approaches, connections with other non-equilibrium methods and concrete physical applications. For the latter, we mention quantum transport, semiconductor kinetics, multiply excited states in atoms and ions, nuclear reactions, high energy physics, quantum cascade lasers, strongly correlated model systems, graphene-nanostructures, optoelectronics, superconductors, spin-dynamics, photovoltaics, excitations in atoms and ions and time-resolved spectroscopy. The present volume contains 20 articles from participants of PNGF6, devoted to these topics. Compared to previous conferences, a completely novel and successful aspect of PNGF6 was the participation of experimentalists among the invited speakers, to establish a connection between emerging experimental techniques (for example, time-dependent spectroscopies) and the theoretical NEGF community. As at the previous PNGF conferences, the atmosphere was friendly and exciting at the same time, favoring vivid and stimulating discussions among experienced scientists, young researchers and students. The conference would not have been
Hsiang, J-T; Chou, C H; Subaşı, Y; Hu, B L
2018-01-01
In a series of papers, we intend to take the perspective of open quantum systems and examine from their nonequilibrium dynamics the conditions when the physical quantities, their relations, and the laws of thermodynamics become well defined and viable for quantum many-body systems. We first describe how an open-system nonequilibrium dynamics (ONEq) approach is different from the closed combined system + environment in a global thermal state (CGTs) setup. Only after the open system equilibrates will it be amenable to conventional thermodynamics descriptions, thus quantum thermodynamics (QTD) comes at the end rather than assumed in the beginning. The linkage between the two comes from the reduced density matrix of ONEq in that stage having the same form as that of the system in the CGTs. We see the open-system approach having the advantage of dealing with nonequilibrium processes as many experiments in the near future will call for. Because it spells out the conditions of QTD's existence, it can also aid us in addressing the basic issues in quantum thermodynamics from first principles in a systematic way. We then study one broad class of open quantum systems where the full nonequilibrium dynamics can be solved exactly, that of the quantum Brownian motion of N strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, interacting strongly with a scalar-field environment. In this paper, we focus on the internal energy, heat capacity, and the third law. We show for this class of physical models, amongst other findings, the extensive property of the internal energy, the positivity of the heat capacity, and the validity of the third law from the perspective of the behavior of the heat capacity toward zero temperature. These conclusions obtained from exact solutions and quantitative analysis clearly disprove claims of negative specific heat in such systems and dispel allegations that in such systems the validity of the third law of thermodynamics relies on quantum entanglement. They are
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martha Pulido
2016-08-01
Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martha Martha Pulido
2016-05-01
Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.
Adiabatic Hamiltonian deformation, linear response theory, and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoover, W.G.
1980-01-01
Although Hamiltonians of various kinds have previously been used to derive Green-Kubo relations for the transport coefficients, the particular choice described is uniquely related to thermodynamics. This nonequilibrium Hamiltonian formulation of fluid flow provides pedagogically simple routes to nonequilibrium fluxes and distribution functions, to theoretical understanding of long-time effects, and to new numerical methods for simulating systems far from equilibrium. The same methods are now being applied to solid-phase problems. At the relatively high frequencies used in the viscous fluid calculations described, solids typically behave elastically. Lower frequencies lead to the formation of dislocations and other defects, making it possible to study plastic flow. A property of the nonequilibrium equations of motion which might be profitably explored is their effective irreversibility. Because only a few particles are necessary to generate irreversible behavior, simulations using adiabatic deformations of the kind described here could perhaps elucidate the instability in the equations of motion responsible for irreversibility
Bose, Deepak
2012-01-01
The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and fluctuation relations for small systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Liang; Ke Pu; Qiao Li-Yan; Zheng Zhi-Gang
2014-01-01
In this review, we give a retrospect of the recent progress in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in small dynamical systems. For systems with only a few number of particles, fluctuations and nonlinearity become significant and contribute to the nonequilibrium behaviors of the systems, hence the statistical properties and thermodynamics should be carefully studied. We review recent developments of this topic by starting from the Gallavotti—Cohen fluctuation theorem, and then to the Evans—Searles transient fluctuation theorem, Jarzynski free-energy equality, and the Crooks fluctuation relation. We also investigate the nonequilibrium free energy theorem for trajectories involving changes of the heat bath temperature and propose a generalized free-energy relation. It should be noticed that the non-Markovian property of the heat bath may lead to the violation of the free-energy relation. (topical review - statistical physics and complex systems)
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suetterlin, K R; Raeth, C; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Khrapak, S; Zhdanov, S; Rubin-Zuzic, M; Morfill, G E; Wysocki, A; Loewen, H; Goedheer, W J; Fortov, V E; Lipaev, A M; Molotkov, V I; Petrov, O F
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separation. Using the permanent microgravity laboratory PK-3 Plus, operating onboard the International Space Station, we performed unique experiments with binary mixtures of complex plasmas that showed both lane formation and phase separation. These observations have been augmented by comprehensive numerical and theoretical studies. In this paper we present an overview of our most important results. In addition we put our results in context with research of complex plasmas, binary systems and non-equilibrium phase transitions. Necessary and promising future complex plasma experiments on phase separation and lane formation are briefly discussed.
Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry
Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram
1990-01-01
Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.
Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, James W.
2007-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.
Introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Takafumi
2010-01-01
In this article, we present a concise and self-contained introduction to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with quantum field theory by considering an ensemble of interacting identical bosons or fermions as an example. Readers are assumed to be familiar with the Matsubara formalism of equilibrium statistical mechanics such as Feynman diagrams, the proper self-energy, and Dyson's equation. The aims are threefold: (1) to explain the fundamentals of nonequilibrium quantum field theory as simple as possible on the basis of the knowledge of the equilibrium counterpart; (2) to elucidate the hierarchy in describing nonequilibrium systems from Dyson's equation on the Keldysh contour to the Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics via quantum transport equations and the Boltzmann equation; (3) to derive an expression of nonequilibrium entropy that evolves with time. In stage (1), we introduce nonequilibrium Green's function and the self-energy uniquely on the round-trip Keldysh contour, thereby avoiding possible confusions that may arise from defining multiple Green's functions at the very beginning. We try to present the Feynman rules for the perturbation expansion as simple as possible. In particular, we focus on the self-consistent perturbation expansion with the Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional, i.e., Baym's Φ-derivable approximation, which has a crucial property for nonequilibrium systems of obeying various conservation laws automatically. We also show how the two-particle correlations can be calculated within the Φ-derivable approximation, i.e., an issue of how to handle the 'Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvons (BBGKY) hierarchy'. Aim (2) is performed through successive reductions of relevant variables with the Wigner transformation, the gradient expansion based on the Groenewold-Moyal product, and Enskog's expansion from local equilibrium. This part may be helpful for convincing readers that nonequilibrium systems can be handled microscopically with
Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jancel, R.
1983-01-01
After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr
Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects
Straughan, Brian
2015-01-01
This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.
Forces and energy dissipation in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poluehktov, Yu.M.; Slezov, V.V.
1987-01-01
The phenomenological theory of volume forces and dissipation processes in inhomogeneous non-equilibrium superconductors near temperature transition from the normal to superconducting state is constructed. The approach is based on application of dynamic equations of superconductivity formulated on the basis of the Lagrangian formalism. These equations are generalized the Ginzburg-Landau theory in the nonstationary non-equilibrium case for ''foul'' superconductors. The value estimations of volume forces arising in inhomogeneities during relaxation of an order parameter and when the electrical field is penetrated into the superconductor, are given
Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.
Scenario of strongly nonequilibrated Bose-Einstein condensation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berloff, Natalia G.; Svistunov, Boris V.
2002-01-01
Large scale numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation are used to elucidate the self-evolution of a Bose gas from a strongly nonequilibrium initial state. The stages of the process confirm and refine the theoretical scenario of Bose-Einstein condensation developed by Svistunov and co-workers [J. Mosc. Phys. Soc. 1, 373 (1991); Sov. Phys. JETP 75, 387 (1992); 78, 187 (1994)]: the system evolves from the regime of weak turbulence to superfluid turbulence via states of strong turbulence in the long-wavelength region of energy space
Discourse Analysis in Translator Training
Gülfidan Ayvaz
2015-01-01
Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...
Translational research on advanced therapies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippo Belardelli
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.
Translational research on advanced therapies.
Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.
Statistical mechanics of a plasma in a very strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Psimopoulos, M.
1980-03-01
Using the guiding centre model the behaviour of a plasma in the presence of a very strong constant magnetic field has been studied. The validity of the model is discussed and the conditions concerning the strength of the magnetic field are derived. Both the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium aspects of the problem are considered. (U.K.)
Experimental determination of order in non-equilibrium solids using colloidal gels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yongxiang; Kilfoil, Maria
2004-01-01
The idea of quantifying order in disordered systems has been introduced recently by Torquato and co-workers (2000 Phys. Rev. E 62 993-1001). We are interested in the application of this idea to measure structure in non-equilibrium systems. Here we focus on gels, using as a model system colloidal gels formed from hard spheres with polymer added to the systems to induce a controlled, weak attraction. To describe the structure of the gels we use real space imaging via confocal microscopy to obtain the full three-dimensional structure. We measure experimentally both translational order and bond angle correlations, defining a new (refined) translational order parameter that is sensitive to long range order in these non-random packings. This metric is also sensitive to anisotropy, which should be important in the many physical situations where an external force is present. The bond angle distribution shows coordinated organization. To give a clearer physical picture for gels, we compare the experimental data to computer generated hard sphere systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Obed Madsen, Søren
This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....
Translational ecology for hydrogeology.
Schlesinger, William H
2013-01-01
Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.
Who translates the translation? (Retraduire les héros marginaux d'Alan Moore
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alice RAY
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The retranslation phenomenon is essential to the translation process. It is considered as the logical progression of this process which allows the translated literary work to regenerate in a restless cultural and language space. To a lesser extent, we can observe the same phenomenon in the translation of comics. However, this specific translation requires other competencies and a translating approach somehow different from the ones required to translate fiction literature, especially because of the presence of the visual system of drawings which is strongly bound to its own culture and the endless mutations it goes through. The comic book Watchmen (Les Gardiens, in the first French translation by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, is known in the whole world as the comic which had not only remodeled the vision we had of super-heroes, but had also given the comic books another voice. Watchmen was published between 1986 and 1987 in the United States and translated in French from 1987 to 1988. Fifteen years after this first translation by Jean-Patrick Manchette, Panini publishing decided to retranslate this famous comic in 2007. However, if the reviews of the first translation were laudatory, the retranslation did not enjoy a great reception from the readers or from the reviewers. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of both these translations and of their original version as well as an experiment on the readers, comic books readers or not, in order to establish why the first translation was a success and the retranslation a failure. Thus, we could withdraw the elements which allow us to understand the reception of comic translation.
Translating children’s literature: some insights from corpus stylistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Čermáková
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper I explore the potential of a corpus stylistic approach to the study of literary translation. The study focuses on translation of children’s literature with its specific constrains, and illustrates with two corpus linguistic techniques: keyword and cluster analysis — specific cases of repetition. So in a broader sense the paper discusses the phenomenon of repetition in different literary (stylistic traditions. These are illustrated by examples from two children’s classics aimed at two different age groups: the Harry Potter and the Winnie the Pooh books — and their translations into Czech. Various shifts in translation, especially in the translation of children’s literature, are often explained by the operation of so-called ‘translation universals’. Though ‘repetition’ as such does not belong to the commonly discussed set of translation universals, the stylistic norms opposing repetition seem to be a strong explanation for the translation shifts identified.
Translation and Intertextuality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Rahimi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This study is intends to describe and Presents a new theory of translation based on the "Intertextuality" unlike the Translation theories that presented to date, what all are based on the principle of "Equivalence". Our theory is based on the examples of Arabic poetry translated into Persian poetry. The major findings of this study show that the Intertextuality can serve as a link between the original text and the target. it can also interact with other texts is the translation result in the target language, Whtich is the book of poetic eloquence is addressed and was mentioned Literary robbery.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic fluctuations and phase transition in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, R.; Cai, R.; Yu, P.K.N.
1994-01-01
Landau nonequilibrium fluctuation and phase transition theory is applied to the discussion of the phase transition of black holes. Some second moments of relevant thermodynamical quantities for Kerr-Newman black holes are estimated. A theorem governing the divergence of some second moments and the occurrence of the phase transition in black holes is given
D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kvaltin, J.
1990-06-01
The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)
SRB states and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium
Gallavotti, Giovannni; Ruelle, David
1996-01-01
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics close to equilibrium is studied using SRB states and a formula for their derivatives with respect to parameters. We write general expressions for the thermodynamic fluxes (or currents) and the transport coefficients, generalizing previous results. In this framework we give a general proof of the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Non-equilibrium microwave plasma for efficient high temperature chemistry
van den Bekerom, D.C.M.; den Harder, N.; Minea, T.; Palomares Linares, J.M.; Bongers, W.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; van Rooij, G.J.
2017-01-01
This article describes a flowing microwave reactor that is used to drive efficient non-equilibrium chemistry for the application of conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. The goal of the procedure described here is to measure the in situ gas temperature and gas
Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swinney, H.L.
1992-01-01
We have used dynamical systems methods to study and characterize bifurcations and pattern formation in a variety of nonequilibrium systems. In this paper we describe our work on dynamical systems, chemical oscillations and chaos, chemical spatial patterns, instabilities in fluid dynamics, electrodeposition clusters, the ballast resistor, and crack propagation
Nonlinear and Nonequilibrium Spin Injection in Magnetic Tunneling Junctions
Guo, Hong
2007-03-01
Quantitative analysis of charge and spin quantum transport in spintronic devices requires an atomistic first principles approach that can handle nonlinear and nonequilibrium transport conditions. We have developed an approach for this purpose based on real space density functional theory (DFT) carried out within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). We report theoretical analysis of nonlinear and nonequilibrium spin injection and quantum transport in Fe/MgO/Fe trilayer structures as a function of external bias voltage. Devices with well relaxed atomic structures and with FeO oxidization layers are investigated as a function of external bias voltage. We also report calculations of nonequilibrium spin injection into molecular layers and graphene. Comparisons to experimental data will be presented. Work in collaborations with: Derek Waldron, Vladimir Timochevski (McGill University); Ke Xia (Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, China); Eric Zhu, Jian Wang (University of Hong Kong); Paul Haney, and Allan MacDonald (University of Texas at Austin).
Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1996-01-01
The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Supersymmetric Field Theory of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic System
Olemskoi, Alexander I.; Brazhnyi, Valerii A.
1998-01-01
On the basis of Langevin equation the optimal SUSY field scheme is formulated to discribe a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system with quenched disorder and non-ergodicity effects. Thermodynamic and isothermal susceptibilities, memory parameter and irreversible response are determined at different temperatures and quenched disorder intensities.
Fluctuation and dissipation in nonequilibrium quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos, Rudnei O.
1994-01-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a scalar field is studied using perturbation theory and a real time finite temperature formulation. The evolution equation for the scalar field is explicitly obtained, and terms responsible for noise (fluctuations) and dissipation are identified and studied in the high temperature limit. (author)
Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Jia
Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.
Applications of non-equilibrium plasma in chemical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patino, P.; Castro, A.
2003-01-01
By means of optical emission spectroscopy the population of O( 3 P) in a non-equilibrium, high voltage, oxygen plasma, and O( 3 P), H and OH in another of steam in radio frequency, have been followed. Reactions of both plasmas with liquid hydrocarbons have produced oxidation and/or hydrogenation, depending on the conditions of each one. (Author)
Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Non-equilibrium ... Introduction. Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the ... Band tailing reduces band gap or the acti- ..... (9), we can identify Eg(0) with the focal point and is proportional to P2. 1 .
Measures of trajectory ensemble disparity in nonequilibrium statistical dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooks, Gavin E; Sivak, David A
2011-01-01
Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis), Jensen–Shannon divergence (time-asymmetry), Chernoff divergence (work cumulant generating function), and Rényi divergence
Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule
Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin
2018-03-01
We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.
Nonequilibrium two-dimensional Ising model with stationary uphill diffusion
Colangeli, Matteo; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Vernia, Cecilia
2018-03-01
Usually, in a nonequilibrium setting, a current brings mass from the highest density regions to the lowest density ones. Although rare, the opposite phenomenon (known as "uphill diffusion") has also been observed in multicomponent systems, where it appears as an artificial effect of the interaction among components. We show here that uphill diffusion can be a substantial effect, i.e., it may occur even in single component systems as a consequence of some external work. To this aim we consider the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model in contact with two reservoirs that fix, at the left and the right boundaries, magnetizations of the same magnitude but of opposite signs.We provide numerical evidence that a class of nonequilibrium steady states exists in which, by tuning the reservoir magnetizations, the current in the system changes from "downhill" to "uphill". Moreover, we also show that, in such nonequilibrium setup, the current vanishes when the reservoir magnetization attains a value approaching, in the large volume limit, the magnetization of the equilibrium dynamics, thus establishing a relation between equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties.
Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla
2014-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport the ory Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014
Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...
On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitahara, Kazuo
1986-01-01
A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)
English, Niall J; Clarke, Elaine T
2013-09-07
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar CO2 hydrate interfaces in liquid water at 300-320 K. Different guest compositions, at 85%, 95%, and 100% of maximum theoretical occupation, led to statistically-significant differences in the observed initial dissociation rates. The melting temperatures of each interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model developed previously was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps to identify clearly two distinct régimes of break-up; a second well-defined region is essentially independent of composition and temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. From equilibrium MD of the two-phase systems at their melting point, the relaxation times of the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in number of enclathrated guest molecules were used as a basis for comparison of the variation in the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates via Onsager's hypothesis, and statistically significant differences were found, confirming the value of a fluctuation-dissipation approach in this case.
Non-equilibrium solid-to-plasma transition dynamics using XANES diagnostic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dorchies, F., E-mail: dorchies@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA (Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications), UMR 5107, F-33400 Talence (France); Recoules, V. [CEA-DAM-DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2016-10-31
The advent of femtosecond lasers has shed new light on non-equilibrium high energy density physics. The ultrafast energy absorption by electrons and the finite rate of their energy transfer to the lattice creates non-equilibrium states of matter, triggering a new class of non-thermal processes from the ambient solid up to extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, referred as the warm dense matter regime. The dynamical interplay between electron and atomic structures is the key issue that drives the ultrafast phase transitions dynamics. Bond weakening or bond hardening are predicted, but strongly depends on the material considered. Many studies have been conducted but this physics is still poorly understood. The experimental tools used up-to-now have provided an incomplete insight. Pure optical techniques measure only indirectly atomic motion through changes in the dielectric function whereas X-ray or electron diffraction only probes the average long-range order. This review is dedicated to recent developments in time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, which is expected to give a more complete picture by probing simultaneously the modifications of the near-continuum electron and local atomic structures. Results are reported for three different types of metals (simple, transition and noble metals) in which a confrontation has been carried out between measurements and ab initio simulations.
Spectral measurements of electron temperature in nonequilibrium highly ionized He plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korshunov, O V; Chinnov, V F; Kavyrshin, D I; Ageev, A G
2016-01-01
It has been experimentally shown that highly ionized He arc plasma does not achieve local thermodynamic equilibrium expected for plasmas with electron concentrations above 1 × 10 16 cm -3 like argon plasma. We have found that the reason for this deviation is strong nonisotropy of plasma. Triple electron recombination with temperatures of 2.5-3 eV is almost absent. Charged particles move from the arc ( r = 1 mm) to chamber walls due to ambipolar diffusion creating ionization nonequilibrium over the excited states rendering Boltzmann distribution and Saha equation inapplicable for determining electron temperature. A method for determining electron temperature is suggested that is based on using the relative intensities of the atomic and ion lines. Its advantage lies in an energy gap between these lines’ states over 50 eV that reduces the influence of nonequilibrium on the result. This influence can be taken into account if the ionization energies of emitting states of atom and ion have close values. The suggested method can be expanded for any media including those with dimensional nonisotropy that have both atomic and ion lines in their emission spectra. (paper)
Non-equilibrium dynamics of single polymer adsorption to solid surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panja, Debabrata; Barkema, Gerard T; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B
2009-01-01
The adsorption of polymers to surfaces is crucial for understanding many fundamental processes in nature. Recent experimental studies indicate that the adsorption dynamics is dominated by non-equilibrium effects. We investigate the adsorption of a single polymer of length N to a planar solid surface in the absence of hydrodynamic interactions. We find that for weak adsorption energies the adsorption timescales ∼N (1+2ν)/(1+ν) , where ν is the Flory exponent for the polymer. We argue that in this regime the single chain adsorption is closely related to a field-driven polymer translocation through narrow pores. Surprisingly, for high adsorption energies the adsorption time becomes longer, as it scales as ∼N 1+ν , which is explained by strong stretching of the unadsorbed part of the polymer close to the adsorbing surface. These two dynamic regimes are separated by an energy scale that is characterized by non-equilibrium contributions during the adsorption process. (fast track communication)
TRANSLATING ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: A CASE STUDY OF EPISTEMICIDE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KARNEDI
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture that creates socalled epistemicide or the erosion of knowledge, partly due to translation strategies adopted by the translator. Investigation is done using the corpusbased approach, theories of translation strategies and the comparative model. The study reveals that the translator in the macro-level text adopts the ideology of foreignising strategy rather than domesticating strategy when translating an economics textbook from English into Indonesian. This is supported by the use of the number of the source language-orientated translation techniques leading to two translation methods (i.e. literal translation and faithful translation adopted in the micro-level text. This research strongly supports another relevant study pertaining to the globalisation of knowledge through translation and also the translation theories of equivalence (i.e. overt and covert translation. The research findings also have some pedagogical implications on teaching English for Specific Purposes in higher education.
On microscopic stress nonequilibrium: Application to the magnetopause
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Z.J.
1986-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to propose the concept of microscopic stress nonequilibrium (or simply micro-nonequilibrium) in plasma physics. This concept arises as a consequence of the insolubility of the steady-state Vlasov-Maxwell equations (or the kinetic-field equations in general) under certain conditions. In what follows: (1) A general stress equilibrium condition for tangential plasma discontinuities is derived from the Maxwell tensor and the plasma stress tensor. (2) An equivalent equilibrium condition, which takes the form of equations of motion of a ''fictitious particle'', is also derived from the above condition. (3) A general solution of the distribution functions is derived according to Jeans's theorem or Liouville's theorem for the solar wind particles in a tangential magnetopause. (4) This solution is applied to the equilibrium condition to investigate the equilibrium state of the tangential magnetopause. Both Parker's tail-region and Wu's dawn-side ''nonequilibria''are confirmed to be micro-nonequilibria because of the violation of the above equilibrium condition. (5) The effects of various factors in micro-nonequilibria are discussed. It is found that randomly trapped particles and inwards electric field in the magnetopause layer generally cannot relieve the dawn-side or tail-region micro-nonequilibria; and that a northward magnetic field in the solar wind generally can suppress the dawn-side nonequilibrium, while a southward field can jeopardize a dusk-side Vlasov equilibrium. (6) Discussion: The concept of ''micro-nonequilibrium'' may become of importance in basic plasma dynamics. It is also possible that the micro-nonequilibrium may play a fundamental role in solar wind particles entering the magnetopause and in magnetospheric substorms
Jonkers, Peter
2017-01-01
Translating sacred scriptures is not only a praxis that is crucial for the fruitful, i.e. non-distorted and unbiased dialogue between different religious traditions, but also raises some fundamental theoretical questions when it comes to translating the sacred texts of the religious other or
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lausdahl, Kenneth
2013-01-01
specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...
Students' Differentiated Translation Processes
Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla
2014-01-01
Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…
Creativity, Culture and Translation
Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh
2014-01-01
Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…
Translation as (Global) Writing
Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura
2016-01-01
This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…
Measuring Translation Literality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz
2017-01-01
Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess this...
Zheng, Yanping
2009-01-01
In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…
TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE
African Journals Online (AJOL)
language. The Application of Technical Service. Prose. To form a good idea of the appl ication .... cost lives. In this particular domain, translators must have a sound technical ... These semantic ... another language and often, in doing so, changing its meaning. The words ..... He will hand out tasks to each translator and after.
Stimulating translational research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim
2015-01-01
Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....
Translation, Quality and Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Margrethe
The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory...
Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven
2018-01-01
in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henrique de Oliveira Lee
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.
Griffin, Frank
2004-01-01
The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…
Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance
Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian
2013-01-01
We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…
Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition
Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha
2013-01-01
Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…
Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.
Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E
2013-04-01
Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Theory of Test Translation Error
Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel
2009-01-01
In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…
Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry
Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer
2012-01-01
Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577
Nonequilibrium Quasiparticle Distribution Induced by Kondo Defects
Kroha, J.; Zawadowski, A.
2002-04-01
It is shown that in resistive nanowires out of equilibrium containing either single- or two-channel Kondo impurities the distribution function f(E,U) obeys scaling behavior in terms of the quasiparticle energy E and the bias voltage U. The numerically calculated f(E,U) curves explain quantitatively recent experiments on Cu and Au nanowires. The systematics of the impurity concentration cimp extracted from the comparison between theory and results on various Cu and Au samples strongly suggests that in these systems the scaling arises from magnetic Kondo impurities.
Translation, Cultural Translation and the Hegemonic English
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Horak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This brief chapter problematizes the hegemonic position of the English language in Cultural Studies, which, in the author's view, can be understood as a moment that stands against a true internationalisation of the project. Following an argu-ment referring to the necessary 'translation' process (here seen as 're-articulation', 'transcoding' or 'transculturation' Stuart Hall has put forward almost two decades ago, the essay, firstly, turns to the notion of 'linguistic translations', and deals, secondly, with what has been coined 'cultural translation'. Discussing approaches developed by Walter Benjamin, Umberto Eco and Homi Bhabha, the complex relationship between the two terms is being investigated. Finally, in a modest attempt to throw some light on this hegemonic structure, central aspects of the output of three important journals (European Journal of Cultural Studies, International Journal of Cultural Studies, Cultural Studies, i. e. an analysis of the linguistic and institutional backgrounds of the authors of the ten most-read and most-cited essays, are presented. Based on these findings I argue that it is not simply the addition of the discursive field (language to the academic space (institution that defines the mecha-nism of exclusion and inclusion. Rather, it is the articulation of both moments, i.e. that of language and that of the institution, which - in various contexts (but in their own very definite ways - can help to develop that structure which at present is still hindering a further, more profound internationalisation of the project that is Cultural Studies.
Translation of feminine: Szymborska
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska
2014-07-01
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
A theoretical framework is developed for better understanding the time-dependent soft-x-ray response of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is shown how x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at transition-metal L edges can provide insight into ultrafast intersystem crossings of importance for energy conversion, ultrafast magnetism, and catalysis. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogs is used as a model system to demonstrate how the x-ray response is affected by the nonequilibrium dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. Changes in local spin and symmetry and the underlying mechanism are reflected in strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in x-ray absorption, crystal-field collapse and/or oscillations, and time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Non-equilibrium coherence dynamics in one-dimensional Bose gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hofferberth, S.; Lesanovsky, Igor; Fischer, B.
2007-01-01
Low-dimensional systems provide beautiful examples of many-body quantum physics. For one-dimensional (1D) systems, the Luttinger liquid approach provides insight into universal properties. Much is known of the equilibrium state, both in the weakly and strongly interacting regimes. However......, the coherence factor is observed to approach a non-zero equilibrium value, as predicted by a Bogoliubov approach. This coupled-system decay to finite coherence is the matter wave equivalent of phase-locking two lasers by injection. The non-equilibrium dynamics of superfluids has an important role in a wide...... range of physical systems, such as superconductors, quantum Hall systems, superfluid helium and spin systems. Our experiments studying coherence dynamics show that 1D Bose gases are ideally suited for investigating this class of phenomena....
Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher, E-mail: cmroland@ncsu.edu; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, SBI Building, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2015-10-21
Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.
Large scale structure from biased non-equilibrium phase transitions percolation theory picture
Lalak, Z; Ovrut, B A; Ross, Graham G
1995-01-01
We give an analytical description of the spatial distribution of domain walls produced during a biased nonequilibrium phase transition in the vacuum state of a light scalar field. We discuss in detail the spectrum of the associated cosmological energy density perturbations. It is shown that the contribution coming from domain walls can enhance the standard cold dark matter spectrum in such a way as to account for the whole range of IRAS data and for the COBE measurement of the microwave background anisotropy. We also demonstrate that in case of a biased phase transition which allows a percolative description, the number of large size domain walls is strongly suppressed. This offers a way of avoiding excessive microwave background distorsions due to the gravitational field of domain walls present after decoupling.
Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System
Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael
2018-02-01
We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.
Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B.L.
2015-01-01
This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T_1>T_2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T_c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T_1, T_2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T_c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.
Perceived radial translation during centrifugation
Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation
Force-dominated non-equilibrium oxidation kinetics of tantalum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kar, Prasenjit; Wang, Ke; Liang, Hong
2008-01-01
Using a combined electrochemical and mechanical manipulation technique, we compared the equilibrium and non-equilibrium oxidation processes and states of tantalum. Experimentally, a setup was developed with an electrochemical system attached to a sliding mechanical configuration capable of friction force measurement. The surface chemistry of a sliding surface, i.e., tantalum, was modified through the electrolyte. The mechanically applied force was fixed and the dynamics of the surface was monitored in situ through a force sensor. The formation of non-equilibrium oxidation states of tantalum was found in oxidation limiting environment of acetic acid. An oxidative environment of deionized water saturated with KCl was used as comparison. We proposed a modified Arrhenius-Eyring equation in which the mechanical factor was considered. We found that the mechanical energy induced the non-stable-state reactions leading to metastable oxidation states of tantalum. This equation can be used to predict mechanochemical reactions that are important in many industrial applications
On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purushottam D. Gujrati
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.
Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems
Ódor, G
2004-01-01
In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...
Non-equilibrium Dynamics, Thermalization and Entropy Production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinrichsen, Haye; Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian
2011-01-01
This paper addresses fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics such as the motivation of a classical state space with spontaneous transitions, the meaning of non-equilibrium in the context of thermalization, and the justification of these concepts from the quantum-mechanical point of view. After an introductory part we focus on the problem of entropy production in non-equilibrium systems. In particular, the generally accepted formula for entropy production in the environment is analyzed from a critical perspective. It is shown that this formula is only valid in the limit of separated time scales of the system's and the environmental degrees of freedom. Finally, we present an alternative simple proof of the fluctuation theorem.
Crossover from equilibration to aging: Nonequilibrium theory versus simulations.
Mendoza-Méndez, P; Lázaro-Lázaro, E; Sánchez-Díaz, L E; Ramírez-González, P E; Pérez-Ángel, G; Medina-Noyola, M
2017-08-01
Understanding glasses and the glass transition requires comprehending the nature of the crossover from the ergodic (or equilibrium) regime, in which the stationary properties of the system have no history dependence, to the mysterious glass transition region, where the measured properties are nonstationary and depend on the protocol of preparation. In this work we use nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to test the main features of the crossover predicted by the molecular version of the recently developed multicomponent nonequilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory. According to this theory, the glass transition involves the abrupt passage from the ordinary pattern of full equilibration to the aging scenario characteristic of glass-forming liquids. The same theory explains that this abrupt transition will always be observed as a blurred crossover due to the unavoidable finiteness of the time window of any experimental observation. We find that within their finite waiting-time window, the simulations confirm the general trends predicted by the theory.
Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations
Riotto, Antonio
1998-01-01
The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...
Nonequilibrium Green function techniques applied to hot electron quantum transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauho, A.P.
1989-01-01
During the last few years considerable effort has been devoted to deriving quantum transport equations for semiconductors under extreme conditions (high electric fields, spatial quantization in one or two directions). Here we review the results obtained with nonequilibrium Green function techniques as formulated by Baym and Kadanoff, or by Keldysh. In particular, the following topics will be discussed: (i) Systematic approaches to reduce the transport equation governing the correlation function to a transport equation for the Wigner function; (ii) Approximations reducing the nonmarkovian quantum transport equation to a numerically tractable form, and results for model semiconductors; (iii) Recent progress in extending the formalism to inhomogeneous systems; and (iv) Nonequilibrium screening. In all sections we try to direct the reader's attention to points where the present understanding is (at best) incomplete, and indicate possible lines for future work. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems
Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo
2017-01-01
This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...
Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry
Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.
2016-01-01
For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending
Linear response in the nonequilibrium zero range process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maes, Christian; Salazar, Alberto
2014-01-01
We explore a number of explicit response formulæ around the boundary driven zero range process to changes in the exit and entrance rates. In such a nonequilibrium regime kinetic (and not only thermodynamic) aspects make a difference in the response. Apart from a number of formal approaches, we illustrate a general decomposition of the linear response into entropic and frenetic contributions, the latter being realized from changes in the dynamical activity at the boundaries. In particular in this way one obtains nonlinear modifications to the Green–Kubo relation. We end by bringing some general remarks about the situation where that nonequilibrium response remains given by the (equilibrium) Kubo formula such as for the density profile in the boundary driven Lorentz gas
14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors
2006-01-01
International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.
The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.
Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob
2013-10-08
In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.
Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.
1974-01-01
A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)
Ordered phase and non-equilibrium fluctuation in stock market
Maskawa, Jun-ichi
2002-08-01
We analyze the statistics of daily price change of stock market in the framework of a statistical physics model for the collective fluctuation of stock portfolio. In this model the time series of price changes are coded into the sequences of up and down spins, and the Hamiltonian of the system is expressed by spin-spin interactions as in spin glass models of disordered magnetic systems. Through the analysis of Dow-Jones industrial portfolio consisting of 30 stock issues by this model, we find a non-equilibrium fluctuation mode on the point slightly below the boundary between ordered and disordered phases. The remaining 29 modes are still in disordered phase and well described by Gibbs distribution. The variance of the fluctuation is outlined by the theoretical curve and peculiarly large in the non-equilibrium mode compared with those in the other modes remaining in ordinary phase.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or
Russian translations for Cochrane.
Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E
2015-01-01
Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.
1988-01-01
A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Bezerra
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.
Translation of research outcome
African Journals Online (AJOL)
unhcc
2017-01-03
Jan 3, 2017 ... we must act”1 - Translation of research outcome for health policy, strategy and ... others iron-out existing gaps on Health Policy .... within the broader framework of global call and ... research: defining the terrain; identifying.
Staging Ethnographic Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundberg, Pia
2009-01-01
Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...
Translation for language purposes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjoldager, Anne
2003-01-01
The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....
Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz
2014-05-01
Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well
Panahi, S F K S; Namiranian, Afshin; Soleimani, Maryam; Jamaati, Maryam
2018-02-07
We investigate the electronic transport properties of two types of junction based on single polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAHs embedded in boron nitride (h-BN) nanoribbons, using nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and density functional theory (DFT). In the PAH junctions, a Fano resonance line shape at the Fermi energy in the transport feature can be clearly seen. In hybrid junctions, structural asymmetries enable interactions between the electronic states, leading to observation of interface-based transport. Our findings reveal that the interface of PAH/h-BN strongly affects the transport properties of the structures.
Yasuda, H.; Kubis, T.; Hosako, I.; Hirakawa, K.
2012-04-01
We theoretically investigated GaN-based resonant phonon terahertz-quantum cascade laser (QCL) structures for possible high-temperature operation by using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It was found that the GaN-based THz-QCL structures do not necessarily have a gain sufficient for lasing, even though the thermal backfilling and the thermally activated phonon scattering are effectively suppressed. The main reason for this is the broadening of the subband levels caused by a very strong interaction between electrons and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in GaN.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zethsen, Karen Korning; Askehave, Inger
2011-01-01
This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...
Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John
Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.
Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows
Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew
2015-01-01
This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.
Non-equilibrium quasiparticle processes in superconductor tunneling structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perold, W.J.
1990-01-01
A broad overview is presented of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The tunneling of quasiparticles in superconducter-insulator structures is described. Related non-equilibrium processes, such as superconductor bandgap suppresion, quasiparticle diffusion and recombination, and excess quasiparticle collection are discussed. The processes are illustrated with numerical computer simulation data. The importance of the inter-relationship between these processes in practical multiple tunneling junction superconducting device structures is also emphasized. 14 refs., 8 figs
Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav
2008-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008
Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1988-01-01
Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....
Exact fluctuations of nonequilibrium steady states from approximate auxiliary dynamics
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a framework to significantly reduce the computational effort to evaluate large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We do this by incorporating an auxiliary dynamics into trajectory based Monte Carlo calculations, through a transformation of the system's propagator using an approximate guiding function. This procedure importance samples the trajectories that most contribute to the large deviation function, mitigating the exponenti...
Non-Equilibrium Modeling of Inductively Coupled RF Plasmas
2015-01-01
wall can be approximated with the expression for an infinite solenoid , B(r = R) = µ0NIc, where quan- tities N and Ic are the number of turns per unit...Modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas in an induc- tively coupled plasma facility. AIAA Paper 2014– 2235, 2014. 45th AIAA Plasmadynamics and Lasers ...1993. 24th Plas- madynamics and Laser Conference, Orlando, FL. [22] M. Capitelli, I. Armenise, D. Bruno, M. Caccia- tore, R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, O
On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.
1986-01-01
A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt
Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost
Janů, Karel
2014-01-01
This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...
Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.
2015-01-01
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085
Aeroacoustic and aerodynamic applications of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics
Horne, W. Clifton; Smith, Charles A.; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1991-01-01
Recent developments in the field of nonequilibrium thermodynamics associated with viscous flows are examined and related to developments to the understanding of specific phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. A key element of the nonequilibrium theory is the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady dissipative processes near equilibrium, and variational calculus is used to apply this principle to several examples of viscous flow. A review of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and its role in fluid motion are presented. Several formulations are presented of the local entropy production rate and the local energy dissipation rate, two quantities that are of central importance to the theory. These expressions and the principle of minimum entropy production rate for steady viscous flows are used to identify parallel-wall channel flow and irrotational flow as having minimally dissipative velocity distributions. Features of irrotational, steady, viscous flow near an airfoil, such as the effect of trailing-edge radius on circulation, are also found to be compatible with the minimum principle. Finally, the minimum principle is used to interpret the stability of infinitesimal and finite amplitude disturbances in an initially laminar, parallel shear flow, with results that are consistent with experiment and linearized hydrodynamic stability theory. These results suggest that a thermodynamic approach may be useful in unifying the understanding of many diverse phenomena in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics.
Choking flow modeling with mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, H.J.; Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2006-01-15
The mechanistic model, which considers the mechanical and thermal non-equilibrium, is described for two-phase choking flow. The choking mass flux is obtained from the momentum equation with the definition of choking. The key parameter for the mechanical non-equilibrium is a slip ratio. The dependent parameters for the slip ratio are identified. In this research, the slip ratio which is defined in the drift flux model is used to identify the impact parameters on the slip ratio. Because the slip ratio in the drift flux model is related to the distribution parameter and drift velocity, the adequate correlations depending on the flow regime are introduced in this study. For the thermal non-equilibrium, the model is developed with bubble conduction time and Bernoulli choking model. In case of highly subcooled water compared to the inlet pressure, the Bernoulli choking model using the pressure undershoot is used because there is no bubble generation in the test section. When the phase change happens inside the test section, two-phase choking model with relaxation time calculates the choking mass flux. According to the comparison of model prediction with experimental data shows good agreement. The developed model shows good prediction in both low and high pressure ranges. (author)
Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model
Gorbachev, Yuriy E.
2018-04-01
Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.
Identity approach in translation : sociocultural implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alicja Żuchelkowska
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this text consists in presenting how it is necessary for contemporary translators and interpreters (both literary and specialised to acquire and develop the ability to recognize elements of identity discourse in translated texts. Nowadays, the need for inter-cultural exchange is inevitably connected with the necessity of establishing harmonious co-existence for numerous cultures and identities. Therefore, it is crucial to educate translators in a way that enables them to pay special attention to identity and cultural perturbations present in translated texts (culture and language hybridisation, multiple identity, cultural dislocation, presence in linguistic and political discourse of minority cultures, regardless of their genre or form. Such a strong emphasis on identity problems in the translation is especially relevant in the European context, where the attention of researchers and politicians directed at identity problems stemming from ethnical and cultural issues sets the framework for a new cultural paradigm that determines the future development of the Eu. Becoming acquainted with this paradigm which emphasises fl uency, identity unmarkedness and the new model of European collectivity is indispensable for a translator aspiring to become a true cultural mediator.
Translational Science Research: Towards Better Health
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emir Festic
2009-10-01
health systems have also established translational research programs and at least 2 journals (Translational Medicine and the Journal of Translational Medicine are devoted to the topic. In Europe, translational research has become a centerpiece of the European Commission’s €6 billion budget for health related research, and the United Kingdom has invested £450 million over 5 years to establish translational research centers (7.In this issue of Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, members of medical section of Bosnian and Herzegovinian-American Academy of Arts and Sciences (BHAAAS, contributed their own work and expertise to bridge the gap between basic and clinical research, between inventing the treatments and getting them used in practice, and laid down foundations for future collaborative development of translational research in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the region (8.At the first glance of this issue’s table of content, a reader will easily notice the variety and breadth of topics and themes, from medical informatics and genetics, to hematology and oncology, pulmonary and critical care medicine, orthopedics, trauma surgery and neurosurgery. However, all of the articles share common ideas of translation of knowledge, from bench to bedside and back, and individualized approach to medicine, which are the true hallmarks of the 21st century medicine.Deeper under the surface and titles, there lies our common privilege and honor to be part of a broader mission of BHAAAS: to connect with our fellow physicians and scientists, and to build bridges of cooperation with our homeland, to promote the spirit of intellectual diversity and free exchange of ideas with the strong belief that this knowledge sharing will promote betterment of health in Bosnia and Herzegovina
CHMTRNS, Non-Equilibrium Chemical Transport Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noorishad, J.; Carnahan, C.L.; Benson, L.V.
1998-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: CHMTRNS simulates solute transport for steady one-dimensional fluid flow by convection and diffusion or dispersion in a saturated porous medium based on the assumption of local chemical equilibrium. The chemical interactions included in the model are aqueous-phase complexation, solid-phase ion exchange of bare ions and complexes using the surface complexation model, and precipitation or dissolution of solids. The program can simulate the kinetic dissolution or precipitation for calcite and silica as well as irreversible dissolution of glass. Thermodynamic parameters are temperature dependent and are coupled to a companion heat transport simulator; thus, the effects of transient temperature conditions can be considered. Options for oxidation-reduction (redox) and C-13 fractionation as well as non-isothermal conditions are included. 2 - Method of solution: The governing equations for both reactive chemical and heat transport are discretized in time and space. For heat transport, the Crank-Nicolson approximation is used in conjunction with a LU decomposition and backward substitution solution procedure. To deal with the strong nonlinearity of the chemical transport equations, a generalized Newton-Raphson method is used
The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality
Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil
2015-01-01
Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…
The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality
Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil
2015-01-01
Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…
Translating Signs, Producing Subjects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brett Neilson
2009-08-01
Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.
Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet
2017-08-30
Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.
Nonequilibrium states of high tc YBCO superconductors under tunnel injection of quasiparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, I.; Wang, Q.; Lee, K.; Yoshida, K.
1995-01-01
The nonequilibrium states of high Tc superconductors are investigated by means of tunnel injection of quasiparticles using Pb(or Au)/MgO/YBCO tunnel junctions. The effective critical-current reduction due to tunnel injection is observed, whose behaviour is different from simple heating. The observed results suggest that the resultant nonequilibrium states may also differ from those described by conventional nonequilibrium models
Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations
Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela
2013-01-01
The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. SANGEETHA
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.
Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé
2015-01-01
The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...
Advertisement Translation under Skopos Theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
严妙
2014-01-01
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.
Andreyewsky, Alexander
1981-01-01
Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jepps, Owen G; Rondoni, Lamberto
2010-01-01
Deterministic 'thermostats' are mathematical tools used to model nonequilibrium steady states of fluids. The resulting dynamical systems correctly represent the transport properties of these fluids and are easily simulated on modern computers. More recently, the connection between such thermostats and entropy production has been exploited in the development of nonequilibrium fluid theories. The purpose and limitations of deterministic thermostats are discussed in the context of irreversible thermodynamics and the development of theories of nonequilibrium phenomena. We draw parallels between the development of such nonequilibrium theories and the development of notions of ergodicity in equilibrium theories. (topical review)
Translational Educational Research
Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.
2012-01-01
Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127
Engineering in translational medicine
2014-01-01
This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.
Data format translation routines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burris, R.D.
1981-02-01
To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
2015-01-01
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
Stabilizing strongly correlated photon fluids with non-Markovian reservoirs
Lebreuilly, José; Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Ciuti, Cristiano; Carusotto, Iacopo
2017-09-01
We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of transition frequencies. Our proposal is predicted to stabilize a nonequilibrium steady state sharing important features with a zero-temperature equilibrium state with a tunable chemical potential. We confirm the efficiency of our proposal for the Bose-Hubbard model by computing numerically the steady state for finite system sizes: first, we predict the occurrence of a sequence of incompressible Mott-insulator-like states with arbitrary integer densities presenting strong robustness against tunneling and losses. Secondly, for stronger tunneling amplitudes or noninteger densities, the system enters a coherent regime analogous to the superfluid state. In addition to an overall agreement with the zero-temperature equilibrium state, exotic nonequilibrium processes leading to a finite entropy generation are pointed out in specific regions of parameter space. The equilibrium ground state is shown to be recovered by adding frequency-dependent losses. The promise of this improved scheme in view of quantum simulation of the zero-temperature many-body physics is highlighted.
Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xuguang; Sedrakian, Armen; Rischke, Dirk H.
2011-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: → Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. → Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. → We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.
Quantum Coherent Dynamics Enhanced by Synchronization with Nonequilibrium Environments
Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Ryo; Uchiyama, Kazuharu; Hori, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi
2018-05-01
We report the discovery of the anomalous enhancement of quantum coherent dynamics (CD) due to a non-Markovian mechanism originating from not thermal-equilibrium phonon baths but nonequilibrium coherent phonons. CD is an elementary process for quantum phenomena in nanosystems, such as excitation transfer (ET) in semiconductor nanostructures and light-harvesting systems. CD occurs in homogeneous nanosystems because system inhomogeneity typically destroys coherence. In real systems, however, nanosystems behave as open systems surrounded by environments such as phonon systems. Typically, CD in inhomogeneous nanosystems is enhanced by the absorption and emission of thermal-equilibrium phonons, and the enhancement is described by the conventional master equation. On the other hand, CD is also enhanced by synchronization between population dynamics in nanosystems and coherent phonons; namely, coherent phonons, which are self-consistently induced by phase matching with Rabi oscillation, are fed back to enhance CD. This anomalous enhancement of CD essentially originates from the nonequilibrium and dynamical non-Markovian nature of coherent phonon environments, and the enhancement is firstly predicted by applying time-dependent projection operators to nonequilibrium and dynamical environments. Moreover, CD is discussed by considering ET from a donor to an acceptor. It is found that the enhancement of ET by synchronization with coherent phonons depends on the competition between the output time from a system to an acceptor and the formation time of coherent phonons. These findings in this study will stimulate the design and manipulation of CD via structured environments from the viewpoint of application to nano-photoelectronic devices.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard
This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...
George Sigerson: Charcot's translator.
Lyons, J B
1997-04-01
Senator George Sigerson (1836-1925), Dublin's first neurologist, was also a significant contributor to Anglo-Irish literature. His medical career and literary accomplishments are outlined, the focus of the article being Sigerson's friendly relationship with Charcot (with whom he corresponded), and whose Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux he translated.
Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation
Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja
2018-01-01
Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political
Chaput, John C.
2018-03-01
Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.
Towards a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach to electroweak baryogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riotto, A.
1996-01-01
We propose a general method to compute CP violating observables from extensions of the standard model in the context of electroweak baryogenesis. It is an alternative to the one recently developed by Huet and Nelson and relies on a nonequilibrium quantum field theory approach. The method is valid for all shapes and sizes of the bubble wall expanding in the thermal bath during a first-order electroweak phase transition. The quantum physics of CP violation and its suppression coming from the incoherent nature of thermal processes are also made explicit. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Equilibrium and nonequilibrium solvation and solute electronic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.J.; Hynes, J.T.
1990-01-01
When a molecular solute is immersed in a polar and polarizable solvent, the electronic wave function of the solute system is altered compared to its vacuum value; the solute electronic structure is thus solvent-dependent. Further, the wave function will be altered depending upon whether the polarization of the solvent is or is not in equilibrium with the solute charge distribution. More precisely, while the solvent electronic polarization should be in equilibrium with the solute electronic wave function, the much more sluggish solvent orientational polarization need not be. We call this last situation non-equilibrium solvation. We outline a nonlinear Schroedinger equation approach to these issues
Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
Dynamical systems methods have been used to study bifurcations and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems. Accomplishments during this period include: information-theoretic methods for analyzing chaos, chemical reactors for studying sustained reaction-diffusion patterns, a reactor exploiting pattern formation to extract short- lived intermediate species, observation of bifurcation from periodic to quasiperiodic rotating chemical spiral patterns, observation of a Turing bifurcation (transition from uniform state to a stationary chemical pattern), method for extracting noise strength in ramped convection, self-similar fractal structure of Zn clusters in electrodeposition, and dynamical instability in crack propagation
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tu Zhanchun
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics is an old subject. The research objects in conventional thermodynamics are macroscopic systems with huge number of particles. In recent 30 years, thermodynamics of small systems is a frontier topic in physics. Here we introduce nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems. As a case study, we construct a Canot-like cycle of a stochastic heat engine with a single particle controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential. We find that the efficiency at maximum power is 1 - √T c /T h , where Tc and Th are the temperatures of cold bath and hot bath, respectively. (author)
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fine Eugene J
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its
Energy flow in non-equilibrium conformal field theory
Bernard, Denis; Doyon, Benjamin
2012-09-01
We study the energy current and its fluctuations in quantum gapless 1d systems far from equilibrium modeled by conformal field theory, where two separated halves are prepared at distinct temperatures and glued together at a point contact. We prove that these systems converge towards steady states, and give a general description of such non-equilibrium steady states in terms of quantum field theory data. We compute the large deviation function, also called the full counting statistics, of energy transfer through the contact. These are universal and satisfy fluctuation relations. We provide a simple representation of these quantum fluctuations in terms of classical Poisson processes whose intensities are proportional to Boltzmann weights.
Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems
Yukawa, Satoshi
2009-02-15
A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.
Conserving GW scheme for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular contacts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Rubio, Angel
2008-01-01
We give a detailed presentation of our recent scheme to include correlation effects in molecular transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The scheme is general and can be used with any quasiparticle self-energy, but for practical reasons, we mainly specialize to the so......-called GW self-energy, widely used to describe the quasiparticle band structures and spectroscopic properties of extended and low-dimensional systems. We restrict the GW self-energy to a finite, central region containing the molecule, and we describe the leads by density functional theory (DFT). A minimal...
Free energy surfaces from nonequilibrium processes without work measurement
Adib, Artur B.
2006-04-01
Recent developments in statistical mechanics have allowed the estimation of equilibrium free energies from the statistics of work measurements during processes that drive the system out of equilibrium. Here a different class of processes is considered, wherein the system is prepared and released from a nonequilibrium state, and no external work is involved during its observation. For such "clamp-and-release" processes, a simple strategy for the estimation of equilibrium free energies is offered. The method is illustrated with numerical simulations and analyzed in the context of tethered single-molecule experiments.
Bona Fide Thermodynamic Temperature in Nonequilibrium Kinetic Ising Models
Sastre, Francisco; Dornic, Ivan; Chaté, Hugues
2003-01-01
We show that a nominal temperature can be consistently and uniquely defined everywhere in the phase diagram of large classes of nonequilibrium kinetic Ising spin models. In addition, we confirm the recent proposal that, at critical points, the large-time ``fluctuation-dissipation ratio'' $X_\\infty$ is a universal amplitude ratio and find in particular $X_\\infty \\approx 0.33(2)$ and $X_\\infty = 1/2$ for the magnetization in, respectively, the two-dimensional Ising and voter universality classes.
Two-phase flow model with nonequilibrium and critical flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sureau, H.; Houdayer, G.
1976-01-01
The model proposed includes the three conservation equations (mass, momentum, energy) applied to the two phase flows and a fourth partial derivative equation which takes into account the nonequilibriums and describes the mass transfer process. With this model, the two phase critical flow tests performed on the Moby-Dick loop (CENG) with several geometries, are interpreted by a unique law. Extrapolations to industrial dimension problems show that geometry and size effects are different from those obtained with earlier models (Zaloudek, Moody, Fauske) [fr
The non-equilibrium nature of culinary evolution
Kinouchi, Osame; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Zambianchi, Pedro; Roque, Antonio C.
2008-07-01
Food is an essential part of civilization, with a scope that ranges from the biological to the economic and cultural levels. Here, we study the statistics of ingredients and recipes taken from Brazilian, British, French and Medieval cookery books. We find universal distributions with scale invariant behaviour. We propose a copy-mutate process to model culinary evolution that fits our empirical data very well. We find a cultural 'founder effect' produced by the non-equilibrium dynamics of the model. Both the invariant and idiosyncratic aspects of culture are accounted for by our model, which may have applications in other kinds of evolutionary processes.
Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casas-Vazquez, Jose'
2008-02-01
Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.
Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.
Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.
1973-01-01
Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.
Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems
Yukawa, Satoshi; Shimada, Takashi; Ogushi, Fumiko; Ito, Nobuyasu
2009-01-01
A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.
Neutron scattering on equilibrium and nonequilibrium phonons, excitons and polaritons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broude, V.L.; Sheka, E.F.
1978-01-01
A number of problems of solid-state physics representing interest for neutron spectroscopy of future is considered. The development of the neutron inelastic scattering spectroscopy (neutron spectroscopy of equilibrium phonons) is discussed with application to nuclear dynamics of crystals in the thermodynamic equilibrium. The results of high-flux neutron source experiments on molecular crystals are presented. The advantages of neutron inelastic scattering over optical spectroscopy are discussed. The spectroscopy of quasi-equilibrium and non-equilibrium quasi-particles is discussed. In particular, the neutron scattering on polaritons, excitons in thermal equilibrium and production of light-excitons are considered. The problem of the possibility of such experiments is elucidated
Model of opacity and emissivity of non-equilibrium plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politov V Y
2008-01-01
In this work the model describing absorption and emission properties of the non-equilibrium plasma is presented. It is based on the kinetics equations for populations of the ground, singly and doubly excited states of multi-charged ions. After solving these equations, the states populations together with the spectroscopic data, supplied in the special database for a lot ionization stages, are used for building the spectral distributions of plasma opacity and emissivity in STA approximation. Results of kinetics simulation are performed for such important X-ray converter as gold, which is investigated intensively in ICF-experiments
Nonequilibrium Electron Transport Through a Quantum Dot from Kubo Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue Rong; Zhang Guangming
2005-01-01
Based on the Kubo formula for an electron tunneling junction, we revisit the nonequilibrium transport properties through a quantum dot. Since the Fermi level of the quantum dot is set by the conduction electrons of the leads, we calculate the electron current from the left side by assuming the quantum dot coupled to the right lead as another side of the tunneling junction, and the other way round is used to calculate the current from the right side. By symmetrizing these two currents, an effective local density states on the dot can be obtained, and is discussed at high and low temperatures, respectively.
External non-white noise and nonequilibrium phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sancho, J.M.; San Miguel, M.
1980-01-01
Langevin equations with external non-white noise are considered. A Fokker Planck equation valid in general in first order of the correlation time tau of the noise is derived. In some cases its validity can be extended to any value of tau. The effect of a finite tau in the nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by the noise is analyzed, by means of such Fokker Planck equation, in general, for the Verhulst equation under two different kind of fluctuations, and for a genetic model. It is shown that new transitions can appear and that the threshold value of the parameter can be changed. (orig.)
On Deletion of Sutra Translation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Shu-juan
2017-01-01
Dao An's the metaphor of translation "wine diluted with water' ' expressed a view about translation that had been abridged.Later Kumarajiva provided metaphor "rice chewed—tasteless and downright disgusting".Both of them felt regretted at the weakening of taste,sometimes even the complete loss of flavor caused by deletion in translation of Buddhist sutras.In early sutra translation,deletion is unavoidable which made many sutra translators felt confused and drove them to study it further and some even managed to give their understanding to this issue.This thesis will discuss the definition,and what causes deletion and the measures adopted by the sutra translators.
On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems
Akimoto, Takuma
2008-01-01
We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.
A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow
Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.
2010-01-01
In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose
Coherent application of a contact structure to formulate Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Knobbe, E; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.
2017-01-01
This contribution presents an outline of a new mathematical formulation for
Classical Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics (CNET) based on a contact
structure in differential geometry. First a non-equilibrium state space is introduced as the third key element besides the first and second law of
Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings in turbulent planar jets
Cafiero, Gioacchino; Vassilicos, John Christos; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team
2017-11-01
A revised version of the Townsend George theory, as proposed by Dairay et al. 2015, is applied to the study of turbulent planar jets (Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017). Requiring the self-similarity of only few quantities along with the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling law (Vassilicos 2015), it implies new mean flow and jet width scalings. In particular, the ratio of characteristic cross-stream to centreline streamwise velocities decays as the -1/3 power of streamwise distance in the region where the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling holds. In the definition of Cɛ both in Dairay et al. 2015 and in Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017 the local Reynolds number is based on the local flow width rather than on the integral lengthscale. We verify that the ratio of the integral lengthscale to the flow width is constant, thus enabling the use of the integral flow width in place of the integral lengthscale for defining Cɛ. The importance of this result is twofold: firstly it further strengthens the scalings obtained in the works of Dairay et al. 2015 and Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017; secondly the flow width is immediately accessible by any mean flow measurement, whereas the estimation of the integral lengthscale often requires an additional hypothesis. ERC Advanced Grant 320560.
The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems
Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.
2012-09-01
Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Non-equilibrium blunt body flows in ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Michio
1981-01-01
The behaviors of electrons and electronically excited atoms in non-equilibrium and partially ionized blunt-body-flows are described. Formulation has been made separately in a shock layer and in a free stream, and then the free stream solution has been connected with the shock layer solution by matching the two solutions at the shock layer edge. The method of this matching is described here. The partially ionized gas is considered to be composed of neutral atoms, ions and electrons. Furthermore, the neutral atoms are divided into atoms in excited levels. Therefore, it is considered that electron energy released due to excitation, and that gained due to de-excitation, contribute to electron energy. Thus, the electron energy equation including these contributions is solved, coupled with the continuity equations of the excited atoms and the electrons. An electron temperature distribution from a free stream to a blunt body wall has been investigated for a case when the electrons are in thermal non-equilibrium with heavy particles in the free stream. In addition, the distributions of the excited atom density are discussed in the present analysis. (author)
Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Félix Ginot
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.
Light-induced electronic non-equilibrium in plasmonic particles.
Kornbluth, Mordechai; Nitzan, Abraham; Seideman, Tamar
2013-05-07
We consider the transient non-equilibrium electronic distribution that is created in a metal nanoparticle upon plasmon excitation. Following light absorption, the created plasmons decohere within a few femtoseconds, producing uncorrelated electron-hole pairs. The corresponding non-thermal electronic distribution evolves in response to the photo-exciting pulse and to subsequent relaxation processes. First, on the femtosecond timescale, the electronic subsystem relaxes to a Fermi-Dirac distribution characterized by an electronic temperature. Next, within picoseconds, thermalization with the underlying lattice phonons leads to a hot particle in internal equilibrium that subsequently equilibrates with the environment. Here we focus on the early stage of this multistep relaxation process, and on the properties of the ensuing non-equilibrium electronic distribution. We consider the form of this distribution as derived from the balance between the optical absorption and the subsequent relaxation processes, and discuss its implication for (a) heating of illuminated plasmonic particles, (b) the possibility to optically induce current in junctions, and (c) the prospect for experimental observation of such light-driven transport phenomena.
Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Foundations, Applications, Frontiers
Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy
2007-01-01
This book offers a homogeneous presentation of the many faces of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part is devoted to a description of the nowadays thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory of non-equilibrium processes. This part of the book may serve as a basis to an introductory course dedicated to first-year graduate students in sciences and engineering. The classical description can however not be complete, as it rests on the hypothesis of local equilibrium. This has fostered the development of many theories going beyond local equilibrium and which cannot be put aside. The second part of the book is concerned with these different approaches, and will be of special interest for PhD students and researchers. For the sake of homogeneity, the authors have used the general structure and methods presented in the first part. Indeed, besides their differences, all these formalisms are not closed boxes but present some overlappings and parallelisms which are emphasized in this book. For pe...
Non-Equilibrium Turbulence and Two-Equation Modeling
Rubinstein, Robert
2011-01-01
Two-equation turbulence models are analyzed from the perspective of spectral closure theories. Kolmogorov theory provides useful information for models, but it is limited to equilibrium conditions in which the energy spectrum has relaxed to a steady state consistent with the forcing at large scales; it does not describe transient evolution between such states. Transient evolution is necessarily through nonequilibrium states, which can only be found from a theory of turbulence evolution, such as one provided by a spectral closure. When the departure from equilibrium is small, perturbation theory can be used to approximate the evolution by a two-equation model. The perturbation theory also gives explicit conditions under which this model can be valid, and when it will fail. Implications of the non-equilibrium corrections for the classic Tennekes-Lumley balance in the dissipation rate equation are drawn: it is possible to establish both the cancellation of the leading order Re1/2 divergent contributions to vortex stretching and enstrophy destruction, and the existence of a nonzero difference which is finite in the limit of infinite Reynolds number.
Phase separation in the nonequilibrium Verwey transition in magnetite
Randi, F.; Vergara, I.; Novelli, F.; Esposito, M.; Dell'Angela, M.; Brabers, V. A. M.; Metcalf, P.; Kukreja, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Fausti, D.; Grüninger, M.; Parmigiani, F.
2016-02-01
We present equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium studies of the Verwey transition in magnetite. In the equilibrium optical conductivity, we find a steplike change at the phase transition for photon energies below about 2 eV. The possibility of triggering a nonequilibrium transient metallic state in insulating magnetite by photo excitation was recently demonstrated by an x-ray study. Here we report a full characterization of the optical properties in the visible frequency range across the nonequilibrium phase transition. Our analysis of the spectral features is based on a detailed description of the equilibrium properties. The out-of-equilibrium optical data bear the initial electronic response associated to localized photoexcitation, the occurrence of phase separation, and the transition to a transient metallic phase for excitation density larger than a critical value. This allows us to identify the electronic nature of the transient state, to unveil the phase transition dynamics, and to study the consequences of phase separation on the reflectivity, suggesting a spectroscopic feature that may be generally linked to out-of-equilibrium phase separation.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems
Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki
2018-04-01
In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.
Non-Equilibrium Solidification of Undercooled Metallic Melts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dieter M. Herlach
2014-06-01
Full Text Available If a liquid is undercooled below its equilibrium melting temperature an excess Gibbs free energy is created. This gives access to solidification of metastable solids under non-equilibrium conditions. In the present work, techniques of containerless processing are applied. Electromagnetic and electrostatic levitation enable to freely suspend a liquid drop of a few millimeters in diameter. Heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is completely avoided leading to large undercoolings. The freely suspended drop is accessible for direct observation of rapid solidification under conditions far away from equilibrium by applying proper diagnostic means. Nucleation of metastable crystalline phases is monitored by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation during non-equilibrium solidification. While nucleation preselects the crystallographic phase, subsequent crystal growth controls the microstructure evolution. Metastable microstructures are obtained from deeply undercooled melts as supersaturated solid solutions, disordered superlattice structures of intermetallics. Nucleation and crystal growth take place by heat and mass transport. Comparative experiments in reduced gravity allow for investigations on how forced convection can be used to alter the transport processes and design materials by using undercooling and convection as process parameters.
Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.
1987-01-01
An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)
Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)
2015-11-07
The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.
Strongly interacting Fermi gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakr W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems
Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric
We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.
Ion acceleration in non-equilibrium plasmas driven by fast drifting electron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castro, G. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Bartolo, F., E-mail: fdibartolo@unime.it [Università di Messina, V.le F. Stagno D’Alcontres 31, 98166, Messina (Italy); Gambino, N. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per L’ingegneria, Viale A.Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Mascali, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F.P. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Anzalone, A.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Giugno, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanaia, D. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Miracoli, R. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, V. S.Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Serafino, T. [CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Tudisco, S. [INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CSFNSM, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)
2013-05-01
We hereby present results on ion acceleration mechanisms in non equilibrium plasmas generated by microwaves or high intensity laser pulses. Experiments point out that in magnetized plasmas X–B conversion takes place for under resonance values of the magnetic field, i.e. an electromagnetic mode is converted into an electrostatic wave. The strong self-generated electric field, of the order of 10{sup 7} V/m, causes a E × B drift which accelerates both ions and electrons, as it is evident by localized sputtering in the plasma chamber. These fields are similar (in magnitude) to the ones obtainable in laser generated plasmas at intensity of 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}. In this latter case, we observe that the acceleration mechanism is driven by electrons drifting much faster than plasma bulk, thus generating an extremely strong electric field ∼10{sup 7} V/m. The two experiments confirm that ions acceleration at low energy is possible with table-top devices and following complementary techniques: i.e. by using microwave-driven (producing CW beams) plasmas, or non-equilibrium laser-driven plasmas (producing pulsed beams). Possible applications involve ion implantation, materials surface modifications, ion beam assisted lithography, etc.
The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators
Peng, Hao
2018-03-01
Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.
(Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...
Translation in Language Teaching: Insights from Professional Translator Training
Carreres, Angeles; Noriega-Sanchez, Maria
2011-01-01
The past three decades have seen vast changes in attitudes towards translation, both as an academic discipline and as a profession. The insights we have gained in recent years, in particular in the area of professional translator training, call for a reassessment of the role of translation in language teaching. Drawing on research and practices in…
Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...
A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.
Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin
2000-01-01
Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…
'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud
2016-01-01
, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical...... on the case of a Danish planning process which was carried out in collaboration with a charitable trust, this paper discusses an emerging strategic planning approach at the municipal level. We use the concept of wicked problems, strategic planning theory and Actor-Network-Theory to study a collaborative...... projects played a major role in this process. First, they acted as a vehicle that assembled planners, politicians and stakeholders to work towards strategic visions across multiple scales. Second and consequently, they stimulated considerable second and third order effects in the form of shared problem...
Structural Coupling and Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tække, Jesper
formations. After presenting the two theories the article put forward Twitter as an example making it possible to compare the two theories. Hereby the article also provides two analysis of how Twitter changes the communication milieu of modern society. In systems theory media can be seen as the mechanisms...... and translations the social medium of Twitter opens for. The second, but most prioritized, aim of the paper is to present, compare and discuss the two theories: How do they understand what becomes visible in their different optics, which observations become possible in the one or the other – and is it possible...... creating networks consisting in both humans and non-humans. Then the two appearing frameworks are used to observe Twitter and discuss which structural couplings and translations are made possible by this medium. In the end of the paper the two theories are discussed and compared....
Translation of Financial Statements
Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros
2005-01-01
This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...
Pitts, E. R.
1981-01-01
Program converts cell-net data into logic-gate models for use in test and simulation programs. Input consists of either Place, Route, and Fold (PRF) or Place-and-Route-in-Two-Dimensions (PR2D) layout data deck. Output consists of either Test Pattern Generator (TPG) or Logic-Simulation (LOGSIM) logic circuitry data deck. Designer needs to build only logic-gate-model circuit description since program acts as translator. Language is FORTRAN IV.
Repetition and Translation Shifts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon Zupan
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.
Translation-Memory (TM) Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen
2010-01-01
to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....... It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Machine Translation Effect on Communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille
2011-01-01
Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...
TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS
Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana
2016-01-01
The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
On Literal Translation of English Idioms
Chen, Linli
2009-01-01
There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…
Strongly extended diffusion length for the nonequilibrium magnons in Y3F e5O12 by photoexcitation
Wang, S. H.; Li, G.; Guo, E. J.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, J. Y.; Zou, L. K.; Yan, H.; Cai, J. W.; Zhang, Z. T.; Wang, M.; Tian, Y. Y.; Zheng, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Jin, K. X.
2018-05-01
Y3F e5O12 (YIG) is known for its long magnon diffusion length. Although it has the known lowest damping rate, an even longer diffusion distance is still highly desired since it may lead to a much more efficient information transmission and processing. While most of previous works focused on the generation and detection of magnons in YIG, here we demonstrate how to depress the damping rate during the diffusion of magnon. By selectively exciting the spin state transition of the Fe ions in YIG, we successfully increase magnon diffusion length by one order of magnitude, i.e., from the previous reported ˜10 μm up to ˜156 μm (for the sample prepared by liquid phase epitaxy) and ˜180 μm (for the sample prepared by pulsed laser deposition) at room temperature. The diffusion length, determined by nonlocal geometry, is ˜30 μm for the magnons induced by visible light and above 150 μm for the laser of 980 nm. In addition to thermal gradient, light excitation affects the electron configuration of the F e3 + ion in YIG. Long-wavelength laser is more effective since it causes a transition of the F e3 + ions in Fe O6 octahedron from a high spin to a low spin state and thus causes a magnon softening which favors a long-distance diffusion. The present work paves the way toward an efficient tuning of magnon transport which is crucially important for magnon spintronics.
Translational Implications of Tamil "Hamlets."
Kanakaraj, S.
1994-01-01
Discusses the use of translation when teaching English as a Second Language in a Tamil context. Singles out the fencing episode in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" to illustrate the difficulties of translating cultural aspects. Concludes that successful translations of Shakespeare into Indian languages should involve collaboration between…
MULTIFUNCTION OF INTERNET IN TRANSLATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bayu Budiharjo
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Technology affects almost all areas, including translation. Many products of technology have made translational works easier, one of which is internet. Despite the wide use of internet, the potentials it has are sometimes unnoticed. While web-based dictionaries or thesaurus often serve as translators’ assistants and online Machine Translation issues become topics of many researches, other uses of internet related to translation may not be known by many. Internet can help disseminate newborn ideas, theories and findings worldwide to enhance translation theories. Besides, the contact between internet and translation generates new areas to examine. Internet also provides helping hand in the area of translation research. Researcher or anyone conducting research in the field of translation can find a range of research gaps as well as reference. Those who need group discussions to collect required data from informants, or researchers of the same interest coming from all over the world can meet and conduct Focus Group Discussion (FGD on virtual world. Furthermore, internet offers various forms of assistance for translation practitioners. The commonly used internet assistance consists of dictionaries, thesaurus and Machine Translations available on the internet. Other forms of aid provided by internet take form of parallel texts, images, and videos, which can be very helpful. Internet provides many things which can be utilized for the purpose of translation. Internet keeps on providing more as it develops from time to time in line with the development of technology. Internet awaits utilization of theorists, researchers, practitioners and those having concern on translation.
Machine Translation for Academic Purposes
Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh
2009-01-01
Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…
Translational plant proteomics: A perspective
Agrawal, G.K.; Pedreschi, R.; Barkla, B.J.; Bindschedler, L.V.; Cramer, R.; Sarkar, A.; Renaut, J.; Job, D.; Rakwal, R.
2012-01-01
Translational proteomics is an emerging sub-discipline of the proteomics field in the biological sciences. Translational plant proteomics aims to integrate knowledge from basic sciences to translate it into field applications to solve issues related but not limited to the recreational and economic
Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation
Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled
2015-01-01
Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…
Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kastberg, Peter
2012-01-01
In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....
Sevim, S; Sorrenti, A; Franco, C; Furukawa, S; Pané, S; deMello, A J; Puigmartí-Luis, J
2018-05-01
Self-assembly is a crucial component in the bottom-up fabrication of hierarchical supramolecular structures and advanced functional materials. Control has traditionally relied on the use of encoded building blocks bearing suitable moieties for recognition and interaction, with targeting of the thermodynamic equilibrium state. On the other hand, nature leverages the control of reaction-diffusion processes to create hierarchically organized materials with surprisingly complex biological functions. Indeed, under non-equilibrium conditions (kinetic control), the spatio-temporal command of chemical gradients and reactant mixing during self-assembly (the creation of non-uniform chemical environments for example) can strongly affect the outcome of the self-assembly process. This directly enables a precise control over material properties and functions. In this tutorial review, we show how the unique physical conditions offered by microfluidic technologies can be advantageously used to control the self-assembly of materials and of supramolecular aggregates in solution, making possible the isolation of intermediate states and unprecedented non-equilibrium structures, as well as the emergence of novel functions. Selected examples from the literature will be used to confirm that microfluidic devices are an invaluable toolbox technology for unveiling, understanding and steering self-assembly pathways to desired structures, properties and functions, as well as advanced processing tools for device fabrication and integration.
Fang, Tie-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng
2018-06-01
We investigate Kondo correlations in a quantum dot with normal and superconducting electrodes, where a spin bias voltage is applied across the device and the local interaction U is either attractive or repulsive. When the spin current is blockaded in the large-gap regime, this nonequilibrium strongly correlated problem maps into an equilibrium model solvable by the numerical renormalization group method. The Kondo spectra with characteristic splitting due to the nonequilibrium spin accumulation are thus obtained at high precision. It is shown that while the bias-induced decoherence of the spin Kondo effect is partially compensated by the superconductivity, the charge Kondo effect is enhanced out of equilibrium and undergoes an additional splitting by the superconducting proximity effect, yielding four Kondo peaks in the local spectral density. In the charge Kondo regime, we find a universal scaling of charge conductance in this hybrid device under different spin biases. The universal conductance as a function of the coupling to the superconducting lead is peaked at and hence directly measures the Kondo temperature. Our results are of direct relevance to recent experiments realizing a negative-U charge Kondo effect in hybrid oxide quantum dots [Nat. Commun. 8, 395 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00495-7].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.
2011-01-01
Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrej Stopar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.
The Complexity of Indirect Translation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wenjie, L. I.
2017-01-01
its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....
Computer-aided translation tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Schjoldager, Anne
2016-01-01
in Denmark is rather high in general, but limited in the case of machine translation (MT) tools: While most TSPs use translation-memory (TM) software, often in combination with a terminology management system (TMS), only very few have implemented MT, which is criticised for its low quality output, especially......The paper reports on a questionnaire survey from 2013 of the uptake and use of computer-aided translation (CAT) tools by Danish translation service providers (TSPs) and discusses how these tools appear to have impacted on the Danish translation industry. According to our results, the uptake...
Applications of nonequilibrium melting concept to damage-accumulation processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.
1998-01-01
The authors recent study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation led to the successful development of a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting, based on a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion. The generalized criterion requires that the melting temperature of a defective crystal decreases with increasing static atomic disorder. Hence, any crystal can melt at temperatures below the melting point of its perfect crystalline state when driven far from equilibrium by introducing critical amounts of misfitting solute atoms and lattice imperfections, radiation damage, and/or tensile stresses. This conceptual approach to nonequilibrium melting provides new insight into long-standing materials problems such as brittle fracture, embrittlement, and environmentally-induced cracking, for example irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking
The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, C M; Stein, D L
2008-01-01
Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)
Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui
2014-01-01
Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports
Exactly solvable nonequilibrium Langevin relaxation of a trapped nanoparticle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salazar, Domingos S P; Lira, Sérgio A
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the nonequilibrium statistical properties of the relaxation dynamics of a nanoparticle trapped in a harmonic potential. We report an exact time-dependent analytical solution to the Langevin dynamics that arises from the stochastic differential equation of our system’s energy in the underdamped regime. By utilizing this stochastic thermodynamics approach, we are able to completely describe the heat exchange process between the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. As an important consequence of our results, we observe the validity of the heat exchange fluctuation theorem in our setup, which holds for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium conditions. By extending our results for the case of N noninterating nanoparticles, we perform analytical asymptotic limits and direct numerical simulations that corroborate our analytical predictions. (paper)
Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.
Nonequilibrium quark production in the expanding QCD plasma
Tanji, Naoto; Berges, Jürgen
2018-02-01
We perform real-time lattice simulations of nonequilibrium quark production in the longitudinally expanding QCD plasma. Starting from a highly occupied gluonic state with vacuum quark sector, we extract the time evolution of quark and gluon number densities per unit transverse area and rapidity. The total quark number shows after an initial rapid increase an almost linear growth with time. Remarkably, this growth rate appears to be consistent with a simple kinetic theory estimate involving only two-to-two scattering processes in small-angle approximation. This extends previous findings about the role of two-to-two scatterings for purely gluonic dynamics in accordance with the early stages of the bottom-up thermalization scenario.
Decay of non-equilibrium polariton condensate in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beloussov, I.V.; Shvera, Y.M.
1993-08-01
Excitation dynamics of polariton quantum fluctuations arising in direct-gap semi-conductor as a result of parametric decay of non-equilibrium polariton condensate with non-zero wave vector is studied. The predominant mechanism of polariton scattering is supposed to be exciton-exciton interaction. Steady state which corresponds to the case of dynamic equilibrium between the polariton condensate and quantum fluctuations is obtained. Distribution functions of non-condensate polaritons are localized in the resonant regions, corresponding to two-particle excitation of polaritons from the condensate. The spectrum of elementary excitations in steady state coincides with usual polariton energy with the shift proportional to initial density of polariton condensate. (author). 25 refs
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics
1985-01-01
Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki
2010-01-01
In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.
Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics
Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon
2013-01-01
The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...
Non-equilibrium dynamics near a quantum multicritical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patra, Ayoti; Mukherjee, Victor; Dutta, Amit
2011-01-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum system close to a quantum multi-critical point (MCP) using the example of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 transverse XY spin chain. We summarize earlier results of defect generenation and fidelity susceptibility for quenching through MCP and close to the MCP, respectively. For a quenching scheme which enables the system to hit the MCP along different paths, we emphasize the role of path on exponents associated with quasicritical points which appear in the scaling relations. Finally, we explicitly derive the scaling of concurrence and negativity for two spin entanglement generated following a slow quenching across the MCP and enlist the results for different quenching schemes. We explicity show the dependence of the scaling on the quenching path and dicuss the limiting situations.
Diffusion of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a cuprate superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gedik, N.; Orenstein, J.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N.
2003-01-01
We report a transport study of nonequilibrium quasi-particles in a high-transition-temperature cuprate superconductor using the transient grating technique. Low-intensity laser excitation (at a photon energy of 1.5 electron volts) was used to introduce a spatially periodic density of quasi-particles into a high-quality untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.5. Probing the evolution of the initial density through space and time yielded the quasi-particle diffusion coefficient and the inelastic and elastic scattering rates. The technique reported here is potentially applicable to precision measurements of quasi-particle dynamics not only in cuprate superconductors but in other electronic systems as well
Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.
Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja
2010-12-28
Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.
Nonequilibrium synthesis of Nb-Al alloys by laser processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tewari, S.K.; Mazumder, J.
1993-01-01
The technique of laser surface modification provides a unique means of synthesizing novel nonequilibrium materials in near net shape. Claddings of several NbAl 3 alloys with Ti, B and Hf as a ternary alloy addition were prepared using a CW CO 2 laser. Isothermal oxidation behavior of the clads were examined in air. Oxidation tests at 800, 1,200 and 1,400 C. Alternating layers of alumina and NbAlO 4 were not observed in any of the samples as reported in literature for conventionally processed NbAl 3 oxidized under similar conditions. The parabolic rate constants for all the alloys, except 0 B, were comparable to that for isothermal oxidation of β-NiAl, at 1,200 and 1,400 C in 0.1 atm oxygen, which is a known alumina former. Ternary alloying additions for improved oxidation resistance at 1,400 C accompanied with improved ductility were identified
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic potentials for continuous-time Markov chains.
Verley, Gatien
2016-01-01
We connect the rare fluctuations of an equilibrium (EQ) process and the typical fluctuations of a nonequilibrium (NE) stationary process. In the framework of large deviation theory, this observation allows us to introduce NE thermodynamic potentials. For continuous-time Markov chains, we identify the relevant pairs of conjugated variables and propose two NE ensembles: one with fixed dynamics and fluctuating time-averaged variables, and another with fixed time-averaged variables, but a fluctuating dynamics. Accordingly, we show that NE processes are equivalent to conditioned EQ processes ensuring that NE potentials are Legendre dual. We find a variational principle satisfied by the NE potentials that reach their maximum in the NE stationary state and whose first derivatives produce the NE equations of state and second derivatives produce the NE Maxwell relations generalizing the Onsager reciprocity relations.
Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling
Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.
2014-01-01
Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.