WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly translational nonequilibrium

  1. Imaginary-time formulation of strongly correlated nonequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heary, Ryan Joseph

    Strongly correlated nanostructures and lattices of electrons are studied when these systems reside in a steady-state nonequilibrium. Much of the work done to date has made use of the nonequilibrium real-time Keldysh Green function technique. These methods include: the Keldysh Green function perturbation theory, time-dependent numerical renormalization group, density matrix renormalization group, and diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo. In the special case of steady-state nonequilibrium we construct an imaginary-time theory. The motivation to do this is simple: there exist an abundant number of well-established strongly correlated computational solvers for imaginary-time theory and perturbation theory on the imaginary-time contour is much more straightforward than that of the real-time contour. The first model system we focus on is a strongly interacting quantum dot situated between source and drain electron reservoirs. The steady-state nonequilibrium boundary condition is established by applying a voltage bias phi across the reservoirs, in turn modifying the chemical potentials of the leads. For a symmetric voltage drop we have mu source = phi/2 and mudrain = -phi/2. The dynamics of the electrons are governed by the Hamiltonian Ĥ which is inherently independent of the imbalance in the source and drain chemical potentials. The statistics though are determined by the operator Ĥ-Ŷ , where Ŷ imposes the nonequilibrium boundary condition. We show that it is possible to construct a single effective Hamiltonian K̂ able to describe both the dynamics and statistics of the system. Upon formulating the theory we explicitly show that it is consistent with the real-time Keldysh theory both formally and through an example using perturbation theory. In these systems there exists a strong interplay between the interactions and nonequilibrium leading to novel nonperturbative phenomena. Therefore, we combine our theory with the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to study

  2. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  3. A multifluid model extended for strong temperature nonequilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    We present a multifluid model in which the material temperature is strongly affected by the degree of segregation of each material. In order to track temperatures of segregated form and mixed form of the same material, they are defined as different materials with their own energy. This extension makes it necessary to extend multifluid models to the case in which each form is defined as a separate material. Statistical variations associated with the morphology of the mixture have to be simplified. Simplifications introduced include combining all molecularly mixed species into a single composite material, which is treated as another segregated material. Relative motion within the composite material, diffusion, is represented by material velocity of each component in the composite material. Compression work, momentum and energy exchange, virtual mass forces, and dissipation of the unresolved kinetic energy have been generalized to the heterogeneous mixture in temperature nonequilibrium. The present model can be further simplified by combining all mixed forms of materials into a composite material. Molecular diffusion in this case is modeled by the Stefan-Maxwell equations.

  4. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.

  5. Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium of ternary gas mixtures in free jet expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattolica, R.J.; Gallagher, R.J.; Anderson, J.B.; Talbot, L.

    1977-05-01

    An aerodynamic isotope separation technique based on the velocity slip between gases in a rarefied flow has been proposed. To evaluate the efficiency of this separation technique, the velocity and translational temperature of the individual species in binary and ternary gas mixtures of argon and neon in helium have been studied in a low density hypersonic free jet. The velocity and temperature of the gas were determined from the Doppler shift and broadening of the fluorescence excited by an electron beam. Velocity slip and translational nonequilibrium were observed over a range of source pressures. A separation factor based on the velocity slip and temperatures was also determined. A comparison of the velocity slip, temperatures, and separation factor with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the flow field is presented

  6. Describing nonequilibrium behavior in strongly correlated materials via dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freericks, James

    2010-03-01

    Dynamical mean-field theory was introduced in 1989 and has become one of the most successful methods for solving models of strongly correlated electrons in equilibrium (it becomes exact in the infinite-dimensional limit). In this talk, I show how to generalize dynamical mean-field theory to nonequilibrium situations. For transient response, one discretizes the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh contour then solves the discrete problem directly. For steady-state response, one can formulate a theory directly in the long-time limit for the retarded Green's functions. These techniques are applied to the problem of the quenching of Bloch oscillations due to electron-electron interactions and to the problem of time-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of strongly correlated electrons when a system is driven to a nonequilibrium steady state and cannot be described by the quasiequilibrium approximation with an effective temperature. This work was completed in collaboration with Tom Devereaux, Sasha Joura, Hulikal Krishnamurthy, Brian Moritz, Thomas Pruschke, Volodomyr Turkowski, and Velko Zlati'c. Recent references include: J. K. Freericks, V. M. Turkowski, and V. Zlati'c, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266408 (2006); J. K. Freericks, Phys. Rev. B 77, 075109 (2008); A. V.Joura, J. K. Freericks, and Th. Pruschke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196401 (2008); J. K. Freericks, H. R. Krishnamurthy and Th. Pruschke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136401 (2009); and B. Moritz, T. P. Devereaux, and J. K. Freericks, arXiv:0908.1807.

  7. Multi-Group Maximum Entropy Model for Translational Non-Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Vegnesh; Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to describe a new model for flows in translational non- equilibrium. Starting from the statistical description of a gas proposed by Boltzmann, the model relies on a domain decomposition technique in velocity space. Using the maximum entropy principle, the logarithm of the distribution function in each velocity sub-domain (group) is expressed with a power series in molecular velocity. New governing equations are obtained using the method of weighted residuals by taking the velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation. The model is applied to a spatially homogeneous Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook1(BGK) model collision operator and the relaxation of an initial non-equilibrium distribution to a Maxwellian is studied using the model. In addition, numerical results obtained using the model for a 1D shock tube problem are also reported.

  8. Nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Accessing the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated fermionic lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix

    2016-07-05

    The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is extended to the nonequilibrium case and applied to the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated lattice-fermions. Exploiting the basic structure of the well established equilibrium theory the entire formalism is reformulated in the language of Keldysh-Matsubara Green's functions. To this end, a functional of general nonequilibrium self-energies is constructed which is stationary at the physical point where it moreover yields the physical grand potential of the initial thermal state. Nonperturbative approximations to the full self-energy can be constructed by reducing the original lattice problem to smaller reference systems and varying the functional on the space of the respective trial self-energies, which are parametrized by the reference system's one-particle parameters. Approximations constructed in this way can be shown to respect the macroscopic conservation laws related to the underlying symmetries of the original lattice model. Assuming thermal equilibrium, the original SFT is recovered from the extended formalism. However, in the general case, the nonequilibrium variational principle comprises functional derivatives off the physical parameter space. These can be carried out analytically to derive inherently causal conditional equations for the optimal physical parameters of the reference system and a computationally realizable propagation scheme is set up. As a benchmark for the numerical implementation the variational cluster approach is applied to the dynamics of a dimerized Hubbard model after fast ramps of its hopping parameters. Finally, the time-evolution of a homogeneous Hubbard model after sudden quenches and ramps of the interaction parameter is studied by means of a dynamical impurity approximation with a single bath site. Sharply separated by a critical interaction at which fast relaxation to a thermal final state is observed, two differing response regimes can be distinguished, where the

  9. Strong thermal nonequilibrium in hypersonic CO and CH4 probed by CRDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louviot, M; Suas-David, N; Boudon, V; Georges, R; Rey, M; Kassi, S

    2015-06-07

    A new experimental setup coupling a High Enthalpy Source (HES) reaching 2000 K to a cw-cavity ring-down spectrometer has been developed to investigate rotationally cold hot bands of polyatomic molecules in the [1.5, 1.7] μm region. The rotational and vibrational molecular degrees of freedom are strongly decoupled in the hypersonic expansion produced by the HES and probed by cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Carbon monoxide has been used as a first test molecule to validate the experimental approach. Its expansion in argon led to rotational and vibrational temperatures of 6.7 ± 0.8 K and 2006 ± 476 K, respectively. The tetradecad polyad of methane (1.67 μm) was investigated under similar conditions leading to rotational and vibrational temperatures of 13 ± 5 K and 750 ± 100 K, respectively. The rotationally cold structure of the spectra reveals many hot bands involving highly excited vibrational states of methane.

  10. Simulation of inhomogeneous distributions of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice via a massively parallel implementation of nonequilibrium strong-coupling perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Andreas; Mikelsons, Karlis; Krishnamurthy, H R; Freericks, James K

    2014-02-01

    We present a nonequilibrium strong-coupling approach to inhomogeneous systems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We demonstrate its application to the Mott-insulating phase of a two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model in the presence of a trap potential. Since the theory is formulated self-consistently, the numerical implementation relies on a massively parallel evaluation of the self-energy and the Green's function at each lattice site, employing thousands of CPUs. While the computation of the self-energy is straightforward to parallelize, the evaluation of the Green's function requires the inversion of a large sparse 10(d) × 10(d) matrix, with d > 6. As a crucial ingredient, our solution heavily relies on the smallness of the hopping as compared to the interaction strength and yields a widely scalable realization of a rapidly converging iterative algorithm which evaluates all elements of the Green's function. Results are validated by comparing with the homogeneous case via the local-density approximation. These calculations also show that the local-density approximation is valid in nonequilibrium setups without mass transport.

  11. Holographic fermions at strong translational symmetry breaking: a Bianchi-VII case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, A. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, Nijmegen 6525 AJ (Netherlands); Kaplis, N.; Krikun, A.; Schalm, K.; Zaanen, J. [Institute Lorentz ITP, Leiden University, PO Box 9506, Leiden 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-11-09

    It is presently unknown how strong lattice potentials influence the fermion spectral function of the holographic strange metals predicted by the AdS/CFT correspondence. This embodies a crucial test for the application of holography to condensed matter experiments. We show that for one particular momentum direction this spectrum can be computed for arbitrary strength of the effective translational symmetry breaking potential of the so-called Bianchi-VII geometry employing ordinary differential equations. Deep in the strange metal regime we find rather small changes to the single-fermion response computed by the emergent quantum critical IR, even when the potential becomes relevant in the infra-red. However, in the regime where holographic quasi-particles occur, defining a Fermi surface in the continuum, they acquire a finite lifetime at any finite potential strength. At the transition from irrelevancy to relevancy of the Bianchi potential in the deep infra-red the quasi-particle remnants disappear completely and the fermion spectrum exhibits a purely relaxational behaviour.

  12. Holographic fermions at strong translational symmetry breaking: a Bianchi-VII case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagrov, A.A.; Kaplis, N.; Krikun, A.; Schalm, K.; Zaanen, J.

    2016-01-01

    It is presently unknown how strong lattice potentials influence the fermion spectral function of the holographic strange metals predicted by the AdS/CFT correspondence. This embodies a crucial test for the application of holography to condensed matter experiments. We show that for one particular

  13. The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-03-01

    MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  14. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD{sub 3}CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, David R., E-mail: drglowacki@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); PULSE Institute and Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Orr-Ewing, Andrew J. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Harvey, Jeremy N. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD{sub 3}CN → DF + CD{sub 2}CN reaction in CD{sub 3}CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD{sub 3}CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD{sub 3}CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol{sup −1} localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD{sub 3}CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational

  15. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, David R.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J.; Harvey, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD 3 CN → DF + CD 2 CN reaction in CD 3 CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD 3 CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD 3 CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol −1 localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD 3 CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results

  16. Non-equilibrium reaction and relaxation dynamics in a strongly interacting explicit solvent: F + CD3CN treated with a parallel multi-state EVB model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, David R; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J; Harvey, Jeremy N

    2015-07-28

    We describe a parallelized linear-scaling computational framework developed to implement arbitrarily large multi-state empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) calculations within CHARMM and TINKER. Forces are obtained using the Hellmann-Feynman relationship, giving continuous gradients, and good energy conservation. Utilizing multi-dimensional Gaussian coupling elements fit to explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory, we built a 64-state MS-EVB model designed to study the F + CD3CN → DF + CD2CN reaction in CD3CN solvent (recently reported in Dunning et al. [Science 347(6221), 530 (2015)]). This approach allows us to build a reactive potential energy surface whose balanced accuracy and efficiency considerably surpass what we could achieve otherwise. We ran molecular dynamics simulations to examine a range of observables which follow in the wake of the reactive event: energy deposition in the nascent reaction products, vibrational relaxation rates of excited DF in CD3CN solvent, equilibrium power spectra of DF in CD3CN, and time dependent spectral shifts associated with relaxation of the nascent DF. Many of our results are in good agreement with time-resolved experimental observations, providing evidence for the accuracy of our MS-EVB framework in treating both the solute and solute/solvent interactions. The simulations provide additional insight into the dynamics at sub-picosecond time scales that are difficult to resolve experimentally. In particular, the simulations show that (immediately following deuterium abstraction) the nascent DF finds itself in a non-equilibrium regime in two different respects: (1) it is highly vibrationally excited, with ∼23 kcal mol(-1) localized in the stretch and (2) its post-reaction solvation environment, in which it is not yet hydrogen-bonded to CD3CN solvent molecules, is intermediate between the non-interacting gas-phase limit and the solution-phase equilibrium limit. Vibrational relaxation of the nascent DF results in a spectral

  17. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wm.G.Hoover; C.G.Hoover

    2005-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics is a powerful simulation tool. Like its equilibrium cousin, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is based on time-reversible equations of motion. But unlike conventional mechanics, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics provides a consistent microscopic basis for the irreversible macroscopic Second Law of Thermodynamics. We recall here how fast computers led to the development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics from the statistical mechanics of the 1950s. Computer-...

  18. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wm.G.Hoover

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics is a powerful simulation tool. Like its equilibrium cousin, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is based on time-reversible equations of motion. But unlike conventional mechanics, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics provides a consistent microscopic basis for the irreversible macroscopic Second Law of Thermodynamics. We recall here how fast computers led to the development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics from the statistical mechanics of the 1950s. Computer-based theories facilitated revolutionary breakthroughs in understanding during the 1970s and 1980s. The new idea key to the nonequilibrium development was the replacement of the external thermodynamic environment by internal control variables. The new variables can control temperature, or pressure, or energy, or stress, or heat flux. These thermostat, barostat, ergostat, ... variables can control and maintain nonequilibrium states. We illustrate the methods with a simple example well-suited to student exploration, a thermostatted harmonic oscillator exposed to a temperature gradient.

  19. Translational initiation in Leishmania tarentolae and Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida) is strongly influenced by pre-ATG triplet and its 5' sequence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Julius; Paris, Zdenek; Regmi, Sandesh; Breitling, Reinhard; Mureev, Sergey; Kushnir, Susanna; Pyatkov, Konstantin; Jirků, Milan; Alexandrov, Kirill A

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the influence of sequence context of translation initiation codon on translation efficiency in Kinetoplastida, we constructed a library of expression plasmids randomized in the three nucleotides prefacing ATG of a reporter gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). All 64 possible combinations of pre-ATG triplets were individually stably integrated into the rDNA locus of Leishmania tarentolae and the resulting cell lines were assessed for EGFP expression. The expression levels were quantified directly by measuring the fluorescence of EGFP protein in living cells and confirmed by Western blotting. We observed a strong influence of the pre-ATG triplet on the level of protein expression over a 20-fold range. To understand the degree of evolutionary conservation of the observed effect, we transformed Phytomonas serpens, a trypanosomatid parasite of plants, with a subset of the constructs. The pattern of translational efficiency mediated by individual pre-ATG triplets in this species was similar to that observed in L. tarentolae. However, the pattern of translational efficiency of two other proteins (red fluorescent protein and tetracycline repressor) containing selected pre-ATG triplets did not correlate with either EGFP or each other. Thus, we conclude that a conserved mechanism of translation initiation site selection exists in kinetoplastids that is strongly influenced not only by the pre-ATG sequences but also by the coding region of the gene.

  20. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, W.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is described, with emphasis on massively-parallel simulations involving the motion of millions, soon to be billions, of atoms. Corresponding continuum simulations are also discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.

    2018-03-01

    The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.

  2. Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations

  3. Nonequilibrium statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Röpke, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications

  4. Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Das, A K

    2012-01-01

    Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  6. On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt

  7. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  8. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R

    1990-01-01

    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  10. Nonequilibrium Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for Bosonic Lattice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo U. R. Strand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the nonequilibrium extension of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory and a Nambu real-time strong-coupling perturbative impurity solver. In contrast to Gutzwiller mean-field theory and strong-coupling perturbative approaches, nonequilibrium bosonic dynamical mean-field theory captures not only dynamical transitions but also damping and thermalization effects at finite temperature. We apply the formalism to quenches in the Bose-Hubbard model, starting from both the normal and the Bose-condensed phases. Depending on the parameter regime, one observes qualitatively different dynamical properties, such as rapid thermalization, trapping in metastable superfluid or normal states, as well as long-lived or strongly damped amplitude oscillations. We summarize our results in nonequilibrium “phase diagrams” that map out the different dynamical regimes.

  11. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  12. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  13. Inflation and nonequilibrium renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanella, Juan; Calzetta, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    We study the spectrum of primordial fluctuations and the scale dependence of the inflaton spectral index due to self-interactions of the field. We compute the spectrum of fluctuations by applying nonequilibrium renormalization group techniques

  14. The second-order description of rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myong, Rho Shin

    2017-11-01

    The conventional description of gases is based on the physical laws of conservation (mass, momentum, and energy) in conjunction with the first-order constitutive laws, the two-century old so-called Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equation based on a critical assumption made by Stokes in 1845 that the bulk viscosity vanishes. While the Stokes' assumption is certainly legitimate in the case of dilute monatomic gases, ever increasing evidences, however, now indicate that such is not the case, in particular, in the case of polyatomic gases-like nitrogen and carbon dioxide-far-from local thermal equilibrium. It should be noted that, from room temperature acoustic attenuation data, the bulk viscosity for carbon dioxide is three orders of magnitude larger than its shear viscosity. In this study, this fundamental issue in compressible gas dynamics is revisited and the second-order constitutive laws are derived by starting from the Boltzmann-Curtiss kinetic equation. Then the topology of the second-order nonlinear coupled constitutive relations in phase space is investigated. Finally, the shock-vortex interaction problem where the strong interaction of two important thermal (translational and rotational) non-equilibrium phenomena occurs is considered in order to highlight the rotational non-equilibrium effects in polyatomic gases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of South Korea (NRF 2017-R1A2B2-007634).

  15. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  16. Translational initiation in Leishmania tarentolae and Phytomonas serpens (Kinetoplastida) is strongly influenced by pre-ATG triplet and its 5´ sequence context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Paris, Zdeněk; Regmi, Sandesh; Breitling, R.; Mureev, S.; Kushnir, S.; Pyatkov, K.; Jirků, Milan; Alexandrov, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 2 (2006), s. 125-132 ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS600220554 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) AL484/5-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * translation * initiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2006

  17. Evidence of a Nonequilibrium Distribution of Quasiparticles in the Microwave Response of a Superconducting Aluminum Resonator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, P.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Diener, P.; Withington, S.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a superconductor, absorption of photons with an energy below the superconducting gap leads to redistribution of quasiparticles over energy and thus induces a strong nonequilibrium quasiparticle energy distribution. We have measured the electrodynamic response, quality factor, and resonant

  18. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  19. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  20. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  1. Nonequilibrium and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...

  2. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.; Moran, B.; Holian, B.L.; Posch, H.A.; Bestiale, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent atomistic simulations of irreversible macroscopic hydrodynamic flows are illustrated. An extension of Nose's reversible atomistic mechanics makes it possible to simulate such non-equilibrium systems with completely reversible equations of motion. The new techniques show that macroscopic irreversibility is a natural inevitable consequence of time-reversible Lyapunov-unstable microscopic equations of motion

  3. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  4. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1982-10-01

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference

  5. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  6. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  7. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  8. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-12-21

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  9. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  10. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-01-01

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop

  11. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Xiyao; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindong; Zhu Qiaoying

    2000-01-01

    A review is presented of research and development of gas discharge and non-equilibrium plasma including, new ideas of non-equilibrium plasma at high gas pressure. With special technology, strong electric fields (>400 Td) can be achieved by which electrons are accelerated suddenly, becoming high energy electrons (> 10 eV) at high pressure. On impact with the electrons, the gas molecules dissociate into ions, atomic ions, atoms and free radicals, and new substances or molecules can be synthesized through custom design. Chemical reaction difficult to achieve by conventional method can be realized or accelerated. Non-equilibrium plasma chemistry at high pressure has wide application prospects

  12. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  13. Theoretical investigation of nonequilibrium processes in shock wave in bubbly liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bityurin, V. A.; Velikodnyi, V. Yu.; Bykov, A. A.

    The effects related to a translational nonequilibrium at the shock wave front in a bubbly liquid flow with volume gas contents within 0.3 a parts per thousand currency sign phi a parts per thousand currency sign 0.98 have been theoretically studied. Analytical expressions for the longitudinal and

  14. Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.

  15. Nozzle Flow with Vibrational Nonequilibrium. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, John Gary

    1995-01-01

    Flow of nitrogen gas through a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated. The flow is modeled using the Navier-Stokes equations that have been modified for vibrational nonequilibrium. The energy equation is replaced by two equations. One equation accounts for energy effects due to the translational and rotational degrees of freedom, and the other accounts for the affects due to the vibrational degree of freedom. The energy equations are coupled by a relaxation time which measures the time required for the vibrational energy component to equilibrate with the translational and rotational energy components. An improved relaxation time is used in this thesis. The equations are solved numerically using the Steger-Warming flux vector splitting method and the Implicit MacCormack method. The results show that uniform flow is produced outside of the boundary layer. Nonequilibrium exists in both the converging and diverging nozzle sections. The boundary layer region is characterized by a marked increase in translational-rotational temperature. The vibrational temperature remains frozen downstream of the nozzle, except in the boundary layer.

  16. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  17. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  18. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1985-07-01

    The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed.

  19. Gibbsian Stationary Non-equilibrium States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We study the structure of stationary non-equilibrium states for interacting particle systems from a microscopic viewpoint. In particular we discuss two different discrete geometric constructions. We apply both of them to determine non reversible transition rates corresponding to a fixed invariant measure. The first one uses the equivalence of this problem with the construction of divergence free flows on the transition graph. Since divergence free flows are characterized by cyclic decompositions we can generate families of models from elementary cycles on the configuration space. The second construction is a functional discrete Hodge decomposition for translational covariant discrete vector fields. According to this, for example, the instantaneous current of any interacting particle system on a finite torus can be canonically decomposed in a gradient part, a circulation term and an harmonic component. All the three components are associated with functions on the configuration space. This decomposition is unique and constructive. The stationary condition can be interpreted as an orthogonality condition with respect to an harmonic discrete vector field and we use this decomposition to construct models having a fixed invariant measure.

  20. Manipulating nonequilibrium magnetism through superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giazotto, Francesco; Taddei, Fabio; Fazio, Rosario; Beltram, Fabio

    2005-08-05

    Electrostatic control of the magnetization of a normal mesoscopic conductor is analyzed in a hybrid superconductor-normal-conductor-superconductor system. This effect stems from the interplay between the nonequilibrium condition in the normal region and the Zeeman splitting of the quasi-particle density of states of the superconductor subjected to a static in-plane magnetic field. Unexpected spin-dependent effects such as magnetization suppression, diamagnetic-like response of the susceptibility, as well as spin-polarized current generation are the most remarkable features presented. The impact of scattering events is evaluated and lets us show that this effect is compatible with realistic material properties and fabrication techniques.

  1. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru

  2. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo

    2015-07-15

    The manipulation of matter with ultrashort laser pulses is a relevant research field from both a fundamental and an applied perspective, owing to the efficient coupling to the electronic degrees of freedom on femtosecond timescales and the ability to induce transient phases that cannot be realized in equilibrium scenarios. Strongly correlated materials are a natural environment for the observation of such novel and emergent out-of-equilibrium physics because small modifications to the electron-electron interactions can induce transitions between remarkably different macroscopic phases. One of the most effective means of modifying the effective electron-electron interactions is to perturb the crystal structure through pressure, strain or even light. However, it remains largely unexplored how perturbing the structural degrees of freedom affects the electron dynamics of the transiently driven states and how the interplay of correlations and electron-lattice interactions determine the intrinsic timescales of these nonequilibrium states. This thesis investigates how to control the light-induced nonequilibrium electronic properties in strongly correlated organics, that are highly tunable with moderate variations of external parameters, by perturbing their structural degrees of freedom, either via static pressures or vibrational excitation. We study the role of correlations in determining the relaxation rate of holes (holons) and double occupancies (doublons) in a solid state Mott insulator, the ET-F{sub 2}TCNQ, driven across a transient insulator-to-metal transition. By mapping holon-doublon lifetimes onto the ground-state electronic interactions, we found that the decay rate of the photoinjected quasiparticles depends on the degree of correlation between carriers and is affected by the presence of a competition between local recombination and delocalization of holon-doublon pairs. By optically controlling the effective correlations in organic molecular crystals through

  3. Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  4. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, G.E.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of

  5. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  6. Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  7. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  8. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S

    2005-06-01

    In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.

  9. Magnetic topology, nonequilibrium, and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Static equilibrium of a magnetic field throughout a large volume of highly conducting fluid requires a degree of topological symmetry that is generally lacking in nature. The dynamical nonequilibrium of the magnetic topologies in the real world forms current sheets across which there is active reconnection of the field, dissipating the energy of the magnetic strains and reducing the fields toward simpler forms. The magnetic fields in astronomical settings are generally subject to continual straining by the convection within their parent body. The work done on the field by the convection appears in the energy of the small-scale strains, and is soon dissipated by the reconnection. The intense heating of the tenuous outer atmosphere of stars by this mechanism appears to be responsible for most of the X-ray emission of ordinary stars

  10. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  11. Measuring Translation Literality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Tirkkonen-Condit (2005: 407–408) argues that “It looks as if literal translation is [the result of] a default rendering procedure”. As a corollary, more literal translations should be easier to process, and less literal ones should be associated with more cognitive effort. In order to assess...... this hypothesis, we operationalize translation literality as 1. the word-order similarity of the source and the target text and 2. the number of possible different translation renderings. We develop a literality metric and apply it on a set of manually word and sentence aligned alternative translations. Drawing...... on the monitor hypothesis (Tirkkonen-Condit 2005) and a model of shared syntax (Hartsuiker et al. 2004) we develop a model of translation effort based on priming strength: shared combinatorial nodes and meaning representations are activated through automatized bilingual priming processes where more strongly...

  12. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  13. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model ...

  14. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented......A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...

  15. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 678-678 ...

  16. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-08-01

    Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  17. Nonequilibrium Green's functions approach to inhomogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balzer, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a self-contained introduction to non-equilibrium quantum particle dynamics for inhomogeneous systems, including a survey of recent breakthroughs pioneered by the authors and others. The approach is based on real-time Green's functions.

  18. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  19. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....

  20. Nonequilibrium quantum meson gas: Dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R. F.

    2009-07-01

    A nonequilibrium quantum gas of interacting relativistic effective mesons, ressembling qualitatively those produced in a heavy-ion collision, is described by a scalar φ^{{4}}_{} quantum field in (1 + 3) -dimensional Minkowski space. For high temperature and large temporal and spatial scales, we justify that classical statistical mechanics including quantum renormalization effects describe approximately the gas: nonequilibrium dimensional reduction (NEDR). As a source of hints, we treat the gas at equilibrium in real-time formalism and obtain simplifications for high temperature and large spatial scales, thereby extending a useful equilibrium dimensional reduction known for the imaginary-time formalism. By assumption, the nonequilibrium initial state of the gas, not far from thermal equilibrium, includes interactions and inhomogeneities. We use nonequilibrium real-time generating functionals and correlators at nonzero temperature. In the NEDR regime, our arguments yield: 1) renormalized correlators simplify, 2) the perturbative series for those simplified correlators can be resummed into a new nonequilibrium generating functional, Z’ r, dr , which is super-renormalizable and includes renormalization effects (large position-dependent thermal self-energies and effective couplings). Z’ r, dr could enable to study nonperturbatively changes in the phase structures of the field, by proceeding from the nonequilibrium quantum regime to the NEDR one.

  1. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  2. Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-11-01

    The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)

  3. TRANSLATING FEMINISM

    OpenAIRE

    Gajewska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Translating feminism Pointing to manifold and long-lasting connections between feminism and translation, the article first presents a selection of multilingual writers (Narcyza Żmichowska and Deborah Vogel), translators (Zofia Żeleńska and Kazimiera Iłłakowiczówna) and translation commentators (Joanna Lisek and Karolina Szymaniak) to ponder why the work of early Polish feminists is neglected. It seems that one of the reasons might be the current colonization of Polish femini...

  4. Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.

  5. X-RAY SIGNATURES OF NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS IN GALAXY CLUSTER ACCRETION SHOCK REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Sarazin, Craig L.; Ji Li

    2011-01-01

    The densities in the outer regions of clusters of galaxies are very low, and the collisional timescales are very long. As a result, heavy elements will be under-ionized after they have passed through the accretion shock. We have studied systematically the effects of non-equilibrium ionization for relaxed clusters in the ΛCDM cosmology using one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium ionization effects do not depend on cluster mass, but depend strongly on redshift which can be understood by self-similar scaling arguments. The effects are stronger for clusters at lower redshifts. We present X-ray signatures such as surface brightness profiles and emission lines in detail for a massive cluster at low redshift. In general, soft emission (0.3-1.0 keV) is enhanced significantly by under-ionization, and the enhancement can be nearly an order of magnitude near the shock radius. The most prominent non-equilibrium ionization signature we found is the O VII and O VIII line ratio. The ratios for non-equilibrium ionization and collisional ionization equilibrium models are different by more than an order of magnitude at radii beyond half of the shock radius. These non-equilibrium ionization signatures are equally strong for models with different non-adiabatic shock electron heating efficiencies. We have also calculated the detectability of the O VII and O VIII lines with the future International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Depending on the line ratio measured, we conclude that an exposure of ∼130-380 ks on a moderate-redshift, massive regular cluster with the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) on the IXO will be sufficient to provide a strong test for the non-equilibrium ionization model.

  6. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  7. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    range of topics with the common thread of non- equilibrium phenomena playing a major part in the basic physics and also in the technological applications. The universal symbol of non-equilibrium phenomena is Maxwell's demon and it was selected, as designed by Professor Rastko Ćirić (of Belgrade's University for Fine Arts), to be the symbol of the conference. In plasma physics, the field is usually divided between equilibrium and non-equilibrium plasmas. The advantage of studying plasmas in thermal equilibrium is that they may be described by universal laws, such as Saha and Boltzmann equations. The only problem is that, apart from the very early stages in the development of the universe, such plasmas do not exist, although there are plasmas that come very close and at least satisfy the thermal laws locally. Non-equilibrium plasmas have laws unique to each situation and studies of their idiosyncrasies continue to provide a lot of food for thought for scientists, possibilities for applications and job opportunities. Or as Tolstoy wrote, `Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way?'. So, while making analogy of the non-equilibrium with the lack of happiness may sound discouraging, the scientists who try to observe these phenomena (like psychologists in the case of families) have plenty to study and are, therefore, likely to be happy. At the same time non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the atmosphere are extremely important. A fact we should be aware of every time we use an integrated circuit manufactured after the late 1970s or whenever weather changes, wind blows and pollution is carried in from some distant locations. This volume starts with a paper by D Batani (Milano, Italy) on shock waves, an example of plasmas that may be locally thermal but display very strong gradients, M Pinheiro (Lisboa, Portugal) contributed an article on anomalous diffusion in magnetized plasmas, a problem that has been addressed in the literature

  8. One-loop calculation in time-dependent non-equilibrium thermo field dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, H.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a review on the structure of thermo field dynamics (TFD) in which the basic concepts such as the thermal doublets, the quasi-particles and the self-consistent renormalization are presented in detail. A strong emphasis is put on the computational scheme. A detailed structure of this scheme is illustrated by the one-loop calculation in a non-equilibrium time-dependent process. A detailed account of the one-loop calculation has never been reported anywhere. The role of the self-consistent renormalization is explained. The equilibrium TFD is obtained as the long-time limit of non-equilibrium TFD. (author)

  9. NON-EQUILIBRIUM HELIUM IONIZATION IN AN MHD SIMULATION OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit

    2016-01-01

    The ionization state of the gas in the dynamic solar chromosphere can depart strongly from the instantaneous statistical equilibrium commonly assumed in numerical modeling. We improve on earlier simulations of the solar atmosphere that only included non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization by performing a 2D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation featuring non-equilibrium ionization of both hydrogen and helium. The simulation includes the effect of hydrogen Lyα and the EUV radiation from the corona on the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. Details on code implementation are given. We obtain helium ion fractions that are far from their equilibrium values. Comparison with models with local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) ionization shows that non-equilibrium helium ionization leads to higher temperatures in wavefronts and lower temperatures in the gas between shocks. Assuming LTE ionization results in a thermostat-like behavior with matter accumulating around the temperatures where the LTE ionization fractions change rapidly. Comparison of DEM curves computed from our models shows that non-equilibrium ionization leads to more radiating material in the temperature range 11–18 kK, compared to models with LTE helium ionization. We conclude that non-equilibrium helium ionization is important for the dynamics and thermal structure of the upper chromosphere and transition region. It might also help resolve the problem that intensities of chromospheric lines computed from current models are smaller than those observed

  10. Hyperbolic heat conduction, effective temperature, and third law for nonequilibrium systems with heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.

    2018-02-01

    Some analogies between different nonequilibrium heat conduction models, particularly random walk, the discrete variable model, and the Boltzmann transport equation with the single relaxation time approximation, have been discussed. We show that, under an assumption of a finite value of the heat carrier velocity, these models lead to the hyperbolic heat conduction equation and the modified Fourier law with relaxation term. Corresponding effective temperature and entropy have been introduced and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the effective temperature, defined as a geometric mean of the kinetic temperatures of the heat carriers moving in opposite directions, acts as a criterion for thermalization and is a nonlinear function of the kinetic temperature and heat flux. It is shown that, under highly nonequilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature, heat capacity, and local entropy go to zero even at a nonzero equilibrium temperature. This provides a possible generalization of the third law to nonequilibrium situations. Analogies and differences between the proposed effective temperature and some other definitions of a temperature in nonequilibrium state, particularly for active systems, disordered semiconductors under electric field, and adiabatic gas flow, have been shown and discussed. Illustrative examples of the behavior of the effective temperature and entropy during nonequilibrium heat conduction in a monatomic gas and a strong shockwave have been analyzed.

  11. Effects of Nonequilibrium at Edge of Boundary Layer on Convective Heat Transfer to a Blunt Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekcen, Tahir; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    This investigation is a continuation of a previous study on nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body. In the previous study, for relatively high Reynolds number flows, it was found that: nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body is not strongly dependent on freestream parameters, provided that the thermochemical equilibrium is reached at the edge of boundary layer; and successful testing of convective heat transfer in an arc-jet environment is possible by duplicating the surface pressure and total enthalpy. The nonequilibrium convective heat transfer computations are validated against the results of Fay and Riddell/Goulard theory. Present work investigates low Reynolds number conditions which are typical in an actual arc-jet flow environment. One expects that there will be departures from the Fay and Riddell/Goulard result since certain assumptions of the classical theory are not satisfied. These departures are of interest because the Fay and Riddell/Goulard formulas are extensively used in arc-jet testing (e.g., to determine the enthalpy of the flow and the catalytic efficiency of heat shield materials). For practical sizes of test materials, density of the test flow (and Reynolds number) in an arc-jet is such that thermochemical equilibrium may not be reached at the edge of boundary layer. For blunt body flows of nitrogen and air, computations will be presented to show the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium at the boundary layer edge on nonequilibrium heat transfer.

  12. Numerical simulation of nonequilibrium inductive plasma flow coupled with electromagnetic field calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kihara, Hisashi; Abe, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Abe, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Numerical investigation of nonequilibrium inductively coupled plasma (ICP) flow was carried out to study the physical properties of the flow inside a 10-kW ICP torch with the working gas being nitrogen. The flow field was described by two-dimensional compressible axisymmetric Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations that took into account 5 species and 8 chemical reactions. The magnetic vector-potential equations were tightly coupled with the flow-field equations to describe the heating process by inductive discharge. A four-temperature model was adopted to model thermal nonequilibrium process in the discharge torch. The characteristics of ICP flow such as thermal nonequilibrium, inductive discharge, and strong effects of Lorentz forces became clear through the present study.

  13. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  14. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  15. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Billy D

    2017-01-01

    Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...

  16. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  17. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  18. Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

  19. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Keywords. Band tailing; organic conductors; IR spectra; electrical resistivity.

  20. Thermodynamic model of nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, L M; Konovalov, M S

    2011-07-01

    Within the scope of a thermodynamic description using the maximum entropy production principle, transitions from one nonequilibrium (kinetic) regime to another are considered. It is shown that in the case when power-law dependencies of thermodynamic flux on force are similar for two regimes, only a transition accompanied by a positive jump of thermodynamic flux is possible between them. It is found that the difference in powers of the dependencies of thermodynamic fluxes on forces results in a number of interesting nonequilibrium transitions between kinetic regimes, including the reentrant one with a negative jump of thermodynamic flux.

  1. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  2. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  3. Two-temperature chemically non-equilibrium modelling of an air supersonic ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Morsli, Mbark; Proulx, Pierre [Laboratoire de Modelisation de Procedes Chimiques par Ordinateur Oppus, Departement de Genie Chimique, Universite de Sherbrooke (Ciheam) J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2007-08-21

    In this work, a non-equilibrium mathematical model for an air inductively coupled plasma torch with a supersonic nozzle is developed without making thermal and chemical equilibrium assumptions. Reaction rate equations are written, and two coupled energy equations are used, one for the calculation of the translational-rotational temperature T{sub hr} and one for the calculation of the electro-vibrational temperature T{sub ev}. The viscous dissipation is taken into account in the translational-rotational energy equation. The electro-vibrational energy equation also includes the pressure work of the electrons, the Ohmic heating power and the exchange due to elastic collision. Higher order approximations of the Chapman-Enskog method are used to obtain better accuracy for transport properties, taking advantage of the most recent sets of collisions integrals available in the literature. The results obtained are compared with those obtained using a chemical equilibrium model and a one-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model. The influence of the power and the pressure chamber on the chemical and thermal non-equilibrium is investigated.

  4. Revising Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten Wølch; Schjoldager, Anne

    2011-01-01

    out by specialised revisers, but by staff translators, who revise the work of colleagues and freelancers on an ad hoc basis. Corrections are mostly given in a peer-to-peer fashion, though the work of freelancers and inexperienced in-house translators is often revised in an authoritative (nonnegotiable...

  5. Wall ablation of heated compound-materials into non-equilibrium discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizong; Kong, Linghan; Geng, Jinyue; Wei, Fuzhi; Xia, Guangqing

    2017-02-01

    The discharge properties of the plasma bulk flow near the surface of heated compound-materials strongly affects the kinetic layer parameters modeled and manifested in the Knudsen layer. This paper extends the widely used two-layer kinetic ablation model to the ablation controlled non-equilibrium discharge due to the fact that the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation is often violated as a result of the interaction between the plasma and solid walls. Modifications to the governing set of equations, to account for this effect, are derived and presented by assuming that the temperature of the electrons deviates from that of the heavy particles. The ablation characteristics of one typical material, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are calculated with this improved model. The internal degrees of freedom as well as the average particle mass and specific heat ratio of the polyatomic vapor, which strongly depends on the temperature, pressure and plasma non-equilibrium degree and plays a crucial role in the accurate determination of the ablation behavior by this model, are also taken into account. Our assessment showed the significance of including such modifications related to the non-equilibrium effect in the study of vaporization of heated compound materials in ablation controlled arcs. Additionally, a two-temperature magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model accounting for the thermal non-equilibrium occurring near the wall surface is developed and applied into an ablation-dominated discharge for an electro-thermal chemical launch device. Special attention is paid to the interaction between the non-equilibrium plasma and the solid propellant surface. Both the mass exchange process caused by the wall ablation and plasma species deposition as well as the associated momentum and energy exchange processes are taken into account. A detailed comparison of the results of the non-equilibrium model with those of an equilibrium model is presented. The non-equilibrium results

  6. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    grassroots activists in social movements use translation as a novel practice to debate political alternatives in the European Union's (EU) multilingual public sphere. In recent years, new cross-European protest movements have created the multilingual discursive democracy arena known as the European Social...... to the national context. In the ESF, grassroots deliberators work using a novel practice of translation that has the potential to include marginalized groups. It is, however, a distinct kind of translation that activists use. Translation, compared to EU-official practices of multilingualism, affects a change...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  7. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  8. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic models and applications to hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A generalized multithermal equilibrium (GMTE) thermodynamic model is developed and presented with applications to hydrogen. A new chemical equilibrium equation for GMTE is obtained without the ensemble temperature concept, used by a previous MTE model. The effects of the GMTE model on the derivation and calculation of the thermodynamic, transport, and radiative properties are presented and significant differences from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and two temperature model are discussed. When the electron translational temperature (T e ) is higher than the translational temperature of the heavy particles, the effects of hydrogen molecular species to the properties are significant at high T e compared with LTE results. The density variations of minor species are orders of magnitude with kinetic nonequilibrium at a constant electron temperature. A collisional-radiative model is also developed with the GMTE chemical equilibrium equation to study the effects of radiative transfer and the ambipolar diffusion on the population distribution of the excited atoms. The nonlocal radiative transfer effect is parameterized by an absorption factor, which is defined as a ratio of the absorbed intensity to the spontaneous emission coefficient

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  10. Modeling interfacial dynamics using nonequilibrium thermodynamics frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several nonequilibrium thermodynamic frameworks have been developed capable of describing the dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructured interfaces. In this paper we present an overview of these frameworks. We will discuss interfacial dynamics in the context of the

  11. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  12. Evolution and non-equilibrium physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...

  13. Dissociation of CO2 by a plasma-chemical process in a nonequilibrium microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylkin, Y.P.; Zhivotov, V.K.; Krasheninnikov, E.G.; Krotov, M.F.; Rusanov, V.D.; Tarasov, Y.V.; Fridman, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    We consider the dissociation of CO 2 in a nonequilibrium microwave discharge of moderate pressure. The optimum discharge parameters (degree of ionization, electron temperature, and specific energy input) are found for which up to 80% of the energy input to the plasma is consumed in producing CO. It is shown that such a high energy efficiency is a consequence of the significantly nonequilibrium character of the process (T/sub e/>>T 0 ) and results from the dissociation occurring predominantly through the antisymmetric vibration mode of CO 2 . Conclusions about the mechanism and the optimum dissociation regimes were drawn on the basis of diagnostic investigations of the chemical composition of the products, the electron density and temperature, the antisymmetric and symmetric vibration temperatures, and also the translational and rotational temperatures of the neutral components

  14. Nonequilibrium transport in the pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Recently, solid state materials hosting pseudospin-1 quasiparticles have attracted a great deal of attention. In these materials, the energy band contains a pair of Dirac cones and a flatband through the connecting point of the cones. As the "caging" of carriers with a zero group velocity, the flatband itself has zero conductivity. However, in a nonequilibrium situation where a constant electric field is suddenly switched on, the flatband can enhance the resulting current in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes through distinct physical mechanisms. Using the (2 +1 )-dimensional pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system as a concrete setting, we demonstrate that, in the weak field regime, the interband current is about twice larger than that for pseudospin-1/2 system due to the interplay between the flatband and the negative band, with the scaling behavior determined by the Kubo formula. In the strong field regime, the intraband current is √{2 } times larger than that in the pseudospin-1/2 system, due to the additional contribution from particles residing in the flatband. In this case, the current and field follow the scaling law associated with Landau-Zener tunneling. These results provide a better understanding of the role of the flatband in nonequilibrium transport and are experimentally testable using electronic or photonic systems.

  15. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-07-14

    We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation

  16. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  17. Translating Management Practices in Hierarchical Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    This study examines how translators in a hierarchical context approach the translation of management practices. Although current translation theory and research emphasize the importance of contextual factors in translation processes, little research has investigated how strongly hierarchical...... structures affect translators’ approaches taken towards management ideas. This paper reports the findings from a longitudinal case study of the translation of Leadership Pipeline in a Danish fire department and how the translators’ approach changed over time from a modifying to a reproducing mode. The study...

  18. Nonequilibrium Transport through a Spinful Quantum Dot with Superconducting Leads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Brian Møller; Flensberg, Karsten; Koerting, Verena

    2011-01-01

    We study the nonlinear cotunneling current through a spinful quantum dot contacted by two superconducting leads. Applying a general nonequilibrium Green function formalism to an effective Kondo model, we study the rich variation in the IV characteristics with varying asymmetry in the tunnel...... coupling to source and drain electrodes. The current is found to be carried, respectively, by multiple Andreev reflections in the symmetric limit, and by spin-induced Yu-Shiba-Rusinov bound states in the strongly asymmetric limit. The interplay between these two mechanisms leads to qualitatively different...... IV characteristics in the crossover regime of intermediate symmetry, consistent with recent experimental observations of negative differential conductance and repositioned conductance peaks in subgap cotunneling spectroscopy....

  19. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  20. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  1. Can neural machine translation do simultaneous translation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyunghyun; Esipova, Masha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of attention-based neural machine translation in simultaneous translation. We introduce a novel decoding algorithm, called simultaneous greedy decoding, that allows an existing neural machine translation model to begin translating before a full source sentence is received. This approach is unique from previous works on simultaneous translation in that segmentation and translation are done jointly to maximize the translation quality and that translating each segmen...

  2. Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S

    2015-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.

  3. Low temperature behavior of nonequilibrium multilevel systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; O'Kelly de Galway, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), "035002-1"-"035002-11" ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium state state * low temperature Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/47/3/035002?fromSearchPage=true

  4. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviour of surfactant systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    In binary systems, surfactant molecules can self-assemble into a large variety of structures depending on their chemical structure, concentration and temperature. The properties and stability of the phases, their coexistence regions and the formation of metastable structures is of great importance not only for fundamental understanding, but also for applications in many fields including industry and medicine. This thesis presents studies of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium b...

  5. Improvements to a nonequilibrium algebraic turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Coakley, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that while the nonequilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King (1985, 1987) performed significantly better than alternative methods, differences between predicted and observed shock locations for certain weak interactions are produced due to a defficiency in the model's inner eddy viscosity formulation. A novel formulation for the model is presented which removes this deficiency, while satisfying the law of the wall for adverse pressure-gradient conditions better than either the original formulation or mixing-length theory.

  6. Nonequilibrium electron-vibration coupling and conductance fluctuations in a C60 junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2012-01-01

    displacement. Combined with a vibrational heating mechanism we construct a model from our results that explain the polarity-dependent two-level conductance fluctuations observed in recent scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments [N. Ne´el et al., Nano Lett. 11, 3593 (2011)]. These findings highlight......We investigate chemical bond formation and conductance in a molecular C60 junction under finite bias voltage using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions (DFT-NEGF). At the point of contact formation we identify a remarkably strong...... coupling between the C60 motion and the molecular electronic structure. This is only seen for positive sample bias, although the conductance itself is not strongly polarity dependent. The nonequilibrium effect is traced back to a sudden shift in the position of the voltage drop with a small C60...

  7. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  8. Machine Translation and Other Translation Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the application of linguistic theory to machine translation and translator tools, discusses the use of machine translation and translator tools in the real world of translation, and addresses the impact of translation technology on conceptions of language and other issues. Findings indicate that the human mind is flexible and linguistic…

  9. Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzemsky, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.

  10. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LANT has a suite of related Language Technology products: LANT-Master, a language checker, integrates into existing word processors like MS-Word and allows the vocabulary and style oftexts to be in a controlled language which can then be automatically translated; Pangaea is an electronic dictionary that allows the.

  11. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning...

  12. Nonequilibrium Phase Chemistry in High Temperature Structure Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.

    1991-01-01

    Titanium and nickel aluminides of nonequilibrium microstructures and in thin gauge thickness were identified, characterized and produced for potential high temperature applications. A high rate sputter deposition technique for rapid surveillance of the microstructures and nonequilibrium phase is demonstrated. Alloys with specific compositions were synthesized with extended solid solutions, stable dispersoids, and specific phase boundaries associated with different heat treatments. Phase stability and mechanical behavior of these nonequilibrium alloys were investigated and compared.

  13. Nonequilibrium topological phase transitions in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masaya; Kawakami, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Recently, concepts of topological phases of matter are extended to nonequilibrium systems, especially periodically driven systems. In this paper, we construct an example which shows nonequilibrium topological phase transitions using ultracold fermions in optical lattices. We show that the Rabi oscillation has the possibility to induce nonequilibrium topological phases which are classified into time-reversal-invariant topological insulators for a two-orbital model of alkaline-earth-metal atoms. Furthermore, we study the nonequilibrium topological phases using time-dependent Schrieffer-Wolff-type perturbation theory, and we obtain an analytical expression to describe the topological phase transitions from a high-frequency limit of external driving fields.

  14. Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnesotto, Federico; Mura, Federica; Gladrow, Jannes; Broedersz, Chase

    2018-03-05

    Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Numerical experiments on 2D strongly coupled complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lujing; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2010-01-01

    The Brownian Dynamics simulation method is briefly reviewed at first and then applied to study some non-equilibrium phenomena in strongly coupled complex plasmas, such as heat transfer processes, shock wave excitation/propagation and particle trapping, by directly mimicking the real experiments.

  16. Nonequilibrium 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid monolayers: effect of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendrum, Conrad D; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2011-04-19

    2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position α to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of ∼6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  18. Beyond Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2013-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing scholarship on local development practitioners by re-examining conceptualizations of practitioners as ‘brokers’ strategically translating between ‘travelling’ (development institution) rationalities and ‘placed’ (recipient area) rationalities in relation...... and practice spurred by new challenges deriving from climate change anxiety, the study shows how local practitioners often make local activities fit into travelling development rationalities as a matter of habit, rather than as a conscious strategy. They may therefore cease to ‘translate’ between different...... rationalities. This is shown to have important implications for theory, research and practice concerning disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in which such translation is often expected....

  19. Translational genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kussmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term “Translational Genomics” reflects both title and mission of this new journal. “Translational” has traditionally been understood as “applied research” or “development”, different from or even opposed to “basic research”. Recent scientific and societal developments have triggered a re-assessment of the connotation that “translational” and “basic” are either/or activities: translational research nowadays aims at feeding the best science into applications and solutions for human society. We therefore argue here basic science to be challenged and leveraged for its relevance to human health and societal benefits. This more recent approach and attitude are catalyzed by four trends or developments: evidence-based solutions; large-scale, high dimensional data; consumer/patient empowerment; and systems-level understanding.

  20. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  1. Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, Géza

    2008-01-01

    Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m

  2. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-06-16

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  3. INCORPORATING GRAMMAR INTO TRANSLATION CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurendi Wiwoho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the teaching of translation. It is important to lay a strong foundation in translating for the second year students of English Department. The main goal of this study is to identify and improve students‘ grammar awareness and their grammatical adjustment ability especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The data used in this study were students‘ translation assignments in Translation I course at the English Department of the Favulty of Languages and Culture, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang, academic year 2015-2016. The findings of the research showed that the second year students still made a lot of grammatical mistakes especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The greatest problem faced by the students was related with the use of verbs and tenses, followed by other problems related with the use of parts of speech and function words. This implies that incorporating grammar in teaching translation is important, in which students‘ awareness and knowledge of grammar should be taken with care. Therefore, in addition to these findings, a general model of grammatical instruction in translation teaching was presented to be useful for translation teachers.

  4. Les Houches Summer School : Strongly Interacting Quantum Systems out of Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Millis, Andrew J; Parcollet, Olivier; Saleur, Hubert; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade new experimental tools and theoretical concepts are providing new insights into collective nonequilibrium behavior of quantum systems. The exquisite control provided by laser trapping and cooling techniques allows us to observe the behavior of condensed bose and degenerate Fermi gases under nonequilibrium drive or after quenches' in which a Hamiltonian parameter is suddenly or slowly changed. On the solid state front, high intensity short-time pulses and fast (femtosecond) probes allow solids to be put into highly excited states and probed before relaxation and dissipation occur. Experimental developments are matched by progress in theoretical techniques ranging from exact solutions of strongly interacting nonequilibrium models to new approaches to nonequilibrium numerics. The summer school Strongly interacting quantum systems out of equilibrium' held at the Les Houches School of Physics as its XCIX session was designed to summarize this progress, lay out the open questions and define dir...

  5. Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnella, Pasquale

    New flux-split algorithms are developed for high velocity, high temperature flow situations, when finite-rate chemistry and non-equilibrium thermodynamics greatly affect the physics of the problem. Two-vector-split algorithms, of the Steger-Warming and of the Van Leer type, and one flux-difference-split algorithm of the Roe type are established and utilized for the accurate numerical simulation of flows with dissociation, ionization, and combustion phenomena. Several thermodynamic models are used, including a simplified vibrational non-eqilibrium model and an equilibrium model based upon refined statistical mechanical properties. The framework provided is flexible enough to accommodate virtually any chemical model and a wide range of non-equilibrium, multi-temperature thermodynamic models. A theoretical study of the main features of flows with free electrons, for conditions that require the use of two translational temperatures in the thermal model, is developed. A simple but powerful asymptotic analysis is developed which allows the establishment of the fundamental gas dynamic properties of flows with multiple translational temperatures. The new algorithms developed demonstrate their accuracy and robustness for challenging flow problems. The influence of several assumptions on the chemical and thermal behavior of the flows is investigated, and a comparison with results obtained using different numerical approaches, in particular spectral methods, is provided, and proves to be favorable to the present techniques.

  6. Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.

    2000-01-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...

  7. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  8. Enforcing conservation laws in nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, Christian; Potthoff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Using the recently introduced time-local formulation of the nonequilibrium cluster perturbation theory (CPT), we construct a generalization of the approach such that macroscopic conservation laws are respected. This is achieved by exploiting the freedom for the choice of the starting point of the all-order perturbation theory in the intercluster hopping. The proposed conserving CPT is a self-consistent propagation scheme which respects the conservation of energy, particle number, and spin, which treats short-range correlations exactly up to the linear scale of the cluster, and which represents a mean-field-like approach on length scales beyond the cluster size. Using Green's functions, conservation laws are formulated as local constraints on the local spin-dependent particle and the doublon density. We consider them as conditional equations to self-consistently fix the time-dependent intracluster one-particle parameters. Thanks to the intrinsic causality of the CPT, this can be set up as a step-by-step time propagation scheme with a computational effort scaling linearly with the maximum propagation time and exponentially in the cluster size. As a proof of concept, we consider the dynamics of the two-dimensional, particle-hole-symmetric Hubbard model following a weak interaction quench by simply employing two-site clusters only. Conservation laws are satisfied by construction. We demonstrate that enforcing them has strong impact on the dynamics. While the doublon density is strongly oscillating within plain CPT, a monotonic relaxation is observed within the conserving CPT.

  9. Translational research in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-05-01

    t continue to be regarded as independent disciplines. Integrated training in translational research methods is needed for clinicians, guideline writers, grant awarding bodies, and policy makers, in order to redress current biases in funding and research publications, in order to reflect better the balance of research efforts which are necessary for better assessment of complex evidence-bases, to integrate effective and sensitive interventions with supporting environmental changes, and to encourage continuous improvement of evidence based public policies.[5]There are three major obstacles to effective translational medicine. The first is the challenge of translating basic science discoveries into clinical studies. The second hurdle is the translation of clinical studies into medical practice and health care policy.[6] A third obstacle to effective translational medicine is also philosophical. It is a fact that the available standard therapies for most common diseases are less efficacious than they are believed by the Public to be and significant funds are allocated to maintain this “placebo” effect through standard care. Proportionately, very little is spent to identify truly effective therapies. Finally, it may be a mistake to think that basic science, without observations from the clinic and without epidemiological findings of possible associations between different noxes and disease, will efficiently produce the novel therapies that we are eager to test.To pursue the promotion of translational research, the Editorial Board strongly supports basic scientific work and such that is a combination of basic research and clinical praxis.

  10. Nontrivial nonequilibrium critical relaxation in cluster algorithms and universal nonequilibrium-to-equilibrium scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently we have found that the nonequilibrium relaxation from the perfectly-ordered state of the 2D and 3D Ising models in cluster algorithms shows nontrivial stretched-exponential decay at the transition temperature. Similar nontrivial nonequilibrium critical relaxation is also observed in the 2D XY, 3D XY and 3D Heisenberg models; simple exponential decay in these cases. In order to confirm these behaviors and evaluate the scaling form precisely and robustly, we have proposed a universal scaling procedure to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors continuously. For example, when the critical relaxation of the average magnetization of a system with linear size L is observed in local-update algorithms, this quantity decays in a power law in the early-stage relaxation with ~t - β / (zν) and converges to the critical magnetization mc (L) ~L - β / ν in equilibrium. Then, when L β / ν is plotted versus tL-z , data for various system sizes are scaled on a single curve in the whole parameter region. This procedure also holds for the cases with cluster algorithms.

  11. Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium Systems with Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    In modern nonequilibrium physics, ``Maxwell's demon'' has attracted renewed attentions in both terms of theory and experiment. The demon plays a key role to unify thermodynamics and information theory, which can extract the useful work from a heat bath by using the obtained information via feedback control. In this talk, I will talk about the recent development of thermodynamics of information. In particular, I will focus on the generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the Jarzynski equality in the presence of feedback control, where information contents and thermodynamic quantities are treated on an equal footing. I will also discuss recent experimental results that realized Maxwell's demon by colloidal particles and single electrons.

  12. Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)

  13. Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.

    1975-01-01

    Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de

  14. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  15. Shortcuts to isothermality and nonequilibrium work relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Quan, H T; Tu, Z C

    2017-07-01

    In conventional thermodynamics, it is widely acknowledged that the realization of an isothermal process for a system requires a quasistatic controlling protocol. Here we propose and design a strategy to realize a finite-rate isothermal transition from an equilibrium state to another one at the same temperature, which is named the "shortcut to isothermality." By using shortcuts to isothermality, we derive three nonequilibrium work relations, including an identity between the free-energy difference and the mean work due to the potential of the original system, a Jarzynski-like equality, and the inverse relationship between the dissipated work and the total driving time. We numerically test these three relations by considering the motion of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential and dragged by a time-dependent force.

  16. The efficiency of driving chemical reactions by a physical non-equilibrium is kinetically controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich

    2016-07-27

    An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.

  17. Radiation accompanied by self absorption in nonequilibrium argon plasma flow in a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Katsuine; Koaizawa, Hisashi.

    1983-01-01

    In high temperature, nonequilibrium plasma flow, generally strong radiation arises, but the radiation phenomena are complicated by the thermo-chemical nonequilibrium of gas and the self absorption in light path, accordingly it is important to correctly understand and estimate their effects. In this research, for the radiation from the argon afterglow plasma flow with large nonequilibrium property in a circular tube, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out taking the self absorption in consideration. Experimentally, the absolute intensity distribution of the radiated spectrum lines was measured from outside of the tube, and converted to the true radial distribution of atom number density at excited level using the mathematical conversion theory for the radiation accompanied by absorption of Elder et al. Theoretically, the radial distributions of electron temperature, electron density and atom temperature measured in the tube were applied to the collision-radiation process model including self absorption, and the distribution of the atom number density at excited level was calculated. Fairly good agreement was obtained between both results, and it was found that the consideration of self absorption was important. The theory, the experiment, the numerical examination of a number of physical quantities and the simplification of the theory, and the results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  18. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  19. Steepest entropy ascent model for far-nonequilibrium thermodynamics: unified implementation of the maximum entropy production principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2014-10-01

    By suitable reformulations, we cast the mathematical frameworks of several well-known different approaches to the description of nonequilibrium dynamics into a unified formulation valid in all these contexts, which extends to such frameworks the concept of steepest entropy ascent (SEA) dynamics introduced by the present author in previous works on quantum thermodynamics. Actually, the present formulation constitutes a generalization also for the quantum thermodynamics framework. The analysis emphasizes that in the SEA modeling principle a key role is played by the geometrical metric with respect to which to measure the length of a trajectory in state space. In the near-thermodynamic-equilibrium limit, the metric tensor is directly related to the Onsager's generalized resistivity tensor. Therefore, through the identification of a suitable metric field which generalizes the Onsager generalized resistance to the arbitrarily far-nonequilibrium domain, most of the existing theories of nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be cast in such a way that the state exhibits the spontaneous tendency to evolve in state space along the path of SEA compatible with the conservation constraints and the boundary conditions. The resulting unified family of SEA dynamical models is intrinsically and strongly consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. The non-negativity of the entropy production is a general and readily proved feature of SEA dynamics. In several of the different approaches to nonequilibrium description we consider here, the SEA concept has not been investigated before. We believe it defines the precise meaning and the domain of general validity of the so-called maximum entropy production principle. Therefore, it is hoped that the present unifying approach may prove useful in providing a fresh basis for effective, thermodynamically consistent, numerical models and theoretical treatments of irreversible conservative relaxation towards equilibrium from far nonequilibrium

  20. Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael

    The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.

  1. Bibliography on Small Systems: Nonequilibrium Phenomena and Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Fei; Lamberto, Rondoni; TANG, Lei-Han; ZHOU, Hai-Jun; WANG, Yan-Ting

    2014-10-01

    The workshop and satellite conference held in July 2013 at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) brought together experts of a variety of different fields, and constituted a unique opportunity to share ideas and breed new ones in a strongly interdisciplinary fashion. At the same time, the breadth of the scope of these two meetings was so wide that the need for a collection of reference books and papers was pointed out, in order to help the interested professionals, as well as graduate students, both to tackle the technically advanced issues and to bridge the gaps, necessarily present in each other's background. Therefore, we invited some of the participants to produce a bibliography containing the most relevant works in their own fields, and to complement this bibliography with a short explanation of the content of those books and papers. We are thus very grateful to Igor Goychuk, David Lacoste, Annick Lesne, Andrea Puglisi, Hong Qian and Hugo Touchette for having accepted our invitation and for having produced what we consider a very useful tool for all those who want to learn or to understand more deeply the current theories concerning small and nonequilibrium systems.

  2. Nonequilibrium steady states and resonant tunneling in time-periodically driven systems with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.

  3. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how the ...

  4. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2018-01-01

    We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....

  5. Nonequilibrium structure of colloidal dumbbells under oscillatory shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptner, Nils; Chu, Fangfang; Lu, Yan; Lindner, Peter; Ballauff, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium behavior of dense, plastic-crystalline suspensions of mildly anisotropic colloidal hard dumbbells under the action of an oscillatory shear field by employing Brownian dynamics computer simulations. In particular, we extend previous investigations, where we uncovered nonequilibrium phase transitions, to other aspect ratios and to a larger nonequilibrium parameter space, that is, a wider range of strains and shear frequencies. We compare and discuss selected results in the context of scattering and rheological experiments. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate that the previously found transitions from the plastic crystal phase with increasing shear strain also occur at other aspect ratios. We explore the transition behavior in the strain-frequency phase and summarize it in a nonequilibrium phase diagram. Additionally, the experimental rheology results hint at a slowing down of the colloidal dynamics with higher aspect ratio.

  6. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions

  7. Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y. B., E-mail: yshi9@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the effects of nonequilibrium phonon dynamics on the operation of a GaAs-based midinfrared quantum cascade laser over a range of temperatures (77–300 K) via a coupled ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of electron and optical-phonon systems. Nonequilibrium phonon effects are shown to be important below 200 K. At low temperatures, nonequilibrium phonons enhance injection selectivity and efficiency by drastically increasing the rate of interstage electron scattering from the lowest injector state to the next-stage upper lasing level via optical-phonon absorption. As a result, the current density and modal gain at a given field are higher and the threshold current density lower and considerably closer to experiment than results obtained with thermal phonons. By amplifying phonon absorption, nonequilibrium phonons also hinder electron energy relaxation and lead to elevated electronic temperatures.

  8. Nonequilibrium flow calculations for the hydrogen constricted arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. K.; Incropera, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    A nonequilibrium flow model has been formulated and solved numerically for conditions in an atomic hydrogen cascade arc. Solutions show that although thermal nonequilibrium effects are minor, the departure from chemical equilibrium is significant. Comparisons with results obtained from an equilibrium flow model reveal the deficiencies associated with such a model and parametric calculations reveal the effect of current, pressure, and radius on arc behavior.

  9. Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.

  10. Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-09-25

    Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.

  11. Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kehong

    Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator

  12. Synthesis of silane and silicon in a non-equilibrium plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcote, H. F.; Felder, W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using a non-equilibrium hydrogen plasma jet as a chemical synthesis tool was investigated. Four possible processes were identified for further study: (1) production of polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic surfaces, (2) production of SiHCl3 from SiCl4, (3) production of SiH4 from SiHCl3, and (4) purification of SiCl4 by metal impurity nucleation. The most striking result was the recognition that the strongly adhering silicon films, amorphous or polycrystalline, produced in our studies could be the basis for preparing a photovoltaic surface directly; this process has potential advantages over other vapor deposition processes.

  13. Adiabatic non-equilibrium steady states in the partition free approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Purice, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Consider a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads and assume that the total (continuous) system is at thermal equilibrium in the remote past. We construct a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) by adiabatically turning on an electrical bias between the leads. The main mathematical...... challenge is to show that certain adiabatic wave operators exist and to identify their strong limit when the adiabatic parameter tends to zero. Our NESS is different from, though closely related with the NESS provided by the Jakic–Pillet–Ruelle approach. Thus we partly settle a question asked by Caroli et...

  14. Comparison of Vibrational Relaxation Modeling for Strongly Non-Equilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    3 where SVT is a steric factor, ! is the oscillator frequency, m̃ is the collision reduced mass, µ is the oscillator reduced mass, is the oscillator...f !"i+fCOL exp ("COL) nX r=0 (1)r r! (i r)! (f r)! 1 "rCOL 2 (2) "COL = SVT 4⇡3! m̃ 2/µ ↵2h sinh2 ⇣⇡! ↵v̄ ⌘ (3) For diatom...factors, SVT and SVV, and the parameter ↵ determine the rate of vibrational relaxation, while the inherent form of the transition probability

  15. Consistent Particle-Continuum Modeling and Simulation of Flows in Strong Thermochemical Nonequilibrium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During hypersonic entry into a planetary atmosphere, a spacecraft transitions from free-molecular flow conditions to fully continuum conditions. When modeling and...

  16. Strong nonequilibrium coherent states in mesoscopic superconductor-semiconductor-superconductor junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Wildt, Morten; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef

    1999-01-01

    states at subgap bias voltage. Oscillations in the conductance as a function of flux are seen at zero bias voltage and disappear below experimental resolution as the bias voltage exceeds the Thouless energy E-t = (h) over bar D/L-2, where L is the junction length. The oscillations reappear at higher bias....../V characteristic, with peaks in the conductance at V = 2 Delta/ne. We study an SNS structure consisting of highly doped diffusive GaAs with superconducting electrodes of aluminum with one Electrode configured as a flux-sensitive interferometer. This enables us to probe the coherent nature of the quasiparticle...

  17. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    technology research as a subdiscipline of TS, and we define and discuss some basic concepts and models of the field that we use in the rest of the paper. Based on a small-scale study of papers published in TS journals between 2006 and 2016, Section 3 attempts to map relevant developments of translation......Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  18. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  19. Translation Theory and Translation Studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a comparative study of "translation theory" and "translation studies" in China and the West. Its focus is to investigate whether there is translation theory in the Chinese tradition. My study begins with an examination of the debate in China over whether there has already existed a system of translation…

  20. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  1. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  2. Nonequilibrium in a low power arcjet nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Dieter M.; Myers, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy measurements were made of the plasma flow inside the nozzle of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster. The thruster propellant was a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture used to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine. The 0.25 mm diameter holes were drilled into the diverging section of the tungsten thruster nozzle to provide optical access to the internal flow. Atomic electron excitation, vibrational, and rotational temperatures were determined for the expanding plasma using relative line intensity techniques. The atomic excitation temperatures decreased from 18,000K at a location 3 mm downstream of the constrictor to 9,000K at a location 9 mm from the constrictor, while the molecular vibrational and rotational temperatures decreased from 6,500K to 2,500K and from 8,000K to 3,000K, respectively, between the same locations. The electron density measured using hydrogen H line Stark broadening decreased from about 10(exp 15) cm(-3) to about 2 times 10(exp 14) cm(-3) during the expansion. The results show that the plasma is highly nonequilibrium throughout the nozzle, with most relaxation times equal or exceeding the particle residence time.

  3. Why Translation Is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Schaeffer, Moritz Jonas

    2017-01-01

    translations we investigate the effects of cross-lingual syntactic and semantic distance on translation production times and find that non-literality makes from-scratch translation and post-editing difficult. We show that statistical machine translation systems encounter even more difficulties with non-literality....

  4. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  5. Quantum thermodynamics from the nonequilibrium dynamics of open systems: Energy, heat capacity, and the third law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Chou, C. H.; Subaşı, Y.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    In a series of papers, we intend to take the perspective of open quantum systems and examine from their nonequilibrium dynamics the conditions when the physical quantities, their relations, and the laws of thermodynamics become well defined and viable for quantum many-body systems. We first describe how an open-system nonequilibrium dynamics (ONEq) approach is different from the closed combined system + environment in a global thermal state (CGTs) setup. Only after the open system equilibrates will it be amenable to conventional thermodynamics descriptions, thus quantum thermodynamics (QTD) comes at the end rather than assumed in the beginning. The linkage between the two comes from the reduced density matrix of ONEq in that stage having the same form as that of the system in the CGTs. We see the open-system approach having the advantage of dealing with nonequilibrium processes as many experiments in the near future will call for. Because it spells out the conditions of QTD's existence, it can also aid us in addressing the basic issues in quantum thermodynamics from first principles in a systematic way. We then study one broad class of open quantum systems where the full nonequilibrium dynamics can be solved exactly, that of the quantum Brownian motion of N strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, interacting strongly with a scalar-field environment. In this paper, we focus on the internal energy, heat capacity, and the third law. We show for this class of physical models, amongst other findings, the extensive property of the internal energy, the positivity of the heat capacity, and the validity of the third law from the perspective of the behavior of the heat capacity toward zero temperature. These conclusions obtained from exact solutions and quantitative analysis clearly disprove claims of negative specific heat in such systems and dispel allegations that in such systems the validity of the third law of thermodynamics relies on quantum entanglement. They are

  6. Translation and Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to consider the issue of quality in translation. Specifically, the question under consideration is whether quality assurance in relation to translation is feasible and, if so, what some of the implications for translation theory, translation practice and the teaching of...... under the ISO 9001 standard, and section 4. discusses the implications which quality management seems to hold for the field of translation in a broad sense. Finally, section 5. concludes the article....

  7. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  8. Translation-coupling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  9. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  10. Work fluctuation and total entropy production in nonequilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-12-01

    Work fluctuation and total entropy production play crucial roles in small thermodynamic systems subject to large thermal fluctuations. We investigate a trade-off relation between them in a nonequilibrium situation in which a system starts from an arbitrary nonequilibrium state. We apply a variational method to study this problem and find a stationary solution against variations over protocols that describe the time dependence of the Hamiltonian of the system. Using the stationary solution, we find the minimum of the total entropy production for a given amount of work fluctuation. An explicit protocol that achieves this is constructed from an adiabatic process followed by a quasistatic process. The obtained results suggest how one can control the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system while suppressing its work fluctuation and total entropy production.

  11. Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.

  12. Writing Through: Practising Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay exists as a segment in a line of study and writing practice that moves between a critical theory analysis of translation studies conceptions of language, and the practical questions of what those ideas might mean for contemporary translation and writing practice. Although the underlying preoccupation of this essay, and my more general line of inquiry, is translation studies and practice, in many ways translation is merely a way into a discussion on language. For this essay, translation is the threshold of language. But the two trails of the discussion never manage to elude each other, and these concatenations have informed two experimental translation methods, referred to here as Live Translations and Series Translations. Following the essay are a number of poems in translation, all of which come from Blanco Nuclear by the contemporary Spanish poet, Esteban Pujals Gesalí. The first group, the Live Translations consist of transcriptions I made from audio recordings read in a public setting, in which the texts were translated in situ, either off the page of original Spanish-language poems, or through a process very much like that carried out by simultaneous translators, for which readings of the poems were played back to me through headphones at varying speeds to be translated before the audience. The translations collected are imperfect renderings, attesting to a moment in language practice rather than language objects. The second method involves an iterative translation process, by which three versions of any one poem are rendered, with varying levels of fluency, fidelity and servility. All three translations are presented one after the other as a series, with no version asserting itself as the primary translation. These examples, as well as the translation methods themselves, are intended as preliminary experiments within an endlessly divergent continuum of potential methods and translations, and not as a complete representation of

  13. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics in One Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2005-08-01

    Part I. Reaction-Diffusion Systems and Models of Catalysis; 1. Scaling theories of diffusion-controlled and ballistically-controlled bimolecular reactions S. Redner; 2. The coalescence process, A+A->A, and the method of interparticle distribution functions D. ben-Avraham; 3. Critical phenomena at absorbing states R. Dickman; Part II. Kinetic Ising Models; 4. Kinetic ising models with competing dynamics: mappings, correlations, steady states, and phase transitions Z. Racz; 5. Glauber dynamics of the ising model N. Ito; 6. 1D Kinetic ising models at low temperatures - critical dynamics, domain growth, and freezing S. Cornell; Part III. Ordering, Coagulation, Phase Separation; 7. Phase-ordering dynamics in one dimension A. J. Bray; 8. Phase separation, cluster growth, and reaction kinetics in models with synchronous dynamics V. Privman; 9. Stochastic models of aggregation with injection H. Takayasu and M. Takayasu; Part IV. Random Sequential Adsorption and Relaxation Processes; 10. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption: exactly solvable problems on 1D lattices, continuum limits, and 2D extensions J. W. Evans; 11. Lattice models of irreversible adsorption and diffusion P. Nielaba; 12. Deposition-evaporation dynamics: jamming, conservation laws and dynamical diversity M. Barma; Part V. Fluctuations In Particle and Surface Systems; 13. Microscopic models of macroscopic shocks S. A. Janowsky and J. L. Lebowitz; 14. The asymmetric exclusion model: exact results through a matrix approach B. Derrida and M. R. Evans; 15. Nonequilibrium surface dynamics with volume conservation J. Krug; 16. Directed walks models of polymers and wetting J. Yeomans; Part VI. Diffusion and Transport In One Dimension; 17. Some recent exact solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation H. L. Frisch; 18. Random walks, resonance, and ratchets C. R. Doering and T. C. Elston; 19. One-dimensional random walks in random environment K. Ziegler; Part VII. Experimental Results; 20. Diffusion

  14. Non-equilibrium reactivation of Na+ current drives early afterdepolarizations in mouse ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew G.; Grandi, Eleonora; Hake, Johan E.; Patel, Sonia; Li, Pan; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Omens, Jeffrey H.; Brown, Joan Heller; Bers, Donald M.; McCulloch, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early-afterdepolarizations (EADs) are triggers of cardiac arrhythmia driven by L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL) reactivation or sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and Na+/Ca2+ exchange. In large mammals the positive action potential (AP) plateau promotes ICaL reactivation, and the current paradigm holds that cardiac EAD dynamics are dominated by interaction between ICaL and the repolarizing K+ currents. However, EADs are also frequent in the rapidly repolarizing mouse AP, which should not readily permit ICaL reactivation. This suggests that murine EADs exhibit unique dynamics, which are key for interpreting arrhythmia mechanisms in this ubiquitous model organism. We investigated these dynamics in myocytes from arrhythmia-susceptible CaMKIIδC-overexpressing mice (Tg), and via computational simulations. Methods and Results In Tg myocytes, β-adrenergic challenge slowed late repolarization, potentiated SR Ca2+ release, and initiated EADs below the ICaL activation range (−47±0.7 mV). These EADs were abolished by caffeine and tetrodotoxin (but not Ranolazine), suggesting that SR Ca2+ release and Na+ current (INa), but not late INa, are required for EAD initiation. Simulations suggest that potentiated SR Ca2+ release and Na+/Ca2+ exchange triangulate late AP repolarization, which permits non-equilibrium reactivation of INa, and thereby drives the EAD upstroke. AP clamp experiments suggest that lidocaine eliminates virtually all inward current elicited by EADs, and that this effect occurs at concentrations (40-60 μM) for which lidocaine remains specific for inactivated Na+ channels. This strongly suggests that previously inactive channels are recruited during the EAD upstroke, and that non-equilibrium INa dynamics underlie murine EADs. Conclusions Non-equilibrium reactivation of INa drives murine EADs. PMID:25236710

  15. Nonequilibrium Energetics of Single Molecule Motor, Kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Takayuki; Tomishige, Michio; Mizuno, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    Molecular motors are nonequilibrium open systems that convert chemical energy to mechanical work. Here we investigate the nonequilibrium energetics of a single molecule kinesin by measuring the motion of an attached probe particle and its response to external forces with optical tweezers. The sum of the heat dissipation estimated from the violation of the fluctuation-response relation and the output power was inconsistent with the input free energy rate, implying that internal dissipation is dominant. By using a two-state Markov model, we discuss the energy flow of the kinesin motor.

  16. Generalization of the second law for a nonequilibrium initial state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: hhh@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ishikawa, J.; Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Driebe, D.J. [Division of Math, Science and Technology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    We generalize the second law of thermodynamics in its maximum work formulation for a nonequilibrium initial distribution. It is found that in an isothermal process, the Boltzmann relative entropy (H-function) is not just a Lyapunov function but also tells us the maximum work that may be gained from a nonequilibrium initial state. The generalized second law also gives a fundamental relation between work and information. It is valid even for a small Hamiltonian system not in contact with a heat reservoir but with an effective temperature determined by the isentropic condition. Our relation can be tested in the Szilard engine, which will be realized in the laboratory.

  17. Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancel, R.

    1983-01-01

    After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr

  18. Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.

  19. Nonequilibrium work energy relation for non-Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; DeWeese, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of nonequilibrium processes. The Jarzynski equality, for example, provides a link between equilibrium free energy differences and finite-time nonequilibrium dynamics. We propose a generalization of this relation to non-Hamiltonian dynamics, relevant for active matter systems, continuous feedback, and computer simulation. Surprisingly, this relation allows us to calculate the free energy difference between the desired initial and final equilibrium states using arbitrary dynamics. As a practical matter, this dissociation between the dynamics and the initial and final states promises to facilitate a range of techniques for free energy estimation in a single universal expression.

  20. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  1. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) have...... implications for the curriculum, (3) be pedagogically motivating, and (4) prepare students for employing translation technology in their future practice as translators. In a two-phase study in which 14 MA students translated texts in three modalities (sight, written, and oral translation using an SR program......), Translog was employed to measure task times. The quality of the products was assessed by three experienced translators, and the number and types of misrecognitions were identified by a phonetician. Results indicate that SR translation provides a potentially useful supplement to written translation...

  2. Introduction: contemporary translation studies and Bible translation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: contemporary translation studies and Bible translation. J.A. Naude, C.H.J. Van der Merwe. Abstract. (Acta Theologica, Supplementum 2, 2002: 1-5). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/actat.v22i1.5450.

  3. Translation, Quality and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    The paper investigates the feasibility and some of the possible consequences of applying quality management to translation. It first gives an introduction to two different schools of translation and to (total) quality management. It then examines whether quality management may, in theory......, be applied to translation and goes on to present a case study which involves a firm in the translation industry and which illustrates quality management in practice. The paper shows that applying quality management to translation is feasible and that doing so may translate into sustained growth....

  4. Translation in the Context of EFL - The Fifth Macroskill?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Campbell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EFL teaching methods often ignore the first language altogether and as a consequence ignore the potential of translation in language learning. Four factors that undermine the lack on integration of translation and EFL are 1 a strong anti-translation bias in EFL teaching methodology; 2 lack of recognition of translation in EFL publishing industry; 3 obstacles stemming from the demographics of EFL; 4 lack of interest from translation scholars. This paper argues that there are advantages of incorporating translation into ESL teaching.

  5. Living in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    Exaugural presentation. A retrospect of my personal itinerary from literature, across translation studies to translation process research and a look ahead. In the retrospect, I range over diverse topics, all of which have sprung from my concern with the phenomenon of translation. I reflect on how......, as humans, we generate meaning, interpret meaning, and reformulate or translate meaning. I also reflect on the way computing has influenced research into these phenomena as seen e.g. in my creation of the Translog program and in projects I have been involved in, such as OFT (Translation of Professional...... for global communication purposes, and for improving research into translation, the phenomenon of translation and the world of translation in which we all live....

  6. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  7. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  8. Translating Others, Discovering Himself: Beckett as Translator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Gribben

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the work of Samuel Beckett in the light of his early work as a translator of the works of other writers.  In his translations for Negro: An Anthology (1934, the Anthology of Mexican Poetry (1958, or commissioned translations for journals such as “This Quarter”, early pre-figurings of Beckett’s own thematic and linguistic concerns abound.  Rarely viewed as more than acts of raising money for himself, Beckett’s acts of translation, examined chronologically, demonstrate a writer discovering his craft, and developing his unique voice, unencumbered by the expectations of originality.  This essay posits that Beckett’s works, with their distinctive voice and characterisation, owe much to the global perspective he gained through translating across cultural, continental divides, as well as experimenting with form, which became a staple of Beckett’s own work.  Without formal training or theoretical grounding in translation, Beckett utilises the act of translation as a means of finding himself, revisiting it as a means of shaping his own unique literary voice.

  9. Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for molecular motors and the asymmetric exclusion process which is a basic example of a driven lattice gas. Keywords. Thermodynamics; non-equilibrium mechanics; Brownian motion; molecular motors; Gallavotti–Cohen fluctuation theorem; Jarzynski's work relation. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 05.40.-a; 87.16.Nn. 1. Introduction.

  10. Conserving GW scheme for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Rubio, Angel

    2008-01-01

    We give a detailed presentation of our recent scheme to include correlation effects in molecular transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The scheme is general and can be used with any quasiparticle self-energy, but for practical reasons, we mainly specialize to the so-c...

  11. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  12. Canonical structure of dynamical fluctuations in mesoscopic nonequilibrium steady states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2008), 30003/1-30003/6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * steady state * Onsager- Machlup theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2008

  13. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the ...

  14. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal statistical mechanics, and over the idea of the thermodynamic limit. Recently, an alternative simulation strategy has been developed, which analyzes the nonequilibrium relaxation (NER) process. It is called the NER method.

  15. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.

  16. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for ...

  17. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  18. Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.

  19. D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaltin, J.

    1990-06-01

    The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)

  20. On the theory of non-equilibrium hydrodynamic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletminskij, S.V.; Plokhov, S.S.; Prikhod'ko, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of abbreviated description a microscopic theory of non-equilibrium fluctuations with a great radius of correlations, which permits to study fluctuation kinetics at t>>tausub(r)(tausub(r) is relaxation time) is built. General formula, describing the degree character of approximation to the state of statistical equilibrium of mean values of arbitrary quasilocal operators, are obtained [ru

  1. Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014

  2. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State. AVINASH A. DESHPANDE. ∗ and N. KUMAR. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: desh@rri.res.in. MS received 25 March 2017; accepted 31 July 2017; published online 12 September ...

  3. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...

  4. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluctuation theorem; Jarzynski equality; orbital magnetism. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 05.40.Jc; 05.40.-a; 05.40.Ca. 1. Introduction. Recent developments in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics has led to the discov- ery of several rigorous theorems for systems far away from equilibrium [1–10]. The fluctuation theorems describe ...

  5. Simulation and comparison of equilibrium and nonequilibrium stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modelling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, ...

  6. On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)

  7. High-precision work distributions for extreme nonequilibrium processes in large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Alexander K

    2014-05-01

    The distributions of work for strongly nonequilibrium processes are studied using a very general form of a large-deviation approach, which allows one to study distributions down to extremely small probabilities of almost arbitrary quantities of interest for equilibrium, nonequilibrium stationary, and even nonstationary processes. The method is applied to quickly vary the external field in a wide range B = 3 ↔ 0 for a critical (T = 2.269) two-dimensional Ising system of size L × L = 128 × 128. To obtain free-energy differences from the work distributions, they must be studied in ranges where the probabilities are as small as 10^{-240}, which is not possible using direct simulation approaches. By comparison with the exact free energies, which are available for this model for the zero-field case, one sees that the present approach allows one to obtain the free energy with a very high relative precision of 10^{-4}. This works well also for a nonzero field, i.e., for a case where standard umbrella-sampling methods are not efficient to calculate free energies. Furthermore, for the present case it is verified that the resulting distributions of work for forward and backward processes fulfill Crooks theorem with high precision. Finally, the free energy for the Ising magnet as a function of the field strength is obtained.

  8. Translating HOL to Dedukti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Assaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dedukti is a logical framework based on the lambda-Pi-calculus modulo rewriting, which extends the lambda-Pi-calculus with rewrite rules. In this paper, we show how to translate the proofs of a family of HOL proof assistants to Dedukti. The translation preserves binding, typing, and reduction. We implemented this translation in an automated tool and used it to successfully translate the OpenTheory standard library.

  9. Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Koehn, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Draft of textbook chapter on neural machine translation. a comprehensive treatment of the topic, ranging from introduction to neural networks, computation graphs, description of the currently dominant attentional sequence-to-sequence model, recent refinements, alternative architectures and challenges. Written as chapter for the textbook Statistical Machine Translation. Used in the JHU Fall 2017 class on machine translation.

  10. Machine Translation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  11. For "Translation and Theories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Lili

    2009-01-01

    Translation studies stem from comparative literature and contrastive analysis. It involves the transfer of messages between two different language systems and cultures, and Munday (2001, p.1) notes that translation "by its nature" "is multilingual and also interdisciplinary". Translation subjects are the texts in various…

  12. Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yun; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2017-06-01

    We present Chinese translation norms for 1,429 English words. Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 28) were asked to provide the first Chinese translation that came to mind for 1,429 English words. The results revealed that 71 % of the English words received more than one correct translation indicating the large amount of translation ambiguity when translating from English to Chinese. The relationship between translation ambiguity and word frequency, concreteness and language proficiency was investigated. Although the significant correlations were not strong, results revealed that English word frequency was positively correlated with the number of alternative translations, whereas English word concreteness was negatively correlated with the number of translations. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the number of Chinese translations was predicted by word frequency and concreteness. Furthermore, an interaction between these predictors revealed that the number of translations was more affected by word frequency for more concrete words than for less concrete words. In addition, mixed-effects modelling showed that word frequency, concreteness and English language proficiency were all significant predictors of whether or not a dominant translation was provided. Finally, correlations between the word frequencies of English words and their Chinese dominant translations were higher for translation-unambiguous pairs than for translation-ambiguous pairs. The translation norms are made available in a database together with lexical information about the words, which will be a useful resource for researchers investigating Chinese-English bilingual language processing.

  13. Non-equilibrium dynamics of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David

    This thesis describes experiments focused on investigating out-of-equilibrium phenomena in the Bose-Hubbard Model and exploring novel cooling techniques for ultracold gases in optical lattices. In the first experiment, we study quenches across the Mott-insulator-to-superfluid quantum phase transition in the 3D Bose-Hubbard Model. The quench is accomplished by continuously tuning the ratio of the Hubbard energies. We observe that the degree of excitation is proportional to the fraction of atoms that cross the phase boundary, and that the amount of excitations and energy produced during the quench have a power-law dependence on the quench rate. These phenomena suggest an excitation process analogous to the mechanism for defect generation in non-equilibrium classical phase transitions. This experiment constitutes the first observation of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a quantum quench. We have reported our findings in Ref. [1]. In a second experiment, published in Ref. [2], we investigate dissipation as a method for cooling a strongly interacting gas. We introduce dissipation via a bosonic reservoir to a strongly interacting bosonic gas in the Mott-insulator regime of a 3D spin-dependent optical lattice. The lattice atoms are excited to a higher energy band using laser-induced Bragg transitions. A weakly interacting superfluid comprised of atoms in a state that does not experience the lattice potential acts as a dissipative bath that interacts with the lattice atoms through collisions. We measure the resulting bath-induced decay using the atomic quasimomentum distribution, and we compare the decay rate with predictions from a weakly interacting model with no free parameters. A competing intrinsic decay mechanism arising from collisions between lattice atoms is also investigated. The presence of intrinsic decay can not be accommodated within a non-interacting framework and signals that strong interactions may play a central role in the lattice-atom dynamics. The

  14. Non-equilibrium temperatures and heat transport in nanosystems with defects, described by a tensorial internal variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restuccia Liliana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the meaning of non-equilibrium temperatures in nanosystems with an internal variable, describing defects inside them, and implications on heat transport. In equilibrium all definitions of temperature lead to the same value, but in nonequilibrium steady states they lead to different values, giving information on different degrees of freedom. We discuss the caloric and entropic non-equilibrium temperatures and the relations among them, in defective nanosystems (crystals with dislocations or porous channels, carbon nanotubes in a solid matrix and so on, crossed by an external energy flux. Here, we present a model for nanocrystals with dislocation defects submitted to an external energy flux. The dislocations may have a strong influence on the effective thermal conductivity, and their own dynamics may be coupled in relevant way to the heat flux dynamics. In the linear case the constitutive relations, the rate equations for the internal variable and the heat flux are worked out and a generalized telegraphic heat equation is derived in the anisotropic and isotropic case, describing the thermal disturbances with finite velocity.

  15. Speaking your Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Mees, Inger M.; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss the translation processes and products of 14 MA students who produced translations from Danish (L1) into English (L2) under different working conditions: (1) written translation, (2) sight translation, and (3) sight translation with a speech recognition (SR) tool. Audio......, since students were dictating in their L2, we looked into the number and types of error that occurred when using the SR software. Items that were misrecognised by the program could be divided into three categories: homophones, hesitations, and incorrectly pronounced words. Well over fifty per cent...

  16. Lost in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Steffen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of translated texts. Our results suggest (i) that frame-based classifiers are usable for author attribution of both translated and untranslated texts; (ii) that framebased classifiers generally perform worse than the baseline classifiers for untranslated texts, but (iii) perform as well as, or superior...... to the baseline classifiers on translated texts; (iv) that—contrary to current belief—naïve classifiers based on lexical markers may perform tolerably on translated texts if the combination of author and translator is present in the training set of a classifier....

  17. Landscape, kinetics, paths and statistics of curl flux, coherence, entanglement and energy transfer in non-equilibrium quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We develop a population and flux landscape theory for general non-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our theory by modelling the quantum transport of donor-acceptor energy transfer. We find two driving forces for the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. The symmetric part of the driving force corresponds to the population landscape contribution which mainly governs the equilibrium part of dynamics while the anti-symmetric part of the driving force generates the non-equilibrium curl quantum flux which leads to the detailed-balance-breaking and time-irreversibility. The multi-loop structure of the flux emerges forms the flux-landscape. We study the trend of changes in population and flux-landscape with respect to the voltage (temperature difference induced by environments) and electronic coupling. Improving the voltage and electronic coupling in general facilitates the quantum transport by reducing the population landscape barriers between major states and increasing the mean value of the flux. A limit-cycle mode emerges when the underlying flux-landscape becomes funnelled with a significant gap between the largest flux loop and the rest of them. On the kinetic level, we find that multiple kinetic paths between quantum states emerge and illustrate the interference effects. The degree of interference is determined by the landscape and flux. Furthermore, we quantify kinetic rate which strongly correlates with the population landscape and flux. For quantum transport, we demonstrate that as the coherence or the quantum entanglement is enhanced, the flux and energy transfer efficiency are increased. Finally it is surprising that the non-equilibriumness quantified by voltage has a non-trivial contribution on strengthening the entanglement, which is attributed to the non-local feature of the quantum curl flux. (paper)

  18. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  19. What is a translator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Martha Pulido

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I copied the title from Foucault’s text, "Qu'est-ce qu'un auteur" in Dits et écrits [1969], Paris, Gallimard, 1994, that I read in French, then in English in Donald F. Bouchard’s and Sherry Simon’s translation, and finally in Spanish in Yturbe Corina’s translation, and applied for the translator some of the analysis that Foucault presents to define the author. Foucault suggests that if we cannot define an author, at least we can see where their function is reflected. My purpose in this paper is to present those surfaces where the function of the translator is reflected or where it can be revealed, and to analyse the categories that could lead us to the elaboration of a suitable definition of a Translator. I dare already give a compound noun for the translator: Translator-Function.

  20. Baudelaire: Translator-Auctoritas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zapata

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve visibility in the media and a position recognized by both the public and their peers, translators are compelled to take advantage of spaces of enunciation such as those provided by prefaces, criticism, or biographical notes. Thanks to these spaces, in which translators deploy discursive and institutional strategies that allow them to position themselves and their translation project, translators acquire the status of translator-auctoritas, that is, a level of symbolic authority capable of endowing them with a public image. Through the detailed analysis of the editorial strategies and institutional calculations implemented by Baudelaire in order to position his project of translating Edgar Allan Poe, we show how the poet achieves the status of translator-auctoritas and the role the latter played in the construction of his own literary identity.

  1. Lost in translation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granas, Anne Gerd; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The "Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire" (BMQ) assess balance of necessity and concern of medicines. The BMQ has been translated from English to many languages. However, the original meaning of statements, such as "My medicine is a mystery to me", may be lost in translation. The aim...... of this study is to compare three Scandinavian translations of the BMQ. (1) How reliable are the translations? (2) Are they still valid after translation? METHODS: Translated Norwegian, Swedish and Danish versions of the BMQ were scrutinized by three native Scandinavian researchers. Linguistic differences...... and ambiguities in the 5-point Likert scale and the BMQ statements were compared. RESULTS: In the Scandinavian translations, the Likert scale expanded beyond the original version at one endpoint (Swedish) or both endpoints (Danish). In the BMQ statements, discrepancies ranged from smaller inaccuracies toward...

  2. Introduction : Translation Peripheries. The Paratextual Elements In Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bardají, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The notion of paratext is an unquestionably important consideration for many lines of research in translation studies: the history of translation, literary translation, audiovisual translation, and the analysis of ideological discourse in translation or self-translation. This inexplicable short-age of studies on paratexts in translations was one of the reasons why the Department of Translation and Interpreting at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona decided to organise the 7th International ...

  3. Picosecond dissociation of amyloid fibrils with infrared laser: A nonequilibrium simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Viet, Man; Roland, Christopher, E-mail: cmroland@ncsu.edu; Sagui, Celeste, E-mail: sagui@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Derreumaux, Philippe; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail: phuong.nguyen@ibpc.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, SBI Building, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2015-10-21

    Recently, mid-infrared free-electron laser technology has been developed to dissociate amyloid fibrils. Here, we present a theoretical framework for this type of experiment based on laser-induced nonequilibrium all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the fibril is destroyed due to the strong resonance between its amide I vibrational modes and the laser field. The effects of laser irradiation are determined by a balance between fibril formation and dissociation. While the overall rearrangements of the fibril finish over short time scales, the interaction between the peptides and the solvent continues over much longer times indicating that the waters play an important role in the dissociation process. Our results thus provide new insights into amyloid fibril dissociation by laser techniques and open up new venues to investigate the complex phenomena associated with amyloidogenesis.

  4. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-09

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  5. Critical nonequilibrium relaxation in cluster algorithms in the BKT and weak first-order phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    Recently we showed that the critical nonequilibrium relaxation in cluster algorithms is widely described by the stretched-exponential decay of physical quantities in the Ising or Heisenberg models. Here we make a similar analysis in the Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in the 2D XY model (simple exponential decay) and in the weak first-order phase transition in the 2D q = 5 Potts model (power-law decay), which means that these phase transitions can clearly be characterized by the present analysis. These relaxation behaviors are compared with those in the 3D and 4D XY models (second-order phase transition) and in the 2D q-state Potts models (2 = 6 for strong first-order phase transitions.

  6. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  7. Nonequilibrium absorption in semiconductors and the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1997-01-01

    systems. Modulation above the band gap is weak in the 3D case but considerable fine structure is predicted for 1D and 2D systems. A characteristic feature of the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is that the absorption edge will be shifted up by an amount corresponding to the average kinetic energy......We theoretically study free electron light absorption for a sample which is placed in a strong, time-dependent uniform electric field. In the case of static fields one observes the Franz-Keldysh effect: finite absorption for photon energies below the band gap. We refer to this phenomenon...... as the Franz-Keldysh tail. Modulation of the spectra above the band gap is also found. These static effects are observed in both 3D, 2D and 1D systems. Our analysis, based on nonequilibrium Green function techniques, shows that an analogous effect takes place in time-dependent fields: the dynamical Franz...

  8. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  9. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  10. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, B.L. [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T{sub 1}>T{sub 2}. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T{sub c}, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T{sub c} is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.

  11. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B. L.

    2015-11-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T 1 > T 2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T 1, T 2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction.

  12. Potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulence and nonequilibrium fluid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jin

    2018-02-01

    Turbulence is a paradigm for far-from-equilibrium systems without time reversal symmetry. To capture the nonequilibrium irreversible nature of turbulence and investigate its implications, we develop a potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulent flow and more general nonequilibrium fluid systems governed by stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. We find that equilibrium fluid systems with time reversibility are characterized by a detailed balance constraint that quantifies the detailed balance condition. In nonequilibrium fluid systems with nonequilibrium steady states, detailed balance breaking leads directly to a pair of interconnected consequences, namely, the non-Gaussian potential landscape and the irreversible probability flux, forming a 'nonequilibrium trinity'. The nonequilibrium trinity characterizes the nonequilibrium irreversible essence of fluid systems with intrinsic time irreversibility and is manifested in various aspects of these systems. The nonequilibrium stochastic dynamics of fluid systems including turbulence with detailed balance breaking is shown to be driven by both the non-Gaussian potential landscape gradient and the irreversible probability flux, together with the reversible convective force and the stochastic stirring force. We reveal an underlying connection of the energy flux essential for turbulence energy cascade to the irreversible probability flux and the non-Gaussian potential landscape generated by detailed balance breaking. Using the energy flux as a center of connection, we demonstrate that the four-fifths law in fully developed turbulence is a consequence and reflection of the nonequilibrium trinity. We also show how the nonequilibrium trinity can affect the scaling laws in turbulence.

  13. Struggling with Translations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This paper shows empirical how actors have difficulties with translating strategy texts. The paper uses four cases as different examples of what happens, and what might be difficult, when actors translate organizational texts. In order to explore this, it draws on a translation training method from...... translation theory. The study shows that for those who have produced the text, it is difficult to translate a strategy where they have to change the words so others who don’t understand the language in the text can understand it. It also shows that for those who haven’t been a part of the production, it very...... challenge the notion that actors understand all texts and that managers per se can translate a text....

  14. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  15. Phase transitions, scaling and renormalisation in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hanney, T E

    2002-01-01

    critical fixed point. Extensions to include disorder, to higher dimensions, and to other models are all possible using the method. Using the mapping between the Master equation and the Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, this scaling procedure is rephrased as a new blocking for quantum-spin systems. Existing methods of real space renormalisation for quantum-spin systems are applied to a variety of previously unconsidered exclusion models. In particular, it is shown how such techniques can be applied to models whose dynamics conserve particle number. Finally, by applying a Trotter decomposition to the quantum-spin Hamiltonian, it is shown how a nonequilibrium exclusion model can be written in terms of a classical Hamiltonian for Ising spin variables in one higher dimension. This mapping admits the possibility rescaling time and length scales separately, and with reference to a specific update mechanism. Nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena in simple lattice-based interacting particle mo...

  16. Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented...... in the well tested SIESTA approach (which uses nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials to describe the effect of the core electrons, and linear combination of finite-range numerical atomic orbitals to describe the valence states). We fully deal with the atomistic structure of the whole system, treating both...... the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...

  17. Extreme quantum nonequilibrium, nodes, vorticity, drift and relaxation retarding states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Nicolas G.

    2018-02-01

    Consideration is given to the behaviour of de Broglie trajectories that are separated from the bulk of the Born distribution with a view to describing the quantum relaxation properties of more ‘extreme’ forms of quantum nonequilibrium. For the 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator, through the construction of what is termed the ‘drift field’, a description is given of a general mechanism that causes the relaxation of ‘extreme’ quantum nonequilibrium. Quantum states are found which do not feature this mechanism, so that relaxation may be severely delayed or possibly may not take place at all. A method by which these states may be identified, classified and calculated is given in terms of the properties of the nodes of the state. Properties of the nodes that enable this classification are described for the first time.

  18. Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)

  19. Construction of a Non-Equilibrium Thermal Boundary Layer Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Drummond; Ebadi, Alireza; Ma, Allen; White, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    A thermally conductive, electrically heated wall-plate forming the bottom wall of a wind tunnel has been constructed and validation tests have been performed. The wall-plate is a sectioned wall design, where each section is independently heated and controlled. Each section consists of an aluminum 6061 plate, an array of resistive heaters affixed to the bottom of the aluminum plate, and a calcium silicate holder used for thermal isolation. Embedded thermocouples in the aluminum plates are used to monitor the wall temperature and for feedback control of wall heating. The wall-plate is used to investigate thermal transport in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium boundary layers. The non-equilibrium boundary layer flow investigated is oscillatory flow produced by a rotor-stator mechanism placed downstream of the test section of the wind tunnel.

  20. Nonequilibrium 1/f γ noise in conducting films and contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigal'skii, Gennadii P

    2003-01-01

    Work on nonequilibrium flicker-noise (1/f γ noise or NEFN) in conducting films of various materials and in thin-film contacts is reviewed. Experimental methods for studying nonequilibrium flicker fluctuations by separating NEFN from the total noise are suggested. Published results on NEFN in metal and alloy films, Ni/Cr-film and Ta x N y -film resistors, and contacts are systematized. It is shown that various kinds of NEFN occur in conducting films. Depending on test conditions, external influences, and the film microstructure, both stationary and non-stationary NEFNs are observed. The use of 1/f γ noise measurements for nondestructively controlling the quality of thin-film conductors is substantiated. For most of the passive IC components (thin-film conductors, resistive layers, contacts), NEFN makes a much more informative quality indicator than equilibrium flicker-noise. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. 14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    2006-01-01

    International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.

  2. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Ion Flux through Membrane Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Pan Hsieh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion flux through membrane channels is passively driven by the electrochemical potential differences across the cell membrane. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has been successful in explaining transport mechanisms, including the ion transport phenomenon. However, physiologists may not be familiar with biophysical concepts based on the view of entropy production. In this paper, I have reviewed the physical meanings and connections between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the expressions commonly used in describing ion fluxes in membrane physiology. The fluctuation theorem can be applied to interpret the flux ratio in the small molecular systems. The multi-ion single-file feature of the ion channel facilitates the utilization of the natural tendency of electrochemical driving force to couple specific biophysical processes and biochemical reactions on the membrane.

  3. Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending

  4. Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...

  5. Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...

  6. Who translates the translation? (Retraduire les héros marginaux d'Alan Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice RAY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The retranslation phenomenon is essential to the translation process. It is considered as the logical progression of this process which allows the translated literary work to regenerate in a restless cultural and language space. To a lesser extent, we can observe the same phenomenon in the translation of comics. However, this specific translation requires other competencies and a translating approach somehow different from the ones required to translate fiction literature, especially because of the presence of the visual system of drawings which is strongly bound to its own culture and the endless mutations it goes through. The comic book Watchmen (Les Gardiens, in the first French translation by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, is known in the whole world as the comic which had not only remodeled the vision we had of super-heroes, but had also given the comic books another voice. Watchmen was published between 1986 and 1987 in the United States and translated in French from 1987 to 1988. Fifteen years after this first translation by Jean-Patrick Manchette, Panini publishing decided to retranslate this famous comic in 2007. However, if the reviews of the first translation were laudatory, the retranslation did not enjoy a great reception from the readers or from the reviewers. This paper proposes a comparative analysis of both these translations and of their original version as well as an experiment on the readers, comic books readers or not, in order to establish why the first translation was a success and the retranslation a failure. Thus, we could withdraw the elements which allow us to understand the reception of comic translation.

  7. Translational, rotational and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc discharge at atmospheric pressure air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Gliding arc discharges have generally been used to generate non-equilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure. Temperature distributions of a gliding arc are of great interest both for fundamental plasma research and for practical applications. In the presented studies, translational, rotational...... and vibrational temperatures of a gliding arc generated at atmospheric pressure air are investigated. Translational temperatures (about 1100 K) were measured by laser-induced Rayleigh scattering, and two-dimensional temperature imaging was performed. Rotational and vibrational temperatures (about 3600 K and 6700...

  8. Translating children’s literature: some insights from corpus stylistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Čermáková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the potential of a corpus stylistic approach to the study of literary translation. The study focuses on translation of children’s literature with its specific constrains, and illustrates with two corpus linguistic techniques: keyword and cluster analysis — specific cases of repetition. So in a broader sense the paper discusses the phenomenon of repetition in different literary (stylistic traditions. These are illustrated by examples from two children’s classics aimed at two different age groups: the Harry Potter and the Winnie the Pooh books — and their translations into Czech. Various shifts in translation, especially in the translation of children’s literature, are often explained by the operation of so-called ‘translation universals’. Though ‘repetition’ as such does not belong to the commonly discussed set of translation universals, the stylistic norms opposing repetition seem to be a strong explanation for the translation shifts identified.

  9. Translational ecology for hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Translational ecology--a special discipline aimed to improve the accessibility of science to policy makers--will help hydrogeologists contribute to the solution of pressing environmental problems. Patterned after translational medicine, translational ecology is a partnership to ensure that the right science gets done in a timely fashion, so that it can be communicated to those who need it. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  10. The Metalanguage of Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Amanda Case

    2013-04-01

    The Metalanguage of Translation, sections of which contain materials originally published in volume nineteen of the international translation studies journal, Target (2007, presents a compilation of eleven position articles, written by eleven contributors who draw attention to the often diametric variations between the practice and conceptualization of translation studies and the language we use to describe it. This volume provides a multiplicity of metalinguistic topics covering everything from terminology and bibliography to epistemology and localization.

  11. Variational Neural Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Biao; Xiong, Deyi; Su, Jinsong; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Models of neural machine translation are often from a discriminative family of encoderdecoders that learn a conditional distribution of a target sentence given a source sentence. In this paper, we propose a variational model to learn this conditional distribution for neural machine translation: a variational encoderdecoder model that can be trained end-to-end. Different from the vanilla encoder-decoder model that generates target translations from hidden representations of source sentences al...

  12. The dynamics of a thermal non-equilibrium anharmonic oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    We propose an non-standard method to calculate non-equilibrium physical observables. Considering the generic example of an anharmonic quantum oscillator, we take advantage of the fact that the commutator algebra of second order polynomials in creation/annihilation operators closes. We solve the von~Neumann equation for the density-operator exactly in the mean field approximation and study the time evolution of the particle number and the expectation value .

  13. On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Nonequilibrium Energetics of a Single F1-ATPase Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors drive mechanical motions utilizing the free energy liberated from chemical reactions such as ATP hydrolysis. Although it is essential to know the efficiency of this free energy transduction, it has been a challenge due to the system's microscopic scale. Here, we evaluate the single-molecule energetics of a rotary molecular motor, F1-ATPase, by applying a recently derived nonequilibrium equality together with an electrorotation method. We show that the sum of the heat flow thr...

  15. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems. Keywords. Non-equilibrium systems; large deviations; current fluctuations. PACS Nos 02.50.-r; 05.40.-a; 05.70.Ln; 82.20.-w. 1. Introduction. The goal of this .... The model is defined as a one-dimensional lattice of L sites with open bound- .... In [2] a perturbation theory was developed to calculate µ(λ) in powers of λ.

  16. Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  17. Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.

  18. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Raz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  19. Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....

  20. Vajon in Translated Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Götz Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the structures the discourse marker vajon forms in translated Hungarian fiction. Although translation data has been deployed in the study of discourse markers (Aijmer & Simon- Vandenbergen, 2004, such studies do not account for translation-specific phenomena which can influence the data of their analysis. In addition, translated discourse markers could offer insights into the idiosyncratic properties of translated texts as well as the culturally defined norms of translation that guide the creation of target texts. The analysis presented in this paper extends the cross-linguistic approach beyond contrastive analysis with a detailed investigation of two corpora of translated texts in order to identify patterns which could be a sign of translation or genre norms impacting the target texts. As a result, a distinct, diverging pattern emerges between the two corpora: patterns of explicit polarity show a marked difference. However, further research is needed to clarify whether these are due to language, genre, or translation norms.

  1. Translation as cultural mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Petcu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the role that translation plays as cultural mediator, as it already widely accepted that translation involves not just two languages, but two cultures, two worlds that are brought into close contact with each other. Obviously, between the two cultures, the two worlds that translation compares and contrasts there are both similarities and dissimilarities. What is of interest to us is the way in which dissimilarities should be approached in the process of translation, whether they should be domesticated or foreignized as Venuti put it, whether the reader should be brought closer to the text or the text closer to the reader.

  2. Minority Voices in Literary Fiction: A Case Study of Translating Multilingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Translating multilingual texts is still a new field of inquiry. Transplanting a text where the function of embraced multilingual practices is strongly related to local ethnic identities can provide challenges for translators and readers alike. This study discusses the translation strategies adopted by second-year translation students on an…

  3. Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.

  4. States of Water in Non-Equilibrium Glassy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Elabd, Yossef

    2013-03-01

    For many applications (e.g., packaging, medical devices) a deeper fundamental understanding of the molecular nature of water in glassy polymer coatings is of significant interest. In this study, the sorption and diffusion of water in two glassy polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS), were measured with both quartz crystal microbalance (QSM) and time-resolved Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Non-Fickian diffusion was observed in both PMMA and PS using both experimental techniques due to the non-equilibrium state of the polymers. The specific states of water were observed with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, where dimers exist in PMMA below a critical concentration and larger clusters were observed above this concentration. Contrastingly, water only exists in PS as larger clusters over the entire sorption isotherm. A correlation between the states of water and the diffusive activation energy of water was observed. Additionally, the pseudo-equilibrium water sorption isotherms in PMMA and PS were accurately predicted with the non-equilibrium statistical associating fluid theory (NE-SAFT). We predict that the combination of time-resolved FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and NE-SAFT can be used on other water-glassy polymer systems to provide a molecular understanding of non-equilibrium sorption and diffusion.

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. TRANSLATING ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: A CASE STUDY OF EPISTEMICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARNEDI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of discourse in the social sciences, economics textbooks written in English in which knowledge has been transferred to other languages through translation have brought a certain impact on both the target language and the target culture. In terms of ideology, this article argues about the hegemonic status of the dominant language or culture that creates socalled epistemicide or the erosion of knowledge, partly due to translation strategies adopted by the translator. Investigation is done using the corpusbased approach, theories of translation strategies and the comparative model. The study reveals that the translator in the macro-level text adopts the ideology of foreignising strategy rather than domesticating strategy when translating an economics textbook from English into Indonesian. This is supported by the use of the number of the source language-orientated translation techniques leading to two translation methods (i.e. literal translation and faithful translation adopted in the micro-level text. This research strongly supports another relevant study pertaining to the globalisation of knowledge through translation and also the translation theories of equivalence (i.e. overt and covert translation. The research findings also have some pedagogical implications on teaching English for Specific Purposes in higher education.

  7. Theory and simulation of strong correlations in quantum Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, M.; Semkat, D.; Filinov, A.; Golubnychyi, V.; Kremp, D.; Gericke, D. O.; Murillo, M. S.; Filinov, V.; Fortov, V.; Hoyer, W.; Koch, S. W.

    2003-06-01

    Strong correlations in quantum Coulomb systems (QCS) are attracting increasing interest in many fields ranging from dense plasmas and semiconductors to metal clusters and ultracold trapped ions. Examples are bound states in dense plasmas (atoms, molecules, clusters) and semiconductors (excitons, trions, biexcitons) or Coulomb crystals. We present first-principle simulation results of these systems including path integral Monte Carlo simulations of the equilibrium behaviour of dense hydrogen and electron-hole plasmas and molecular dynamics and quantum kinetic theory simulations of the nonequilibrium properties of QCS. Finally, we critically assess potential and limitations of the various methods in their application to Coulomb systems.

  8. Nonequilibrium Brownian Motion beyond the Effective Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Sarracino, Alessandro; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The condition of thermal equilibrium simplifies the theoretical treatment of fluctuations as found in the celebrated Einstein’s relation between mobility and diffusivity for Brownian motion. Several recent theories relax the hypothesis of thermal equilibrium resulting in at least two main scenarios. With well separated timescales, as in aging glassy systems, equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem applies at each scale with its own “effective” temperature. With mixed timescales, as for example in active or granular fluids or in turbulence, temperature is no more well-defined, the dynamical nature of fluctuations fully emerges and a Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (GFDT) applies. Here, we study experimentally the mixed timescale regime by studying fluctuations and linear response in the Brownian motion of a rotating intruder immersed in a vibro-fluidized granular medium. Increasing the packing fraction, the system is moved from a dilute single-timescale regime toward a denser multiple-timescale stage. Einstein’s relation holds in the former and is violated in the latter. The violation cannot be explained in terms of effective temperatures, while the GFDT is able to impute it to the emergence of a strong coupling between the intruder and the surrounding fluid. Direct experimental measurements confirm the development of spatial correlations in the system when the density is increased. PMID:24714671

  9. Nonequilibrium Brownian motion beyond the effective temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gnoli

    Full Text Available The condition of thermal equilibrium simplifies the theoretical treatment of fluctuations as found in the celebrated Einstein's relation between mobility and diffusivity for Brownian motion. Several recent theories relax the hypothesis of thermal equilibrium resulting in at least two main scenarios. With well separated timescales, as in aging glassy systems, equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem applies at each scale with its own "effective" temperature. With mixed timescales, as for example in active or granular fluids or in turbulence, temperature is no more well-defined, the dynamical nature of fluctuations fully emerges and a Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (GFDT applies. Here, we study experimentally the mixed timescale regime by studying fluctuations and linear response in the Brownian motion of a rotating intruder immersed in a vibro-fluidized granular medium. Increasing the packing fraction, the system is moved from a dilute single-timescale regime toward a denser multiple-timescale stage. Einstein's relation holds in the former and is violated in the latter. The violation cannot be explained in terms of effective temperatures, while the GFDT is able to impute it to the emergence of a strong coupling between the intruder and the surrounding fluid. Direct experimental measurements confirm the development of spatial correlations in the system when the density is increased.

  10. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  11. Translating VDM to Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    specifications. However, to take advantage of the automated analysis of Alloy, the model-oriented VDM specifications must be translated into a constraint-based Alloy specifications. We describe how a sub- set of VDM can be translated into Alloy and how assertions can be expressed in VDM and checked by the Alloy...

  12. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  13. Idioms and Back Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The challenges of intercultural communication are an integral part of many undergraduate business communication courses. Marketing gaffes clearly illustrate the pitfalls of translation and underscore the importance of a knowledge of the culture with which one is attempting to communicate. A good way to approach the topic of translation pitfalls in…

  14. Students' Differentiated Translation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Michael J.; Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Chandler, Kayla

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how students translate between mathematical representations is of both practical and theoretical importance. This study examined students' processes in their generation of symbolic and graphic representations of given polynomial functions. The purpose was to investigate how students perform these translations. The result of the study…

  15. Staging Ethnographic Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))......Objectifying the cultural diversity of visual fieldmethods - and the analysis of balancing the cultural known and unknown through anthropological analysis (aided by the analytical concept translation (Edwin Ardener 1989))...

  16. Translation as (Global) Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Bruce; Tetreault, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores translation as a useful point of departure and framework for taking a translingual approach to writing engaging globalization. Globalization and the knowledge economy are putting renewed emphasis on translation as a key site of contest between a dominant language ideology of monolingualism aligned with fast capitalist…

  17. Creativity, Culture and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Siamak; Wan Yahya, Wan Roselezam; Babaee, Ruzbeh

    2014-01-01

    Some scholars (Bassnett-McGuire, Catford, Brislin) suggest that a good piece of translation should be a strict reflection of the style of the original text while some others (Gui, Newmark, Wilss) consider the original text untranslatable unless it is reproduced. Opposing views by different critics suggest that translation is still a challenging…

  18. Translating the Folk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at issues affecting Robert Garioch's translation into Scots of a sonnet from Giuseppe Gioachino Belli's Romaneschi collection. It begins with the discussion of a problem involved in writing in dialects with no settled written standard. This 'standardizing' poetry is then looked at in terms of translation and theories of the…

  19. Translation between cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Oliveira Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will question the pertinence of understanding interculturality in terms of translation between cultures. I shall study this hypothesis in two ways : 1 / the cosmopolitan horizon, which the idea of translation may implicate ; 2 / the critique of the premises of unique origin and homogeneity of cultures which this hypothesis makes possible.

  20. Sound Effects in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger M.; Dragsted, Barbara; Gorm Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a pilot study using speech recognition (SR) software, this paper attempts to illustrate the benefits of adopting an interdisciplinary approach in translator training. It shows how the collaboration between phoneticians, translators and interpreters can (1) advance research, (2) ha...

  1. Parametrization of translational surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Diaz, Sonia; Shen, Liyong

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic translational surface is a typical modeling surface in computer aided design and architecture industry. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for that algebraic surface having a standard parametric representation and our proof is constructive. If the given algebraic surface is translational, then we can compute a standard parametric representation for the surface.

  2. [Translational dental medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2011-06-01

    Over the last decade, as tremendous innovations have been achieved in scientific technology, translational medicine has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The concept of translational medicine is described as the transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans, meanwhile, translational medicine also is described as a patient-oriented population research and the translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making. Translational medicine is a hot spot in recent academic field, and it is crucial for improving the living standard of population and renewing the research idea and technology. It has, however, significant obstacles during the approach of translational medicine. We here review the background, concept, current situation of translational dental medicine, key components and obstacles of translational medicine.

  3. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  4. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xiaolin

    2012-12-13

    In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.

  5. Translation as iniciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Martina Schuler Zea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p192        In an increasingly noteworthy manner translation appears as a process, device or configuration that is not limited do textual dimension, but inserted in the wider context of ritual, social and technical exchanges. This is a moment of overflowing or expansion of translation, which requires a specific attention. This extratextual proceeding of translation is taken here as a motif to rethink the practice and conceptualization of translation under the figure of shamanic initiation. Specifically, the purpose here is to elaborate articulations in the event of shamanic initiation as narrated in The falling sky (Kopenawa & Albert, 2010, 2013, 2015, emphasizing questions of access to otherness, interlocution with it and the ways of transformation that traverse the double field of anthropology and translation.

  6. Chapter 16: text mining for translational bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2013-04-01

    Text mining for translational bioinformatics is a new field with tremendous research potential. It is a subfield of biomedical natural language processing that concerns itself directly with the problem of relating basic biomedical research to clinical practice, and vice versa. Applications of text mining fall both into the category of T1 translational research-translating basic science results into new interventions-and T2 translational research, or translational research for public health. Potential use cases include better phenotyping of research subjects, and pharmacogenomic research. A variety of methods for evaluating text mining applications exist, including corpora, structured test suites, and post hoc judging. Two basic principles of linguistic structure are relevant for building text mining applications. One is that linguistic structure consists of multiple levels. The other is that every level of linguistic structure is characterized by ambiguity. There are two basic approaches to text mining: rule-based, also known as knowledge-based; and machine-learning-based, also known as statistical. Many systems are hybrids of the two approaches. Shared tasks have had a strong effect on the direction of the field. Like all translational bioinformatics software, text mining software for translational bioinformatics can be considered health-critical and should be subject to the strictest standards of quality assurance and software testing.

  7. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  8. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  9. Translation Commentary: A Happy Medium between Translation Curriculum and EAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Chris C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, "Translation Commentary" refers to an English composition written by a learner of both English and translation, submitted together with his or her translation output. In an academic setting combining English-to-Chinese translation and English as a second language, this article deals with both the issue of translation and that of…

  10. Generalization of the second law for a transition between nonequilibrium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: hhh@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Driebe, D.J. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The maximum work formulation of the second law of thermodynamics is generalized for a transition between nonequilibrium states. The relative entropy, the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the nonequilibrium states and the canonical distribution, determines the maximum ability to work. The difference between the final and the initial relative entropies with an effective temperature gives the maximum dissipative work for both adiabatic and isothermal processes. Our formulation reduces to both the Vaikuntanathan-Jarzynski relation and the nonequilibrium Clausius relation in certain situations. By applying our formulation to a heat engine the Carnot cycle is generalized to a circulation among nonequilibrium states.

  11. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  12. NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

    2013-11-27

    Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

  13. Theory of Test Translation Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Backhoff, Eduardo; Contreras-Nino, Luis Angel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we present a theory of test translation whose intent is to provide the conceptual foundation for effective, systematic work in the process of test translation and test translation review. According to the theory, translation error is multidimensional; it is not simply the consequence of defective translation but an inevitable fact…

  14. Translational regulation in nutrigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Botao; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of genome-wide analysis to interrogate cellular DNA, RNA, and protein content has revolutionized the study of the control network that mediates cellular homeostasis. Nutrigenomics addresses the effect of nutrients on gene expression, which provides a basis for understanding the biological activity of dietary components. Translation of mRNAs represents the last step of genetic flow and primarily defines the proteome. Translational regulation is thus critical for gene expression, in particular, under nutrient excess or deficiency. Until recently, it was unclear how the global effects of translational control are influenced by nutrient signaling. An emerging concept of translational reprogramming addresses how to maintain the expression of specific proteins during pathophysiological conditions by translation of selective mRNAs. Here we describe recent advances in our understanding of translational control, nutrient signaling, and their dysregulation in aging and cancer. The mechanistic understanding of translational regulation in response to different nutrient conditions may help identify potential dietary and therapeutic targets to improve human health.

  15. Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

    2012-01-01

    Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

  16. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autor: Anthony Pym

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n3p214 This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  17. Exploring Translations Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pym

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a translation of the chapter “Descriptions – the intellectual background” serving as a complement to the chapter 5 of the book titled Exploring Translations Studies (2010 by Anthony Pym. The chapter outlines the relationship between Russian Formalism and some of the strands of the Translation Studies which emerged during the 19th century. It brings to the fore works done in Prague (Prague Circle, Bratislava, Leipzig, Holland and Flanders focusing specially on the Tel-Aviv School of Itamar-Even and Gideon Toury, the main forerunners of the Descriptive Translation Studies (DTS. By analyzing this academic context, not only it describes the type of approaches those theorists suggested, but it also discusses the ups and downs of such paradigms problematizing concepts like “translation shifts”, “assumed translations” and “norms”. This translation aims at presenting and sharing Pym’s work as clearly and fluid as the original is, so that it serves as both a historical reference and an introductory text to Translation Studies.

  18. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  19. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  20. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  1. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  2. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (Δ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of Δ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, Δ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence Δ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  3. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Gracio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  4. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

  5. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Vazquez, Jose'

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.

  6. The non-equilibrium nature of culinary evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Osame; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Zambianchi, Pedro; Roque, Antonio C.

    2008-07-01

    Food is an essential part of civilization, with a scope that ranges from the biological to the economic and cultural levels. Here, we study the statistics of ingredients and recipes taken from Brazilian, British, French and Medieval cookery books. We find universal distributions with scale invariant behaviour. We propose a copy-mutate process to model culinary evolution that fits our empirical data very well. We find a cultural 'founder effect' produced by the non-equilibrium dynamics of the model. Both the invariant and idiosyncratic aspects of culture are accounted for by our model, which may have applications in other kinds of evolutionary processes.

  7. Structural characterization of lipidic systems under nonequilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmur, Anan; Rappolt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    manipulation techniques including, for instance, stop-flow mixing or rapid temperature-jump perturbation is given. Second, our recent synchrotron SAXS findings on the dynamic structural response of gold nanoparticle-loaded vesicles upon exposure to an ultraviolet light source, the impact of rapidly mixing...... and the possible formation of intermediate states in the millisecond to second range. The need for investigating self-assembled systems, mainly stimuli-responsive drug nanocarriers, under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed. For pharmaceutically relevant applications, it is essential to combine...

  8. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  9. Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...... (overshooting), as recently reported in the pure Ising model [H. Gilhoj, C. Jeppesen, and O. G; Mouritsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3305 (1995)], persists in the dilute model and is accompanied by a depletion of the vacancies within the ordered domains....

  10. Computation of current cumulants for small nonequilibrium systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baiesi, M.; Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-75 ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : fluctuations * nonequilibrium * cumulant expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2009 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a632834h10008034/?p=a341f2e536d34c989ac8e057ea4f72a7π=2

  11. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh [Science Institute, University of Iceland,Dunhaga 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2016-02-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  12. A nonequilibrium renormalization group approach to turbulent reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanella, Juan; Calzetta, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    We use nonequilibrium renormalization group (RG) techniques to analyse the thermalization process in quantum field theory, and, by extension, reheating after inflation. Even if at a high scale Λ the theory is described by a non-dissipative λψ 4 theory, and the RG running induces nontrivial noise and dissipation. For long wavelength and slowly varying field configurations, the noise and dissipation are white and ohmic, respectively. The theory will then tend to thermalize to an effective temperature given by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem

  13. Memory effects and virial corrections in nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Roepke, G.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to close the gap between a kinetic approach including memory and the description of correlated states. It is shown that the first order retardation effects in the kinetic equation leads to the same expression for the correlated density or energy in equilibrium, which is known from the quantum Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. We link the approaches of equilibrium to the kinetic level of description and generalize it by this way to nonequilibrium situations found in finite systems. (orig.)

  14. External non-white noise and nonequilibrium phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J.M.; San Miguel, M.

    1980-01-01

    Langevin equations with external non-white noise are considered. A Fokker Planck equation valid in general in first order of the correlation time tau of the noise is derived. In some cases its validity can be extended to any value of tau. The effect of a finite tau in the nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by the noise is analyzed, by means of such Fokker Planck equation, in general, for the Verhulst equation under two different kind of fluctuations, and for a genetic model. It is shown that new transitions can appear and that the threshold value of the parameter can be changed. (orig.)

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  16. Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yukawa, Satoshi

    2009-02-15

    A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.

  17. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhanchun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an old subject. The research objects in conventional thermodynamics are macroscopic systems with huge number of particles. In recent 30 years, thermodynamics of small systems is a frontier topic in physics. Here we introduce nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems. As a case study, we construct a Canot-like cycle of a stochastic heat engine with a single particle controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential. We find that the efficiency at maximum power is 1 - √T c /T h , where Tc and Th are the temperatures of cold bath and hot bath, respectively. (author)

  18. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium solvation and solute electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Hynes, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    When a molecular solute is immersed in a polar and polarizable solvent, the electronic wave function of the solute system is altered compared to its vacuum value; the solute electronic structure is thus solvent-dependent. Further, the wave function will be altered depending upon whether the polarization of the solvent is or is not in equilibrium with the solute charge distribution. More precisely, while the solvent electronic polarization should be in equilibrium with the solute electronic wave function, the much more sluggish solvent orientational polarization need not be. We call this last situation non-equilibrium solvation. We outline a nonlinear Schroedinger equation approach to these issues

  19. Wearable Language Translation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Wendell

    1999-01-01

    VIA Team Mission Statement: To develop a near real time, two way, mobile, lightweight, robust and low cost multi-lingual language translation device that can be operated with minimal training in a hands free manner...

  20. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  1. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  2. Translation and Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the differences betweenscientific and fictional translations, and focus on the second.The fictional translation works with meanings, opens itselfto the plurissignification in the purpose to create a similarity of the dissimilarity; in this process, the translator does nottranslate a language, but what a creative individuality makeswith a language. At last there is an approach to the knowledgeand skills necessaries to a translator of literature: theknowledge of the theories of the literature and of thetranslation, the capacity to preserve the national color ofthe original text and at the same time to respect the arrivallanguage, and the sensibility to his national languagevariations present in the daily and in the literary spheres.

  3. Translation for language purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the background, subjects, assumptions, procedure, and preliminary results of a small-scale experimental study of L2 translation (Danish into English) and picture verbalization in L2 (English)....

  4. Lost in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Wiebke; Reusswig, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Lost in Translation? Introducing Planetary Boundaries into Social Systems. Fritz Reusswig, Wiebke Lass Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany Identifying and quantifying planetary boundaries by interdisciplinary science efforts is a challenging task—and a risky one, as the 1972 Limits to Growth publication has shown. Even if we may be assured that scientific understanding of underlying processes of the Earth system has significantly improved since then, the challenge of translating these findings into the social systems of the planet remains crucial for any kind of action, and in many respects far more challenging. We would like to conceptualize what could also be termed a problem of coupling social and natural systems as a nested set of social translation processes, well aware of the limited applicability of the language-related translation metaphor. Societies must, first, perceive these boundaries, and they have to understand their relevance. This includes, among many other things, the organization of transdisciplinary scientific cooperation. They will then have to translate this understood perception into possible actions, i.e. strategies for different local bodies, actors, and institutional settings. This implies a lot of 'internal' translation processes, e.g. from the scientific subsystem to the mass media, the political and the economic subsystem. And it implies to develop subsystem-specific schemes of evaluation for these alternatives, e.g. convincing narratives, cost-benefit analyses, or ethical legitimacy considerations. And, finally, societies do have to translate chosen action alternatives into monitoring and evaluation schemes, e.g. for agricultural production or renewable energies. This process includes the continuation of observing and re-analyzing the planetary boundary concept itself, as a re-adjustment of these boundaries in the light of new scientific insights cannot be excluded. Taken all together, societies may well

  5. Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with an aspect of patient information that differs somewhat from the traditional scope of this journal; namely the linguistic and translational aspects of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs). During the past decade much work has been dedicated to making the English PILs...... as informative and lay-friendly as possible. However, much of the good work is ruined when the PIL is translated. Why is this so and what can be done about it?...

  6. Translational control of cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-Chih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regulation of cyclin levels is important for many cell cycle-related processes and can occur at several different steps of gene expression. Translational regulation of cyclins, which occurs by a variety of regulatory mechanisms, permits a prompt response to signal transduction pathways induced by environmental stimuli. This review will summarize translational control of cyclins and its influence on cell cycle progression.

  7. Jungmann's translation of Paradise Lost

    OpenAIRE

    Janů, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines Josef Jungmann's translation of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Josef Jungmann was one of the leading figures of the Czech National Revival and translated Milton 's poem between the years 1800 and 1804. The thesis covers Jungmann's theoretical model of translation and presents Jungmann's motives for translation of Milton's epic poem. The paper also describes the aims Jungmann had with his translation and whether he has achieved them. The reception Jungmann's translation rece...

  8. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  9. Revisiting Translation Strategies and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoran Constantine Tardzenyuy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many translation researchers, scholars and students or trainees have the tendency to use the terms ‘translation strategy’,’ translation technique’  ‘translation method’ and ‘translation procedure’ invariably, and sometimes with varying shades of meaning This paper attempts to define, distinguish and clarify these terms in a bid to give the study of translation the scientific basis it deserves, given that scientific terminology is bound to be clear and unequivocal. Employing the qualitative research method and secondary or documentary sources, the paper provides elaborate explanations of the terms using sourced and invented examples. The paper concludes that the term ‘translation strategy’ should be used strictly to refer to a global or general decision a translator takes before engaging  in the translation of any text. Such a general decision could concern the issue of whether the translation would be literal, foreignized or source-text oriented; or whether it would be free, oblique, domesticated or target-text-oriented. On the other hand, the paper conclusively contends that all the other terms, that is to say, ‘translation technique, ‘translation procedure’ and ‘translation method’ should be used to refer to tools or operational measures deployed   by the translator in the course of actual translation. In other words, they should be used as mechanisms for effecting general or globalizing translation strategies. Keywords: Translation, Strategy, Translation, Technique, Foreignization, Domestication.

  10. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  11. Non-equilibrium Properties of a Pumped-Decaying Bose-Condensed Electron–Hole Gas in the BCS–BEC Crossover Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanai, R.; Littlewood, P. B.; Ohashi, Y.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate a Bose-condensed exciton gas out of equilibrium. Within the framework of the combined BCS-Leggett strong-coupling theory with the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism, we show how the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of excitons is suppressed to eventually disappear, when the system is in the non-equilibrium steady state. The supply of electrons and holes from the bath is shown to induce quasi-particle excitations, leading to the partial occupation of the upper branch of Bogoliubov single-particle excitation spectrum. We also discuss how this quasi-particle induction is related to the suppression of exciton BEC, as well as the stability of the steady state.

  12. Identical mechanism of isochronal and isothermal embrittlement in Ni(Bi) alloy: Thermo-induced non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation of Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lei; Chellali, Reda; Schlesiger, Ralf; Meng, Ye; Baither, Dietmar; Schmitz, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both isochronal and isothermal plasticity of Ni(Bi) alloy show minima. • Existing interpretations for isochronal and isothermal embrittlement are inadequate. • Both embrittlement is caused by thermo-induced non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation of Bi. - Abstract: Isochronal and isothermal plasticity after thermal pre-treatments are obtained by tensile tests to characterize the embrittling behaviors of Ni(Bi) alloy. Both isochronal and isothermal plasticity show evident minima. Fractography observed by scanning electron microscopy displays intergranular fracture for samples of low plasticity. The microstructure is found to be free of precipitates within grains and at grain boundaries by focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy. Atom probe analysis indicates a strong tendency of Bi segregation to grain boundaries. By these results, the existing interpretations are discussed to be inadequate and both embrittlement are confirmed to be identical in mechanism, i.e. thermo-induced non-equilibrium grain-boundary segregation of Bi

  13. Identity approach in translation : sociocultural implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Żuchelkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text consists in presenting how it is necessary for contemporary translators and interpreters (both literary and specialised to acquire and develop the ability to recognize elements of identity discourse in translated texts. Nowadays, the need for inter-cultural exchange is inevitably connected with the necessity of establishing harmonious co-existence for numerous cultures and identities. Therefore, it is crucial to educate translators in a way that enables them to pay special attention to identity and cultural perturbations present in translated texts (culture and language hybridisation, multiple identity, cultural dislocation, presence in linguistic and political discourse of minority cultures, regardless of their genre or form. Such a strong emphasis on identity problems in the translation is especially relevant in the European context, where the attention of researchers and politicians directed at identity problems stemming from ethnical and cultural issues sets the framework for a new cultural paradigm that determines the future development of the Eu. Becoming acquainted with this paradigm which emphasises fl uency, identity unmarkedness and the new model of European collectivity is indispensable for a translator aspiring to become a true cultural mediator.

  14. A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose

  15. On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Akimoto, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.

  16. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  17. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  18. Application of non-equilibrium plasmas in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojsilović S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the potential of plasma medical applications, the connections to nanotechnologies and the results obtained by our group. A special issue in plasma medicine is the development of the plasma sources that would achieve non-equilibrium at atmospheric pressure in atmospheric gas mixture with no or only marginal heating of the gas, and with desired properties and mechanisms that may be controlled. Our studies have shown that control of radicals or chemically active products of the discharge such as ROS (reactive oxygen species and/or NO may be used to control the growth of the seeds. At the same time specially designed plasma needle and other sources were shown to be efficient to sterilize not only colonies of bacteria but also planctonic samples (microorganisms protected by water or bio films. Finally we have shown that plasma may induce differentiation of stem cells. Non-equilibrium plasmas may be used in detection of different specific markers in medicine. For example proton transfer mass spectroscopy may be employed in detection of volatile organic compounds without their dissociation and thus as a technique for instantaneous measurement of the presence of markers for numerous diseases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON171037 i br. III41011

  19. Understanding Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics Foundations, Applications, Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy

    2007-01-01

    This book offers a homogeneous presentation of the many faces of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part is devoted to a description of the nowadays thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory of non-equilibrium processes. This part of the book may serve as a basis to an introductory course dedicated to first-year graduate students in sciences and engineering. The classical description can however not be complete, as it rests on the hypothesis of local equilibrium. This has fostered the development of many theories going beyond local equilibrium and which cannot be put aside. The second part of the book is concerned with these different approaches, and will be of special interest for PhD students and researchers. For the sake of homogeneity, the authors have used the general structure and methods presented in the first part. Indeed, besides their differences, all these formalisms are not closed boxes but present some overlappings and parallelisms which are emphasized in this book. For pe...

  20. Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.

    1987-01-01

    An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)

  1. Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ginot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.

  2. NON-EQUILIBRIUM ELECTRONS IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avestruz, Camille; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nelson, Kaylea, E-mail: camille.avestruz@yale.edu, E-mail: camille.avestruz@yale.edu [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of X-ray and Sunyaev–Zel’dovich measurements of the intracluster medium (ICM) assumes that electrons are in thermal equilibrium with ions in the plasma. However, in the outskirts of galaxy clusters, the electron–ion equilibration timescale can become comparable to the Hubble time, leading to systematic biases in cluster mass estimates and mass-observable scaling relations. To quantify an upper limit of the impact of non-equilibrium electrons, we use a mass-limited sample of simulated galaxy clusters taken from a cosmological simulation with a two-temperature model that assumes the Spitzer equilibration time for the electrons and ions. We show that the temperature bias is more pronounced in more massive and rapidly accreting clusters. For the most extreme case, we find that the bias is of the order of 10% at half of the cluster virial radius and increases to 40% at the edge of the cluster. Gas in filaments is less susceptible to the non-equilibrium effect, leading to azimuthal variations in the temperature bias at large cluster-centric radii. Using mock Chandra observations of simulated clusters, we show that the bias manifests in ultra-deep X-ray observations of cluster outskirts and quantify the resulting biases in hydrostatic mass and cluster temperature derived from these observations. We provide a mass-dependent fitting function for the temperature bias profile, which can be useful for modeling the effect of electron-ion equilibration in galaxy clusters.

  3. Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings in turbulent planar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Gioacchino; Vassilicos, John Christos; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team

    2017-11-01

    A revised version of the Townsend George theory, as proposed by Dairay et al. 2015, is applied to the study of turbulent planar jets (Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017). Requiring the self-similarity of only few quantities along with the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling law (Vassilicos 2015), it implies new mean flow and jet width scalings. In particular, the ratio of characteristic cross-stream to centreline streamwise velocities decays as the -1/3 power of streamwise distance in the region where the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling holds. In the definition of Cɛ both in Dairay et al. 2015 and in Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017 the local Reynolds number is based on the local flow width rather than on the integral lengthscale. We verify that the ratio of the integral lengthscale to the flow width is constant, thus enabling the use of the integral flow width in place of the integral lengthscale for defining Cɛ. The importance of this result is twofold: firstly it further strengthens the scalings obtained in the works of Dairay et al. 2015 and Cafiero and Vassilicos 2017; secondly the flow width is immediately accessible by any mean flow measurement, whereas the estimation of the integral lengthscale often requires an additional hypothesis. ERC Advanced Grant 320560.

  4. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  5. Non-Equilibrium Turbulence and Two-Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Two-equation turbulence models are analyzed from the perspective of spectral closure theories. Kolmogorov theory provides useful information for models, but it is limited to equilibrium conditions in which the energy spectrum has relaxed to a steady state consistent with the forcing at large scales; it does not describe transient evolution between such states. Transient evolution is necessarily through nonequilibrium states, which can only be found from a theory of turbulence evolution, such as one provided by a spectral closure. When the departure from equilibrium is small, perturbation theory can be used to approximate the evolution by a two-equation model. The perturbation theory also gives explicit conditions under which this model can be valid, and when it will fail. Implications of the non-equilibrium corrections for the classic Tennekes-Lumley balance in the dissipation rate equation are drawn: it is possible to establish both the cancellation of the leading order Re1/2 divergent contributions to vortex stretching and enstrophy destruction, and the existence of a nonzero difference which is finite in the limit of infinite Reynolds number.

  6. Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.

  7. Mesoscopic non-equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrup, S; Rubi, J M; Pagonabarraga, I; Bedeaux, D

    2013-11-28

    We show that the kinetics of a molecular motor fueled by ATP and operating between a deactivated and an activated state can be derived from the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics applied to the mesoscopic domain. The activation by ATP, the possible slip of the motor, as well as the forward stepping carrying a load are viewed as slow diffusion along a reaction coordinate. Local equilibrium is assumed in the reaction coordinate spaces, making it possible to derive the non-equilibrium thermodynamic description. Using this scheme, we find expressions for the velocity of the motor, in terms of the driving force along the spacial coordinate, and for the chemical reaction that brings about activation, in terms of the chemical potentials of the reactants and products which maintain the cycle. The second law efficiency is defined, and the velocity corresponding to maximum power is obtained for myosin movement on actin. Experimental results fitting with the description are reviewed, giving a maximum efficiency of 0.45 at a myosin headgroup velocity of 5 × 10(-7) m s(-1). The formalism allows the introduction and test of meso-level models, which may be needed to explain experiments.

  8. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  9. The Effect of Translators' Emotional Intelligence on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge, professional and psychological conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' Emotional Intelligence on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study," a sample of…

  10. The Impact of Translators' Academic Experience on Their Translation Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzande, Mohsen; Jadidi, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Translators differ from each other in many ways in terms of their knowledge and professional conditions that may directly influence their translation. The present study aimed at investigating the impact of translators' academic experience on their translation quality. Following a "causal-comparative study", a sample of 100 male and…

  11. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  12. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  13. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  14. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  15. Translation: Elements of a Craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderson, Mazin A.

    An overview of the skills, techniques, tools, and compensation of language translators and interpreters is offered. It begins with a definition of translation and a brief history of translation in the western world. Basic principles of translation dating back to Roman writers are also outlined. A five-step process in producing a good translation…

  16. Engineering in translational medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a broad area of engineering research in translational medicine. Leaders in academic institutions around the world contributed focused chapters on a broad array of topics such as: cell and tissue engineering (6 chapters), genetic and protein engineering (10 chapters), nanoengineering (10 chapters), biomedical instrumentation (4 chapters), and theranostics and other novel approaches (4 chapters). Each chapter is a stand-alone review that summarizes the state-of-the-art of the specific research area. Engineering in Translational Medicine gives readers a comprehensive and in-depth overview of a broad array of related research areas, making this an excellent reference book for scientists and students both new to engineering/translational medicine and currently working in this area.

  17. Translational Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  18. Asymmetries of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Gorčeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the incompatibility between aesthetic and economic approaches to literary translation, the A. perceives a lack of creative initiative in the international socialisation of Bulgarian literature within its literary field (and especially in the subfield of criticism. Together with a probable inability to (reintegrate ethnically Bulgarian emigré writers, this gives Bulgarian literature a “repellent capacity”. Pointing at non-mainstream developments in both literature and translation may offer a way out: Gorčeva recommends abundant analytical and not self-exoticising self-representation. She also stresses that not only interliterary ‘export’ but also ‘import’ forges a literature’s status, and suggests that “small” literatures can take part in interliterary communication as equals in so far as they have the opportunity to keep on translating not in an assimilative but in a foreignising manner.

  19. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  20. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  1. Interdisciplinarity in Translation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lambert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992 (Snell-Hornby et al. 1994 the Translation Studies * (EdT have claimed the status of "interdiscipline". In fact, there are still doubts about his academic status which is recent in relation to the profession. Since Holmes 1988 [1972], the development of the EdT was, several times, considered a success story; Although it is not clear whether the academic results (arguments and peculiar components linked to their prestige, such as books, societies, recognized scholars, congresses were more decisive than the translation market in the progressive recognition of WTS.

  2. Translating BPEL to FLOWer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...

  3. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  4. Unified gas-kinetic scheme for diatomic molecular flow with translational, rotational, and vibrational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Yan, Hong; Li, Qibing; Xu, Kun

    2017-12-01

    The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS) is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. In the previous study, the UGKS was developed for diatomic molecular simulations with translation and rotational motions. In this paper, a UGKS with non-equilibrium translational, rotational, and vibrational degrees of freedom, will be developed. The new scheme is based on the phenomenological gas dynamics model, where the translational, rotational, and vibrational modes get to the equilibrium with different time scales with the introduction of rotational and vibrational collision numbers. This new scheme is tested in a few cases, such as the homogeneous flow relaxation, shock structure, shock tube problem, and flow passing through a circular and semi-circular cylinders. The analytical and DSMC solutions are used for the validation of the UGKS, and reasonable agreements have been achieved.

  5. Self-assembled materials and supramolecular chemistry within microfluidic environments: from common thermodynamic states to non-equilibrium structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, S; Sorrenti, A; Franco, C; Furukawa, S; Pané, S; deMello, A J; Puigmartí-Luis, J

    2018-05-01

    Self-assembly is a crucial component in the bottom-up fabrication of hierarchical supramolecular structures and advanced functional materials. Control has traditionally relied on the use of encoded building blocks bearing suitable moieties for recognition and interaction, with targeting of the thermodynamic equilibrium state. On the other hand, nature leverages the control of reaction-diffusion processes to create hierarchically organized materials with surprisingly complex biological functions. Indeed, under non-equilibrium conditions (kinetic control), the spatio-temporal command of chemical gradients and reactant mixing during self-assembly (the creation of non-uniform chemical environments for example) can strongly affect the outcome of the self-assembly process. This directly enables a precise control over material properties and functions. In this tutorial review, we show how the unique physical conditions offered by microfluidic technologies can be advantageously used to control the self-assembly of materials and of supramolecular aggregates in solution, making possible the isolation of intermediate states and unprecedented non-equilibrium structures, as well as the emergence of novel functions. Selected examples from the literature will be used to confirm that microfluidic devices are an invaluable toolbox technology for unveiling, understanding and steering self-assembly pathways to desired structures, properties and functions, as well as advanced processing tools for device fabrication and integration.

  6. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  7. TRANSLATION ANALYSIS IN BILINGUAL TOURISM BROCHURE: TRANSLATING INDONESIAN TO ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elysa Hartati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism brochure is considered to be the product of ethnographic translation. The methods used to translate are varied. This paper aims to see what kinds of methods used to translate from Indonesian to English in the tourism brochure, to see the problems emerge in the translation product of tourism brochure, and to find the solution to encounter the problems emerge in the translation product of tourism brochure. Journal articles and book references are mainly the source of this study. From the analysis result, it was shown that literal translation, faithful translation, free translation, and communicative translation were used to translate the text. However, the methods which more stressed on source language were mostly used in translating this product since the influence of Indonesian language still existed on them. Therefore, the product of the translation sometimes was not natural as English as the native-like. It happened on the grammatical function mostly, spelling and punctuation, and also the choice of words which then influenced the evaluation of translation product; they are accuracy, readability, and naturalness. Therefore, it is recommended for the translators to be aware of those components mentioned above. Moreover this is a tourism brochure which is used to promote Indonesia tourism especially for Central Java. The foreigners will need it to guide them go around this province, so that the information given should be acceptable in content and context of tourism.

  8. Theory of chemical kinetics and charge transfer based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazant, Martin Z

    2013-05-21

    Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume independent reactions in dilute solutions, whose rates are determined by mean concentrations. In condensed matter, strong interactions alter chemical activities and create variations that can dramatically affect the reaction rate. The extreme case is that of a reaction coupled to a phase transformation, whose kinetics must depend not only on the order parameter but also on its gradients at phase boundaries. Reaction-driven phase transformations are common in electrochemistry, when charge transfer is accompanied by ion intercalation or deposition in a solid phase. Examples abound in Li-ion, metal-air, and lead-acid batteries, as well as metal electrodeposition-dissolution. Despite complex thermodynamics, however, the standard kinetic model is the Butler-Volmer equation, based on a dilute solution approximation. The Marcus theory of charge transfer likewise considers isolated reactants and neglects elastic stress, configurational entropy, and other nonidealities in condensed phases. The limitations of existing theories recently became apparent for the Li-ion battery material LixFePO4 (LFP). It has a strong tendency to separate into Li-rich and Li-poor solid phases, which scientists believe limits its performance. Chemists first modeled phase separation in LFP as an isotropic "shrinking core" within each particle, but experiments later revealed striped phase boundaries on the active crystal facet. This raised the question: What is the reaction rate at a surface undergoing a phase transformation? Meanwhile, dramatic rate enhancement was attained with LFP nanoparticles, and classical battery models could not predict the roles of phase separation and surface modification. In this Account, I present a general theory of chemical kinetics, developed over

  9. Plasma diagnostics of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Keidar, Michael; Shneider, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Intensive development and biomedical application of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jet (NEAPJ) facilitates rapid growth of the plasma medicine field. The NEAPJ facility utilized at the George Washington University (GWU) demonstrated efficacy for treatment of various cancer types (lung, bladder, breast, head, neck, brain and skin). In this work we review recent advances of the research conducted at GWU concerned with the development of NEAPJ diagnostics including Rayleigh Microwave Scattering setup, method of streamer scattering on DC potential, Rogowski coils, ICCD camera and optical emission spectroscopy. These tools allow conducting temporally-resolved measurements of plasma density, electrical potential, charge and size of the streamer head, electrical currents flowing though the jet, ionization front propagation speed etc. Transient dynamics of plasma and discharge parameters will be considered and physical processes involved in the discharge will be analyzed including streamer breakdown, electrical coupling of the streamer tip with discharge electrodes, factors determining NEAPJ length, cross-sectional shape and propagation path etc.

  10. Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step

  11. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki

    2010-01-01

    In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.

  12. Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2010-12-28

    Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.

  13. Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports

  14. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  15. Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.

  16. Kinetic theory of nonequilibrium ensembles, irreversible thermodynamics, and generalized hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on relativistic theories, it provides a comprehensive picture of the kinetic theory formulated from the viewpoint of nonequilibrium ensembles in both nonrelativistic and, in Vol. 2, relativistic contexts. Theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids) on the basis of irreversible kinetic equations satisfying the H theorem. They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respe...

  17. Exactly solvable nonequilibrium Langevin relaxation of a trapped nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Domingos S P; Lira, Sérgio A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the nonequilibrium statistical properties of the relaxation dynamics of a nanoparticle trapped in a harmonic potential. We report an exact time-dependent analytical solution to the Langevin dynamics that arises from the stochastic differential equation of our system’s energy in the underdamped regime. By utilizing this stochastic thermodynamics approach, we are able to completely describe the heat exchange process between the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. As an important consequence of our results, we observe the validity of the heat exchange fluctuation theorem in our setup, which holds for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium conditions. By extending our results for the case of N noninterating nanoparticles, we perform analytical asymptotic limits and direct numerical simulations that corroborate our analytical predictions. (paper)

  18. Non-equilibrium dissipative supramolecular materials with a tunable lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Solsona, Marta; Rieß, Benedikt; Grötsch, Raphael K.; Löhrer, Franziska C.; Wanzke, Caren; Käsdorf, Benjamin; Bausch, Andreas R.; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Lieleg, Oliver; Boekhoven, Job

    2017-07-01

    Many biological materials exist in non-equilibrium states driven by the irreversible consumption of high-energy molecules like ATP or GTP. These energy-dissipating structures are governed by kinetics and are thus endowed with unique properties including spatiotemporal control over their presence. Here we show man-made equivalents of materials driven by the consumption of high-energy molecules and explore their unique properties. A chemical reaction network converts dicarboxylates into metastable anhydrides driven by the irreversible consumption of carbodiimide fuels. The anhydrides hydrolyse rapidly to the original dicarboxylates and are designed to assemble into hydrophobic colloids, hydrogels or inks. The spatiotemporal control over the formation and degradation of materials allows for the development of colloids that release hydrophobic contents in a predictable fashion, temporary self-erasing inks and transient hydrogels. Moreover, we show that each material can be re-used for several cycles.

  19. Nonequilibrium sensing and its analogy to kinetic proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartich, David; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2015-05-01

    For a paradigmatic model of chemotaxis, we analyze the effect of how a nonzero affinity driving receptors out of equilibrium affects sensitivity. This affinity arises whenever changes in receptor activity involve adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. The sensitivity integrated over a ligand concentration range is shown to be enhanced by the affinity, providing a measure of how much energy consumption improves sensing. With this integrated sensitivity we can establish an intriguing analogy between sensing with nonequilibrium receptors and kinetic proofreading: the increase in integrated sensitivity is equivalent to the decrease of the error in kinetic proofreading. The influence of the occupancy of the receptor on the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reaction rates is shown to be crucial for the relation between integrated sensitivity and affinity. This influence can even lead to a regime where a nonzero affinity decreases the integrated sensitivity, which corresponds to anti-proofreading.

  20. Nonequilibrium quark production in the expanding QCD plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Naoto; Berges, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    We perform real-time lattice simulations of nonequilibrium quark production in the longitudinally expanding QCD plasma. Starting from a highly occupied gluonic state with vacuum quark sector, we extract the time evolution of quark and gluon number densities per unit transverse area and rapidity. The total quark number shows after an initial rapid increase an almost linear growth with time. Remarkably, this growth rate appears to be consistent with a simple kinetic theory estimate involving only two-to-two scattering processes in small-angle approximation. This extends previous findings about the role of two-to-two scatterings for purely gluonic dynamics in accordance with the early stages of the bottom-up thermalization scenario.

  1. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  2. Infrared behavior of the gluon propagator in nonequilibrium situations

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, F; Nayak, G C

    2002-01-01

    The infrared behavior of the medium modified gluon propagator in nonequilibrium situations is studied in the covariant gauge using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path formalism. It is shown that the magnetic screening mass is nonzero at the one loop level whenever the initial gluon distribution function is nonisotropic with the assumption that the distribution function of the gluon is not divergent at zero transverse momentum. For isotropic gluon distribution functions, such as those describing local equilibrium, the magnetic mass at the one loop level is zero, which is consistent with finite temperature field theory results. Assuming that a reasonable initial gluon distribution function can be obtained from a perturbative QCD calculation of minijets, we determine these out of equilibrium values for the initial magnetic and Debye screening masses at energy densities appropriate to BNL RHIC and CERN LHC. We also compare the magnetic masses obtained here with those obtained using finite temperature lattice Q...

  3. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  4. Applications of nonequilibrium melting concept to damage-accumulation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    The authors recent study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation led to the successful development of a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting, based on a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion. The generalized criterion requires that the melting temperature of a defective crystal decreases with increasing static atomic disorder. Hence, any crystal can melt at temperatures below the melting point of its perfect crystalline state when driven far from equilibrium by introducing critical amounts of misfitting solute atoms and lattice imperfections, radiation damage, and/or tensile stresses. This conceptual approach to nonequilibrium melting provides new insight into long-standing materials problems such as brittle fracture, embrittlement, and environmentally-induced cracking, for example irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking

  5. Nonequilibrium shock layer temperature profiles from arc jet radiation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Harvel E.; Yuen, Eric; Scott, Carl D.; Arepalli, Sivaram

    1989-01-01

    Shock layer temperature profiles are obtained through analysis of radiation from shock layers produced by a blunt body inserted in arc jet flow. Spectral measurements have been made in a nitrogen flow of 54.4 gm/s at an enthalpy of 8.72 MJ/kg. Vibrational temperatures for N2+ are obtained by matching spectral regions from arc jet spectra with spectra generated using the NEQAIR code. Temperature profiles obtained from the radiation layers show a vibrational temperature higher than the rotational temperature near the front of the shock and both temperatures decrease as the flow approaches the body. The spectral measurements are made and analysis completed for four distances, from the surface of the blunt body. The corresponding shock layer thickness is approximately 3.6 cm. Although the shock layer appears to be in thermal nonequilibrium, the measured rotational temperature approaches the single temperature results of viscous shock layer calculations at this test condition.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    Phonons are always present in the solid state even at an absolute temperature of 0 K where zero point vibrations still abound. Moreover, phonons interact with all other excitations of the solid state and, thereby, influence most of its properties. Historically experimental information on phonon transport came from measurements of thermal conductivity. Over the past two decades much more, and much more detailed, information on phonon transport and on many of the inherent phonon interaction processes have come to light from experiments which use nonequilibrium phonons to study their dynamics. The resultant research field has most recently blossomed with the development of ever more sophisticated experimental and theoretical methods which can be applied to it. In fact, the field is moving so rapidly that new members of the research community have difficulties in keeping up to date. This NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was organized with the objective of overcoming the information barrier between those expert...

  7. Biological Implications of Dynamical Phases in Non-equilibrium Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Biology achieves novel functions like error correction, ultra-sensitivity and accurate concentration measurement at the expense of free energy through Maxwell Demon-like mechanisms. The design principles and free energy trade-offs have been studied for a variety of such mechanisms. In this review, we emphasize a perspective based on dynamical phases that can explain commonalities shared by these mechanisms. Dynamical phases are defined by typical trajectories executed by non-equilibrium systems in the space of internal states. We find that coexistence of dynamical phases can have dramatic consequences for function vs free energy cost trade-offs. Dynamical phases can also provide an intuitive picture of the design principles behind such biological Maxwell Demons.

  8. Nonequilibrium statistical operator in hot-electron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, D.Y.; Liu, M.

    1991-09-01

    The Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator method developed by Zubarev is generalized and applied to the study of hot-electron transport in semiconductors. The steady-state balance equations for momentum and energy are derived to the lowest order in the electron-lattice coupling. We show that the derived balance equations are exactly the same as those obtained by Lei and Ting. This equivalence stems from the fact that to the linear order in the electron-lattice coupling, two statistical density matrices have identical effect when they are used to calculate the average value of a dynamical operator. The application to the steady-state and transient hot-electron transport in multivalley semiconductors is also discussed. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig

  9. Applications of nonequilibrium melting concept to damage-accumulation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    The authors recent study of crystalline-to-amorphous transformation led to the successful development of a unified thermodynamic description of disorder-induced amorphization and heat-induced melting, based on a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion. The generalized criterion requires that the melting temperature of a defective crystal decreases with increasing static atomic disorder. Hence, any crystal can melt at temperatures below the melting point of its perfect crystalline state when driven far from equilibrium by introducing critical amounts of misfitting solute atoms and lattice imperfections, radiation damage, and/or tensile stresses. This conceptual approach to nonequilibrium melting provides new insight into long-standing materials problems such as brittle fracture, embrittlement, and environmentally-induced cracking, for example irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  10. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  11. A non-equilibrium formulation of food security resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitla, Bapu

    2017-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to recover from adverse events, is of fundamental importance to food security. This is especially true in poor countries, where basic needs are frequently threatened by economic, environmental and health shocks. An empirically sound formalization of the concept of food security resilience, however, is lacking. Here, we introduce a general non-equilibrium framework for quantifying resilience based on the statistical notion of persistence. Our approach can be applied to any food security variable for which high-frequency time-series data are available. We illustrate our method with per capita kilocalorie availability for 161 countries between 1961 and 2011. We find that resilient countries are not necessarily those that are characterized by high levels or less volatile fluctuations of kilocalorie intake. Accordingly, food security policies and programmes will need to be tailored not only to welfare levels at any one time, but also to long-run welfare dynamics. PMID:28280586

  12. Nonequilibrium interactions between ideal polymers and a repulsive surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halifa Levi, Raz; Kantor, Yacov

    2017-08-01

    We use Newtonian and overdamped Langevin dynamics to study long flexible polymers dragged by an external force at a constant velocity v. The work W performed by that force depends on the initial state of the polymer and the details of the process. The Jarzynski equality can be used to relate the nonequilibrium work distribution P(W) obtained from repeated experiments to the equilibrium free energy difference ΔF between the initial and final states. We use the power law dependence of the geometrical and dynamical characteristics of the polymer on the number of monomers N to suggest the existence of a critical velocity v_{c}(N), such that for vdragged away from a repulsive wall. Our results suggest that the distribution of the dissipated work W_{d}=W-ΔF in properly scaled variables approaches a limiting shape for large N.

  13. Nonequilibrium evaporation and condensation during a uranium dioxide fuel expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refling, J.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of nonequilibrium rates of evaporation and condensation on the expansion of two-phase fuel in an LMFBR core disruptive accident were studied. The rates were determined from kinetic theory. Conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy were written for both phases. The resulting equations were solved numerically and compared with analyses which assumed that thermodynamic equilibrium could be maintained throughout the expansion. A parametric study was performed on the effective liquid-surface area, which includes the effects of both liquid surface area and the evaporation and condensation coefficients. Liquid and two-phase thermodynamic properties for the fuel were already available; however, gas phase properties were developed as part of this study

  14. Vibrational population distributions in nonequilibrium nozzle expansion flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, W. S.; Rich, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the vibrational population distribution in nonequilibrium nozzle expansion flows of gas mixtures are reported. These studies were directed toward determining whether vibrational energy exchange pumping could lead to laser action on the vibrational bands of a diatomic molecule. Three different types of experiments were conducted. These showed (1) that vibrational energy was preferentially transferred from N2 to CO in supersonic nozzle flows containing these gases; (2) that under some conditions this vibrational energy exchange pumping mechanism created population inversions in the vibrational levels of CO; and (3) that at large expansion ratios the magnitude of these population inversions was sufficient to sustain lasing in the nozzle. A theoretical model was developed to calculate vibrational state population distributions in gas dynamic expansions of a mixture of diatomic gases. Although only isothermal calculations have been completed, these data indicate that population inversions are predicted for conditions similar to those obtained in the nozzle expansion flows.

  15. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.Freericks

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unable to fully analyze this term. The formalism holds in all dimensions and for arbitrary many-body systems that have local interactions. We illustrate it for the Falicov-Kimball, Hubbard, and periodic Anderson models.

  16. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Translating Dyslexia across Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…

  18. Intermediation, Brokerage and Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönke, Jana; Müller, Markus-Michael; Risse, Thomas; Draude, Anke; Börzel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Brokerage, a term prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, has returned. A huge literature analyses how brokers and intermediators— such as government officials, heads of non-governmental organization (NGOs), translators, neo-traditional authorities— strategically negotiate flows of resources and political

  19. Made in translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of highly functionalized DNA could enable the discovery of artificial nucleic acid sequences with different properties to natural DNA. Now, an artificial translation system has been designed that can support the evolution of non-natural sequence-defined nucleic acid polymers carrying eight different functional groups on 32 codons.

  20. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  1. TRANSLATING SERVICE TECHNICAL PROSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of technical literature: advertising agencies dealing with clients in the technical fields, workshops ..... editing, a subject specialist. (preferably a physician au fait with aerospace matters), and two good translators. Having all the resources at hand, the teams seclude themselves with all their allocated documents and the senior.

  2. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  3. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  4. Translation of research outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2017-01-03

    Jan 3, 2017 ... introducing implementation research, implementation science, knowledge translation to improve the role of research in development programs including health policies and programs. In Ethiopia, health sector felt the gap between health research and health policy, strategy and. 2 CNN TV host's statement.

  5. Non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics in continuum: The free case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Kondratiev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of identification of a proper state-space for the stochastic dynamics of free particles in continuum, with their possible birth and death. In this dynamics, the motion of each separate particle is described by a fixed Markov process M on a Riemannian manifold X. The main problem arising here is a possible collapse of the system, in the sense that, though the initial configuration of particles is locally finite, there could exist a compact set in X such that, with probability one, infinitely many particles will arrive at this set at some time t>0. We assume that X has infinite volume and, for each α���1, we consider the set Θα of all infinite configurations in X for which the number of particles in a compact set is bounded by a constant times the α-th power of the volume of the set. We find quite general conditions on the process M which guarantee that the corresponding infinite particle process can start at each configuration from Θα, will never leave Θα, and has cadlag (or, even, continuous sample paths in the vague topology. We consider the following examples of applications of our results: Brownian motion on the configuration space, free Glauber dynamics on the configuration space (or a birth-and-death process in X, and free Kawasaki dynamics on the configuration space. We also show that if X=Rd, then for a wide class of starting distributions, the (non-equilibrium free Glauber dynamics is a scaling limit of (non-equilibrium free Kawasaki dynamics.

  6. Modeling Inflation Using a Non-Equilibrium Equation of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflation is a change in the prices of goods that takes place without changes in the actual values of those goods. The Equation of Exchange, formulated clearly in a seminal paper by Irving Fisher in 1911, establishes an equilibrium relationship between the price index P (also known as "inflation"), the economy's aggregate output Q (also known as "the real gross domestic product"), the amount of money available for spending M (also known as "the money supply"), and the rate at which money is reused V (also known as "the velocity of circulation of money"). This paper offers first a qualitative discussion of what can cause these factors to change and how those causes might be controlled, then develops a quantitative model of inflation based on a non-equilibrium version of the Equation of Exchange. Causal relationships are different from equations in that the effects of changes in the causal variables take time to play out-often significant amounts of time. In the model described here, wages track prices, but only after a distributed lag. Prices change whenever the money supply, aggregate output, or the velocity of circulation of money change, but only after a distributed lag. Similarly, the money supply depends on the supplies of domestic and foreign money, which depend on the monetary base and a variety of foreign transactions, respectively. The spreading of delays mitigates the shocks of sudden changes to important inputs, but the most important aspect of this model is that delays, which often have dramatic consequences in dynamic systems, are explicitly incorporated.macroeconomics, inflation, equation of exchange, non-equilibrium, Athena Project

  7. Nonequilibrium forces following quenches in active and thermal matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christian M.; Solon, Alexandre; Kardar, Mehran; Krüger, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Nonequilibrium systems with conserved quantities like density or momentum are known to exhibit long-ranged correlations. This, in turn, leads to long-ranged fluctuation-induced (Casimir) forces, predicted to arise in a variety of nonequilibrium settings. Here, we study such forces, which arise transiently between parallel plates or compact inclusions in a gas of particles, following a change ("quench") in temperature or activity of the medium. Analytical calculations, as well as numerical simulations of passive or active Brownian particles, indicate two distinct forces: (i) The immediate effect of the quench is adsorption or desorption of particles of the medium to the immersed objects, which in turn initiates a front of relaxing (mean) density. This leads to time-dependent density-induced forces. (ii) A long-term effect of the quench is that density fluctuations are modified, manifested as transient (long-ranged) (pair-)correlations that relax diffusively to their (short-ranged) steady-state limit. As a result, transient fluctuation-induced forces emerge. We discuss the properties of fluctuation-induced and density-induced forces as regards universality, relaxation as a function of time, and scaling with distance between objects. Their distinct signatures allow us to distinguish the two types of forces in simulation data. Our simulations also show that a quench of the effective temperature of an active medium gives rise to qualitatively similar effects to a temperature quench in a passive medium. Based on this insight, we propose several scenarios for the experimental observation of the forces described here.

  8. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  9. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  10. Effect of nonequilibrium degree on separation factor in carbon isotope separation by CO2 microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaaki Suzuki; Shinsuke Mori; Noritaka Matsumoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka

    1999-01-01

    The local separation factor and the local nonequilibrium degree just behind the plasma region were obtained. The plasma gas compositions measured by the enthalpy probe system were substantially thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions, when the input energy was 4 J/cm 3 . The measured maximum value of the separation factor was 1.01, although it changed locally. The measured separation factor and its nonequilibrium condition were discussed. Anyway, the only small value obtained in this experiments is similar to the recent data obtained by Kurchatov group and is less than published data, which is measured spectroscopically [ru

  11. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamic Chemistry and the Composition of the Atmosphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    A high priority objective of the Mars Exploration Program is to Determine if life exists today (MEPAG Goal I, Objective A). The measurement of gases of biogenic origin may be an approach to detect the presence of microbial life on the surface or subsurface of Mars. Chemical thermodynamic calculations indicate that on both Earth and Mars, certain gases should exist in extremely low concentrations, if at all. Microbial metabolic activity is an important non-equilibrium chemistry process on Earth, and if microbial life exists on Mars, may be an important nonequilibrium chemistry process on Mars. The non-equilibrium chemistry of the atmosphere of Mars is discussed in this paper.

  12. Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and vibrational relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Cinnella, P.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of numerical computation methods for gas flows with nonequilibrium chemistry thermodynamics gives attention to an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully-coupled inviscid equations encompassing fluid dynamics and both chemical and internal energy-relaxation processes. A fully coupled and implicit large-block structure is presented which embodies novel forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms valid for nonequilibrium flow; illustrative high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flow examples are given.

  13. High-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states in driven lattice gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Raphael; Tasaki, Hal

    2005-05-27

    We develop a controlled high-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states of the driven lattice gas, the "Ising model" for nonequilibrium physics. We represent the steady state as P(eta) alpha e(-betaH(eta)-psi(eta)) and evaluate the lowest order contribution to the nonequilibrium effective interaction psi(eta). We see that, in dimensions d > or = 2, all models with nonsingular transition rates yield the same summable psi(eta), suggesting the possibility of describing the state as a Gibbs state similar to equilibrium. The models with the Metropolis rule show exceptional behavior.

  14. Virtual Ribosome - a comprehensive DNA translation tool with support for integration of sequence feature annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Ribosome is a DNA translation tool with two areas of focus. ( i) Providing a strong translation tool in its own right, with an integrated ORF finder, full support for the IUPAC degenerate DNA alphabet and all translation tables defined by the NCBI taxonomy group, including the use...

  15. Physics-based preconditioning and the Newton-Krylov method for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.; Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the solution of the time dependent reaction-diffusion systems which arise in non-equilibrium radiation diffusion applications. This system of nonlinear equations is solved by coupling three numerical methods, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov, operator splitting, and multigrid linear solvers. An inexact Newton's method is used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. Since building the Jacobian matrix for problems of interest can be challenging, the authors employ a Jacobian-free implementation of Newton's method, where the action of the Jacobian matrix on a vector is approximated by a first order Taylor series expansion. Preconditioned generalized minimal residual (PGMRES) is the Krylov method used to solve the linear systems that come from the iterations of Newton's method. The preconditioner in this solution method is constructed using a physics-based divide and conquer approach, often referred to as operator splitting. This solution procedure inverts the scalar elliptic systems that make up the preconditioner using simple multigrid methods. The preconditioner also addresses the strong coupling between equations with local 2 x 2 block solves. The intra-cell coupling is applied after the inter-cell coupling has already been addressed by the elliptic solves. Results are presented using this solution procedure that demonstrate its efficiency while incurring minimal memory requirements

  16. Some exact properties of the nonequilibrium response function for transient photoabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetto, E.; Stefanucci, G.

    2015-03-01

    The physical interpretation of time-resolved photoabsorption experiments is not as straightforward as for the more conventional photoabsorption experiments conducted on equilibrium systems. In fact, the relation between the transient photoabsorption spectrum and the properties of the examined sample can be rather intricate since the former is a complicated functional of both the driving pump and the feeble probe fields. In this work, we critically review the derivation of the time-resolved photoabsorption spectrum in terms of the nonequilibrium dipole response function χ and assess its domain of validity. We then analyze χ in detail and discuss a few exact properties useful to interpret the transient spectrum during (overlapping regime) and after (nonoverlapping regime) the action of the pump. The nonoverlapping regime is the simplest to address. The absorption energies are indeed independent of the delay between the pump and probe pulses and hence the transient spectrum can change only by a rearrangement of the spectral weights. We give a close expression of these spectral weights in two limiting cases (ultrashort and everlasting monochromatic probes) and highlight their strong dependence on coherence and probe envelope. In the overlapping regime, we obtain a Lehmann-type representation of χ in terms of light-dressed states and provide a unifying framework of various well-known effects in pump-driven systems. We also show the emergence of spectral substructures due to the finite duration of the pump pulse.

  17. The crossover between organized and disorganized states in some non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Téllez, Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    We study numerically the crossover between organized and disorganized states of three non-equilibrium systems: the Poisson/coalesce random walk (PCRW), a one-dimensional spin system and a quasi one-dimensional lattice gas. In all cases, we describe this crossover in terms of the average spacing between particles/domain borders langS(t)rang and the spacing distribution functions p(n)(s). The nature of the crossover is not the same for all systems; however, we found that for all systems the nearest neighbor distribution p(0)(s) is well fitted by the Berry-Robnik model. The destruction of the level repulsion in the crossover between organized and disorganized states is present in all systems. Additionally, we found that the correlations between domains in the gas and spin systems are not strong and can be neglected in a first approximation, but for the PCRW the correlations between particles must be taken into account. To find p(n)(s) with n > 1, we propose two different analytical models based on the Berry-Robnik model. Our models give us a good approximation for the statistical behavior of these systems at their crossover and allow us to quantify the degree of order/disorder of the system.

  18. PREFACE: International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010 International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Matsuyama, A.; Ohta, T.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, S.

    2011-07-01

    Soft matter is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field covering a range of subject areas including physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and engineering. Some of the important universal features of these materials are their mesoscopic structures and their dynamics. Due to the existence of such large-scale structures, which nevertheless exhibit interactions of the order of the thermal energy, soft matter can readily be taken out of equilibrium by imposing a weak external field such as an electric field, a mechanical stress or a shear flow. The importance of the coexistence of microscopic molecular dynamics and the mesoscopic/macroscopic structures and flows requires us to develop hierarchical approaches to understand the nonlinear and nonequilibrium phenomena, which is one of the central issues of current soft matter research. This special section presents selected contributions from the 'International Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Soft Matter 2010' held from 17-20 August 2010 in Nara, Japan, which aimed to describe recent advances in soft matter research focusing especially on its nonequilibrium aspects. The topics discussed cover statics and dynamics of a wide variety of materials ranging from traditional soft matter like polymers, gels, emulsions, liquid crystals and colloids to biomaterials such as biopolymers and biomembranes. Among these studies, we highlighted the physics of biomembranes and vesicles, which has attracted great attention during the last decade; we organized a special session for this active field. The work presented in this issue deals with (1) structure formation in biomembranes and vesicles, (2) rheology of polymers and gels, (3) mesophases in block copolymers, (4) mesoscopic structures in liquid crystals and ionic liquids, and (5) nonequilibrium dynamics. This symposium was organized as part of a research project supported by the Grant-in-Aid for the priority area 'Soft Matter Physics' (2006-2010) from the Ministry of Education

  19. Mode coupling theory for nonequilibrium glassy dynamics of thermal self-propelled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mengkai; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2017-06-28

    We present a mode coupling theory study for the relaxation and glassy dynamics of a system of strongly interacting self-propelled particles, wherein the self-propulsion force is described by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck colored noise and thermal noises are included. Our starting point is an effective Smoluchowski equation governing the distribution function of particle positions, from which we derive a memory function equation for the time dependence of density fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states. With the basic assumption of the absence of macroscopic currents and standard mode coupling approximation, we can obtain expressions for the irreducible memory function and other relevant dynamic terms, wherein the nonequilibrium character of the active system is manifested through an averaged diffusion coefficient D[combining macron] and a nontrivial structural function S 2 (q) with q being the magnitude of wave vector q. D[combining macron] and S 2 (q) enter the frequency term and the vertex term for the memory function, and thus influence both the short time and the long time dynamics of the system. With these equations obtained, we study the glassy dynamics of this thermal self-propelled particle system by investigating the Debye-Waller factor f q and relaxation time τ α as functions of the persistence time τ p of self-propulsion, the single particle effective temperature T eff as well as the number density ρ. Consequently, we find the critical density ρ c for given τ p shifts to larger values with increasing magnitude of propulsion force or effective temperature, in good accordance with previously reported simulation work. In addition, the theory facilitates us to study the critical effective temperature T for fixed ρ as well as its dependence on τ p . We find that T increases with τ p and in the limit τ p → 0, it approaches the value for a simple passive Brownian system as expected. Our theory also well recovers the results for passive systems and can be

  20. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  1. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  2. The Impact of Machine Translation and Computer-aided Translation on Translators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators, which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation (CAT) and machine translation (MT). Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation, it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators, which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation. The findings underline the advantages and disadvantages of MT and CAT tools, and the serviceability and future development of MT and CAT technologies. Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.

  3. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  4. (Con)figuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, ...

  5. A Writer's Thoughts on Translation and Always Living in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosin, Marjorie; Jones, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how it feels to be a poet who writes in Spanish and has her work translated, examining the author's immigration experiences and noting the translator's contributions in making her work accessible across languages, borders, and cultures. Explains that writing in Spanish is a gesture of survival, and translation allows her memories to…

  6. Translation and identity: Translation of the Freedom Charter into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative analysis of the Afrikaans translations reveals how the respective translators struggled sporadically through certain ideological constraints in order to provide a satisfactory narrative. Their inability to internalise the principles contained in the Freedom Charter resulted in them presenting a 'framed' translation ...

  7. 'Inhabiting' the Translator's Habitus – Antjie Krog as Translator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on the Bourdieusian concept of habitus and its applicability in the field of translation, this article discusses Antjie Krog's profile in the practice of translation in. South Africa. Bourdieu's conceptualisation of the relationship between the initiating activities of translators and the structures which constrain and enable ...

  8. Found in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    on a teaching experiment in landscape architecture education, this paper proposes teaching creative site analysis as a translation process of observed site conditions into desirable future site conditions. Guided by actor-network theory, the paper outlines, first, a conceptual framework for creative site...... analysis. Second, it presents the applied educational procedure, with a focus on the decisive step from inventory to intervention which is the formulation of a design problem. The teaching experiment shows that onsite studies of spatial controversies in the form of recent physical changes, emerging new...... for the students. Overall, the produced design work and the student evaluations show that translation offers an operational framework for teaching a creative approach to site analysis....

  9. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical......-understandings, increased social capital, and follow-up projects initiated beyond the actual planning process. We conclude that local physical projects, when conceived in a collaborative and strategic manner, can contribute to sustainable adaptation to rural shrinkage....

  10. Translating organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper takes it point of departure in actor-network-theory (ANT). It responds to the Next Management Theory tracks call for papers that address and further develops our understanding of organizational change as translation processes. It moreover addresses a critique of ANT researchers...... in organizational studies for making descriptions of studied empirical phenomena rather than developing theories and giving normative advice about how organizations or organizational change processes may be theorized, analyzed, managed and/or organized better. A new ANT-inspired theory about the characteristics...... of organizations, organizational change and change agents is therefore developed combining ANT with other theories. The relevance of this view is demonstrated in an analysis of a case where a nurse and the leader of a clinic for orthopedic surgery try to translate and thus implement a risk-management and deviation...

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Translation of Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dalthan Simas; Otavio De Medeiros

    2005-01-01

    This paper has the purpose of surveying and critically analyzing the effects of accounting procedures which are closely related to groups of companies operating multinationally. These are the methods for translation of financial statements, e.g. the Temporal and the Closing- rate Methods, as far as those methods are embodied in accounting standards which have been either recommended or adopted by countries such as the UK and US. We conclude that with regard to changing prices, General Price L...

  13. Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Water from Reverse Nonequilibrium Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    We report on a theoretical framework for calculating the thermal conductivity of liquid water from first principles with the aid of the linear scaling method. We also discuss the possibility of obtaining equilibrium properties from a nonequilibrium trajectory.

  14. Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.

  15. Non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations in binary liquids with realistic boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Zárate, J M; Kirkpatrick, T R; Sengers, J V

    2015-09-01

    Because of the spatially long-ranged nature of spontaneous fluctuations in thermal non-equilibrium systems, they are affected by boundary conditions for the fluctuating hydrodynamic variables. In this paper we consider a liquid mixture between two rigid and impervious plates with a stationary concentration gradient resulting from a temperature gradient through the Soret effect. For liquid mixtures with large Lewis and Schmidt numbers, we are able to obtain explicit analytical expressions for the intensity of the non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations as a function of the frequency ω and the wave number q of the fluctuations. In addition we elucidate the spatial dependence of the intensity of the non-equilibrium fluctuations responsible for a non-equilibrium Casimir effect.

  16. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of radiation-induced processes in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, V.M.; Eshchanov, A.N.; Kuketaev, A.T.; Sidorenya, Yu.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper an item about a defect system response in solids on external action (temperature, pressure, light, etc.) from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is considered

  17. Zubarev's Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method in the Generalized Statistics of Multiparticle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushak, P. A.; Markiv, B. B.; Tokarchuk, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a generalization of Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method based on the principle of maximum Renyi entropy. In the framework of this approach, we obtain transport equations for the basic set of parameters of the reduced description of nonequilibrium processes in a classical system of interacting particles using Liouville equations with fractional derivatives. For a classical systems of particles in a medium with a fractal structure, we obtain a non-Markovian diffusion equation with fractional spatial derivatives. For a concrete model of the frequency dependence of a memory function, we obtain generalized Kettano-type diffusion equation with the spatial and temporal fractality taken into account. We present a generalization of nonequilibrium thermofield dynamics in Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method in the framework of Renyi statistics.

  18. Non-Equilibrium Heavy Flavored Hadron Yields from Chemical Equilibrium Strangeness-Rich QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Inga; Rafelski, Johann

    2008-01-01

    The yields of heavy flavored hadrons emitted from strangeness-rich QGP are evaluated within chemical non-equilibrium statistical hadronization model, conserving strangeness, charm, and entropy yields at hadronization.

  19. RareNoise: non-equilibrium effects in detectors of gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, L [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonaldi, M [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR-Fondazione Bruno Kessler, 38100 Povo, Trento (Italy); Rondoni, L, E-mail: Livia.Conti@pd.infn.i [Dip. di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2010-04-21

    The RareNoise project investigates non-equilibrium effects in gravitational wave detectors. We illustrate the physics behind the project and the planned project development, involving experimental, numerical and theoretical research.

  20. Non-Equilibrium Superconductivity and Quasiparticle Dynamics in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors use optical pump, coherent terahertz probe spectroscopy to transiently excite nonequilibrium populations of quasiparticles in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7.δ and monitor, with picosecond resolution, the superfluid and quasiparticle dynamics

  1. One-dimensional two-phase reacting gas nonequilibrium performance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, S. S.; Frey, H. M.; Kliegel, J. R.; Quan, V.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program calculates the inviscid one-dimensional equilibrium, frozen, and nonequilibrium nozzle expansion of propellant exhaust mixtures containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine and either aluminum, beryllium, boron or lithium. This program performs calculations for conical nozzles only.

  2. Non-equilibrium reactive flux: A unified framework for slow and fast reaction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2017-10-21

    The flux formulation of reaction rate theory is recast in terms of the expectation value of the reactive flux with an initial condition that corresponds to a non-equilibrium, factorized reactant density. In the common case of slow reactive processes, the non-equilibrium expression reaches the plateau regime only slightly slower than the equilibrium flux form. When the reactants are described by a single quantum state, as in the case of electron transfer reactions, the factorized reactant density describes the true initial condition of the reactive process. In such cases, the time integral of the non-equilibrium flux expression yields the reactant population as a function of time, allowing characterization of the dynamics in cases where there is no clear separation of time scales and thus a plateau regime cannot be identified. The non-equilibrium flux offers a unified approach to the kinetics of slow and fast chemical reactions and is ideally suited to mixed quantum-classical methods.

  3. Fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD using closed-time path integral formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Gouranga C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we implement the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time path integral formalism in non-equilibrium QCD in accordance to the definition of the Collins-Soper fragmentation function. We consider a high-p T parton in QCD medium at initial time τ 0 with an arbitrary non-equilibrium (non-isotropic) distribution function f(vector (p)) fragmenting to a hadron. We formulate the parton-to-hadron fragmentation function in non-equilibrium QCD in the light-cone quantization formalism. It may be possible to include final-state interactions with the medium via a modification of the Wilson lines in this definition of the non-equilibrium fragmentation function. This may be relevant to the study of hadron production from a quark-gluon plasma at RHIC and LHC. (orig.)

  4. A survey of upwind methods for flows with equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemistry and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B.; Garrett, J.; Cinnella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Several versions of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were compared with regard to general applicability and complexity. Test computations were performed using curve-fit equilibrium air chemistry for an M = 5 high-temperature inviscid flow over a wedge, and an M = 24.5 inviscid flow over a blunt cylinder for test computations; for these cases, little difference in accuracy was found among the versions of the same flux-split algorithm. For flows with nonequilibrium chemistry, the effects of the thermodynamic model on the development of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms were investigated using an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Several numerical examples are presented, including nonequilibrium air chemistry in a high-temperature shock tube and nonequilibrium hydrogen-air chemistry in a supersonic diffuser.

  5. Nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics. The ABCDE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Haken, H.

    1992-04-01

    For the ABCDE model, a low-dimensional dynamical system devised to study the generation of magnetic fields by convective fluid motions, we examine a nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics.

  6. Multiculturalism and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rebeca PRECUP STIEGELBAUER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity has emerged as a key concern in recent years, however the implications to this term are very different. A number of people see cultural diversity as fundamentally important and positive, as it points to a sharing of the wealth embodied in each of the world’s cultures and, accordingly, to the links tying us all in processes of exchange and dialogue via translation. On the other hand, for many others, cultural differences are what cause us to lose sight of our shared humanity and as a result are the root of numerous conflicts, since we can get lost in translation. This second finding is today all the more plausible since globalisation has increased the points of interaction and friction between cultures, giving rise to identity-linked tensions, withdrawals and claims, particularly of each one and other, which can become potential sources of dispute. The essential challenge, therefore, would be to propose a coherent vision of cultural diversity, languages and translations and thereby to clarify how, far from being a threat, it can become beneficial to the action of the international community.

  7. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  8. Machine Translation from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  9. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes.......  It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object...... of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...

  10. Literary translation and cultural memory

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    This article intends to investigate the relationship between literary translation and cultural memory, using a twentieth century film version of one of Shakespeare’s plays as a case study in inter-semiotic translation. The common perception of translation is often confined to its use as a language learning tool or as a means of information transfer between languages. The wider academic concept embraces not only inter-lingual translation, but both intra-lingual activity or rewording in the sam...

  11. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  12. TEACHING TRANSLATION: OBJECTIVES AND METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kobyakova, Iryna; Shvachko, Svitlana

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on the set of items: teaching translation, objectives, exercises and assignments (both word-centered and text-centered translation), translation analysis. The choice of the items is motivated by the dominant functions of transatology (nominative and communicative). The latter succeed in identification of adequate, congruent, equivalent translation. The article discusses the problems of professional validity, theoretical insertions, textocentric analysis. Gains, achievem...

  13. Non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems and fluctuation-dissipation theorems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, 6-8 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1700032. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * fluctuation-dissipation theorems * non-equilibrium Greens function * transient and steady state magnetic current * molecular bridge Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016

  14. Note: local thermal conductivities from boundary driven non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresme, F; Armstrong, J

    2014-01-07

    We report non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of heat transport in models of molecular fluids. We show that the "local" thermal conductivities obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations agree within numerical accuracy with equilibrium Green-Kubo computations. Our results support the local equilibrium hypothesis for transport properties. We show how to use the local dependence of the thermal gradients to quantify the thermal conductivity of molecular fluids for a wide range of thermodynamic states using a single simulation.

  15. Dynamics of nonequilibrium conductivity of dielectrics with polaration properties controlled by in ection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, V.I.; Rudenko, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of changes of radiation stimulation permittivity on nonequilibrium conductivity of dielectrics and high-resistance conductors in a radiation field has been studied theoretically. The plane-parallel sample under the constant voltage has been irradiated by penetrating radiation. The uniform radiation caused the transfer the current carriers from traps to the conduction band. The dependence of permittivity on charged traps concentration is shown to lead to negative nonequilibrium conductivity of high-resistance materials

  16. The behavior of matter under nonequilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.

    1989-10-01

    As in the previous period, our work has been concerned with the study of the properties of nonequilibrium systems and especially with the mechanism of self-organization. As is well-known, the study of self-organization began with the investigation of hydrodynamical or chemical instabilities studied from the point of view of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic range whose characteristics length is an intrinsic property and whose amplitude is determined by nonequilibrium constraints. A survey of the macroscopic approach to nonequilibrium states is given in the paper ''Nonequilibrium States and Long Range Correlations in Chemical Dynamics,'' by G. Nicolis et al. However, over the last few years important progress has been made in the simulation of nonequilibrium situations using mainly molecular dynamics. It appears now that processes corresponding to self-organization as well as the appearance of long-range correlations can be obtained in this way starting from a program involving Newtonian dynamics (generally the laws of interaction correspond to hard spheres or hard disks). Examples of such types of studies leading to Benard instabilities, to chemical clocks, or to spatial structure formation are given in this report. As a result, we may now view self-organization as a direct expression of an appropriate microscopic dynamics. This is the reason why we have devoted much work to the study of large Poincare systems (LPS) involving continuous sets of resonances. These systems have been shown to lead, according to the constraints, either to equilibrium situations or to nonequilibrium states involving long range correlations. We discuss LPS in the frame of classical mechanics

  17. Energy Conversion in High Enthalpy Flows and Non-equilibrium Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Igor V. Adamovich5, Walter R. Lempert6, and J. William Rich*7 Michael A. Chaszeyka Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratories, Department of...characterized by significant overpopulation of the higher vibrational quantum levels; in most cases, there are not total population inversions...Uribarri and Ned Allen); and The Michael A. Chaszeyka Gift to the OSU Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratories. We wish to thank Dr. Graham Candler and

  18. Nonequilibrium flow computations. 1. An analysis of numerical formulations of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-06-01

    Modern numerical techniques employing properties of flux Jacobian matrices are extended to general, nonequilibrium flows. Generalizations of the Beam-Warming scheme, Steger-Warming and van Leer Flux-vector splittings, and Roe's approximate Riemann solver are presented for 3-D, time-varying grids. The analysis is based on a thermodynamic model that includes the most general thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flow of an arbitrary gas. Various special cases are also discussed

  19. On Literal Translation of English Idioms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linli

    2009-01-01

    There are six translation tactics in translating English idioms into Chinese: literal translation, compensatory translation, free translation, explanational translation, borrowing, integrated approach. Each tactic should be reasonably employed in the process of translating, so as to keep the flavor of the original English idioms as well as to…

  20. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  1. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  2. BIBLE TRANSLATION AND RELEVANCE THEORY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    translated in the Kings James Version with. (6) and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. In this translation the expression rtflch "^lohtm is assigned the referent "Spirit of God", that is, the Holy. Spirit However, the New English Bible translates: (7) and a mighty wind... swept over the surface of the waters,.

  3. Literary Translation: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Madeleine Strong

    The nature of literary translation and ways in which it differs from other forms of translation are examined, looking at practical difficulties, challenges, and satisfaction in the profession of literary translation. The difficulties discussed include suggestions about how to get started, legal questions of copyright, and choice of text.…

  4. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  5. The Importance of Culture in Translation: Should Culture be Translated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Hassan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of culture in translation, this article presents a descriptive study of translation of literary texts from English into Arabic. Using the data taken from works of Shakespeare and others which were translated by eminent translators, it first describes the study background, research contexts and procedures and problems. It then addresses some research questions on: (1 Will the translation be accepted by the new community of readers; 2 Is the relation between culture and translation important? It is worth noting that this study is significant for translators and readers of the target language, which is Arabic in this case. This has been substantiated by surveying the interests in cultural aspects of translation as early as the 19th Century. Thus translations do not only include lexical content  and syntax, but also ideologies, values and ways of  life in a given culture, which form translating problems. Therefore, translators have to know the audience.

  6. Development of an inviscid flux scheme for thermochemical nonequilibrium flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles Hugh

    Solutions to the governing equations that model hypersonic aerothermodynamics rely heavily on the mathematical and numerical technology that characterizes Computational Fluid Dynamics. Many areas of significant investigation are relevant to advancing state of the art hypersonic aerothermodynamic engineering and applied research analyses. Due to the relatively high energy achieved by spacecraft during launch, physical models for thermal nonequilibrium and chemical nonequilibrium are necessary to develop adequate numerical reentry simulations. In addition, complex features of the Navier Stokes equations require sophisticated mathematical and numerical techniques in order to develop reasonably accurate simulations in an acceptable amount of time. The objective of this work is to present the development of a new inviscid flux evaluation method. This new method, referred to as the Flux Consistent scheme, is closely related to the Modified Steger-Warming method. The unique characteristics of this new flux scheme involve an original eigenvalue implementation. This original eigenvalue formulation, however, leads to incorrect flux magnitudes which must be corrected in the total flux to provide an accurate representation of the inviscid fluxes. The mathematical technique used to identify flux magnitude errors in the Flux Consistent scheme is also applied to the Modified Steger-Warming flux evaluation method. This assessment leads to the characterization of flux errors in the Modified Steger-Warming scheme which are generated by eigenvalue differences between the left and right cell interface flow states. These Modified Steger-Warming flux errors are shown to vanish for supersonic conditions. Two hypotheses in reference to the Modified Steger-Warming scheme are proposed. The first is that sonic glitch problems occurring in some Steger-Warming simulations are the result of the flux error vanishing at supersonic conditions. The second hypothesis concerning the Steger

  7. Machine Translation Tools - Tools of The Translator's Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this article three of the more common types of translation tools are presented, discussed and critically evaluated. The types of translation tools dealt with in this article are: Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided Machine Translation (or HAMT) and Machine Aided Human...... Translation (or MAHT). The strengths and weaknesses of the different types of tools are discussed and evaluated by means of a number of examples. The article aims at two things: at presenting a sort of state of the art of what is commonly referred to as “machine translation” as well as at providing the reader...... with a sound basis for considering what translation tool (if any) is the most appropriate in order to meet his or her specific translation needs....

  8. Charge pumping in strongly coupled molecular quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, Patrick; Yap, Han Hoe; Gong, Jiangbin; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between electrons and the vibrational degrees of freedom of a molecular quantum dot can lead to an exponential suppression of the conductance, an effect which is commonly termed Franck-Condon blockade. Here, we investigate this effect in a quantum dot driven by time-periodic gate voltages and tunneling amplitudes using nonequilibrium Green's functions and a Floquet expansion. Building on previous results showing that driving can lift the Franck-Condon blockade, we investigate driving protocols which can be used to pump charge across the quantum dot. In particular, we show that due to the strongly coupled nature of the system, the pump current at resonance is an exponential function of the drive strength.

  9. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  10. Text Detection and Translation from Natural Scenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Jiang; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Ying; Waibel, Alex

    2001-01-01

    .... The paper addresses challenges in automatic sign extraction and translation, describes methods for automatic sign extraction, and extends example-based machine translation technology for sign translation...

  11. Mamma Mia, A Singable Translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Stopar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.

  12. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  13. Statistical theory of subcritically-excited strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2000-01-01

    A statistical theory of nonlinear-nonequilibrium plasma state with strongly developed turbulence and with strong inhomogeneity of the system has been developed. A unified theory for both the thermally excited fluctuations and the strongly turbulent fluctuations is presented. With respect to the turbulent fluctuations, the coherent part to a certain test mode is renormalized as the drag to the test mode, and the rest, the incoherent part, is considered to be a random noise. The renormalized operator includes the effect of nonlinear destabilization as well as the decorrelation by turbulent fluctuations. Formulation is presented by deriving an Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function. Equilibrium distribution function of fluctuations is obtained. Transition from the thermal fluctuations, that is governed by the Boltzmann distribution, to the turbulent fluctuation is clarified. The distribution function for the turbulent fluctuation has tail component and the width of which is in the same order as the mean fluctuation level itself. The Lyapunov function is constructed for the strongly turbulent plasma, and it is shown that an approach to a certain equilibrium distribution is assured. The result for the most probable state is expressed in terms of 'minimum renormalized dissipation rate', which is given by the ratio of the nonlinear decorrelation rate of fluctuation energy and the random excitation rate which includes both the thermal noise and turbulent self-noise effects. Application is made for example to the current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. The applicability of this method covers plasma turbulences in much wider circumstance as well as neutral fluid turbulence. This method of analyzing strong turbulence has successfully extended the principles of statistical physics, i.e., Kubo-formula, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production rate. The condition for the turbulence transition is analogous to

  14. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  15. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  16. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  17. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  18. Nonequilibrium statistical field theory for classical particles: Basic kinetic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viermann, Celia; Fabis, Felix; Kozlikin, Elena; Lilow, Robert; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Recently Mazenko and Das and Mazenko [Phys. Rev. E 81, 061102 (2010); J. Stat. Phys. 149, 643 (2012); J. Stat. Phys. 152, 159 (2013); Phys. Rev. E 83, 041125 (2011)] introduced a nonequilibrium field-theoretical approach to describe the statistical properties of a classical particle ensemble starting from the microscopic equations of motion of each individual particle. We use this theory to investigate the transition from those microscopic degrees of freedom to the evolution equations of the macroscopic observables of the ensemble. For the free theory, we recover the continuity and Jeans equations of a collisionless gas. For a theory containing two-particle interactions in a canonical perturbation series, we find the macroscopic evolution equations to be described by the Born-Bogoliubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy with a truncation criterion depending on the order in perturbation theory. This establishes a direct link between the classical and the field-theoretical approaches to kinetic theory that might serve as a starting point to investigate kinetic theory beyond the classical limits.

  19. A calculational scheme for nonequilibrium quantum field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A new calculational scheme is presented for interacting nonequi-librium time dependent quantum field systems within the framework of thermo field dynamics (TFD), taking account of the fact that the thermal vacuum should go through many inequivalent state vector spaces. A para-meter parametrizing various state vector spaces has to be introduced and plays a role of new time-variable. Thus we have double-time TFD. The 2 requirements in this double-time TFD are imposed to establish a quasi-particle picture to get an attainable scheme of perturbative calculation : the existence of the spectral representation for the full propagator and the diagonalization of the quasi-particle Hamiltonian. The 1st condition turns out to amount to the existence of local-time tempera-ture. The 2nd condition leads to the master equation for the number density. This formalism is applied to high-energy heavy ion collision process. The very fundamental question is then how the thermodynamical properties such as heat and temperature appear in such an isolated system. This double-time TFD, suitable for isolated thermal systems of quantum fields, can handle the situation from the beginning of the process. (author). 24 refs.; 1 fig

  20. The Coronal Monsoon: Thermal Nonequilibrium Revealed by Periodic Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchère, Frédéric; Froment, Clara; Soubrié, Elie; Antolin, Patrick; Oliver, Ramon; Pelouze, Gabriel

    2018-02-01

    We report on the discovery of periodic coronal rain in an off-limb sequence of Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images. The showers are co-spatial and in phase with periodic (6.6 hr) intensity pulsations of coronal loops of the sort described by Auchère et al. and Froment et al. These new observations make possible a unified description of both phenomena. Coronal rain and periodic intensity pulsations of loops are two manifestations of the same physical process: evaporation/condensation cycles resulting from a state of thermal nonequilibrium. The fluctuations around coronal temperatures produce the intensity pulsations of loops, and rain falls along their legs if thermal runaway cools the periodic condensations down and below transition-region temperatures. This scenario is in line with the predictions of numerical models of quasi-steadily and footpoint heated loops. The presence of coronal rain—albeit non-periodic—in several other structures within the studied field of view implies that this type of heating is at play on a large scale.