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Sample records for strongly reduced photo

  1. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  2. Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy of strongly correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Giancarlo; Offi, Francesco; Sacchi, Maurizio; Torelli, Piero

    2008-06-01

    Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a new tool for the study of bulk electronic properties of solids using synchrotron radiation. We review recent achievements of HAXPES, with particular reference to the VOLPE project, showing that high energy resolution and bulk sensitivity can be obtained at kinetic energies of 6-8 keV. We present also the results of recent studies on strongly correlated materials, such as vanadium sesquioxide and bilayered manganites, revealing the presence of different screening properties in the bulk with respect to the surface. We discuss the relevant experimental features of the metal-insulator transition in these materials. To cite this article: G. Panaccione et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 85; Issue 3. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of rapid development in Drosophila melanogaster. M. Rajamani N. Raghavendra ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster.

  4. Strong-coupling regime of the nonlinear landau-zener problem for photo- and magnetoassociation of cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhoyan, R.; Azizbekyan, H.; Leroy, C.; Ishkhanyan, A.

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the strong-coupling regime of the nonlinear Landau-Zener problem occurring at coherent photo- and magneto-association of ultracold atoms. We apply a variational approach to an exact third-order nonlinear differential equation for the molecular state probability and construct an accurate approximation describing the time dynamics of the coupled atom-molecule system. The resultant solution improves the accuracy of the previous approximation [22]. The obtained results reveal a remarkable observation that in the strong-coupling limit, the resonance crossing is mostly governed by the nonlinearity, while the coherent atom-molecule oscillations occurring soon after crossing the resonance are principally of a linear nature. This observation is supposedly general for all nonlinear quantum systems having the same generic quadratic nonlinearity, due to the basic attributes of the resonance crossing processes in such systems. The constructed approximation turns out to have a larger applicability range than it was initially expected, covering the whole moderate-coupling regime for which the proposed solution accurately describes ail the main characteristics of the system evolution except the amplitude of the coherent atom-molecule oscillation, which is rather overestimated.

  5. One-pot synthesis of dextran decorated reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles for targeted photo-chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanfang; He, Liang; Ding, Jianxun; Sun, Diankui; Chen, Li; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-06-25

    Graphene-based nanocarriers show great potential in photo-chemotherapy, however, to prepare desired reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles in a facile way is still a challenge. Herein, a novel strategy has been presented to prepare rGO nanoparticle using dextran (Dex) as a reducing agent. In this strategy, Dex was directly conjugated on rGO by hydrogen bond and then self-assemble to form rGO/Dex nanoparticles. After decorated by dextran, rGO-based nanoparticles not only show excellent biocompatibility but also can load anticancer drug for photo-chemotherapy. The data of fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis, Raman spectrum analysis, thermos-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) image and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements powerfully proved that the stable rGO-based nanoparticles with desired nanosize have been successfully prepared. To verify the photo-chemotherapy, anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), has been loaded on rGO/Dex nanoparticles (rGO/DOX/Dex). And RGD, a kind of oligopeptide which can improve the intracellular uptake by αvβ3 recognition, also has been introduced (rGO/DOX/RDex). Compared with single chemotherapy, rGO/DOX/Dex and rGO/DOX/RDex combining the local specific chemotherapy and external near-infrared (NIR) photo-thermal therapy show higher therapeutic efficacy, endowing the desired rGO-based nanoparticle with great potential for cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strongly-Interacting Fermi Gases in Reduced Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    superconductivity), nuclear physics (nuclear matter), high - energy physics (effective theories of the strong interactions ), astrophysics (compact stellar objects...strongly- interacting Fermi gases confined in a standing- wave CO2 laser trap. This trap produces a periodic quasi-two-dimensional pancake geometry...predictions of the phase diagram and high temperature superfluidity. Our recent measurements reveal that pairing energy and cloud profiles can be

  7. Strong Consistency of Reduced K-means Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Reduced k-means clustering is a method for clustering objects in a low-dimensional subspace. The advantage of this method is that both clustering of objects and low-dimensional subspace reflecting the cluster structure are simultaneously obtained. In this paper, the relationship between conventional k-means clustering and reduced k-means clustering is discussed. Conditions ensuring almost sure convergence of the estimator of reduced k-means clustering as unboundedly increasing sample size hav...

  8. Reducing the photo-bleaching effect of a new europium complex embedded in styrene butadiene copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, G. Lesly; Reyes-Rodríguez, J. L.; Padilla, Isela; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Falcony, C.

    2018-02-01

    A highly luminescent europium complex obtained with two different ligands, succinimide (SI) and 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) , was synthetized with different TTA concentrations. The photoluminescence (PL) emission from these materials corresponds to the characteristic inter-electronic energy level transitions of the Eu3+ ions. However, the excitation spectrum is strongly dependent on the presence of TTA, having an optimum response when 0.75 mmol of this compound is added to the EuL3(H2O)3 complex. The quantum yield obtained by these powders were around 72 % ± 1.7 % indicating an optimum sensitization of these complex. The EuL3 TTA complex with the best PL properties was embedded in a styrene butadiene copolymer (SBC) film, produced by the drop casting method, obtaining similar PL behavior at different concentrations, the highest intensity was observed at 1.2% (w/v) of EuL3 TTA complex and the quantum yield of these composite films was 60.5 % ± 2 % . These films were exposed to continuous UV irradiation and after 141 h no photo-bleaching effect was observed in contrast with the EuL3 TTA complex that exhibited a noticeable photoluminescence intensity degradation at much shorter exposure times. Both the Eu-complexes and the composite films were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  9. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  10. Prejudice and Racism, Year 2008--Still Going Strong: Research on Reducing Prejudice with Recommended Methodological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Porter, Jerlym S.

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the origins, mechanisms, and expressions of prejudice. A selective review of research finds strong support for the validity of G. W. Allport's (1954) contact hypothesis conditions in reducing prejudice. Methodological advances in the study of prejudice are reviewed, and implications of research findings for counselors are…

  11. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J Roland [Lakewood, CO; Liu, Ping [Irvine, CA; Smith, R Davis [Golden, CO

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  12. Erectile dysfunction among men with diabetes is strongly associated with premature ejaculation and reduced libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, Lasantha S; Jayaratne, Shanthilal D; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Fernando, Devaka J; Levy, Jonathan C

    2008-09-01

    = 3.3, CI = 1.2-8.8). ED was strongly associated with PE and reduced libido. Diabetic patients presenting with one of these three conditions should be screened for the other two.

  13. Azelaic acid reduced senescence-like phenotype in photo-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: possible implication of PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briganti, Stefania; Flori, Enrica; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Kovacs, Daniela; Camera, Emanuela; Ludovici, Matteo; Cardinali, Giorgia; Picardo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA) has been used for the treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, such as acne and rosacea. Interestingly, an improvement in skin texture has been observed after long-time treatment with AzA. We previously unrevealed that anti-inflammatory activity of AzA involves a specific activation of PPARγ, a nuclear receptor that plays a relevant role in inflammation and even in ageing processes. As rosacea has been considered as a photo-aggravated disease, we investigated the ability of AzA to counteract stress-induced premature cell senescence (SIPS). We employed a SIPS model based on single exposure of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) to UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), previously reported to activate a senescence-like phenotype, including long-term growth arrest, flattened morphology and increased synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal). We found that PUVA-treated HDFs grown in the presence of AzA maintained their morphology and reduced MMP-1 release and SA-β-galactosidase-positive cells. Moreover, AzA induced a reduction in ROS generation, an up-modulation of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in cell membrane lipid damages in PUVA-treated HDFs. Further evidences of AzA anti-senescence effect were repression of p53 and p21, increase in type I pro-collagen and abrogation of the enhanced expression of growth factors, such as HGF and SCF. Interestingly, PUVA-SIPS showed a decreased activation of PPARγ and AzA counteracted this effect, suggesting that AzA effect involves PPARγ modulation. All together these data showed that AzA interferes with PUVA-induced senescence-like phenotype and its ability to activate PPAR-γ provides relevant insights into the anti-senescence mechanism. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Strong temperature effect on X-ray photo-etching of polytetrafluoroethylene using a 10Hz laser-plasma radiation source based on a gas puff target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Juha, Libor; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2006), s. 529-532 ISSN 0946-2171 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Grant - others:Ministery of Scientific Research(PL) 3 T08C 002 27 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : photo-etching * organic polymers * laser-produced plasmas Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.023, year: 2006

  15. Diphtheria Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Diphtheria Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... and Prevention 10-year-old child with severe diphtheria www.vaccineinformation.org/photos/diphcdc002a.jpg Courtesy of ...

  16. Scaling of the velocity profile in strongly drag reduced turbulent flows over an oscillating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skote, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scaling analysis is used to derive a log-law for drag reduced flow. • The slope of the log layer is directly linked to the drag reduction. • The result is only valid for wall manipulated flows – not fluid altering methods. • Extensive comparison with data found in the literature is made. - Abstract: Scaling analysis of the velocity profiles in strongly drag reduced flows reveals that the slope of the logarithmic part depends on the amount of drag reduction (DR). Unlike DR due to polymeric fluids, the slope changes gradually and can be predicted by the analysis. Furthermore, the intercept of the profiles is found to vary linearly with the DR. Two velocity scales are utilized: the reference (undisturbed) and the actual friction velocity. The theory is based on the assumption that the near-wall linear region is only governed by the actual friction velocity, while the outer part is governed by the reference friction velocity. As a result, logarithmic part is influenced by both velocity scales and the slope of the velocity profile is directly linked to the DR. The theoretically obtained results are verified by data from six previously performed direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of boundary layers over spatial and temporal wall oscillations, with a wide range of resulting DR. The theory is further supported by data from numerous investigations (DNSs as well as experiments) of wall-bounded flows forced by various forms of oscillating wall-motion. The assumption that the outer part is unaffected by the actual friction velocity limits the validity of the proposed log-law to flows not fully adapted to the imposed wall forcing, hence the theory provides a measure of the level of adjustment. In addition, a fundamental difference in the applicability of the theory to spatially developing boundary flow and infinite channel flow is discussed

  17. Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation reduces photo-oxidative damage and modulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Qingning; Gao, Shasha; Zhou, Jilin; Qin, Jian; Taylor, Allen; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Tang, Guangwen; Sparrow, Janet R.; Gierhart, Dennis; Shang, Fu

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are related to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiologic studies suggest that insufficient dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake or lower serum zeaxanthin levels are associated with increased risk for AMD. The objective of this work is to test the protective effects of lutein and zeaxanthin against photo-oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and oxidation-induced changes in expression of inflammation-related genes. To mimic lipofuscin-mediated photo-oxidation in vivo, we used ARPE-19 cells that accumulated A2E, a lipofuscin fluorophore and photosensitizer, as a model system to investigate the effects of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation. The data show that supplementation with lutein or zeaxanthin in the medium resulted in accumulation of lutein or zeaxanthin in the RPE cells. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in the cells were 2–14-fold of that detected in the medium, indicating that ARPE-19 cells actively take up lutein or zeaxanthin. As compared with untreated cells, exposure of A2E-containing RPE to blue light resulted in a 40–60% decrease in proteasome activity, a 50–80% decrease in expression of CFH and MCP-1, and an ~ 20-fold increase in expression of IL-8. The photo-oxidation-induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and CFH were similar to those caused by chemical inhibition of the proteasome, suggesting that inactivation of the proteasome is involved in the photo-oxidation-induced alteration in expression of these inflammation-related genes. Incubation of the A2E-containing RPE with lutein or zeaxanthin prior to blue light exposure significantly attenuated the photo-oxidation-induced inactivation of the proteasome and photo-oxidation induced changes in expression of MCP-1, IL-8, and CFH. Together, these data indicate that lutein or zeaxanthin modulates inflammatory responses in cultured RPE in response to photo-oxidation. Protecting the proteasome

  18. Strong sexual selection in males against a mutation load that reduces offspring production in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, K; Stångberg, J; Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2016-06-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction can increase population viability relative to asexual reproduction by allowing sexual selection in males to remove deleterious mutations from the population without large demographic costs. This requires that selection acts more strongly in males than females and that mutations affecting male reproductive success have pleiotropic effects on population productivity, but empirical support for these assumptions is mixed. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to implement a three-generation breeding design where we induced mutations via ionizing radiation (IR) in the F0 generation and measured mutational effects (relative to nonirradiated controls) on an estimate of population productivity in the F1 and effects on sex-specific competitive lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the F2 . Regardless of whether mutations were induced via F0 males or females, they had strong negative effects on male LRS, but a nonsignificant influence on female LRS, suggesting that selection is more efficient in removing deleterious alleles in males. Moreover, mutations had seemingly shared effects on population productivity and competitive LRS in both sexes. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that strong sexual selection on males can act to remove the mutation load on population viability, thereby offering a benefit to sexual reproduction. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Regular exercise is strongly associated with anticipated success for reducing health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy behavior associated with desirable benefits. Regular exercise also makes manifest 2 fundamental behaviors-a choice and the discipline to continuously act on that choice. This cross-sectional analysis of more than 10 000 adults examines the association of regular exercise with unhealthy behaviors. Compared with people who are more regularly exercising, nonexercisers are less likely to choose to change an unhealthy habit. Nonexercisers are also much less likely to be confident of their success when they do choose a habit to change. Regular exercise seems to be a gateway behavior for reducing other unhealthy habits.

  20. Large methane releases lead to strong aerosol forcing and reduced cloudiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of vast quantities of methane into the atmosphere as a result of clathrate destabilization is a potential mechanism for rapid amplification of global warming. Previous studies have calculated the enhanced warming based mainly on the radiative effect of the methane itself, with smaller contributions from the associated carbon dioxide or ozone increases. Here, we study the effect of strongly elevated methane (CH4 levels on oxidant and aerosol particle concentrations using a combination of chemistry-transport and general circulation models. A 10-fold increase in methane concentrations is predicted to significantly decrease hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations, while moderately increasing ozone (O3. These changes lead to a 70 % increase in the atmospheric lifetime of methane, and an 18 % decrease in global mean cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC. The CDNC change causes a radiative forcing that is comparable in magnitude to the longwave radiative forcing ("enhanced greenhouse effect" of the added methane. Together, the indirect CH4-O3 and CH4-OH-aerosol forcings could more than double the warming effect of large methane increases. Our findings may help explain the anomalously large temperature changes associated with historic methane releases.

  1. Osteoclast formation is strongly reduced both in vivo and in vitro in the absence of CD47/SIRPα-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Pernilla; Koskinen, Cecilia; Baldock, Paul A.; Loethgren, Hanna; Stenberg, Asa; Lerner, Ulf H.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2007-01-01

    Physical interaction between the cell surface receptors CD47 and signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) was reported to regulate cell migration, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and macrophage fusion. However, it is unclear if the CD47/SIRPα-interaction can also regulate macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated formation of osteoclasts. Here, we show that functional blocking antibodies to either CD47 or SIRPα strongly reduced formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclasts in cultures of murine hematopoietic cells, stimulated in vitro by M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, the numbers of osteoclasts formed in M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophage cultures from CD47 -/- mice were strongly reduced, and bones of CD47 -/- mice exhibited significantly reduced osteoclast numbers, as compared with wild-type controls. We conclude that the CD47/SIRPα interaction is important for M-CSF/RANKL-stimulated osteoclast formation both in vivo and in vitro, and that absence of CD47 results in decreased numbers of osteoclasts in CD47 -/- mice

  2. Hall effect in a strong magnetic field: Direct comparisons of compressible magnetohydrodynamics and the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L. N.; Dmitruk, P.; Gomez, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we numerically test a model of Hall magnetohydrodynamics in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field: the reduced Hall magnetohydrodynamic model (RHMHD) derived by [Gomez et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 102303 (2008)] with the addition of weak compressible effects. The main advantage of this model lies in the reduction of computational cost. Nevertheless, up until now the degree of agreement with the original Hall MHD system and the range of validity in a regime of turbulence were not established. In this work direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional Hall MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong mean magnetic field are compared with simulations of the weak compressible RHMHD model. The results show that the degree of agreement is very high (when the different assumptions of RHMHD, such as spectral anisotropy, are satisfied). Nevertheless, when the initial conditions are isotropic but the mean magnetic field is maintained strong, the results differ at the beginning but asymptotically reach a good agreement at relatively short times. We also found evidence that the compressibility still plays a role in the dynamics of these systems, and the weak compressible RHMHD model is able to capture these effects. In conclusion the weak compressible RHMHD model is a valid approximation of the Hall MHD turbulence in the relevant physical context.

  3. [Photo dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rie, M A; Pavel, S

    2002-10-12

    Photodermatology has become an important part of the dermatologist's area of focus. This subspeciality is not only involved with studying basic biological processes such as the effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the skin's immune system (photo-immunology), melanocytes or DNA (carcinogenesis), but also with clinical issues such as photoprotection, photosensitive skin diseases (photodermatoses) and phototherapy. Increasing knowledge about the effects of UV irradiation on the skin, with or without photosensitising agents, has led to the development of new forms of photo(chemo)therapy. These allow good therapeutic results to be achieved in the treatment of not only psoriasis, but also other chronic inflammatory skin diseases, with minimal side effects. DNA can absorb UV irradiation. This can lead to irreversible DNA damage and mutations in genes responsible for cell cycle control. These events can lead to skin cancer. The presence of pheomelanin, which is an inferior type of UV light-absorbing melanin, can add to this process of DNA damage. The three most important types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma (more than 30,000 new patients per year in the Netherlands), squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

  4. Photoprotection, photosynthesis and growth of tropical tree seedlings under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; García, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Wellmann, Eckard; Winter, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Seedlings of two late-successional tropical rainforest tree species, Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) O. Kuntze and Calophyllum longifolium (Willd.), were field grown for 3-4 months at an open site near Panama City (9 degrees N), Panama, under plastic films that either transmitted or excluded most solar UV-B radiation. Experiments were designed to test whether leaves developing under bright sunlight with strongly reduced UV-B are capable of acclimating to near-ambient UV-B conditions. Leaves of T. panamensis that developed under near-ambient UV-B contained higher amounts of UV-absorbing substances than leaves of seedlings grown under reduced UV-B. Photosynthetic pigment composition, content of alpha-tocopherol, CO(2) assimilation, potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (evaluated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) and growth of T. panamensis and C. longifolium did not differ between seedlings developed under near-ambient and reduced solar UV-B. When seedlings were transferred from the reduced UV-B treatment to the near-ambient UV-B treatment, a pronounced inhibition of photosynthetic capacity was observed initially in both species. UV-B-mediated inhibition of photosynthetic capacity nearly fully recovered within 1 week of the transfer in C. longifolium, whereas in T. panamensis an about 35% reduced capacity of CO(2) uptake was maintained. A marked increase in UV-absorbing substances was observed in foliage of transferred T. panamensis seedlings. Both species exhibited enhanced mid-day photoinhibition of PSII immediately after being transferred from the reduced UV-B to the near-ambient UV-B treatment. This effect was fully reversible within 1d in T. panamensis and within a few days in C. longifolium. The data show that leaves of these tropical tree seedlings, when developing in full-spectrum sunlight, are effectively protected against high solar UV-B radiation. In contrast, leaves developing under conditions of low UV-B lacked sufficient UV protection. They experienced a

  5. HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandslund, Ivan; Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Hyldtoft Petersen, Per

    HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality......HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality...

  6. Reducing biases on H0 measurements using strong lensing and galaxy dynamics: results from the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagore, Amitpal S.; Barnes, David J.; Jackson, Neal; Kay, Scott T.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2018-03-01

    Cosmological parameter constraints from observations of time-delay lenses are becoming increasingly precise. However, there may be significant bias and scatter in these measurements due to, among other things, the so-called mass-sheet degeneracy. To estimate these uncertainties, we analyse strong lenses from the largest EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation. We apply a mass-sheet transformation to the radial density profiles of lenses, and by selecting lenses near isothermality, we find that the bias on H0 can be reduced to 5 per cent with an intrinsic scatter of 10 per cent, confirming previous results performed on a different simulation data set. We further investigate whether combining lensing observables with kinematic constraints helps to minimize this bias. We do not detect any significant dependence of the bias on lens model parameters or observational properties of the galaxy, but depending on the source-lens configuration, a bias may still exist. Cross lenses provide an accurate estimate of the Hubble constant, while fold (double) lenses tend to be biased low (high). With kinematic constraints, double lenses show bias and intrinsic scatter of 6 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively, while quad lenses show bias and intrinsic scatter of 0.5 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively. For lenses with a reduced χ2 > 1, a power-law dependence of the χ2 on the lens environment (number of nearby galaxies) is seen. Lastly, we model, in greater detail, the cases of two double lenses that are significantly biased. We are able to remove the bias, suggesting that the remaining biases could also be reduced by carefully taking into account additional sources of systematic uncertainty.

  7. Photo catalyst; Ko shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    While titanium oxide is excited by the light, electrons of titanium oxide are taken away by the light energy to form positive holes. Water will be decomposed into hydrogen ion and hydroxy radical (OH) by these positive holes. This hydroxy radical is a strong reactive substance called active oxygen, it decomposes organisms. Besides this photo- catalyst function, the titanium oxide can also make surface of a substance superhydrophilic. The super hydrophilicity results in not forming water drops on the glass surface but spreading all over the surface to prevent a covering of fog on the glass surface. The published patents concerning the photo catalysts were 593 from Jan. 1998 to Jan. 1999. The applicant order is the first TOTO 143, the second Daikin Industry 19, the third Toshiba Raitech, Nitto Denko, Hitachi 17 respectively. (NEDO)

  8. Enhanced summer warming reduces fungal decomposer diversity and litter mass loss more strongly in dry than in wet tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Casper T; Haugwitz, Merian S; Priemé, Anders; Nielsen, Cecilie S; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders; Grogan, Paul; Blok, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Many Arctic regions are currently experiencing substantial summer and winter climate changes. Litter decomposition is a fundamental component of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, with fungi being among the primary decomposers. To assess the impacts of seasonal climatic changes on litter fungal communities and their functioning, Betula glandulosa leaf litter was surface-incubated in two adjacent low Arctic sites with contrasting soil moisture regimes: dry shrub heath and wet sedge tundra at Disko Island, Greenland. At both sites, we investigated the impacts of factorial combinations of enhanced summer warming (using open-top chambers; OTCs) and deepened snow (using snow fences) on surface litter mass loss, chemistry and fungal decomposer communities after approximately 1 year. Enhanced summer warming significantly restricted litter mass loss by 32% in the dry and 17% in the wet site. Litter moisture content was significantly reduced by summer warming in the dry, but not in the wet site. Likewise, fungal total abundance and diversity were reduced by OTC warming at the dry site, while comparatively modest warming effects were observed in the wet site. These results suggest that increased evapotranspiration in the OTC plots lowered litter moisture content to the point where fungal decomposition activities became inhibited. In contrast, snow addition enhanced fungal abundance in both sites but did not significantly affect litter mass loss rates. Across sites, control plots only shared 15% of their fungal phylotypes, suggesting strong local controls on fungal decomposer community composition. Nevertheless, fungal community functioning (litter decomposition) was negatively affected by warming in both sites. We conclude that although buried soil organic matter decomposition is widely expected to increase with future summer warming, surface litter decay and nutrient turnover rates in both xeric and relatively moist tundra are likely to be significantly restricted by

  9. Dietary geraniol by oral or enema administration strongly reduces dysbiosis and systemic inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigia eDe Fazio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (Trans-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH, is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and antimicrobial properties. It is widely used as a preservative in the food industry and as an antimicrobial agent in animal farming. The present study investigated the role of Ge-OH as an anti-inflammatory and anti-dysbiotic agent in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS-induced colitis mouse model. Ge-OH was orally administered to C57BL/6 mice at daily doses of 30 and 120mg kg(-1 body weight, starting six days before DSS treatment and ending the day after DSS removal. Furthermore, Ge-OH 120 mg kg(-1 dose body weight was administered via enema during the acute phase of colitis to facilitate its on-site action. The results show that orally or enema-administered Ge-OH is a powerful antimicrobial agent able to prevent colitis-associated dysbiosis and decrease the inflammatory systemic profile of colitic mice. As a whole, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical signs of colitis and significantly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in colonocytes and in the gut wall. Ge-OH could be a powerful drug for the treatment of intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis.

  10. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coordinated activation of PTA-ACS and TCA cycles strongly reduces overflow metabolism of acetate in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebo, Karl; Valgepea, Kaspar; Nahku, Ranno; Riis, Gethe; Oun, Mikk; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-06-01

    Elimination of acetate overflow in aerobic cultivation of Escherichia coli would improve many bioprocesses as acetate accumulation in the growth environment leads to numerous negative effects, e.g. loss of carbon, inhibition of growth, target product synthesis, etc. Despite many years of studies, the mechanism and regulation of acetate overflow are still not completely understood. Therefore, we studied the growth of E. coli K-12 BW25113 and several of its mutant strains affecting acetate-related pathways using the continuous culture method accelerostat (A-stat) at various specific glucose consumption rates with the aim of diminishing acetate overflow. Absolute quantitative exo-metabolome and proteome analyses coupled to metabolic flux analysis enabled us to demonstrate that onset of acetate overflow can be postponed and acetate excretion strongly reduced in E. coli by coordinated activation of phosphotransacetylase-acetyl-CoA synthetase (PTA-ACS) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycles. Fourfold reduction of acetate excretion (2 vs. 8 % from total carbon) at fastest growth compared to wild type was achieved by deleting the genes responsible for inactivation of acetyl-CoA synthetase protein (pka) and TCA cycle regulator arcA. The Δpka ΔarcA strain did not accumulate any other detrimental by-product besides acetate and showed identical μ max and only ~5 % lower biomass yield compared to wild type. We conclude that a fine-tuned coordination between increasing the recycling capabilities of acetate in the PTA-ACS node through a higher concentration of active acetate scavenging Acs protein and downstream metabolism throughput in the TCA cycle is necessary for diminishing overflow metabolism of acetate in E. coli and achieving higher target product production in bioprocesses.

  12. Photo-driven electron transfer from the highly reducing excited state of naphthalene diimide radical anion to a CO 2 reduction catalyst within a molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose F. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; La Porte, Nathan T. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Mauck, Catherine M. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA

    2017-01-01

    The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 Vvs.SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 Vvs.SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 μs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙–DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

  13. CERN Photo club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Photo club

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club organizes in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016. Send your three best pictures at  Photo.Contest@cern.ch with a short description explaining the images. Further information on the Photo club website: http://photoclub.web.cern.ch/content/photo-contest-october-2016

  14. Photos of Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Photos of Shingles Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir WARNING: Some ... Viewing discretion is advised. Photos of People with Shingles Shingles rash on the neck Shingles on face ...

  15. Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: evidence from the Naskapi people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A

    2011-08-01

    Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quick photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41 under visible light irradiation: small particle size, stabilization of copper, easy reducibility of Cu and visible light active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Nanda, Binita; Parida, K M; Das, Mira

    2013-01-14

    The present study reports the photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol) in aqueous solution using mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 nanocomposite as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like catalyst. The in situ incorporation of mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (sol-gel method) forms Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 and wetness impregnation of Cu(II) on Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 generates mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. The effects of pH and H(2)O(2) concentration on degradation of phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol are studied. Kinetics analysis shows that the photocatalytic degradation reaction follows a first-order rate equation. Mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 is found to be an efficient photo-Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of phenolic compounds. It shows nearly 100% degradation in 45 min at pH 4. The combined effect of small particle size, stabilization of Cu(2+) on the support Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41, ease reducibility of Cu(2+) and visible light activeness are the key factors for quick degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41.

  17. Satellite photo of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    This photo from the Landsat5 orbital telescope shows the locations of CERN's Meyrin and Prevessin sites near Geneva on the Swiss-France border. The tunnels housing the LHC and SPS accelerators are also illustrated. Photo credit: US Geological Survey/photo by Jane Doe.

  18. A New Technique for Reducing Size of a WPT System Using Two-Loop Strongly-Resonant Inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Rozman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mid-range resonant coupling-based high efficient wireless power transfer (WPT techniques have gained substantial research interest due to the number of potential applications in many industries. This paper presents a novel design of a resonant two-loop WPT technique including the design, fabrication and preliminary results of this proposal. This new design employs a compensation inductor which is combined with the transmitter and receiver loops in order to significantly scale down the size of the transmitter and receiver coils. This can improve the portability of the WPT transmitters in practical systems. Moreover, the benefits of the system enhancement are not only limited to the lessened magnitude of the T X & R X , simultaneously both the weight and the bill of materials are also minimised. The proposed system also demonstrates compatibility with the conventional electronic components such as capacitors hence the development of the T X & R X is simplified. The proposed system performance has been validated using the similarities between the experimental and simulation results. The power efficiency of the prototype circuit is found to be 93%, which is close to the efficiency reached by the conventional design. However, the weight of the transmitter and receiver inductors is now reduced by 78%, while the length of these inductors is reduced by 80%.

  19. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  20. New reduced-dimensionality models for efficient quantum-mechanical description of ultrafast strong-field phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silaev, A.A.; Ryabikin, M.Yu.; Vvedenskii, N.V.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The development of theoretical approaches to the description of strong-field phenomena caused by ultrashort laser pulses is optical for studying the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser fields. In this work, we address two phenomena which attract much attention and can be observed under similar experimental conditions, namely, when a gas is ionized by ultrashort laser pulse. The first phenomenon is the excitation of high-order harmonics of the driving field frequency in the electron current, which leads to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray radiation, as well as the attosecond pulse production. The second phenomenon is the excitation of a quasi-dc residual current in the laser-produced plasma, which results in the generation of radiation having a frequency below the laser one, e.g., terahertz waves. We present new one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quantum-mechanical models for the description of such phenomena for the case a hydrogen (H) atom, and the generalization of these models to the case of various noble-gas atoms. The shape of the electrostatic potential produced by an atomic ion is shown to influence significantly the rates of the processes in the dynamics of atomic electron, and even more, the rates of the tunneling and above-barrier ionization, which is of utmost importance for the considered phenomena. The results of solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with the 1D and 2D potentials, which we propose, are compared with the results of the ab initio three-dimensional calculations for the H atom. We find the regions of laser pulse parameters, where the results obtained with proposed models have much better accuracy than the results provided by the models used earlier. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Presidential Council on Grants of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the

  1. Increased expression of CD133 and reduced dystroglycan expression are strong predictors of poor outcome in colon cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels of CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, and of the α-subunit of the dystroglycan (α-DG complex, have been previously reported to be altered in colorectal cancers. Methods Expression levels of CD133 and α-DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of colon cancers and their prognostic significance was evaluated. Results Scattered cells positive for CD133 were rarely detected at the bases of the crypts in normal colonic mucosa while in cancer cells the median percentage of positive cells was 5% (range 0–80. A significant correlation was observed with pT parameter and tumor stage but not with tumor grade and N status. Recurrence and death from disease were significantly more frequent in CD133-high expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor groups for both disease-free (p = 0.002 and overall (p = 0.008 survival. Expression of α-DG was reduced in a significant fraction of tumors but low α-DG staining did not correlate with any of the classical clinical-pathological parameters. Recurrence and death from the disease were significantly more frequent in α-DG-low expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor tumors for both disease-free (p = 0.02 and overall (p = 0.02 survival. Increased expression of CD133, but not loss of α-DG, confirmed to be an independent prognostic parameters at a multivariate analysis associated with an increased risk of recurrence (RR = 2.4; p = 0.002 and death (RR = 2.3; p = 0.003. Conclusions Loss of α-DG and increased CD133 expression are frequent events in human colon cancer and evaluation of CD133 expression could help to identify high-risk colon cancer patients.

  2. ATLAS HEC PHOTOS TRIUMF

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    Photo 1 - Removal of a glued foil from the glue press. The foils still need to be cut with a steel rule die and the HV pins soldered on. Photo 2 - Inspection of EST foil. Photo 3 - Placing the first plate of the front Module 0 on the stacking table with the tie-rods in place. Photo 4 - As each gap is stacked, it is tested by applying 3kV across each honeycomb sheet and ensuring that the current draw is low (a few tens of nA). Photo 5 - HV testing on a stacked front module. Photo 6 - Detail of a gap in a module. Four sheets of honeycomb spacing mats separate the centre PAD foil from the two EST foils on either side, and hold the EST foils away from the copper absorber structure. Photo 7 - Last plate of rear module being stacked. Photo 8 - Stacked rear module 0. Photo 9 - Four Module 0's, one front and one rear from TRIUMF, one from Germany, and one from and one from Russia, are "married" into one structure. In this picture, two front modules are married together. Photo 10 - After two modules are married, they ...

  3. NEFSC Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photos of fish, marine mammals, turtles, ships, and other related subjects for use by students, educators, scientists, media, etc.

  4. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO2 nanocomposite and its improved photo-induced charge transfer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhai, Yueming; Wang, Dejun; Dong, Shaojun

    2011-04-01

    The construction of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide with semiconductor has gained more and more attention due to its unexpected optoelectronic and electronic properties. The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or graphene oxide-semiconductor nanocomposite with well-dispersed decorated particles is still a challenge now. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for the synthesis of graphene oxide-amorphous TiO2 and reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO2 nanocomposites with well-dispersed particles. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The photovoltaic properties of RGO-anatase TiO2 were also compared with that of similar sized anatase TiO2 by transient photovoltage technique, and it was interesting to find that the combination of reduced graphene oxide with anatase TiO2 will significantly increase the photovoltaic response and retard the recombination of electron-hole pairs in the excited anatase TiO2.The construction of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide with semiconductor has gained more and more attention due to its unexpected optoelectronic and electronic properties. The synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) or graphene oxide-semiconductor nanocomposite with well-dispersed decorated particles is still a challenge now. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for the synthesis of graphene oxide-amorphous TiO2 and reduced graphene oxide-anatase TiO2 nanocomposites with well-dispersed particles. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The photovoltaic properties of RGO-anatase TiO2 were also compared with that of similar sized anatase TiO2 by

  5. Epitomize Your Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vajda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of digital photography, sharing of photos with friends and family has become very popular. When people share their photos, they usually organize them into albums according to events or places. To tell the story of some important events in one’s life, it is desirable to have an efficient summarization tool which can help people to receive a quick overview of an album containing large number of photos. In this paper, we present and analyze an approach for photo album summarization through a novel social game “Epitome” as a Facebook application. This social game can collect research data, and, at the same time, it provides a collage or a cover photo of the user’s photo album, while the user enjoys playing the game. The proof of concept of the proposed method is demonstrated through a set of experiments on several photo albums. As a benchmark comparison to this game, we perform automatic visual analysis considering several state-of-the-art features. We also evaluate the usability of the game by making use of a questionnaire on several subjects who played the “Epitome” game. Furthermore, we address privacy issues concerning shared photos in Facebook applications.

  6. Photos from the CMS Photo Book

    CERN Multimedia

    Boreham, S

    2008-01-01

    Photos from the CMS Photo Book. Activities at Point 5 in Cessy, France, between 1998 - 2008. Images of assembly and Installation of the CMS detector: - Civil Engineering - Assembly in the Surface Building - Lowering of the Heavy Elements - Installing and connecting the CMS detector in the underground experiment These images illustrate the assembly, installation and commissioning of the CMS detector. They cover the activities at Point 5 in Cessy, France, between 1998 and 2008. CMS is one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built. It has taken about 20 years to go from conceptual design to the completion of construction of the CMS detector for the LHC start-up in September 2008. Accomplishing this has required the talents, efforts and resources of over 2500 scientists and engineers from about 180 institutions in 38 countries. caverns Compiled by: S. Cittolin, F. Marcastel and T.S. Virdee

  7. Photos and Videos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observers are required to take photos and/or videos of all incidentally caught sea turtles, marine mammals, seabirds and unusual or rare fish. On the first 3...

  8. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  9. Strong correlation in acene sheets from the active-space variational two-electron reduced density matrix method: effects of symmetry and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Kenley; Greenman, Loren; Gidofalvi, Gergely; Mazziotti, David A

    2011-06-09

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic molecules with importance in several branches of science, including medicine, combustion chemistry, and materials science. The delocalized π-orbital systems in PAHs require highly accurate electronic structure methods to capture strong electron correlation. Treating correlation in PAHs has been challenging because (i) traditional wave function methods for strong correlation have not been applicable since they scale exponentially in the number of strongly correlated orbitals, and (ii) alternative methods such as the density-matrix renormalization group and variational two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) methods have not been applied beyond linear acene chains. In this paper we extend the earlier results from active-space variational 2-RDM theory [Gidofalvi, G.; Mazziotti, D. A. J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 129, 134108] to the more general two-dimensional arrangement of rings--acene sheets--to study the relationship between geometry and electron correlation in PAHs. The acene-sheet calculations, if performed with conventional wave function methods, would require wave function expansions with as many as 1.5 × 10(17) configuration state functions. To measure electron correlation, we employ several RDM-based metrics: (i) natural-orbital occupation numbers, (ii) the 1-RDM von Neumann entropy, (iii) the correlation energy per carbon atom, and (iv) the squared Frobenius norm of the cumulant 2-RDM. The results confirm a trend of increasing polyradical character with increasing molecular size previously observed in linear PAHs and reveal a corresponding trend in two-dimensional (arch-shaped) PAHs. Furthermore, in PAHs of similar size they show significant variations in correlation with geometry. PAHs with the strictly linear geometry (chains) exhibit more electron correlation than PAHs with nonlinear geometries (sheets).

  10. Strongly Nonlinear Dependence of Energy Transfer Rate on sp(2) Carbon Content in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Quantum Dot Hybrid Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yitong; Son, Dong Hee

    2015-01-02

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the content of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms in the hybrid structures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Mn-doped quantum dot (QD(Mn)) was investigated. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of QD(Mn)'s dopant luminescence lifetime only to the energy transfer process without interference from the charge transfer process, the correlation between the sp(2) carbon content in RGO and the rate of energy transfer from QD(Mn) to RGO was obtained. The rate of energy transfer showed a strongly superlinear increase with increasing sp(2) carbon content in RGO, suggesting the possible cooperative behavior of sp(2) carbon domains in the energy transfer process as the sp(2) carbon content increases.

  11. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy. © 2013 UICC.

  12. EOS Inoovation Photo's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    What did four years of energy innovation bring the Netherlands? Which are the main lessons learned and what are the best opportunities for the market? The Energy Research Strategy programme (EOS) gave the answers to these questions for various topics in the form of images by means of so-called I nnovation Photos' on Biomass, Built Environment, Industrial Energy Efficiency, Smart Grids, Heat, Offshore Wind, and Solar PV. [nl

  13. Self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots covered by different strain reducing layers exhibiting strong photo- and electroluminescence in 1.3 and 1.55 μm bands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hazdra, P.; Oswald, Jiří; Komarnitskyy, V.; Kuldová, Karla; Hospodková, Alice; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2011), s. 6804-6809 ISSN 1533-4880 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA ČR GA202/09/0676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum dots * MOVPE * InAs * GaAs * photoluminescence * electroluminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.563, year: 2011

  14. ATLAS TileCal Submodule Production Photos (2001)

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, S.

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Dirty Spacers Photo 2 - Washing Plates Photo 3 - Throw Photo 4 - Catch Photo 5 - Mascot Photo 6 - Glue Machine Photo 7 - Gluing Photo 8 - Finished submodule Photo 9 - Submodule being final welded Photo 10 - Paint tank Photo 11 - Submodule is wrapped Photo 12 - Exhaustion

  15. Science photo library

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    SPL [Science Photo Library] holds a wide range of pictures on all aspects of science, medicine and technology. The pictures come with detailed captions and are available as high quality transparencies in medium or 35mm format. Digital files can be made available on request. Our website provides low resolution files of the pictures in this catalogue, which you can search and download for layout presentation use once you have registered. High resolution files or reproduction are available on request and can be delivered to you by disk or ISDN. Visit the online catalog: www.sciencephoto.com

  16. Mystery photos: Christmas edition

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen, Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Paraphrasing George R.R. Martin's novel Game of Thrones’ most famous quote: “Christmas is coming”. According to tradition, we’ve themed our last issue of the year to share the spirit of the festivities with our readers. We’ve collected some pictures of snowy scenes and Christmas parties at CERN from our archives.   Identifying pictures and albums in the CERN photo archive continues apace and we still need your help. However, in keeping with the holiday spirit, we’ve set you some Christmassy challenges. Were you at any of the events shown below, or do you recognise anyone in the pictures? Get in touch by email: photo.archive@cern.ch or use the “suggest a caption” link on each picture’s page. So far, more than 33,000 pictures have been uploaded, with nearly 1,000 old album records inspected and about 150 new ones created. We’ve had contact from an ever-increasing number of reti...

  17. Photo Editing: A Neglected Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeman, Rich

    1987-01-01

    Offers guidelines for using photographs effectively in campus newspapers. Reviews the stages in the photo editing process, suggests alternatives to traditional photographic approaches, and offers technical advice. (AYC)

  18. Lossless Compression of JPEG Coded Photo Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Jingyu; Zeng, Wenjun; Wu, Feng

    2016-04-06

    The explosion of digital photos has posed a significant challenge to photo storage and transmission for both personal devices and cloud platforms. In this paper, we propose a novel lossless compression method to further reduce the size of a set of JPEG coded correlated images without any loss of information. The proposed method jointly removes inter/intra image redundancy in the feature, spatial, and frequency domains. For each collection, we first organize the images into a pseudo video by minimizing the global prediction cost in the feature domain. We then present a hybrid disparity compensation method to better exploit both the global and local correlations among the images in the spatial domain. Furthermore, the redundancy between each compensated signal and the corresponding target image is adaptively reduced in the frequency domain. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed lossless compression method. Compared to the JPEG coded image collections, our method achieves average bit savings of more than 31%.

  19. Golden Jubilee photos

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    We continue our series of CERN's Golden Jubilee photos, with some of the highlights of events and their preparation as well as occasional glimpses of the Laboratory's fifty-year history. Following last week's behind-the-scenes glance at the organisation of festivities, this week we take a look at a group of young artists. They are visiting the Laboratory with the aim of creating works of art, that will go on display during the Jubilee celebrations. Art and particle physics Particle physics can be a source of inspiration for artists, as illustrated by this week's visit1 to CERN of 17 students from British, Danish, Dutch, Greek, Irish and Swiss art schools. The students are here to find ideas for works of art that will be displayed this October in the framework of CERN's Golden Jubilee celebrations. In the opinion of the group's organiser, Andy Charalambous, the purpose of the visit is to confront the artists with a world that is totally alien to their own and to allow them an opportunity to immerse themselve...

  20. In-tank photo analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods

  1. Correlation-Preserving Photo Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingjie; Zhang, Hongjie; Jing, Guangmei; Guo, Yanwen; Chen, Zhonggui; Wang, Wenping

    2017-05-12

    A new method is presented for producing photo collages that preserve content correlation of photos. We use deep learning techniques to find correlation among given photos to facilitate their embedding on the canvas, and develop an efficient combinatorial optimization technique to make correlated photos stay close to each other. To make efficient use of canvas space, our method first extracts salient regions of photos and packs only these salient regions. We allow the salient regions to have arbitrary shapes, therefore yielding informative, yet more compact collages than by other similar collage methods based on salient regions. We present extensive experimental results, user study results, and comparisons against the state-of-the-art methods to show the superiority of our method.

  2. Nuclear power can reduce emissions and maintain a strong economy: Rating Australia’s optimal future electricity-generation mix by technologies and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is essential for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions at lower cost. • Physical and economic limits of renewables at high penetrations hamper their growth. • Large-scale fossil fuels are required if nuclear power is not permitted in Australia. • Well-balanced information is a prerequisite for defining an optimal future mix. - Abstract: Legal barriers currently prohibit nuclear power for electricity generation in Australia. For this reason, published future electricity scenarios aimed at policy makers for this country have not seriously considered a full mix of energy options. Here we addressed this deficiency by comparing the life-cycle sustainability of published scenarios using multi-criteria decision-making analysis, and modeling the optimized future electricity mix using a genetic algorithm. The published ‘CSIRO e-future’ scenario under its default condition (excluding nuclear) has the largest aggregate negative environmental and economic outcomes (score = 4.51 out of 8), followed by the Australian Energy Market Operator’s 100% renewable energy scenario (4.16) and the Greenpeace scenario (3.97). The e-future projection with maximum nuclear-power penetration allowed yields the lowest negative impacts (1.46). After modeling possible future electricity mixes including or excluding nuclear power, the weighted criteria recommended an optimized scenario mix where nuclear power generated >40% of total electricity. The life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of the optimization scenarios including nuclear power were <27 kg CO 2 -e MW h −1 in 2050, which achieves the IPCC’s target of 50–150 kg CO 2 -e MW h −1 . Our analyses demonstrate clearly that nuclear power is an effective and logical option for the environmental and economic sustainability of a future electricity network in Australia

  3. Location - Global Positioning System (GPS) Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital photos tagged with GPS location information. The St. Paul District maintains a digital library of over 10,000 GPS photos. Photos are often associated with...

  4. Biomimetic photo-actuation: progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Michael P. M.; Weaver, Paul M.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Bond, Ian P.; Faul, Charl F. J.

    2016-04-01

    Photo-actuation, such as that observed in the reversible sun-tracking movements of heliotropic plants, is produced by a complex, yet elegant series of processes. In the heliotropic leaf movements of the Cornish Mallow, photo-actuation involves the generation, transport and manipulation of chemical signals from a distributed network of sensors in the leaf veins to a specialized osmosis driven actuation region in the leaf stem. It is theorized that such an arrangement is both efficient in terms of materials use and operational energy conversion, as well as being highly robust. We concern ourselves with understanding and mimicking these light driven, chemically controlled actuating systems with the aim of generating intelligent structures which share the properties of efficiency and robustness that are so important to survival in Nature. In this work we present recent progress in mimicking these photo-actuating systems through remote light exposure of a metastable state photoacid and the resulting signal and energy transfer through solution to a pH-responsive hydrogel actuator. Reversible actuation strains of 20% were achieved from this arrangement, with modelling then employed to reveal the critical influence hydrogel pKa has on this result. Although the strong actuation achieved highlights the progress that has been made in replicating the principles of biomimetic photo-actuation, challenges such as photoacid degradation were also revealed. It is anticipated that current work can directly lead to the development of high-performance and low-cost solartrackers for increased photovoltaic energy capture and to the creation of new types of intelligent structures employing chemical control systems.

  5. Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Water Photo-Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Girolamo, Mariarita; Siracusano, Stefania; Sebastian, David; Baglio, Vincenzo; Schuster, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Water-fed photo-electrolysis cells equipped with perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion® 115) and quaternary ammonium-based (Fumatech® FAA3) ion exchange membranes as separator for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions were investigated. Protonic or anionic ionomer dispersions were deposited on the electrodes to extend the interface with the electrolyte. The photo-anode consisted of a large band-gap Ti-oxide semiconductor. The effect of membrane characteristics on the photo-electrochemical conversion of solar energy was investigated for photo-voltage-driven electrolysis cells. Photo-electrolysis cells were also studied for operation under electrical bias-assisted mode. The pH of the membrane/ionomer had a paramount effect on the photo-electrolytic conversion. The anionic membrane showed enhanced performance compared to the Nafion®-based cell when just TiO2 anatase was used as photo-anode. This was associated with better oxygen evolution kinetics in alkaline conditions compared to acidic environment. However, oxygen evolution kinetics in acidic conditions were significantly enhanced by using a Ti sub-oxide as surface promoter in order to facilitate the adsorption of OH species as precursors of oxygen evolution. However, the same surface promoter appeared to inhibit oxygen evolution in an alkaline environment probably as a consequence of the strong adsorption of OH species on the surface under such conditions. These results show that a proper combination of photo-anode and polymer electrolyte membrane is essential to maximize photo-electrolytic conversion. PMID:28468242

  6. Golden Jubilee photos: LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Extraction lines that carried the antiprotons from LEAR to the experiments. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously. Particle physicists don't always need ever more powerful accelerators to study interesting physics. LEAR, the Low Energy Antiproton Ring, was designed to help explore the properties of antimatter, with the annihilation of protons and antiprotons becoming the main theme. LEAR was commissioned in 1983 and contributed to more than 30 experiments with great success. LEAR took part in the discovery of a 'glueball', a particle composed entirely of gluons, the carriers of the strong nuclear force. LEAR also observed that neutral kaons and antikaons decay at a slightly different rate, offering physicists another insight into the mystery about why matter prevails over antimatter in the Universe. Uniquely, LEAR combined both the electron and stochastic beam cooling techniques, used to control and refine the beams. It also pioneered a technique usin...

  7. Strong reducing of the laser focal volume

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godin, T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of lasers seek nowadays for focal spots whose corresponding volume is getting smaller and smaller in order to ensure high spatial resolution. This problem, studied by many research groups around the world, is the core...

  8. Plasmonic photo-thermal therapy (PPTT) | Huang | Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photo-thermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally-invasive therapy in which photon energy is converted into heat to kill cancer. Gold nanoparticles absorb light strongly and convert photon energy into heat quickly and efficiently, thereby making them superior contrast agents for PTT. This gold nanoparticle-assisted PTT called ...

  9. Probabilistic graphlet transfer for photo cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luming; Song, Mingli; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Xiao; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2013-02-01

    As one of the most basic photo manipulation processes, photo cropping is widely used in the printing, graphic design, and photography industries. In this paper, we introduce graphlets (i.e., small connected subgraphs) to represent a photo's aesthetic features, and propose a probabilistic model to transfer aesthetic features from the training photo onto the cropped photo. In particular, by segmenting each photo into a set of regions, we construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) to represent the global aesthetic feature of each photo. Graphlets are then extracted from the RAGs, and these graphlets capture the local aesthetic features of the photos. Finally, we cast photo cropping as a candidate-searching procedure on the basis of a probabilistic model, and infer the parameters of the cropped photos using Gibbs sampling. The proposed method is fully automatic. Subjective evaluations have shown that it is preferred over a number of existing approaches.

  10. The INGV photos on Flickr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Marco; Felli, Concetta; D'Addezio, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    In May 2012, right after the M=5.9 Emilia earthquake, was launched the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) photographic gallery on Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/photos/ingv/), to improve the INGV communication strategy. The main goals of this initiative were to inform society of the main ongoing research activities, new scientific discoveries, seismic, volcanic and environmental monitoring and key events at INGV. Specifically, to communicate through photos new results of scientific research in seismology, volcanology and environment, to enhance awareness of the earth sciences and related natural hazard in society. At this time, after about two and a half years from the beginning, have been published about 550 downloadable original photos on Flickr, collected in 45 albums. These were all shot by INGV researchers, technologists and technicians, during field surveys, seismic or volcanic emergencies or key events. Besides the INGV seismic and volcanic monitoring centers, photos document the effects of (i) main recent earthquakes in Italy; (ii) main volcanic eruptions in Italy and worldwide, (iii) Mediterranean sea and ocean tsunamis; (iv) environmental changes and monitoring activities and finally (vi) main events at INGV. Presently, the total number of views is over 2.277.000 with main peaks often in relationships with relevant Italian or worldwide earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The most popular Photo (San Carlo, Emilia earthquake) has been viewed more than 56,000 times. Because each photo includes a brief scientific description and often is linked to press communicates launched by the INGV press office and to geophysical and geological publications, we believe that this initiative has increased people's awareness of the INGV activity and its role in society, contributing to the scientific outreach of researcher's work. .

  11. Nevada Photo-Based Inventory Pilot (NPIP) photo sampling procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen; Kevin A. Megown; Val J. Nelson; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Paul L. Patterson; Mark Finco; James Menlove

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis program (FIA) of the U.S. Forest Service monitors status and trends in forested ecoregions nationwide. The complex nature of this broad-scale, strategic-level inventory demands constant evolution and evaluation of methods to get the best information possible while continuously increasing efficiency. In 2004, the "Nevada Photo-...

  12. Development of an automatic system dedicated to the writing of explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the photo-oxidant pollution study at different scales; Developpement d'une chaine automatique d'ecriture de schemas chimiques explicites et reduits adaptes a l'etude de la pollution photooxydante aux differentes echelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laval-Szopa, S

    2003-12-15

    Millions of compounds are involved in atmospheric chemistry. Chemical schemes must then be reduced to model the photo-oxidant pollution using chemistry-transport models (CTM). Such reduced schemes describe the atmospheric VOC oxidation using typically a hundred of species. The reduction methods depend actually on the particular case under consideration. The recent emergence of multi-scale CTM sets the problem of the use of reduced chemical schemes developed for a specified scale to the simultaneous modeling of several space scales. The objective of this work was to develop and assess an automatic procedure allowing to write explicit and reduced chemical schemes suited to the study of photo-oxidant pollution at different scales. The method is based on (1) the development of a tool dedicated to the writing of explicit schemes for VOC oxidation and (2) the assessment of reduced schemes using the explicit scheme as a reference. In order to minimize the problems involved in the development of chemical schemes, an automatic generator of explicit chemical schemes was developed for the tropospheric VOC oxidation. This generator is based on state of the art in terms of reactivity and mechanisms. It allows the writing of the whole set of reactions implied in the oxidation of a given primary compound, from its initiation to its total oxidation in CO{sub 2} et H{sub 2}O. A reference chemical scheme was built, using the generator, for about seventy primary VOC, chosen to be representative of both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. The scheme describes their oxidation through more than 2 millions of reactions and 350.000 species. Three methods were applied to reduce the size of the chemical scheme: (i) use of operators, based on the redundancy of inorganic chemistry implied in the VOC oxidation, (ii) lumping of primary species having similar reactivities and (iii) lumping of secondary products into surrogate species. The number of species in the final reduced scheme is 150, i

  13. Photo-medical valley. 'Photo medical research center'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawanishi, Shunichi; Daido, Hiroyuki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    To develop a much more compact cancer diagnosis and therapeutic instrument using high intensity laser technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has successfully proposed this novel effort to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) program as the creation of a 'photo-medical industrial valley' base in 2007 fiscal year. In this report, a new laser techniques to drive controlled ion beams is described. It is very important approach to realize a laser-driven ion accelerator. (author)

  14. Transient photo currents in silicon-containing active components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinel, Joseph

    1975-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the fundamental aspect of phenomena occurring within an actual electronic component (diode, transistor) submitted to an ionising pulse, and the evolution of these phenomena when the irradiation intensity increases until it reaches the range of strong injections. This study comprises an analytical study of phenomena with expressions of photo-currents, a numerical simulation of photo-currents created within the component, and an experiment with two types of pulsed ionising sources (a gamma irradiator and a neodymium-doped laser). The author notably addresses cautions to be taken with the laser (photon-matter interaction), the study of the transient photo-current from a PN diode, the most typical physical aspects of bipolar transistors submitted to high irradiation intensities, and the study of MOS transistors and the role played by the gate oxide [fr

  15. Insertional inactivation of hblC encoding the L2 component of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 haemolysin BL strongly reduces enterotoxigenic activity, but not the haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbäck, T; Okstad, O A; Rishovd, A L; Kolstø, A B

    1999-11-01

    Haemolysin BL (HBL) is a Bacillus cereus toxin composed of a binding component, B, and two lytic components, L1 and L2. HBL is also the enterotoxin responsible for the diarrhoeal food poisoning syndrome caused by several strains of B. cereus. The three genes encoding the HBL components constitute an operon and are transcribed from a promoter 608 bp upstream of the hblC translational start site. The first gene of the hbl operon, hblC, in the B. cereus type strain, ATCC 14579, was inactivated in this study. Inactivation of hblC strongly reduced both the enterotoxigenic activity of B. cereus ATCC 14579 and the haemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes, while maintaining full haemolytic activity against human erythrocytes.

  16. Photo-stimulated electro-optic response of liquid-crystalline system with trans-cis photo-isomerizable agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjichristov, G B; Marinov, Y G; Yelamaggad, C V

    2014-01-01

    A rather strong photo-stimulated enhancement of photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect based on trans-cis photoisomerization of azo bond was found in a guest-host system formed from the nematic liquid crystal (LC) N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA) as a host, and the azobenzene LC 4-hexyloxybenzoloxy-4'-cyanoazobenzene, as a guest photoactive agent at 1 wt.% concentration. Upon application of electric field, thin homeotropic layers of thickness 100 pm containing this photo-sensitized LC mixture were investigated as subjected to a relatively weak illumination with UV light (λ = 375 nm, from narrow-band light-emitting diode, LED). The stimulation of the photoactive electro-optic response of azobenzene-doped MBBA (owing to enhanced photo-induced bend flexoelectric effect driven by the photo-isomerizable dopants) was achieved by pre-resonant excitation of the photoactive agent. The degree of the effect measured is of potential interest for thin-film photoactive electro-optic applications. The UV light-induced effect in azobenzene-doped MBBA was reversible; the back (relaxation) process was stimulated by light in the blue from a LED with broadband spectrum centered at 455 nm

  17. Photo-switchable microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Dandela, Rambabu; Bhagat, Ashok; Adepu, Raju; Meijler, Michael M; Xia, Lin; Alfonta, Lital

    2018-05-01

    Regulation of Bio-systems in a clean, simple, and efficient way is important for the design of smart bio-interfaces and bioelectronic devices. Light as a non-invasive mean to control the activity of a protein enables spatial and temporal control far superior to other chemical and physical methods. The ability to regulate the activity of a catalytic enzyme in a biofuel-cell reduces the waste of resources and energy and turns the fuel-cell into a smart and more efficient device for power generation. Here we present a microbial-fuel-cell based on a surface displayed, photo-switchable alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme was modified near the active site using non-canonical amino acids and a small photo-reactive molecule, which enables reversible control of enzymatic activity. Depending on the modification site, the enzyme exhibits reversible behavior upon irradiation with UV and visible light, in both biochemical, and electrochemical assays. The change observed in power output of a microbial fuel cell utilizing the modified enzyme was almost five-fold, between inactive and active states. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Photo stabilization of polymeric materials by photo set acrylate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, C. E-mail: c.decker@uha.fr; Zahouily, K

    2002-01-01

    Different types of polymeric materials have been made more resistant to photodegradation by protecting their surface with a UV-cured coating containing a HALS radical scavenger and a phenyl triazine UV absorber. The tri dimensional polymer network formed by photo polymerization of an aliphatic polyurethane-acrylate telechelic oligomer proved to be very resistant to accelerated weathering in the presence of these light stabilizers. The chemical modifications occurring upon QUV-ageing were monitored by infrared spectroscopy/ a very sensitive technique well suited for quantitative analysis at an early stage of the photodegradation.

  19. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmolla, Emad S.; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. · Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. · The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio below 0.40. · Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H 2 O 2 /COD and H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD 5 /COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe 2+ dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H 2 O 2 /COD molar ratio 2, H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  20. Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process for antibiotic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmolla, Emad S., E-mail: em_civil@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt); Chaudhuri, Malay [Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {center_dot} The work focused on hazardous wastewater (antibiotic wastewater) treatment. {center_dot} Complete degradation of the antibiotics achieved by the treatment process. {center_dot} The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio below 0.40. {center_dot} Combined photo-Fenton-SBR process is a feasible treatment process for the antibiotic wastewater. - Abstract: The study examined combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment of an antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin and cloxacillin. Optimum H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio of the photo-Fenton pretreatment were observed to be 2.5 and 20, respectively. Complete degradation of the antibiotics occurred in one min. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the wastewater treated under different photo-Fenton operating conditions (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio). The SBR performance was found to be very sensitive to BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio of the photo-Fenton treated wastewater. Statistical analysis of the results indicated that it was possible to reduce the Fe{sup 2+} dose and increase the irradiation time of the photo-Fenton pretreatment. The best operating conditions of the combined photo-Fenton-SBR treatment were observed to be H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD molar ratio 2, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} molar ratio 150, irradiation time 90 min and HRT of 12 h. Under the best operating conditions, 89% removal of sCOD with complete nitrification was achieved and the SBR effluent met the discharge standards.

  1. Photo-electret effects in homogenous semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabiev, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the given work is shown the opportunity and created the theory of photo-electret condition in semiconductors with Dember mechanism of photo-voltage generation. Photo-electret of such type can be created, instead of traditional and without an external field as a result of only one illumination. Polar factor, in this case, is the distinction of electrons and holes mobility. Considered the multilayered structure with homogeneous photoactive micro areas shared by the layers, which are interfering to alignment of carriers concentration. We consider, that the homogeneous photoactive areas contain deep levels of stick. Because of addition of elementary photo voltage in separate micro photo cells it is formed the abnormal-large photo voltage (APV-effect). Let's notice, that Dember photo-voltage in a separate micro photo-cell ≤kT/q. From the received expressions, in practically important, special case, when quasi- balance between valent zone and stick levels established in much more smaller time, than free hole lifetime, and we received, that photo-voltage is relaxing. Comparing of the received expressions with the laws of photo voltage attenuation in p-n- junction structures shows their identity; the difference is only in absolute meanings of photo voltage. During the illumination in the semiconductor are created the superfluous concentration of charge carriers and part from them stays at deep levels. At de-energizing light there is a gradual generation of carriers located at these levels

  2. Astronauts Capture Moon Illusion Photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Many odd looking moon photos have been captured over the years by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Even so, this photograph, taken by the crew over Russia on May 11, 2003, must have come as a surprise. The moon which is really a quarter of a million miles away, appears to be floating inside the Earth's atmosphere. The picture is tricky because of its uneven lighting. With the sun's elevation angle at only 6 degrees, night is falling on the left side of the image while it is still broad daylight on the right side. This gradient of sunlight is the key to the illusion.

  3. Controlling photo-oxidation processes of a polyfluorene derivative: The effect of additives and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, G.R. [Laboratory of Polymers and Electronic Properties of Materials – UFOP, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Nowacki, B. [Paulo Scarpa Polymer Laboratory – UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Magalhães, A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, E.R. de [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo – USP, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Sá, E.L. de [Chemistry Department, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Akcelrud, L.C. [Paulo Scarpa Polymer Laboratory – UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Bianchi, R.F., E-mail: bianchi@iceb.ufop.br [Laboratory of Polymers and Electronic Properties of Materials – UFOP, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    The control of the photo degradation of a fluorene–vinylene–phenylene based-polymer, poly(9,9-di-hexylfluorenediylvinylene-alt-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (LaPPS16) was achieved by addition of a radical scavenger (RS) (enhancing photo resistance) or a radical initiator (RI) (reducing photo resistance). Photoluminescence, UV–Vis absorption, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopies and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) revealed that the incorporating small amounts of RS or RI is an efficient way to control the rates of the photo-oxidation reactions, and thus to obtain the conjugated polymer with foreseeable degradation rates for applications in blue-light sensitive detectors for neonatal phototherapy. - Highlights: • Photo degradation control of a fluorene–vinylene–phenylene based polymer was achieved. • A radical scavenger enhanced photo resistance and radical initiator decreased it. • Color change rate with irradiation dose provided a basis for dosimeter construction.

  4. Morphological and physiological responses of two varieties of a highland species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) growing under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar UV-B in a lowland location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan A; Rosa, Mariana; Parrado, María F; Hilal, Mirna; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-08-03

    Morphological and physiological responses of seedlings to different solar UV-B irradiances were evaluated in two varieties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a crop species from Andean region of South America. Cristalina and Chucapaca varieties were grown at 1965m a.s.l in a glasshouse under natural light conditions for 18 days, and then transferred to outdoors under near-ambient (+UV-B) and strongly reduced (-UV-B) solar UV-B radiation. Exposition to -UV-B increased cotyledon area and seedling height in Cristalina variety whereas leaf number decreased compared to +UV-B. By contrast Chucapaca variety was not affected by UV-B treatments. Seedling fresh weight (FW), root length and leaf thickness did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Mesophyll tissue was slightly affected by solar UV-B reduction. Chlorophyll content was differentially affected by UV-B treatments. Under +UV-B the highest value was observed in Cristalina variety, while in Chucapaca it was observed under -UV-B treatment. Chlorophyll content was slightly higher in leaves than in cotyledons, but there was no difference in the distribution pattern. Chlorophyll a/b ratio and carotenoid content did not show significant differences between UV-B treatments. Leaf UVB-absorbing compounds showed significant differences between UV-B treatments in Chucapaca only, while there were no significant differences in Cristalina variety. UVB-absorbing compounds of cotyledons did not show significant differences between +UV-B and -UV-B treatments. Sucrose, glucose and fructose showed different distribution patterns in cotyledons and leaves of the two varieties under near-ambient and strongly reduced UV-B. Results demonstrated that varieties of quinoa exhibit different morphological and physiological responses to changes in solar UV-B irradiance, but these responses cannot be used to predict the sensitivity to solar UV-B during a short-term exposition. Also, this study can be useful to

  5. Benthic Photo Survey: Software for Geotagging, Depth-tagging, and Classifying Photos from Survey Data and Producing Shapefiles for Habitat Mapping in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Kibele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Photo survey techniques are common for resource management, ecological research, and ground truthing for remote sensing but current data processing methods are cumbersome and inefficient. The Benthic Photo Survey (BPS software described here was created to simplify the data processing and management tasks associated with photo surveys of underwater habitats. BPS is free and open source software written in Python with a QT graphical user interface. BPS takes a GPS log and jpeg images acquired by a diver or drop camera and assigns the GPS position to each photo based on time-stamps (i.e. geotagging. Depth and temperature can be assigned in a similar fashion (i.e. depth-tagging using log files from an inexpensive consumer grade depth / temperature logger that can be attached to the camera. BPS provides the user with a simple interface to assign quantitative habitat and substrate classifications to each photo. Location, depth, temperature, habitat, and substrate data are all stored with the jpeg metadata in Exchangeable image file format (Exif. BPS can then export all of these data in a spatially explicit point shapefile format for use in GIS. BPS greatly reduces the time and skill required to turn photos into usable data thereby making photo survey methods more efficient and cost effective. BPS can also be used, as is, for other photo sampling techniques in terrestrial and aquatic environments and the open source code base offers numerous opportunities for expansion and customization.

  6. Effect of tip geometry on photo-electron-emission from nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Lu, Toh-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-03-01

    We show in this paper the strong effect of tip geometry on the photo-electron-emission behavior of nanostructured surfaces. To study the effect of tip geometry we compared the photo-emissivity of Ru and Pt nanorods with pyramidal shaped tips to that of carbon nanorods that display flat top (planar) tips. Flat top architectures gave no significant increase in the emission current, while nanostructures with pyramidal shaped tips showed 3-4 fold increase in photo-emission compared to a thin film of the same material. Pyramidal tip geometries increase the effective surface area that is exposed to the incident photon-flux thereby enhancing the photon-collection probability of the system. Such nano-structured surfaces show promise in a variety of device applications such as photo-detectors, photon counters and photo-multiplier tubes.

  7. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  8. Photo darkening characterization and mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    2010-01-01

    Photo darkening (PD) is a serious performance degradation and lifetime limitation for rare earth (RE) co-doped silica fiber devices. Mitigation of PD is the key to improvement of the performance and reliability of high power fiber lasers and amplifiers. It is generally observed that PD of a given...... fiber material in unseeded amplifier experiments scale with population inversion. These observations are taken to indicate that the PD formation process is a multi step multi photon absorption process, where several excited RE ions co-operate to supply energy for capturing electron and holes...... is applicable to rare earth doped fiber material for amplifiers and lasers. In terms of PD there is no significant difference between cw and pulsed regime of operation in that the phenomenon of PD is slow. The PD of a pulsed system will, however, be a function of both average power (temperature and signal flux...

  9. Person Recognition in Social Media Photos

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    People nowadays share large parts of their personal lives through social media. Being able to automatically recognise people in personal photos may greatly enhance user convenience by easing photo album organisation. For human identification task, however, traditional focus of computer vision has been face recognition and pedestrian re-identification. Person recognition in social media photos sets new challenges for computer vision, including non-cooperative subjects (e.g. backward viewpoints...

  10. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. British Veterinary Association.

  11. iPhoto '11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2011-01-01

    With better ways to get your photos online and new options for creating printed projects, iPhoto '11 makes it easier than ever to transfer photos from a digital camera, organize them, and publish, print, or share them in maps-but there's still no printed manual for the program. Fortunately, David Pogue and Lesa Snider team up in this witty, authoritative book that should have been in the box. Organize your collection. Discover all of the options for grouping your pictures-by events, in albums, or based on who's in the photo or where it was taken.Sharpen your editing skills. Learn how to use

  12. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S.; Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J.; Chabal, Y.J.; Gnade, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm −1 and 362 MVm −1 for neat and crosslinked films

  13. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J. [Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Chabal, Y.J. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Gnade, B.E., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm{sup −1} and 362 MVm{sup −1} for neat and crosslinked films.

  14. Ultrafast gigantic photo-response in (EDO-TTF)2PF6 initiated by 10-fs laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Robert William; Itatani, Jiro; Rini, Matteo; Cavalleri, Andrea; Onda, Ken; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Schoenlein, Robert W.

    2006-08-07

    We photo-exited a charge-ordered organic salt (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with sub-10-fs optical pulses. The photo-induced metallic phase appeared within 80-fs after pumping, characterized by large changes in reflectivity (DELTA R/R~0.8) followed by strong coherent phonon modulation

  15. XAFS Study of the Photo-Active Site of Mo/MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Ichikuni, Nobuyuki; Shimazu, Shogo

    2007-01-01

    An Mo/MCM-41 catalyst was prepared and used for study of propene and 1-butene photo-metathesis reactions. XAFS analysis revealed that hydrogen reduction leads to a decreased role for the Mo=O site. The Mo-O site plays an important role for the olefin photo-metathesis reaction on the H2 reduced Mo/MCM-41. From EXAFS analysis, the active site of photo-metathesis reaction is the Mo=O part for oxidized Mo/MCM-41, whereas it is the Mo-O site for reduced Mo/MCM-41

  16. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  17. Photo-stimulated resistive switching of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung

    2012-01-01

    Resistive switching memory devices are promising candidates for emerging memory technologies because they yield outstanding device performance. Storage mechanisms for achieving high-density memory applications have been developed; however, so far many of them exhibit typical resistive switching behavior from the limited controlling conditions. In this study, we introduce photons as an unconventional stimulus for activating resistive switching behaviors. First, we compare the resistive switching behavior in light and dark conditions to describe how resistive switching memories can benefit from photons. Second, we drive the switching of resistance not by the electrical stimulus but only by the modulation of photon. ZnO nanorods were employed as a model system to demonstrate photo-stimulated resistive switching in high-surface-area nanomaterials, in which photo-driven surface states strongly affect their photoconductivity and resistance states. (paper)

  18. A Snapshot of Photo Editing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, J.V.

    2004-01-01

    Plenty of digital imaging professionals claim that Adobe's Photoshop CS is the best photo editing application money can buy. This document reviews Adobe's Photoshop CS and its worthy competitors. In addition to Adobe, the following programs are reviewed in this document: (1) Adobe Photoshop Elements 2.0; (2) Arcsoft PhotoImpression; (3) Jasc Paint…

  19. Nature and numbers a mathematical photo shooting

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The book offers 180 pages of spectacular photos and unusual views and insights. Learn to see the world with different eyes and be prepared for many surprises and new facts. The photos give rise to questions that are carefully explained with mathematics.

  20. Partnering with Families through Photo Collages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupa, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and benefits of a photo-based family communication method called Daily Explorations. Daily Explorations are one- to two-page photo collages that are annotated with meaningful explanations of children's play and e-mailed to parents every day. The process, described in more detail in this article, is a…

  1. Using Participatory Photo Novels to Teach Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kallol

    2012-01-01

    Teaching the restless young generation business students of today is not easy. Furthermore, the traditional lecture method has failed miserably to engage the business students and deliver significant learning. The author presents a discussion on the photo novel as an attractive communication medium and the participatory photo novel as an…

  2. Mystery photos from CERN's history

    CERN Multimedia

    Jens Vigen

    2014-01-01

    Over the first 50 years of its existence, before digital photography became the norm, CERN accumulated about a quarter of a million hard-copy images in its archive. Now, a project is underway to digitise the entire collection and make it searchable via the CERN Document Server (CDS).   Some 120,000 black and white images from the period 1955-1985 are currently being digitised, with files being uploaded in batches of several hundred per week. They are then automatically sorted into albums based on the existing information. In most cases, at least some descriptions exist, allowing us to identify the pictures. However, many albums are still in need of titles, the names of the people in the photos, descriptions of equipment, etc., and we believe that much of this information could be crowd-sourced from the CERN community. Here are some highlights from the first few thousand uploads, some of which we do have information about: But what about these pictures? Here we have far less information &...

  3. Mystery photos: challenge No. 4!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen

    2014-01-01

    It has been said that the Higgs boson was the last piece of an incomplete puzzle. The Standard Model looks pretty good, but doesn’t tell the whole story. Similarly, the tens of thousands of pieces in the CERN Photo Archive puzzle are gradually falling into place.   As we inspect album matches and gather caption information from people at CERN and around the world, the corners and edges are becoming clear. But we’ve got a big chunk of non-descript sky to plough through now. Sometimes, we can fit some pieces together without knowing what they show. We have grouped certain images into albums based on similarity. These are now in need of titles and descriptions. You can find them here. Meanwhile, here are some of our favourite pictures recently identified and matched to their corresponding albums: But what about the others? Can you help us identify any of the following pictures? Each picture’s CERN Document Server (CDS) page has its own “suggest a captio...

  4. A perceptual metric for photo retouching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Eric; Farid, Hany

    2011-12-13

    In recent years, advertisers and magazine editors have been widely criticized for taking digital photo retouching to an extreme. Impossibly thin, tall, and wrinkle- and blemish-free models are routinely splashed onto billboards, advertisements, and magazine covers. The ubiquity of these unrealistic and highly idealized images has been linked to eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. In response, several countries have considered legislating the labeling of retouched photos. We describe a quantitative and perceptually meaningful metric of photo retouching. Photographs are rated on the degree to which they have been digitally altered by explicitly modeling and estimating geometric and photometric changes. This metric correlates well with perceptual judgments of photo retouching and can be used to objectively judge by how much a retouched photo has strayed from reality.

  5. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  6. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  7. Ultrasonic Preparation of Nitrogen-doped TiO2 Nan crystalline Photo catalysts and Evaluation of Photo catalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifang; Lu, Zixin; Tang, Mengyao; Cao, Wenping; Cai, Kangni; Liu, Hanhu

    2017-12-01

    Pure TiO2 and N-doped nano-TiO2 photo catalysts were individually prepared following the sol-gel method under ultrasonic conditions. The photo catalytic decomposition of methyl orange (MO) solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation was used as a probe reaction to estimate their photo catalytic activities. The particle size, crystal structure, and optical properties of the prepared TiO2 were performed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results suggest that ultrasound significantly reduced the size of the TiO2 particles, improved particle dispersion, which in turn improve the photo catalytic activity of TiO2 under ultraviolet light. Ultrasound also promoted the doping of non-metal nitrogen and markedly enhanced the visible light absorption capacity of the N-doped nano-TiO2. Compared with pure TiO2, the degradation rate for MO under visible light of U-N-TiO2 was increased by 70%.

  8. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...... some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation across settings combines savings on health care costs with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects.   Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...

  9. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  10. 1944 AAF 661 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  11. 1943 AAF 332 Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  12. 1946 Penasco DDQ Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  13. 1949 Lea County DHO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  14. A way to the Photo Master Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Toshihiko

    After the author presided over the photographer's group for 15 years or more, the author met with the Photo Master certificate examination. And the author took the certificate examination, and was authorized as a Photo Master Expert in 2005. In this report, the outline how photographic technology has been mastered in order to adapt the photographer's group to the great change of photography from film to digital and how the contents of the activity of a photographer's group have changed is described. And the progress which took the Photo Master certificate examination as a good opportunity to prove the achievement level of those activities is described. And as a photographic activity after Photo Master Expert authorization, the shooting method of mural painting in the royal tomb of Amenophis III is described.

  15. Biscayne Bay Dolphin Photo ID System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — It has been shown through a variety of photo-identification studies that populations of bottlenose dolphin inhabit the various embayments along the coast of Florida....

  16. 1946 Eddy County DEO Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Photo Identification Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This photo collection contains identification and other images and video of Hawaiian monk seals taken by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the...

  18. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  19. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  20. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  1. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  2. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  3. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  4. Semantic photo books: leveraging blogs and social media for photo book creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbath, Mohamad; Sandhaus, Philipp; Boll, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we observed a substantial increase in the users' interest in sharing their photos online in travel blogs, social communities and photo sharing websites. An interesting aspect of these web platforms is their high level of user-media interaction and thus a high-quality source of semantic annotations: Users comment on the photos of each others, add external links to their travel blogs, tag each other in the social communities and add captions and descriptions to their photos. However, while those media assets are shared online, many users still highly appreciate the representation of these media in appealing physical photo books where the semantics are represented in form of descriptive text, maps, and external elements in addition to their related photos. Thus, in this paper we aim at fulfilling this need and provide an approach for creating photo books from Web 2.0 resources. We concentrate on two kinds of online shared media as resources for printable photo books: (a) Blogs especially travel blogs (b) Social community websites like Facebook which witness a rapidly growing number of shared media elements including photos. We introduce an approach to select media elements including photos, geographical maps and texts from both blogs and social networks semi-automatically, and then use these elements to create a printable photo book with an appealing layout. Because the selected media elements can be too many for the resulting book, we choose the most proper ones by exploiting content based, social based, and interactive based criteria. Additionally we add external media elements such as geographical maps, texts and externally hosted photos from linked resources. Having selected the important media, our approach uses a genetic algorithm to create an appealing layout using aesthetical rules, such as positioning the photo with the related text or map in a way that respects the golden ratio and symmetry. Distributing the media over the pages is done by

  5. Looking at the Family Photo Album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Having been the most widespread practice of photography since the late 19th century, it is only in the recent few decades that family photography has come into focus of academic attention. Scholars working with family albums have mainly come from anthropology, whereas scholars from the aesthetical...... fields, art history, photography studies, and cultural studies have been more hesitant about how to approach such a material. Using three family photo albums from the late 1960s and onwards as examples, the goal of this paper is to underline that family photos contain emotional, psychological......, and affective qualities that reach further than the individual owner and that should be put forward, also within the fields of aesthetics and humanities. Family photo albums are about social and emotional communication, they can be interpreted as ways of understanding and coming to terms with life...

  6. Taking Your iPhoto '11 to the Max

    CERN Document Server

    Grothaus, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Taking Your iPhoto '11 to the Max walks users through Apple's most popular software application in the iLife suite - iPhoto. This book helps readers use iPhoto to its fullest to organize and create digital memories and keepsakes. * Learn all about Apple's newest version of iPhoto - iPhoto '11 * Explore iPhoto, one menu button at a time * Walk-through tutorials guide you step-by-step What you'll learn * How to import existing photo libraries from popular Windows applications * How to organize and edit your photos * How to tag your photos using iPhoto's Faces and Places features * How to create

  7. Fullerene assemblies toward photo-energy conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanfei; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2014-04-28

    Manipulating molecular interaction and assembly for developing various functional nanostructures with controlled dimensionality, morphology and tailored properties is currently a research focus in molecular science and materials chemistry. Particularly, the self-organization of fullerenes (i.e. C60) to form various functional assemblies has received intense interest since it can provide excellent optoelectronic properties for photo-energy conversion-induced applications such as solar cells and field effect transistors (FET). In this perspective, we describe our recent efforts toward the development in the area of fullerene molecular design and assemblies aimed at improving the photoconductivity and photo-energy (electric and thermal) conversion systems.

  8. Wave operators for atomic photo-ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, H.G.; Tip, A.

    1983-01-01

    The time development of a system consisting of an atom in an external electromagnetic field with fixed propagation direction is studied (vector potential A(x,t)=A(x 3 -ct)). It is shown that the Moeller wave-operators, relevant for photo-ionisation, exist, provided the components Asub(σ)(u) of A decay as |u|sup(-1-epsilon), epsilon>O, for large argument u. Since A(x,t) is not necessarily spatially homogeneous, the above results can serve as a starting point for an investigation of field-gradient effects on photo-ionisation processes. (author)

  9. Golden Jubilee photos: Gathering Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    One day, antimatter might take people where no one has gone before, but it isn't science fiction. Protons are easily obtainable by stripping electrons from hydrogen atoms, but their antimatter counterparts, the antiprotons, have to be created artificially at accelerators. Roughly one antiproton can be produced from around a million protons bombarding a target at 26 GeV. In 1978, when CERN decided to take the unprecedented step of turning the SPS accelerator into a proton-antiproton collider, it had to deal with the scarcity, and had to concentrate the beam until it was intense enough for the experiment. Antiprotons are produced with a wide range of angles and energy, so before they can be used in an accelerator they have to be captured and 'cooled', reducing the beam dimensions by many orders of magnitude. This was the job of the Antiproton Accumulator (AA), completed in 1980 and shown here before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. It followed the pioneering Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE) i...

  10. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  11. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  12. Preparation of weak-light-driven TiO2-based catalysts via adsorbed-layer nanoreactor synthesis and enhancement of their photo-degradation performance in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Zhi-yong; Zhu, Yi-chen; Wu, Li-guang; Yuan, Hao-xuan; Li, Chang-chun; Liu, Ya-yu; Cai, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was first employed as a support in preparing TiO2 nanoparticles by adsorbed-layer nanoreactor synthesis (ALNS). Both TiO2 crystallization and GO reduction simultaneously occurred during solvothermal treatment with alcohol as a solvent. By transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, the results showed that TiO2 nanoparticles with less than 10 nm of size distributed very homogeneously on the GO surface. Tight interaction between TiO2 particles and GO surface could effectively inhibit the aggregation of TiO2 particles, during solvothermal treatment for anatase TiO2 formation. Alcohol could also reduce oxygenated functional groups on GO surface after solvothermal treatment. TiO2 particles with small size and the decrease in oxygenated functional groups on the GO surface both caused high separation efficiency of photo-generated charge carriers, thus resulting in high photo-degradation performance of catalysts. Strong phenol adsorption on photocatalyst was key to enhancing photo-degradation efficiency for phenol in seawater. Moreover, the change in catalyst structure was minimal at different temperatures of solvothermal treatment. But, the degradation rate and efficiency for phenol in seawater were obviously enhanced because of the sensitive structure-activity relationship of catalysts under weak-light irradiation.

  13. Molecular Switching in Confined Spaces: Effects of Encapsulating the DHA/VHF Photo-Switch in Cucurbiturils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Å.; Rasmussen, Brian; Andersen, Nicolaj N.

    2017-01-01

    and the isomerizations themselves. Here we describe the first example of a dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo-switch functioning in water, and we show how its switching behavior is strongly influenced by supramolecular interactions with a series of cucurbit[n]uril (CB) host molecules. In CB7 inclusion...... complexes, the kinetics of the thermal VHF-to-DHA back-reaction is accelerated, while in CB8 inclusion complexes, the kinetics is slowed down as compared to the free photo-switch. The effect of the CB encapsulation of the photo-switch can be effectively canceled by introducing a guest that binds the CB more...

  14. Photocatalysis for renewable energy production using PhotoFuelCells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-27

    The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the "photoelectrocatalytic leaf", which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  15. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  16. How photos of planets reach the earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Roos

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which photos of planets are transmitted to the earth is discussed. Problems that may arise during transmission are mentioned and a method to detect and correct errors is discussed. This is a survey article and the aim was not to give a rigorous mathematical explanation.

  17. Treatability Study Pilot Test Operation Field Photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Photos in each group are in chronological order as captured: Group I Tank Platform Setup, November 14, 2017; Group II Tank Setup, November 15, 2017; Group III Aboveground Injestion System (AIS) Setup, November 20, 2017; Group IV Chemical Mixing, November 21, 2017; Group V KB-1 Bacteria Injection, November 27, 2017; Group VI Miscellaneous.

  18. World Press Photo'98 / Priit Brennel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brennel, Priit

    1998-01-01

    Pressifoto ülemaailmsest konkursist ja aastaringselt järgnevatest üritustest, mida korraldab World Press Photo Foundation (peakorter Amsterdamis) 1955. aastast. 1998. a. peapreemia - France Pressi fotograafi Hocine'i töö 23. septembri ööl toimunud massimõrvast Alžeerias, Benthalas. Eestist osalesid Tiit Räis, Viktor Vesterinen.

  19. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Resources Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Photos of Measles and ... Library (PHIL) Related Links Measles and Rubella Initiative World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  20. Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgal density, diversity, photo-physiology and estimated productivity along with physico-chemical conditions across five tropical ecosystems, both at the water column and sediment levels, around Mauritius Island were assessed. The ecosystems studied were coral reefs of Blue Bay (CRBB), the seagrass bed of ...

  1. Photo-Interviewing to Explore Everyday Occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti...

  2. Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Photo-Damage Induced by Ultraviolet A in Human Skin Fibroblasts. ... Protein concentration of the samples was determined using a PA102 Bradford protein assay kit. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide anion radicals were ...

  3. Photo darkening of rare earth doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    2011-01-01

    The photo darkening (PD) absorption spectra from unseeded amplifier operation (by 915 nm pumping) of ytterbium/aluminum and codoped silica fibers is after prolonged operation observed to develop a characteristic line at 2.6 eV (477 nm). This line is proposed to be due to inter center excitation t...

  4. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  5. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  6. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  7. Influence of photo- and thermal bleaching on pre-irradiation low water peak single mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jianchong; Wen, Jianxiang; Luo, Wenyun; Xiao, Zhongyin; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2011-12-01

    Reducing the radiation-induced transmission loss in low water peak single mode fiber (LWP SMF) has been investigated by using photo-bleaching method with 980nm pump light source and using thermal-bleaching method with temperature control system. The results show that the radiation-induced loss of pre-irradiation optical fiber can be reduced effectively with the help of photo-bleaching or thermal-bleaching. Although the effort of photo-bleaching is not as significant as thermal-bleaching, by using photo-bleaching method, the loss of fiber caused by radiation-induced defects can be reduced best up to 49% at 1310nm and 28% at 1550nm in low pre-irradiation condition, the coating of the fiber are not destroyed, and the rehabilitating time is just several hours, while self-annealing usually costs months' time. What's more, the typical high power LASER for photo-bleaching can be 980nm pump Laser Diode, which is very accessible.

  8. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors' experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its' incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced

  9. Reducing vibration damage claims: Field application of strong public relations and one method of using commonly available seismograph and video taping equipment to document blast vibration regression at the nearest structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzen, M.R.; Fritzen, T.A. [Blasting Technology, Inc., Maui, HI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Anytime that blasting operations will be conducted near existing inhabited structures, vibration damage claims are a major concern of the blasting contractor. It has been the authors` experience that even when vibration and airblast levels generated from a blast are well below accepted damage thresholds, damage claims can still arise. The single greatest source of damage claims is the element of surprise associated with not knowing that blasting operations are being conducted nearby. The second greatest source of damage claims arise form the inability to produce accurate and detailed records of all blasting activity which provides evidence that vibration and air blast levels from each blast had been taken by seismic recording equipment. Using a two part plan consisting of extensive public relations followed by a detailed and accurate monitoring and recording of blasting operations has resulted in no substantiated claims of damage since its` incorporation. The authors experience shows that by using this two part process when conducting blasting operations near inhabited structures, unsubstantiated blast vibration damage claims may be significantly reduced.

  10. Riboflavin-induced photo-crosslinking of collagen hydrogel and its application in meniscus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jiseung; Koh, Rachel H; Shim, Whuisu; Kim, Hwan D; Yim, Hyun-Gu; Hwang, Nathaniel S

    2016-04-01

    A meniscus tear is a common knee injury, but its regeneration remains a clinical challenge. Recently, collagen-based scaffolds have been applied in meniscus tissue engineering. Despite its prevalence, application of natural collagen scaffold in clinical setting is limited due to its extremely low stiffness and rapid degradation. The purpose of the present study was to increase the mechanical properties and delay degradation rate of a collagen-based scaffold by photo-crosslinking using riboflavin (RF) and UV exposure. RF is a biocompatible vitamin B2 that showed minimal cytotoxicity compared to conventionally utilized photo-initiator. Furthermore, collagen photo-crosslinking with RF improved mechanical properties and delayed enzyme-triggered degradation of collagen scaffolds. RF-induced photo-crosslinked collagen scaffolds encapsulated with fibrochondrocytes resulted in reduced scaffold contraction and enhanced gene expression levels for the collagen II and aggrecan. Additionally, hyaluronic acid (HA) incorporation into photo-crosslinked collagen scaffold showed an increase in its retention. Based on these results, we demonstrate that photo-crosslinked collagen-HA hydrogels can be potentially applied in the scaffold-based meniscus tissue engineering.

  11. Photo oxidative degradation of azure-B by sono-photo-Fenton and photo-Fenton reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Vaishnave

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A model for the decomposition of azure-B by photo-Fenton reagent in the presence of ultrasound in homogeneous aqueous solution has been described. The photochemical decomposition rate of azure-B is markedly increased in the presence of ultrasound. It is a rather inexpensive reagent for wastewater treatment. The effect of different variables like the concentration of ferric ion, concentration of dye, hydrogen peroxide, pH, light intensity etc. on the reaction rate has been observed. The progress of the sono-photochemical degradation was monitored spectrophotometrically. The optimum sono-photochemical degradation conditions were experimentally determined. The results showed that the dye was completely oxidized and degraded into CO2 and H2O. A suitable tentative mechanism for sono-photochemical bleaching of azure-B by sono-photo-Fenton’s reaction has been proposed.

  12. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  13. Photo-electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation of molecular radicals and fragments produced by laser photo-dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahon, Laurent

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis reports the combined use of a laser and of a synchrotron radiation in order to respectively photo-dissociate a molecule and to photo-ionize fragments which are analysed by photo-electron spectroscopy. This association allows, on the one hand, radical photo-ionization to be studied, and, on the other hand, polyatomic molecule photo-dissociation to be studied. The author studied the photo-excitation and/or photo-ionization in layer 4d (resp. 3d) of atomic iodine (resp. bromine) produced almost complete laser photo-dissociation of I 2 (resp. Br 2 ). He discuses the processes of relaxation of transitions from valence 4d to 5p (resp. 3d to 4p) which occur either by direct self-ionization or by resonant Auger effect, and reports the study of photo-dissociation of s-tetrazine (C 2 N 4 H 2 ) [fr

  14. Surface photo-oxidation and photo-stabilization of photocross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiang Hua; Qu Bao Jun; Shi Wenfang

    1999-01-01

    The surface photo-oxidation and photo-stabilization of photocross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal-aging measurements. The XPS and FTIR data gave the evidence that the surface photo-oxidation of XLPE increases apparently with increasing UV-irradiation time. The main photo-oxidation products have been identified as hydroperoxides and various carbonyl compounds. The photo-stabilization of XLPE can be carried out by suitable pre-irradiation of low-pressure mercury (LPM) lamp and by addition of hinder amine light stabilizers (HALS). The present study shows that the optimum time of pre-irradiation with LPM lamp is 10 seconds, which can detach the oxygen absorbed on the PE surface before the photocross-linking. The addition of HALS into PE resins can stabilize XLPE very efficiently in the photocross-linking process of PE. Tinuvin 783 is the best photo-stabilizer among the three kinds of FIALS

  15. Identifying irradiated flour by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: The photo-stimulated luminescence technique is recommended by European Committee for standardization for the detection food irradiation (EN 13751:2009). This study shows on luminescence technique to identify gamma irradiated five types of flour (corn flour, tapioca flour, wheat flour, glutinos rice flour and rice flour) at three difference dose levels in the range 0.2 - 1 kGy. The signal level is compare with two thresholds (700 and 5000). The majority of irradiated samples produce a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/ 60 s). All the control samples gave negative screening result while the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/ 60s) suggest that the sample has not been irradiated. A few samples show the signal levels between the two thresholds (intermediate signals) suggest that further investigation. Reported procedure was also tested over 60 days, confirming the applicability and feasibility of proposed methods. (author)

  16. <strong>Entropy>: a consolidation manager for clustersstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermenier, Fabien; Lorca, Xavier; Menaud, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    as their computational requirements change, both to reduce the number of nodes that need to be active and to eliminate temporary overload situations. Previous dynamic consolidation strategies have relied on task placement heuristics that use only local optimization and typically do not take migration overhead......Clusters provide powerful computing environments, but in practice much of this power goes to waste, due to the static allocation of tasks to nodes, regardless of their changing computational requirements. Dynamic consolidation is an approach that migrates tasks within a cluster...... in the number of nodes. Because migration overhead is taken into account, Entropy chooses migrations that can be implemented efficiently, incurring a low performance overhead....

  17. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  18. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  19. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  20. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  1. Neural Photo Editing with Introspective Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Andrew; Lim, Theodore; Ritchie, J. M.; Weston, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly photorealistic sample quality of generative image models suggests their feasibility in applications beyond image generation. We present the Neural Photo Editor, an interface that leverages the power of generative neural networks to make large, semantically coherent changes to existing images. To tackle the challenge of achieving accurate reconstructions without loss of feature quality, we introduce the Introspective Adversarial Network, a novel hybridization of the VAE and GA...

  2. Person Recognition in Personal Photo Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and o...

  3. MLZ: Machine Learning for photo-Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias; Brunner, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The parallel Python framework MLZ (Machine Learning and photo-Z) computes fast and robust photometric redshift PDFs using Machine Learning algorithms. It uses a supervised technique with prediction trees and random forest through TPZ that can be used for a regression or a classification problem, or a unsupervised methods with self organizing maps and random atlas called SOMz. These machine learning implementations can be efficiently combined into a more powerful one resulting in robust and accurate probability distributions for photometric redshifts.

  4. Enhanced photo-fermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus with pigment content manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Xueqing; Guo, Liejin; Wu, Xiaomin; Yang, Honghui

    2012-08-01

    High content of pigment in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria hinders its photo-hydrogen production rate under intense light irradiation. In order to alleviate the light shielding effect and improve its photo-fermentative hydrogen production performance, pufQ, which is the regulatory gene of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus, was cloned and relocated in the genome under cbb3 promoter by homologous recombination. The UV-vis spectra indicated that the light absorption of the mutant between 300 and 900 nm was reduced. Photo-hydrogen production experiments by the recombinant and wild type strain were carried out in 350 mL photo bioreactors using acetic and butyric acid as substrate. The results showed that the hydrogen production of recombinant with reduced pigment was 27% higher than that of its parental strain, indicating that it is effective on enhancing photo-fermentative hydrogen production by manipulating pigment biosynthesis in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A fast photo-counter with multi-level buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hu; Zhou Peiling; Yao Kun; Guo Guangcan

    1992-01-01

    Digital Photon Correlator (DPC) is composed of a Photo-counter and a data processing unit. The performance of Photo-counter in data acquisition system has a direct influence on data processing. The Photo-counter with fast carry designed here has multi-level buffers. Photon pulses can be correctly and dynamically recorded by the Photo-counter and processed by a single chip computer

  6. Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmeyer, Wendy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The photos on Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #5 is another in an ongoing effort to catalog all artifacts held by the Museum. Photos will be used as part of the condition report for the artifact, and will become part of the collection record in the collections database for that artifact. The collections database will be publically searchable on the Museum website.

  7. 'Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmeyer, Wendy J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The photos on Bradbury Science Museum Collections Inventory Photos Disc #4 is another in an ongoing effort to catalog all artifacts held by the Museum. Photos will be used as part of the condition report for the artifact, and will become part of the collection record in the collections database for that artifact. The collections database will be publically searchable on the Museum website.

  8. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  9. Photo degradation of synthetic dyes under visible and solar light

    OpenAIRE

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    The photo degradation of synthetic dyes under visible and solar light as a method for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater was reviewed. The mechanisms of photo degradation are presented. The influence of catalysts, inorganic ions and other substances on photo degradation was discussed.

  10. Photo degradation of synthetic dyes under visible and solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Dušan Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo degradation of synthetic dyes under visible and solar light as a method for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater was reviewed. The mechanisms of photo degradation are presented. The influence of catalysts, inorganic ions and other substances on photo degradation was discussed.

  11. Safety and economic impacts of photo radar program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Unsafe speed is one of the major traffic safety challenges facing motorized nations. In 2003, unsafe speed contributed to 31 percent of all fatal collisions, causing a loss of 13,380 lives in the United States alone. The economic impact of speeding is tremendous. According to NHTSA, the cost of unsafe speed related collisions to the American society exceeds 40 billion US dollars per year. In response, automated photo radar speed enforcement programs have been implemented in many countries. This study assesses the economic impacts of a large-scale photo radar program in British Columbia. The knowledge generated from this study could inform policy makers and project managers in making informed decisions with regard to this highly effective and efficient, yet very controversial program. This study establishes speed and safety effects of photo radar programs by summarizing two physical impact investigations in British Columbia. It then conducts a cost-benefit analysis to assess the program's economic impacts. The cost-benefit analysis takes into account both societal and funding agency's perspectives. It includes a comprehensive account of major impacts. It uses willingness to pay principle to value human lives saved and injuries avoided. It incorporates an extended sensitivity analysis to quantify the robustness of base case conclusions. The study reveals an annual net benefit of approximately 114 million in year 2001 Canadian dollars to British Columbians. The study also finds a net annual saving of over 38 million Canadian dollars for the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) that funded the program. These results are robust under almost all alternative scenarios tested. The only circumstance under which the net benefit of the program turns negative is when the real safety effects were one standard deviation below the estimated values, which is possible but highly unlikely. Automated photo radar traffic safety enforcement can be an effective and efficient

  12. Degradation of ethylparaben under simulated sunlight using photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Benítez, Henry; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    Ethylparaben (EPB) has been classified by different research groups as a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical, implying that it can potentially interfere with the normal balance of the endocrine system of living beings, which with its presence in different effluents, including drinking water, generates the need to seek methods that allow its removal from different water bodies. Advanced oxidation processes have been employed widely to remove organic compounds from different matrices. In this way, Fenton technology (process based on the reaction between ferrous ions and hydrogen peroxide) has been able to degrade different substrates, but due to the Fe(2+) requirements to carry out the reaction optimally, combination of the conventional Fenton process with visible light radiation (photo-Fenton) is an alternative used in the treatment of pollution due to the presence of chemicals. In this way, the effectiveness of photo-Fenton on EPB degradation was assessed using a face-centered central composite experimental design that allowed assessment of the effects of Fe(2+) and H2O2 initial concentrations on process. In general, results indicated that after 180 min of reaction almost all EPB was eliminated, the dissolved organic carbon in solution was reduced and the sample biodegradability index was increased.

  13. Oxygen vacancy mediated enhanced photo-absorption from ZnO(0001) nanostructures fabricated by atom beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, Vanaraj; Joshi, Shalik R.; Mishra, Indrani; Varma, Shikha, E-mail: shikha@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D. K. [Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mishra, N. C. [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751004 (India)

    2016-08-07

    The nanoscale patterns created on the ZnO(0001) surfaces during atom beam irradiation have been investigated here for their photo absorption response. Preferential sputtering, during irradiation, promotes Zn-rich zones that serve as the nucleation centers for the spontaneous creation of nanostructures. Nanostructured surfaces with bigger (78 nm) nanodots, displaying hexagonal ordering and long ranged periodic behavior, show higher photo absorption and a ∼0.09 eV reduced bandgap. These nanostructures also demonstrate higher concentration of oxygen vacancies which are crucial for these results. The enhanced photo-response, as observed here, has been achieved in the absence of any dopant elements.

  14. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New Delhi 110 054, India; Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary and Organismal Biology Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064, India; Department of Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada; Department of Environmental Biology, ...

  15. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To answer the question, are preadult development time and larval feeding rate ... Keywords. life-history evolution; development time; larval feeding rate; competition; tradeoffs; Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No ..... financial assistance in the form of a senior research fellowship. N.A. thanks Jawaharlal ...

  16. Reduced larval feeding rate is a strong evolutionary correlate of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001) was an arte- fact of extreme directional selection for rapid development that led to changes in the correlational structure of develop- ment time, larval feeding rate, dry weight at eclosion, and preadult survivorship. A positive genetic correlation between larval feeding rate and development time in the control pop-.

  17. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  18. On the excess photon noise in single-beam measurements with photo-emissive and photo-conductive cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper the so-called excess photon noise is theoretically considered with regard to noise power measurements with a single, illumined photo-emissive or photo-conductive cell. Starting from a modification of Mandel's stochastic association of the emission of photo-electrons with wave

  19. Optical characterization of a-Si:H thin films grown by Hg-Photo-CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.; Karbal, S.; M'Gafad, N.; Benmakhlouf, A.; Chafik El Idrissi, M.; Aka, B.M.

    2006-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides some experimental data resulting from the optical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films grown by this deposition technique. Experiments have been performed on both as-deposited layers and thermal annealed ones. (author) [fr

  20. Search-and-replace editing for personal photo collections

    OpenAIRE

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.; Jozwiak, Martyna Anna; Durand, Fredo; Freeman, William T.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new system for editing personal photo collections, inspired by search-and-replace editing for text. In our system, local edits specified by the user in a single photo (e.g., using the “clone brush” tool) can be propagated automatically to other photos in the same collection, by matching the edited region across photos. To achieve this, we build on tools from computer vision for image matching. Our experimental results on real photo collections demonstrate the feasibility and pote...

  1. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zika-Virus-Related Photo Sharing on Pinterest and Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Blankenship, Elizabeth B; Goff, M Elizabeth; Mullican, Lindsay A; Chan, Kwun Cheung; Saroha, Nitin; Duke, Carmen H; Eremeeva, Marina E; Fu, King-Wa; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2017-12-01

    Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram. We retrieved and manually coded 616 Pinterest (key words: "zika" AND "virus") and 616 Instagram (hashtag: #zikavirus) photos. Among the manually coded samples, 47% (290/616) of Pinterest photos and 23% (144/616) of Instagram photos were relevant to Zika virus. Words were embedded in 57% (164/290) of relevant Pinterest photos and all 144 relevant Instagram photos. Among the photos with embedded words, photos in Spanish or Portuguese were more prevalent on Instagram (77/144, 53%) than on Pinterest (14/164, 9%). There were more Zika-virus-related photos on Instagram than on Pinterest pertinent to Zika virus prevention (59/144, 41%, versus 41/290, 14%; PInstagram are similar platforms for Zika virus prevention communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:656-659).

  3. Nanoparticle-assisted photo-Fenton reaction for photo-decomposition of humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Jhuma; Basumallick, Srijita

    2017-11-01

    We report here the synthesis of CuO-doped ZnO composite nanomaterials (NMs) by chemical route and demonstrated for the first time that these NMs are efficient catalysts for H2O2-assisted photo-decomposition (photo-Fenton type catalyst) of humic acid, a natural pollutant of surface water by solar irradiation. This has been explained by faster electron transfer to OH radical at the p-n hetero-junction of this composite catalyst. Application of this composite catalyst in decomposing humus substances of local pond water by solar energy has been demonstrated.

  4. Onboard Photo of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 onboard photo of an astronaut beside the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on the lunar surface. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Boeing Company, the LRV was first used on the Apollo 15 mission and increased the range of astronauts' mobility and productivity on the lunar surface. This lightweight electric car had battery power sufficient for about 55 miles. It weighed 462 pounds (77 pounds on the Moon) and could carry two suited astronauts, their gear, cameras, and several hundred pounds of bagged samples. The LRV's mobility was quite high. It could climb and descend slopes of about 25 degrees.

  5. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  6. Event-related potential signatures of perceived and imagined emotional and food real-life photos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Hellemans, Kim; Comeau, Amy; Heenan, Adam; Faulkner, Andrew; Abizaid, Alfonso; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-06-01

    Although food and affective pictures share similar emotional and motivational characteristics, the relationship between the neuronal responses to these stimuli is unclear. Particularly, it is not known whether perceiving and imagining food and affective stimuli elicit similar event-related potential (ERP) patterns. In this study, two ERP correlates, the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) for perceived and imagined emotional and food photographs were investigated. Thirteen healthy volunteers were exposed to a set of food photos, as well as unpleasant, pleasant, and neutral photos from the International Affective Picture System. In each trial, participants were first asked to view a photo (perception condition), and then to create a visual mental image of it and to rate its vividness (imagery condition). The results showed that during perception, brain regions corresponding to sensorimotor and parietal motivational (defensive and appetitive) systems were activated to different extents, producing a graded pattern of EPN and LPP responses specific to the photo content - more prominent for unpleasant than pleasant and food content. Also, an EPN signature occurred in both conditions for unpleasant content, suggesting that, compared to food or pleasant content, unpleasant content may be attended to more intensely during perception and may be represented more distinctly during imagery. Finally, compared to LLP activation during perception, as well as imagery and perception of all other content, LPP activation was significantly reduced during imagery of unpleasant photos, suggesting inhibition of unwanted memories. Results are framed within a neurocognitive working model of embodied emotions.

  7. Photo-cross-linking of amniotic membranes for limbal epithelial cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we developed photo-cross-linked amniotic membrane (AM) as a limbal stem cell niche. After ultraviolet (UV) irradiation for varying time periods, the biological tissues were studied by determinations of cross-linking structure, degradability, and nutrient permeation ability. Our results showed that the number of cross-links per unit mass of AM significantly increased with increasing illumination time from 5 to 50 min. However, the cross-link formation was inhibited by longer irradiation time (i.e., 150 min), probably due to the scission of tissue collagen chains through irradiation. The biological stability and matrix permeability of photo-cross-linked AM materials strongly depended on their cross-linking densities affected by the UV irradiation. In vitro biocompatibility studies including cell viability and pro-inflammatory gene expression analyses demonstrated that, irrespective of the irradiation time employed, the physically cross-linked biological tissues exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and similar interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA levels. The data clearly indicate that these AM matrices do not cause potential harm to the corneal epithelial cells. After the growth of limbal epithelial cells (LECs) on AM substrates, Western blot analyses were conducted to examine the expression of ABCG2. It was found that the ability of UV-irradiated AM to maintain the undifferentiated precursor cell phenotype was significantly enhanced with increasing extent of photo-cross-linking. In summary, the UV irradiation time may have a profound influence on the fabrication of photo-cross-linked AM matrices for LEC cultivation. - Highlights: • We report the development of photo-cross-linked AM as a limbal stem cell niche. • Cross-linked structure of tissue materials was controlled by UV irradiation time. • Biostability and matrix permeability of AM depended on cross-linking density. • All the studied photo-cross-linked AM showed good in vitro biocompatibility.

  8. Photo, thermal and chemical degradation of riboflavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Sheraz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riboflavin (RF, also known as vitamin B2, belongs to the class of water-soluble vitamins and is widely present in a variety of food products. It is sensitive to light and high temperature, and therefore, needs a consideration of these factors for its stability in food products and pharmaceutical preparations. A number of other factors have also been identified that affect the stability of RF. These factors include radiation source, its intensity and wavelength, pH, presence of oxygen, buffer concentration and ionic strength, solvent polarity and viscosity, and use of stabilizers and complexing agents. A detailed review of the literature in this field has been made and all those factors that affect the photo, thermal and chemical degradation of RF have been discussed. RF undergoes degradation through several mechanisms and an understanding of the mode of photo- and thermal degradation of RF may help in the stabilization of the vitamin. A general scheme for the photodegradation of RF is presented.

  9. Sulfamethoxazole abatement by photo-Fenton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Esplugas, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the abatement of 200 mg L -1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX) solution by means of photo-Fenton process. Biodegradability of the treated solutions was followed by the ratio biochemical oxygen demand at five days/chemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 /COD) and toxicity by Microtox[reg] and inhibition tests. Experiments with different initial concentration of H 2 O 2 were carried out. The initial amount of Fe 2+ and pH of the solution were set at 10 mg L -1 and 2.8 respectively. The temperature of the reactor was kept constant in all the experiments (25 ± 0.8 deg. C). Photo-Fenton process is thought to be a successful treatment step to improve the biodegradability of wastewater containing SMX. The complete antibiotic removal was achieved for a H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 . Biodegradability (BOD 5 /COD) rose from zero (SMX solution) to values higher than 0.3 (treated solutions). Toxicity and inhibition tests pointed out in the same direction: oxidized intermediates for initial H 2 O 2 dose over 300 mg L -1 showed no toxicity effects on pure bacteria and no inhibition on activated sludge activity

  10. Imidacloprid oxidation by photo-Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Cristina; Zaror, Claudio; Mansilla, Héctor D; Mondaca, María Angélica

    2008-02-11

    This paper presents experimental results on the imidacloprid removal from wastewater using homogeneous photo-Fenton reactions illuminated with black light lamps. Multivariate experimental design was used to identify the effect of initial Fe(II) and H(2)O(2) concentrations on process performance. The initial iron concentration played a key role in the process kinetics, whereas hydrogen peroxide concentration directly affected the extent of the oxidation process. Imidacloprid degradation proceeded via two distinctive kinetics regimes, an initial stage of rapid imidacloprid reduction, followed by a slower oxidation process until complete removal. Under optimal conditions, more than 50% imidacloprid degradation was observed after less than 1 min treatment, and TOC and COD removal up to 65% and 80%, respectively, were measured after all hydrogen peroxide was consumed. Raw imidacloprid samples presented significant acute toxicity to Daphnia magna and genotoxic effects on Bacillus subtilis sp. Such toxic effects remained detectable even after significant pesticide removal had been achieved, due to the presence of toxic by-products. Both acute toxicity and genotoxicity disappeared after considerable mineralization resulting in final low molecular weight by-products. Results obtained here confirm that design and operation of photo-Fenton processes should focus on toxicity removal rather than on specific target pollutants.

  11. The photo-induced phase and coherent phonon in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Shao Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of the photo-induced state and coherent phonon in the conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF) 2 PF 6 by measuring the ultrafast reflectivity change over a wide photon energy range from 0.069 eV (18 μm) to 2.1 eV (580 nm). The photo-induced spectra just after photo-excitation indicate that the photo-induced phase is similar to but clearly different from that in a thermally induced metal phase though they are the same for general photo-induced phase transition. The temporal profiles at each probe photon energy are accompanied by extraordinarily large amplitude oscillation originating from coherent phonon generation. The period of the coherent phonon depends discretely on the probe photon energy, while the generation efficiency of both the photo-induced phase and coherent photon reaches a maximum when the peak top of a charge transfer band is excited. These results are probably attributable to the strong electron-vibration coupling in this complex

  12. The photo-induced phase and coherent phonon in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2008-06-01

    We have investigated the nature of the photo-induced state and coherent phonon in the conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF)2PF6 by measuring the ultrafast reflectivity change over a wide photon energy range from 0.069 eV (18 µm) to 2.1 eV (580 nm). The photo-induced spectra just after photo-excitation indicate that the photo-induced phase is similar to but clearly different from that in a thermally induced metal phase though they are the same for general photo-induced phase transition. The temporal profiles at each probe photon energy are accompanied by extraordinarily large amplitude oscillation originating from coherent phonon generation. The period of the coherent phonon depends discretely on the probe photon energy, while the generation efficiency of both the photo-induced phase and coherent photon reaches a maximum when the peak top of a charge transfer band is excited. These results are probably attributable to the strong electron-vibration coupling in this complex.

  13. Coherent Generation of Photo-Thermo-Acoustic Wave from Graphene Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yichao; Tian, He; Wu, Yanling; Zhu, Leilei; Tao, Luqi; Zhang, Wei; Shu, Yi; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Wei, Zhiyi; Lu, Xinghua; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhao, Jimin

    Many remarkable properties of graphene are derived from its large energy window for Dirac-like electronic states and have been explored for applications in electronics and photonics. In addition, strong electron-phonon interaction in graphene has led to efficient photo-thermo energy conversions, which has been harnessed for energy applications. By combining the wavelength independent absorption property and the efficient photo-thermo energy conversion, here we report a new type of applications in sound wave generation underlined by a photo-thermo-acoustic energy conversion mechanism. Most significantly, by utilizing ultrafast optical pulses, we demonstrate the ability to control the phase of sound waves generated by the photo-thermal-acoustic process. Our finding paves the way for new types of applications for graphene, such as remote non-contact speakers, optical-switching acoustic devices, etc. National Basic Research Program of China MOST (2012CB821402), External Cooperation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (GJHZ1403), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11274372).

  14. The ecological connectivity of whale shark aggregations in the Indian Ocean: a photo-identification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeuwig, Jessica; Rowat, David; Pierce, Simon; Davies, Tim; Fisher, Rebecca; Meekan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and modelling studies suggest that seasonal aggregations of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at coastal sites in the tropics may be linked by migration. Here, we used photo-identification (photo-ID) data collected by both citizen scientists and researchers to assess the connectedness of five whale shark aggregation sites across the entire Indian Ocean at timescales of up to a decade. We used the semi-automated program I3S (Individual Interactive Identification System) to compare photographs of the unique natural marking patterns of individual whale sharks collected from aggregations at Mozambique, the Seychelles, the Maldives, Christmas Island (Australia) and Ningaloo Reef (Australia). From a total of 6519 photos, we found no evidence of connectivity of whale shark aggregations at ocean-basin scales within the time frame of the study and evidence for only limited connectivity at regional (hundreds to thousands of kilometres) scales. A male whale shark photographed in January 2010 at Mozambique was resighted eight months later in the Seychelles and was the only one of 1724 individuals in the database to be photographed at more than one site. On average, 35% of individuals were resighted at the same site in more than one year. A Monte Carlo simulation study showed that the power of this photo-ID approach to document patterns of emigration and immigration was strongly dependent on both the number of individuals identified in aggregations and the size of resident populations. PMID:28018629

  15. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    This project is part of the Photo Audiovisual Management System (PAMS). The project was initially identified in 1989 and has since been has been worked on under various names such as Image Retrieval and Viewing System, Photo Image Retrieval Subsystem and Image Processing and Compression System. This document builds upon the information collected and the analysis performed in the earlier phases of this project. The PAMS Photo Imaging subsystem will provide the means of capturing low resolution digital images from Photography`s negative files and associating the digital images with a record in the PAMS photo database. The digital images and key photo identification information will be accessible to HAN users to assist in locating and identifying specific photographs. After identifying desired photographs, users may request photo prints or high resolution digital images directly from Photography. The digital images captured by this project are for identification purposes only and are not intended to be of sufficient quality for subsequent use.

  16. Sulphonated hypocrellin B sensitized photo damage to ascetic hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiachang; Wang Tiandun; Pang Suzhen; An Jingyi; Jiang Lijing

    1994-01-01

    The cellular uptake of sulphonated hypocrellin (S-HB), as well as photo damage on cellular viability, lipid peroxidation and intrinsic fluorescence quenching of membrane protein was studied. It was found that S-HB suitable dissolved in aqueous solution, its cellular uptake is slower than HB. The photo damage on cellular viability both photo sensitizers was close to each other, however the photo sensitizers were different in physical and chemical properties. The HB photo damage target of cells was membrane, but the sulphonated HB photo damage target of cells may be part of organelles, besides the membrane. the experiments showed the sulphonated HB would be suggested as a potential advantage for photodynamic therapy of tumor in clinical application

  17. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  18. Laser photo-cathode RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2006-01-01

    High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advanced research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emittance was about 3 mm mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft X-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called 'water window', by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emittance electron beams. (author)

  19. Towards Photo Watercolorization with Artistic Verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaoyi; Wang, Bin; Fei, Yun; Qian, Kanglai; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Jiating; Yong, Jun-Hai

    2014-10-01

    We present a novel artistic-verisimilitude driven system for watercolor rendering of images and photos. Our system achieves realistic simulation of a set of important characteristics of watercolor paintings that have not been well implemented before. Specifically, we designed several image filters to achieve: 1) watercolor-specified color transferring; 2) saliency-based level-of-detail drawing; 3) hand tremor effect due to human neural noise; and 4) an artistically controlled wet-in-wet effect in the border regions of different wet pigments. A user study indicates that our method can produce watercolor results of artistic verisimilitude better than previous filter-based or physical-based methods. Furthermore, our algorithm is efficient and can easily be parallelized, making it suitable for interactive image watercolorization.

  20. Hospital workers' perceptions of waste: a qualitative study involving photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Sarah L; Kleppel, Reva; Lindenauer, Peter K; Rothberg, Michael B

    2013-10-01

    To elicit sources of waste as viewed by hospital workers. Qualitative study using photo-elicitation, an ethnographic technique for prompting in-depth discussion. U.S. academic tertiary care hospital. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrative support personnel, administrators and respiratory therapists. A purposive sample of personnel at an academic tertiary care hospital was invited to take up to 10 photos of waste. Participants discussed their selections using photos as prompts during in-depth interviews. Transcripts were analysed in an iterative process using grounded theory; open and axial coding was performed, followed by selective and thematic coding to develop major themes and subthemes. Twenty-one participants (nine women, average number of years in field=19.3) took 159 photos. Major themes included types of waste and recommendations to reduce waste. Types of waste comprised four major categories: Time, Materials, Energy and Talent. Participants emphasised time wastage (50% of photos) over other types of waste such as excess utilisation (2.5%). Energy and Talent were novel categories of waste. Recommendations to reduce waste included interventions at the micro-level (eg, individual/ward), meso-level (eg, institution) and macro-level (eg, payor/public policy). The waste hospital workers identified differed from previously described waste both in the types of waste described and the emphasis placed on wasted time. The findings of this study represent a possible need for education of hospital workers about known types of waste, an opportunity to assess the impact of novel types of waste described and an opportunity to intervene to reduce the waste identified.

  1. Overview of selective photo-reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    Selective reaction process especially isotope separation is a key technology for the development of the technologies related to the nuclear energy. However only a few species are separated on a production scale using the conventional processes such as thermal diffusion, chemical exchange reaction and distillation for lighter isotopes, and gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion for uranium. As these methods are based on statistical thermodynamics and have low enrichment factors, they need repetitive operations of separation with many separating units combined together. Electro-magnetic separation method known as the one with high separation factor can be applied to most of the elements, but extremely low production rate is realized, which is uneconomical. From the above point of view, much attention has been pain to the laser process. This method can be applied to either gas, liquid or solid phase, and high separation factors are basically realized only in gaseous phase. Since the beginning of the studies on isotope separation in early 1970s, many ideas have been proposed for the selective photo-reaction process such as photoionization, multiphoton dissociation and state selective chemical reaction. As a result of experimental and theoretical efforts, large scale production of some isotopes have been intended. Production of deuterium by infrared multi-photodissociation method was studied aiming at the replacement of the conventional dual temperature exchange process, and lots of experiments have been achieved intensively for the uranium enrichment. A stepwise selective photoionization method has also been studied for the isotopic separation of many elements, especially uranium enrichment. To implement the laser processes on a large scale production system, advanced performances are required not only for the tunable laser systems but also for many related technologies such as atomic/molecular source, photo-reactor and extractor of products. (author)

  2. Photo Aesthetics Ranking Network with Attributes and Content Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Shu; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Mech, Radomir; Fowlkes, Charless

    2016-01-01

    Real-world applications could benefit from the ability to automatically generate a fine-grained ranking of photo aesthetics. However, previous methods for image aesthetics analysis have primarily focused on the coarse, binary categorization of images into high- or low-aesthetic categories. In this work, we propose to learn a deep convolutional neural network to rank photo aesthetics in which the relative ranking of photo aesthetics are directly modeled in the loss function. Our model incorpor...

  3. PhotoRApToR: PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    PhotoRApToR (PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts) solves regression and classification problems and is specialized for photo-z estimation. PhotoRApToR offers data table manipulation capabilities and 2D and 3D graphics tools for data visualization; it also provides a statistical report for both classification and regression experiments. The code is written in Java; the machine learning model is in C++ to increase the core execution speed.

  4. Enhancement of photo-thermal conversion using gold nanofluids with different particle sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Meijie; He, Yurong; Zhu, Jiaqi; Kim, Dong Rip

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Au NPs with different sizes were synthesized by a seed mediated method. • Au NPs were added to improve the photo-thermal conversion efficiency. • Properties of two collector models were discussed and compared. • The size effects of Au NPs on photo-thermal conversion were discussed. - Abstract: This work describes an experimental study of the particle size dependence of gold nanofluids during photo-thermal conversion in a direct absorption solar collector (DASC). Au nanoparticles (NPs) with different sizes were synthesized using a seed mediated method. Au NPs play a significant role in enhancing the solar light absorption with respect to a pure base fluid at a very low concentration due to the localized surface plasmon resonance effect. Experimental results of the photo-thermal conversion showed that the photo-thermal conversion efficiency of Au nanofluids obtained an average enhancement of 19.9% and 21.3% for a cube shaped DASC and a flat shaped DASC, respectively, compared with H 2 O at a relatively low mass fraction (∼0.000008% weight). Reducing the Au NP size led to the enhancement of the photo-thermal conversion efficiency under the present experimental conditions, which could be an effective way for the modification of optical properties and thermodynamic characteristics. However, the size of Au NPs did not significantly influence the efficiency for the cube shaped DASC. The cube shaped DASC model usually had the higher efficiency than the flat DASC model using the same working fluids since the heat loss percentage of the cube shaped DASC was lower.

  5. A graphic user interface for efficient 3D photo-reconstruction based on free software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; James, Michael; Gómez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, different studies have stressed the applicability of 3D photo-reconstruction based on Structure from Motion algorithms in a wide range of geoscience applications. For the purpose of image photo-reconstruction, a number of commercial and freely available software packages have been developed (e.g. Agisoft Photoscan, VisualSFM). The workflow involves typically different stages such as image matching, sparse and dense photo-reconstruction, point cloud filtering and georeferencing. For approaches using open and free software, each of these stages usually require different applications. In this communication, we present an easy-to-use graphic user interface (GUI) developed in Matlab® code as a tool for efficient 3D photo-reconstruction making use of powerful existing software: VisualSFM (Wu, 2015) for photo-reconstruction and CloudCompare (Girardeau-Montaut, 2015) for point cloud processing. The GUI performs as a manager of configurations and algorithms, taking advantage of the command line modes of existing software, which allows an intuitive and automated processing workflow for the geoscience user. The GUI includes several additional features: a) a routine for significantly reducing the duration of the image matching operation, normally the most time consuming stage; b) graphical outputs for understanding the overall performance of the algorithm (e.g. camera connectivity, point cloud density); c) a number of useful options typically performed before and after the photo-reconstruction stage (e.g. removal of blurry images, image renaming, vegetation filtering); d) a manager of batch processing for the automated reconstruction of different image datasets. In this study we explore the advantages of this new tool by testing its performance using imagery collected in several soil erosion applications. References Girardeau-Montaut, D. 2015. CloudCompare documentation accessed at http://cloudcompare.org/ Wu, C. 2015. VisualSFM documentation access at http://ccwu.me/vsfm/doc.html#.

  6. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO2 photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W.; Paraguay D, F.; Alonso N, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO 2 as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO 2 doped with Zn 2+ ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn 2+ doped TiO 2 is more active that un-doped TiO 2 catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10 -3 min -1 . For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  7. Photo catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene using nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst doped with Zn ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynoso S, E. A.; Perez S, S.; Reyes C, A. P.; Castro R, C. L.; Felix N, R. M.; Lin H, S. W. [Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana, Centro de Graduados e Investigacion, Apdo. Postal 1166, 22000 Tijuana, Baja California (Mexico); Paraguay D, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 311109, Chihuahua (Mexico); Alonso N, G. [UNAM, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km 107, Apdo. Postal 356, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    Photo catalysis is a method widely used in the degradation of organic pollutants of the environment. The development of new materials is very important to improve the photo catalytic properties and to find new applications for TiO{sub 2} as a photo catalyst. In this article we reported the synthesis of a photo catalyst based on TiO{sub 2} doped with Zn{sup 2+} ions highly efficient in the degradation of nitrobenzene. The results of photo catalytic activity experiments showed that the Zn{sup 2+} doped TiO{sub 2} is more active that un-doped TiO{sub 2} catalyst with an efficiency of 99% for the nitrobenzene degradation at 120 min with an apparent rate constant of 35 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. For the characterization of photo catalyst X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used. (Author)

  8. Proposal for multi-anode photo multiplier tubes as photo detectors for the LHCb RICH

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F; Katvars, S; Wotton, S; Albrecht, E; Bernet, R; Eisenhardt, S; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Cuneo, S; Petrolini, A; Sannino, M; Easo, S; Halley, A; Barber, G; Duane, A; Price, D; Simmons, B; Websdale, D; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Paganoni, M; Bibby, J; Charles, M; Harnew, N; Libby, J; Rademacker, J; Smale, N; Topp-Jorgensen, S; Wilkinson, G; Baker, J; Densham, C; French, M

    2001-01-01

    We propose to use the Multianode Photo Multiplier Tubes (MAPMT) as the photosensitive device for the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector in the LHCb experiment. We demonstrate that MAPMT meet the specifications which are required to perform excellent particle identification of charged tracks over the full acceptance. A baseline design is presented. At the end of 1999 the MAPMT has been selected as backup choice for the photodetectors. We present the implication of this decision on the baseline design.

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  11. Tertiary treatment of pulp mill wastewater by solar photo-Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Marco S., E-mail: mlucas@utad.pt [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Peres, Jose A.; Amor, Carlos [Centro de Quimica de Vila Real, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Apartado 1013, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Prieto-Rodriguez, Lucia; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT), Carretera de Senes, Km 4, 04200, Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We firstly report a real pulp mill wastewater treatment by solar photo-Fenton in a CPC reactor. Fenton reagent experiments were tested firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solar photo-Fenton presents excellent ability to treat the pulp mill wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental conditions were optimised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradability and toxicity tests (respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio) were performed during the wastewater treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A way to reduce the economic and environmental impact was evaluated. - Abstract: This work reports on pulp mill wastewater (PMW) tertiary treatment by Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and solar photo-Fenton (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) processes in a pilot plant based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs). Solar photo-Fenton reaction is much more efficient than the respective dark reaction under identical experimental conditions. It leads to DOC mineralisation, COD and total polyphenols (TP) removal higher than 90%. The solar photo-Fenton experiment with 5 mg Fe L{sup -1} reaches 90% of DOC mineralisation with 31 kJ L{sup -1} of UV energy and 50 mM of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The initial non-biodegradability of PMW, as shown by respirometry assays and BOD{sub 5}/COD ratio, can be changed after a solar photo-Fenton treatment. Experiments with 20 and 50 mg Fe L{sup -1} revealed that solar photo-Fenton can reach the same DOC degradation (90%), however, consuming less H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and time. Diluting the initial organic load to 50% also diminishes the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the necessary reaction time to achieve high DOC removals. Accordingly, solar photo-Fenton can be considered an alternative or complementary process to improve the performance of a biologic treatment and, subsequently, achieve legal limits on discharge into natural waters.

  12. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  13. Sensitivity of Miniaturized Photo-elastic Transducer for Small Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur-Eddine KHELIFA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of a force sensor based on photo-elastic effect in a monolithic Nd- YAG laser depends strongly on the geometrical shape and dimensions of the laser medium. The theoretical predictions of sensitivity are in good agreement with first results obtained with a plano- concave cylindrical crystal of (4´4 mm and some values reported by other groups. However, for small size of the laser sensor, the developed model predicts sensitivity, about 30 % higher than the values given by available experiments. In this paper, we present experimental results obtained with a force sensor using a miniaturized monolithic cylindrical Nd-YAG laser of dimensions (2´3 mm with suitable optical coatings on its plane end faces. The new result of measurement concerning the sensitivity has allowed us to refine the theoretical model to treat photo-elastic force sensors with small dimensions.

  14. Design of "Eye Closure" system for the stealth of photo-electric equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Hua, W. S.; Li, G.

    2012-10-01

    Based on the optical activity of liquid crystal, a new approach for the stealth of "cat's eye" targets is proposed in this paper. It imitates the physiological close reaction of human eyes when strong light irradiates eyes. With this approach, the "cat's eye" effect will vanish, which is applied in restricting photo-electric equipments being detected and located by active laser detection system. The structure and working principle of the design are presented. The drive circuit is given to control the optical switch automatically. Feasibility of this design is demonstrated by experimental method. The measured data illustrate that the proposed approach is effective to eliminate the "cat's eye" effect, so as to enhancing the viability of photo-electric equipments on the battlefield.

  15. Degradation of commercial azo dye reactive Black B in photo/ferrioxalate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.-H.; Tsai, S.-T.; Huang, Y.-F.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    The photolysis and photo-catalysis of ferrioxalate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide with UV irradiation (UV/ferrioxalate/H 2 O 2 process) for treating the commercial azo dye, reactive Black B (RBB), is examined. An effort is made to decolorize textile effluents at near neutral pH for suitable discharge of waste water. pH value, light source, type of initial catalyst (Fe 3+ or Fe 2+ ) and concentration of oxalic acid (Ox) strongly affected the RBB removal efficiency. The degradation rate of RBB increased as pH or the wavelength of light declined. The optimal molar ratio of oxalic acid to Fe(III) is three, and complete color removal is achieved at pH 5 in 2 h of the reaction. Applying oxalate in such a photo process increases both the RBB removal efficiency and the COD removal from 68% and 21% to 99.8% and 71%, respectively

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  18. A novel categorisation system to organise a large photo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The white shark Carcharodon carcharias was one of the first elasmobranch species where photo identification was used to identify unique individuals. In this study, we propose guidelines that improve the current photo identification technique for white sharks by presenting a novel categorisation system. Using this method, a ...

  19. Photo- and Electro-Disintegration of Nuclei and Exchange Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco, B.

    1970-01-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Connection between magnetic dipole photo- and electro-disintegration; 3. The nuclear tensors in the presence of exchange currents; 4. Effect of exchange currents on the relation between photo- and electro-disintegration; 5. Discussion and conclusions. (author)

  20. A library of georeferenced photos from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangming; Dorovskoy, Pavel; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Bridge, Eli

    2011-12-01

    A picture is worth a thousand of words, and every day hundreds of scientists, students, and environmentally aware citizens are taking field photos to document their observations of rocks, glaciers, soils, forests, wetlands, croplands, rangelands, livestock, and birds and mammals, as well as important events such as droughts, floods, wildfires, insect emergences, and infectious disease outbreaks. Where are those field photos stored? Can they be shared in a timely fashion to support education, research, and the leisure activities of citizens across the world? What are the financial and intellectual costs if those field photos are lost or not shared? Recently, researchers at the University of Oklahoma developed and released the Global Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library (hereinafter referred to as the Field Photo Library; http://www.eomf.ou.edu/photos/), a Web-based data portal designed for researchers and educators who wish to archive and share field photos from across the world, each tagged with exact positioning data (Figure 1). The data portal has a simple user interface that allows people to upload, query, and download georeferenced field photos in the library.

  1. Photo-orientation at liquid crystal–polymer interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reversible photo-induced changes can be attributed to the presence of bistable atomic configurations localised in the solid. The concept of bistable configurations [4] was first introduced in connection with the specific heat anomaly observed in glasses at low temper- atures. The extension of this model to photo-induced ...

  2. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational…

  3. Photo-oxidation of proteins and its role in cataractogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Truscott, R J

    2001-01-01

    Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for photo-oxidation. Two major types of processes can occur with proteins. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from the absorption of UV radiation by the p...

  4. A high-quality fuels database of photos and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Paige C. Eagle; Diana L. Olson

    2010-01-01

    Photo series and their associated data provide a quick and easy way for managers to quantify and describe fuel and vegetation properties, such as loading of dead and down woody material, tree density, or height of understory vegetation. This information is critical for making fuel management decisions and for predicting fire behavior and fire effects. The Digital Photo...

  5. Actively Engaging Middle Level Students with Photo Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar-Brown, Rajni

    2011-01-01

    The author describes the implementation of a photo journal project and explains how it positively impacted diverse young adolescents, specifically three reluctant learners. In addition to increasing motivation and engagement in learning, the photo journal project built community in the classroom. This article shares practical ideas for…

  6. Japanese and Korean Kindergartners' Perspectives of Play Using Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-­Taylor, Satomi; Ro, Yeonsun; Han, Jihee; Ito, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Japanese and Korean kindergarteners' perspectives by asking them to photograph play and explain why their photos represent play (photo elicitation interviews). The participants consisted of 50 kindergarteners on Japan's main island and 50 kindergarteners in South Korea. Japanese and Korean kindergartners…

  7. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO 3 as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO 3 thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W 5+ ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO 3 could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, σ increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO 3 after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, σ photo ) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S photo )) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO 3 thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, σ photo and the absolute value of S photo increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W 5+ state) to the conduction band of WO 3 . Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO 3 thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  8. Degradation of 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC Using Fenton, UV Light Irradiation and Photo-Fenton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chunmei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most commonly employed UV-filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC has been shown to accumulate in the environment and have endocrine disrupting activity. 4-MBC cannot be degraded completely by common methods in wastewater treatment plants. To prevent the environmental problems caused by 4-MBC from being more serious, finding effective method to degrade 4-MBC is essential. In this research, Fenton reaction and photo-Fenton was employed to degrade the 4-MBC. Orthogonal experimental design was employed to evaluate the influence of factors (Fe2+, H2O2, pH and reaction time on the degradation of 4-MBC. The degradation rate reached to 66.01% in Fenton process and 96.71% in photo-Fenton process. UV light irradiation was also employed to degrade 4-MBC. After being irradiated by mercury lamp (300W 90 min, the concentration of the 4-MBC reduced 85.4%, but most of them translated to the isomeride. Compared with the Fenton, photo-Fenton and UV light irradiation processes, we deduces that photo-Fenton can get the better degradation efficiency of 4-MBC, and, Fenton reagents and light irradiation are synergistic.

  9. Recent progress in photo-injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1996-10-01

    In photoinjector electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense RF fields in a resonant cavity. Photoinjectors are very versatile tools. Normally we think of them in terms of the production of high electron density in 6-D phase space, for reasons such as injection to laser accelerators, generation of x-rays by Compton scattering and short wavelength FELs. Another example for the use of photo-injectors is the production of a high charge in a short time, for wake- field acceleration, two-beam accelerators and high-power, long-wavelength FELs. There are other potential uses, such as the generation of polarized electrons, compact accelerators for industrial applications and more. Photoinjectors are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. The purpose of this work is to present some trend setting recent results that have been obtained in some of these laboratories. In particular the subjects of high density in 6-D phase space, new diagnostic tools, photocathode advances and high-charge production will be discussed

  10. RTOD-photo operations and procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-15

    This document presents a survey of the EG&G NRDS photographic operation in four major sections and includes the work scope, procedures, some technical backgrounding and operational information. Two sections, Instrumentation and Photo Systems, include the areas of direct responsibilities while a section on Film Handling and Coordination and a section covering special information, pertinent to the project, are included to adequately complete this survey. The photographic group is housed in two trailers within the control point area at NRDS and from these trailers provides photographic support at a number of locations. Four camera bunkers, three camera towers, a kinescope system, a microfilm system and remote camera controls comprise the facilities that the group maintains and operates outside these trailers. The work load includes major items such as: motion picture coverage of the nuclear rocket engine tests, data record microfilming, kinescope recording, and documentary coverage of the company related operational responsibilities. In addition, a number of minor photographic services are extended, when required. The nature of the work, because of its importance within the research and development efforts at NRDS, requires optimum quality and efficiency throughout. The many procedures outlined here have been designed to satisfy these requirements.

  11. Golden Jubilee photos: Precision is their motto

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, CERN embarked on the enormous Large Electron-Positron Collider construction project. The excavation of the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel was a huge technical challenge. The tunnel-boring machines excavated the tunnel in 3.3 km octants and had to be operated with extraordinary precision to ensure that they reached their destination - the bottom of the next vertical shaft - precisely on target. The tunnel was excavated before high-performance instruments were developed for the construction of the Channel Tunnel. As no firms were willing to perform the surveying work, CERN's own surveyors, with experience from the SPS behind them, took up the challenge. At the surface, the surveyors established the world's most accurate geodetic network, performing measurements to an accuracy of 10-7, or 1mm per 10 km, using the Terrameter (see photo). The excavation of the tunnel was completed in 1988 and the finished tunnel's trajectory was found to diverge from the theoretical value specified by the...

  12. Exposing photo manipulation using geometry and shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiangbin; Song, Xuemei; Ren, Jinchang; Zhu, Tingge

    2014-04-01

    It is increasingly easier to manipulate digital images by the sophisticated photo editing software. Often visual inspection cannot definitively distinguish manipulation from authentic images. This paper introduces a forensic technique that focuses on geometric and shadow color inconsistencies which arise when fake objects with shadows are inserted into an image or an object with its shadow in the image are modified. This paper analyzes three underlying geometric relations and shadow color characteristic constrains that occur in image scene. In particular, (i) explore the property of vanishing point in linear perspective project, and evaluate the geometric consistent level of the image based on the uncertain degree of vanishing point;(ii) analyze the relation between illuminated object and its cast shadow which are modeled by the planar homology and use this constrain to estimate the image's geometric consistent level;(iii) locate tempered region by measure the K-L divergence between shadow pairs. Visually plausible forgery images demonstrate the performance of our proposed method.

  13. Golden Jubilee Photos: World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the Internet was already a valuable tool to scientists, allowing them to exchange e-mails and to access powerful computers remotely. A more simple means of sharing information was needed, however, and CERN, with its long tradition of informatics and networking, was the ideal place to find it. Moreover, hundreds of scientists from all over the world were starting to work together on preparations for the experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee (see photo), a young scientist working at CERN, drafted a proposal for an information-management system combining the internet, personal computers and computer-aided document consultation, known as hypertext. In 1990 he was joined by Robert Cailliau and the weaving of the World Wide Web began in earnest, even though only two CERN computers were allocated to the task at the time. The Web subsequently underwent a steady expansion to include the world's main particle physics institutes. The Web was not the...

  14. Retargeting of digital photos and documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucha, V.; Safonov, I.; Rychagov, M.; Hong, J. K.; Kim, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Present paper generally relates to content-aware image resizing and image inscribing into particular predetermined areas. The problem consists in transformation of the image to a new size with or without modification of aspect ratio in a manner that preserves the recognizability and proportions of the important features of the image. Most close solutions presented in prior art cover along with standard image linear scaling, including down-sampling and up-sampling, image cropping, image retargeting, seam carving and some special image manipulations which similar to some kind of image retouching. Present approach provides a method for digital image retargeting by means of erasing or addition of less significant image pixels. The defined above retargeting approach can be easily used for image shrinking easily. However, for image enlargement there are some limitations as a stretching artifact. History map with relaxation is introduced to avoid such drawback and overcome some known limits of retargeting. In proposed approach means for important objects preservation are taken into account. It allows significant improvement of resulting quality of retargeting. Retargeting applications for different devices such as display, copier, facsimile and photo-printer are described as well.

  15. Room-temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics with strongly coupled Dicke states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Jonathan D.; Salvadori, Enrico; Sathian, Juna; Alford, Neil McN.; Kay, Christopher W. M.

    2017-09-01

    The strong coupling regime is essential for efficient transfer of excitations between states in different quantum systems on timescales shorter than their lifetimes. The coupling of single spins to microwave photons is very weak but can be enhanced by increasing the local density of states by reducing the magnetic mode volume of the cavity. In practice, it is difficult to achieve both small cavity mode volume and low cavity decay rate, so superconducting metals are often employed at cryogenic temperatures. For an ensembles of N spins, the spin-photon coupling can be enhanced by √{N } through collective spin excitations known as Dicke states. For sufficiently large N the collective spin-photon coupling can exceed both the spin decoherence and cavity decay rates, making the strong-coupling regime accessible. Here we demonstrate strong coupling and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a solid-state system at room-temperature. We generate an inverted spin-ensemble with N 1015 by photo-exciting pentacene molecules into spin-triplet states with spin dephasing time T2* 3 μs. When coupled to a 1.45 GHz TE01δ mode supported by a high Purcell factor strontium titanate dielectric cavity (Vm 0.25 cm3, Q 8,500), we observe Rabi oscillations in the microwave emission from collective Dicke states and a 1.8 MHz normal-mode splitting of the resultant collective spin-photon polariton. We also observe a cavity protection effect at the onset of the strong-coupling regime which decreases the polariton decay rate as the collective coupling increases.

  16. The effect of complexation with platinum in polyfluorene derivatives: A photo- and electro-luminescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assaka, Andressa M.; Hu Bin; Mays, Jimmy; Iamazaki, Eduardo T.; Atvars, Teresa D.Z.; Akcelrud, Leni

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a polymeric structure containing fluorene units statistically linked to 3-cyclohexyl-thiophene and bipyridine PFOTBipy-poly[(4-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)(9,9-dihexyl-fluoren-2,7-diyl) -co-(bipyridine-5.5'-diyl)(9,9-dihexyl-fluoren-2,7-diyl)], is reported. The complexation with platinum was possible through the bipyridil units present in 10%, 50% and 100% content. The structure has a fluorenyl moiety between each bipyridine and thiophene groups resulting in a stable and efficient light-emitting polymeric material combining the well known emissive properties of fluorene, the charge mobility generated by thiophene and the electron-transfer properties of a metal complex as well. All the polymers were photo and electroluminescent materials, and showed phosphorescence at low temperatures. Photoluminescence properties were studied by steady state and time resolved spectroscopy and showed changes of both emission peak and relative intensity of the emission bands depending on the relative amount of the platinum complex. The electroluminescence followed the trends found for photoluminescence. The blue emission of the copolymer without platinum is due to the fluorenyl segments and for higher complex contents the emission is characteristic of the aggregates involving the bipyridinyl moieties. Therefore, emission color can be tuned by the complex content. The turn-on voltage was strongly reduced from 22 to 8 V for the 100% complexed copolymer, as compared to the device made with the non complexed one, but the luminance decreased, due to quenching or trapping effects. - Research Highlights: →Statistic copolymer containing fluorine, thiophene and bipyridine. →Complexation of platinum with platinum with bipyridine. →Electroluminescence and electrophosphorescence at low temperatures. →Emission color can be tuned by the complex content.

  17. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  18. An instant photo-excited electrons relaxation on the photo-degradation properties of TiO 2-x films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available to poor photocatalytic degradation performance while shorter or ever collapsing photo-excited electron improves the photocatalytic degradation performance. These photo-degradation measurements were observed with UV light. The 20% Mn doped TiO(sub2...

  19. Application of photo-magnetic therapy for treatment of skin radiation damage in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova-Pushkar, L.Yi.; Gertman, V.Z.; Byilogurova, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Local irradiation of rat skin causes the development of radiation ulcers in 60-70 % of the animals with the destruction of the structure in all layers of the skin. Spontaneous healing of radiation ulcer lasts at least two months with no complete skin recovery. Photo-magnetic therapy applied immediately after irradiation resulted in two-fold-decrease of frequency of radiation ulcer incidence, accelerated the complete healing for 3 weeks and to ameliorated their progress. Histological examination showed that the photo-magnetic therapy reduced the extent of damage to all layers of the skin with restoration of epidermis and dermis structure and reduced the degree of inflammatory and destructive processes in the dermis. Photo-magnetic therapy produces a significant positive treatment effect by significantly reducing the inflammatory and destructive processes in all layers of the skin, stimulates the blood flow recovery in damaged tissue both with fibroblast proliferation and synthesis activation of native collagen fibers and other components of connective tissue, so almost a month accelerates ulcer heating radiation

  20. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Photos of Prototype PMT Test Setup

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Entrance to the lab. Photo 2 - A shot of the center of the lab. Photo 3 - The back of the lab. The Dark Box: Photo 4 - A view of the outside of the Dark Box along with its dry nitrogen system. Photo 5 - A view of the inside of the Dark Box. Photo 6 - The LED holder, beam splitter (removed in this shot), and a pulsing circuit. Photo 7 - The PMT holder. Photo 8 - A possible design for a Stepper Motor controlled filter wheel. Photo 9 - Polishing area for the optical fibers. R&D Work on Stepper Motor/Motion Control: Photo 10 - The complete prototype of the Stepper Motor setup. Photo 11 - The prototype of the Main Stepper Motor Driver Board. Photo 12 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor Power Amplifer. Photo 13 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor LabPC + Interface Board.

  1. MD-11 PCA - Research flight team photo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    On Aug. 30, 1995, a the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 transport aircraft landed equipped with a computer-assisted engine control system that has the potential to increase flight safety. In landings at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on August 29 and 30, the aircraft demonstrated software used in the aircraft's flight control computer that essentially landed the MD-11 without a need for the pilot to manipulate the flight controls significantly. In partnership with McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), with Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell helping to design the software, NASA developed this propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system following a series of incidents in which hydraulic failures resulted in the loss of flight controls. This new system enables a pilot to operate and land the aircraft safely when its normal, hydraulically-activated control surfaces are disabled. This August 29, 1995, photo shows the MD-11 team. Back row, left to right: Tim Dingen, MDA pilot; John Miller, MD-11 Chief pilot (MDA); Wayne Anselmo, MD-11 Flight Test Engineer (MDA); Gordon Fullerton, PCA Project pilot; Bill Burcham, PCA Chief Engineer; Rudey Duran, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); John Feather, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA); Daryl Townsend, Crew Chief; Henry Hernandez, aircraft mechanic; Bob Baron, PCA Project Manager; Don Hermann, aircraft mechanic; Jerry Cousins, aircraft mechanic; Eric Petersen, PCA Manager (Honeywell); Trindel Maine, PCA Data Engineer; Jeff Kahler, PCA Software Engineer (Honeywell); Steve Goldthorpe, PCA Controls Engineer (MDA). Front row, left to right: Teresa Hass, Senior Project Management Analyst; Hollie Allingham (Aguilera), Senior Project Management Analyst; Taher Zeglum, PCA Data Engineer (MDA); Drew Pappas, PCA Project Manager (MDA); John Burken, PCA Control Engineer.

  2. Photo-dynamics of the BLUF domain containing soluble adenylate cyclase (nPAC) from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Kateriya, Suneel [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India)

    2011-08-25

    Graphical abstract: The photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and its photo-cycling dynamics was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Highlights: {yields} Photo-activated adenylyl cyclase (nPAC) from Naegleria gruberi NEG-M was expressed. {yields} Photodynamics of BLUF domain in BLUF sensor - cyclase actuator protein was studied. {yields} Photo-excitation caused BLUF photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation. {yields} Re-conformed protein enabled photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. {yields} Fluorescence of flavin in dark- and light-adapted state of nPAC was characterized. - Abstract: The amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M comprises a BLUF (blue light sensor using flavin) regulated adenylate cyclase (nPAC). The nPAC gene was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the photo-dynamics of the nPAC protein was studied by optical absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Blue-light exposure of nPAC caused a typical BLUF-type photo-cycle behavior (spectral absorption red-shift, fluorescence quenching, absorption and fluorescence recovery in the dark). Additionally, time-delayed reversible photo-induced one-electron reduction of fully oxidized flavin (Fl{sub ox}) to semi-reduced flavin (FlH{sup {center_dot}}) occurred. Furthermore, photo-excitation of FlH{sup {center_dot}} caused irreversible electron transfer to fully reduced anionic flavin (FlH{sup -}). A photo-induced electron transfer from Tyr or Trp to flavin (Tyr{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} or Trp{sup {center_dot}+}-Fl{sup {center_dot}-} radical ion-pair formation) is thought to cause H-bond restructuring responsible for BLUF-type photo-cycling and permanent protein re-conformation enabling photo-induced flavin reduction by proton transfer. Some photo-degradation of Fl{sub ox} to lumichrome was observed. A model of the photo-dynamics of nPAC is developed.

  3. Biohydrogen production using sequential two-stage dark and photo fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Yang, Mu-Hoe [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung (China); Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Liu, Chien-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2008-09-15

    A two-stage process combining dark/photo fermentation was used to increase the overall hydrogen yield from sucrose and also to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent. Dark-H{sub 2} fermentation was conducted using Clostridium pasteurianum CH{sub 4}, giving a maximum H{sub 2} production yield of 3.80 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose. The soluble metabolites resulting from dark fermentation, consisting of butyric and acetic acid, were further used for H{sub 2} production in the subsequent photo fermentation. Using soluble products from dark fermentation as substrate, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 could produce H{sub 2} phototrophically, elevating the total hydrogen yield from 3.80 (dark fermentation) to 10.02 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (dark/photo fermentation). Meanwhile, a 72.0% COD removal was also achieved. When the photobioreactor was illuminated with side-light optical fibers and was supplemented with 2.0% (w/v) of clay carriers, the overall H{sub 2} yield of the two-stage process was further enhanced to 14.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose with a nearly 90% COD removal. Continuous photo fermentation was also carried out at 96 h HRT using effluent from dark fermentation as the feed. The continuous culture maintained stable for nearly 10 days with an average H{sub 2} yield of 10.21 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the two-stage process combining dark and photo fermentation for simultaneous hydrogen production and COD removal. (author)

  4. Speed of Dog Adoption: Impact of Online Photo Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Rachel; Witte, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has radically changed how dogs are advertised for adoption in the United States. This study was used to investigate how different characteristics in dogs' photos presented online affected the speed of their adoptions, as a proof of concept to encourage more research in this field. The study analyzed the 1st images of 468 adopted young and adult black dogs identified as Labrador Retriever mixed breeds across the United States. A subjective global measure of photo quality had the largest impact on time to adoption. Other photo traits that positively impacted adoption speed included direct canine eye contact with the camera, the dog standing up, the photo being appropriately sized, an outdoor photo location, and a nonblurry image. Photos taken in a cage, dogs wearing a bandana, dogs having a visible tongue, and some other traits had no effect on how fast the dogs were adopted. Improving the quality of online photos of dogs presented for adoption may speed up and possibly increase the number of adoptions, thereby providing a cheap and easy way to help fight the homeless companion animal population problem.

  5. Photo-reactive charge trapping memory based on lanthanide complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiaqing; Lo, Wai-Sum; Zhou, Li; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chan, Chi-Fai; Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Yan, Yan; Wong, Wing-Tak; Wong, Ka-Leung; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Traditional utilization of photo-induced excitons is popularly but restricted in the fields of photovoltaic devices as well as photodetectors, and efforts on broadening its function have always been attempted. However, rare reports are available on organic field effect transistor (OFET) memory employing photo-induced charges. Here, we demonstrate an OFET memory containing a novel organic lanthanide complex Eu(tta)3ppta (Eu(tta)3 = Europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, ppta = 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazine), in which the photo-induced charges can be successfully trapped and detrapped. The luminescent complex emits intense red emission upon ultraviolet (UV) light excitation and serves as a trapping element of holes injected from the pentacene semiconductor layer. Memory window can be significantly enlarged by light-assisted programming and erasing procedures, during which the photo-induced excitons in the semiconductor layer are separated by voltage bias. The enhancement of memory window is attributed to the increasing number of photo-induced excitons by the UV light. The charges are stored in this luminescent complex for at least 104 s after withdrawing voltage bias. The present study on photo-assisted novel memory may motivate the research on a new type of light tunable charge trapping photo-reactive memory devices.

  6. Application of photo-magnetic therapy for treatment of skin radiation damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonova-Pushkar, L I; Gertman, V Z; Bilogurova, L V

    2014-09-01

    To improve methods of prevention and treatment of local radiation injury to the skin using the photomagnetic therapy. Materials and methods. Study was conducted on 60 male Wistar rats with 180-200 g bodyweight. The femoral area right hind limb of rats was locally irradiated by X-ray unit at a dose of 80.0 Gy. Exposed animals were divided into 2 groups: control and experimental. The rats of the experimental group received 2 courses of photo-magnetic therapy on the irradiated skin. The observations were carried out for 60 days. Methods - clinical, histological and statistical. Results. Local irradiation of rat skin causes the development of radiation ulcers in 60-70 % of the animals with the destruction of the structure in all layers of the skin. Spontaneous healing of radiation ulcer lasts at least two months with no complete skin recovery. Photo-magnetic therapy applied immediately after irradiation resulted in two-folddecrease of frequency of radiation ulcer incidence, accelerated the complete healing for 3 weeks and to ameliorated their progress. Histological examination showed that the photo-magnetic therapy reduced the extent of damage to all layers of the skin with restoration of epidermis and dermis structure and reduced the degree of inflammatory and destructive processes in the dermis. Conclusions. Photo-magnetic therapy produces a significant positive treatment effect by significantly reducing the inflammatory and destructive processes in all layers of the skin, stimulates the blood flow recovery in damaged tissue both with fibroblast proliferation and synthesis activation of native collagen fibers and other components of connective tissue, so almost a month accelerates ulcer healing radiation. L. I. Simonova-Pushkar, V. Z. Gertman, L. V. Bilogurova.

  7. USING PHOTOS TO THE THEME “WORLD WAR I”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA COSTANTEA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse from the perspective of a history teacher and of a geography teacher the use of a photo at a history lesson. The task of designing learning activities associated with a photo was given at the discipline “Models and Paradigms of Teaching and Learning” to the first year students of the Curricular Management Master in the Faculty of Psychology and Sciences of Education in the 2013-2014 academic year. The aim was that the MA students develop their competence to analyse and to interpret a photo and the competence to design learning activities based on a photo, using a variety of teaching methods, efficient in forming students’ skills. The specific objectives of this research were: the analysis of the learning activities associated to a photo and the analysis of the role of solving tasks in the development of students’ skills. At the end of this study, we reached several conclusions: in analysing and interpreting of a photo content together with students, one might use various forms of organization and different teaching methods and procedures; the photo could be used in various moments of the lesson and with different objectives; by using that photo, students developed specific competencies for history and also for geography. By solving the task, MA students developed the competences to design learning activities based on a photo and correlated with specific competences to a school subject matter. Student would be able to use that competence in the pre-university education system.

  8. Photo- and gas-tuned, reversible thermoelectric properties and anomalous photo-thermoelectric effects of platinum-loaded tungsten trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kenta; Watanabe, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi, E-mail: hirie@yamanashi.ac.jp [Clean Energy Research Center, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We report the photo- and gas-controllable properties of platinum-loaded tungsten trioxide (Pt/WO{sub 3}), which is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a Pt/WO{sub 3} thin film generated a thermoelectric power due to the ultraviolet-light-induced band-gap excitation (photochromic (PC) reaction) and/or dark storage in formic acid vapor (gaschromic (GC) reaction) in the absence of O{sub 2}, resulting from the generation of W{sup 5+} ions. After such chromic reactions, the electrical conductivity (σ) is increased, whereas the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient (S) is decreased. The changes in σ and S and their rate of change for consistency increased in the order of: during the PC reaction < during the GC reaction < during simultaneous PC and GC reactions. The opposite behaviors, a decrease in σ and an increase in S, were exhibited by Pt/WO{sub 3} in the presence of O{sub 2} after dark storage or visible-light irradiation. This reversible cycle could be repeated. Moreover, anomalous, nontrivial photo-thermoelectric effects (a photoconductive effect (photoconductivity, σ{sub photo}) and a photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to the visible-light irradiation of Pt/WO{sub 3} in the absence of O{sub 2} after chromic reactions. Under visible-light irradiation, both σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} are increased. After the irradiation, both values were decreased, that is, σ and the absolute value of S were smaller than σ{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo}, respectively. These effects are likely to be due to the photoinduced charge carriers and the accumulated electrons in Pt contributing to the increase in σ{sub photo}. In addition, electrons are extracted from the W{sup 5+} state, decreasing the number of W{sup 5+} in H{sub x}WO{sub 3} and thus contributing to the

  9. Modeling the photo-polarimetric characteristics of brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Suniti; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Shporer, Avi; Nilsson, Ricky; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Riedel, Adric; Kataria, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    An envelope of scatterers like free electrons, atoms/molecules, or haze/clouds affect the Stokes vector of radiation emitted by an oblate body.Due to their high rotation rates, brown dwarfs (BDs) are often considerably oblate. We present a conics-based radiative transfer (RT) scheme for computing the disc-resolved and disc-integrated polarized emission of an oblate body like a BD or extrasolar giant planet (EGP) bearing homogenous or patchy clouds. Using this capability, we theoretically examine the photo-polarimetric signal of BDs as a function of the scattering properties of its atmosphere like cloud optical thickness and grain size concurrently with BD properties like oblateness and inclination angle. The effect of oblateness is examined with and without the temperature gradients caused by gravitational darkening, revealing that the latter can considerably amplify the disc-integrated polarization. The signal depends on both oblateness and inclination angle, with the degree of polarization (DoP) increasing with oblateness and decreasing with inclination, a property useful for assessing the exact spatial orientation of the rotation axis in favorable cases. Our examination of BD cloud properties shows a relative blue-shift in the near-infrared (NIR) for increasing droplet size in optically thick clouds - interesting in view of the observed relative brightening in the J-band for L/T transition BDs. For large cloud grains, the polarization decreases sharply, while the transmitted intensity shows a steady increase, thus reducing the DoP.

  10. Visualization of Longitudinal and Transverse Components of Strongly Focused Optical Field by means of Photo-Reactive Azopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonov A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most important problems in modern photonics are fabrication, visualization and characterization of nanomaterials at optical frequencies. A number of optical techniques uses tightly focused laser beams to access longitudinal electromagnetic fields, which are directed towards the wave vector. In this Letter, the distribution of transverse and longitudinal optical fields in tightly focused laser beams, polarized in a new fashion, is investigated. Polarization dependent fingerprints of transverse and longitudinal optical fields are experimentally captured by means of photoinduced surface deformations in azobenzene polymer thin films.

  11. Photo-onycholysis: two cases induced by doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, T; Ben Tekaya, N; Cherif, F; Ben Osman Dhahri, A

    2004-12-01

    Photo-onycholysis is a phototoxic reaction, which is usually drug-induced. It consists of the separation of the nail from the nail bed due to ultraviolet radiation. We report two cases of female patients who developed distal onycholysis while receiving doxycycline. Among the drugs that cause photo-onycholysis, the most frequently cited are tetracyclines, psoralens and fluoroquinolones. Photo-onycholysis is often distal, half-moon shaped and can be surrounded by pigmentation. Spontaneous recovery follows within a few months of discontinuing the drug.

  12. Vulnerability Analysis of HD Photo Image Viewer Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    setting the trailing null to non-null (maybe for IFD entries using “ASCII” as the data type). This could be employed with Adobe Photoshop metadata tags...Photo file with the first IFD advertising an offset to a second IFD, but only one IFD exists in the file. This case reveals how the image viewer...ability to handle a HD Photo file which advertises that it the HD Photo image is laid out in Frequency mode, even though the image itself was created

  13. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-11-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational idea of the AAPT photo contest as the context to facilitate new lessons and activities for secondary-level students. The blending of photography and physics education can also be done at the high school level and undergraduate level as a creative means for content review and communication of conceptual understanding.

  14. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  15. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  16. Photo-thermoelectric properties of SnS nanocrystals with orthorhombic layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Cheol-Min; Choi, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Ahn, Ji-Hoon

    2017-07-01

    The photo-thermoelectric properties of SnS nanocrystals, two-dimensional materials with an orthorhombic symmetry, were investigated using a focused laser scanning method. The SnS nanocrystals were synthesized by a vapor transport method, and their fundamental material and electrical properties were investigated. Upon shining a laser onto the SnS channel region under a positive source-drain bias, a positive photocurrent was observed due to photo-excited electron-hole pairs. On the other hand, when this external electric field was not applied, a strong photocurrent was observed within the metal electrode region rather than at the metal-semiconductor interface, which indicated that the major mechanism for the photocurrent under zero external bias was a photo-induced thermoelectric effect rather than a photovoltaic effect. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient of the SnS nanocrystal device was approximately 1735 μV/K, which is 3.5 times larger than that of its bulk counterpart.

  17. Ligand photo-isomerization triggers conformational changes in iGluR2 ligand binding domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Wolter

    Full Text Available Neurological glutamate receptors bind a variety of artificial ligands, both agonistic and antagonistic, in addition to glutamate. Studying their small molecule binding properties increases our understanding of the central nervous system and a variety of associated pathologies. The large, oligomeric multidomain membrane protein contains a large and flexible ligand binding domains which undergoes large conformational changes upon binding different ligands. A recent application of glutamate receptors is their activation or inhibition via photo-switchable ligands, making them key systems in the emerging field of optochemical genetics. In this work, we present a theoretical study on the binding mode and complex stability of a novel photo-switchable ligand, ATA-3, which reversibly binds to glutamate receptors ligand binding domains (LBDs. We propose two possible binding modes for this ligand based on flexible ligand docking calculations and show one of them to be analogues to the binding mode of a similar ligand, 2-BnTetAMPA. In long MD simulations, it was observed that transitions between both binding poses involve breaking and reforming the T686-E402 protein hydrogen bond. Simulating the ligand photo-isomerization process shows that the two possible configurations of the ligand azo-group have markedly different complex stabilities and equilibrium binding modes. A strong but slow protein response is observed after ligand configuration changes. This provides a microscopic foundation for the observed difference in ligand activity upon light-switching.

  18. Photo Parametric Amplifier Using Up & Down Converter Configuration for Optical Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad Faiz Liew; Elbireki, Majdi Farag Mohammed

    2012-03-01

    A fundamental requirement in the design of an optical receiver is the achievement of high sensitivity and broad bandwidth. These two features are very important in getting reliable system. In this project a receiver circuit based on Photo parametric Amplifier (PPA), which is suggested as one of the alternative for receiver detection and amplification techniques is fully described. The PPA mode of operation involves optical detection and amplification within a single device. It is able to provide selectivity and sensitivity at the same time, as required for wireless optical communications. The most common problem that any communication system might face is the noise which must be eliminated or at least reduce it. In order to reduce the noise, filters have been implemented before the signal is passes through an amplifier. In this project an Up converter has been placed at the transmitter circuit in order to obtain high frequency, while at the receiver circuit, filters has been placed with Down converter to obtain the desired frequency. Photo diode, PIN type has been used to detect any incoming signal at the receiver circuit. Results showed that the output signal has been improved; with addition power strength and noise reduction which showed that photo parametric amplifier is more reliable and suitable to be used in wireless optical communication system.

  19. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #176 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #150 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #151 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #171 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #268 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #100 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #004 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #054 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #125 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #371 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. Photo Processing for Biomedical Hydrogels Design and Functionality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of opportunities for biomedical hydrogel design and functionality through photo-processing have stretched the limits of innovation. As both photochemical understanding and engineering technologies continue to develop, more complicated geometries and spatiotemporal manipulations can be realized through photo-exposure, producing multifunctional hydrogels with specific chemical, biological and physical characteristics for the achievement of biomedical goals. This report describes the role that light has recently played in the synthesis and functionalization of biomedical hydrogels and primarily the design of photoresponsive hydrogels via different chemical reactions (photo crosslinking and photo degradation and conventional light curing processes (micropatterning, stereolithography and two/multiphoton techniques as well as typical biomedical applications of the hydrogels (cell culture, differentiation and in vivo vascularization and their promising future.

  12. 1935 15' Quad #025 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #086 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. Photo-transfection of mammalian cells via femtosecond laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthunzi, P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ). Transfection efficiencies between 40 - 63 % are recorded. We show for the first time that, due to their different sensitivity, surface receptors and membrane structure the cell lines mentioned above displayed varying photo-transfection efficiencies at different...

  15. Photo-degradation behaviour of roseoflavin in some aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A. [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut II - Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Mathes, T.; Hegemann, P. [Institut fuer Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    An absorption and emission spectroscopic characterization of roseoflavin (8-dimethylamino-8-demethyl-riboflavin, RoF) in aqueous solutions was carried out. The studies were concentrated on roseoflavin in pH 8 phosphate buffer. Absorption cross-section spectra, fluorescence excitation spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes were determined. The fluorescence of RoF is quenched by photo-induced intra-molecular charge-transfer at room temperature. The photo-degradation of RoF in un-buffered water, in Tris-HCl buffer, and in phosphate buffer was studied. Phosphate buffer and to a smaller extent Tris buffer catalyse the RoF photo-degradation. Photo-excitation of the primary photoproduct, 8-methylamino-riboflavin (8-MNH-RF), enhanced the RoF degradation by triplet 8-MNH-RF - singlet RoF excitation transfer with subsequent triplet-state RoF degradation.

  16. 1935 15' Quad #196 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #243 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #155 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #361 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #368 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #177 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. Route to Photo-Enabled Random Terahertz Metasurfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Luke

    2017-07-17

    We experimentally investigate the enhancement and phase change of the THz emission from photo-excited randomly structured black silicon substrates mediated by an induced metallic state of the nanostructured surface.

  3. 1935 15' Quad #387 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. The Photo-Pneumatic CO2 Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to build a new technology, the photo-pneumatic analyzer. It is small, solid-state, inexpensive, and appropriate for observations of atmospheric...

  5. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Before and after photos: Treatment of hypertrophic scars ...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #060 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #270 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #180 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #349 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #152 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #049 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #315 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #316 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. Channel Coupling Effects in Photo-Induced ρ - N Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usov, A.; Scholten, O.

    2006-01-01

    We present an extension of our coupled channels calculation to include photo-induced ρ - N production. We show that indirect contributions are large and can account for some of the typical discrepancies seen in a tree-level calculations.

  15. 1935 15' Quad #293 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #319 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #364 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. Photo darkening in Rare earth doped silica: Model and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    2011-01-01

    A model for photo darkening based on chemical bond formation is presented. The formation process, color center spectral response and bleaching is discussed and model predictions is found to follow high power fiber laser operation...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #122 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #033 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. Geochemical prospect ion results of Mariscala aerial photo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, J.

    1989-01-01

    This report shows the geochemical prospect ion results carried out within the framework of the metalical mining prospect ion in Mariscala aerial photo. Lavalleja district belong to the Mining inventory programme of Uruguay.

  3. 1935 15' Quad #170 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #124 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #195 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #457 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #370 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #197 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #442 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #393 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #365 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #148 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #098 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #417 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #250 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #055 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #109 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #291 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #131 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #008 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #391 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #314 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #179 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. Photo Gallery from the Los Angeles River Watershed (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photo gallery of the Los Angeles River Watershed area of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  7. Gulf of Mexico killer whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on killer whales occupying the northern Gulf of Mexico have been collected in association with large vessel surveys since 1991. Photographs...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #075 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #076 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #248 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #374 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #273 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. USDA-ASCS 1936-1939 Air Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a digital version of aerial photographs taken during the 1936-1939 time frame for the USDA-ASCS. These photos were originally recorded at a scale of...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #271 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #080 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #153 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #038 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #128 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1949-50 DIO USFS Aerial Photo Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial photographs are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The aerial photo inventory contains imagery from various sources that are now archived at the Earth...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #172 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. 1935 15' Quad #242 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott during photo session outside KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, the Gemini 8 prime crew, during a photo session outside the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mission Control Center. They are standing in front of a radar dish.

  4. Photo-triggered ODN manipulation on DNA chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Shinzi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2005-01-01

    DNA microarray is a powerful tool allowing simultaneous detection of many different target molecules present in a sample. We developed the photo-triggered ODN manipulation on DNA chip, and analyzed efficiency and discrimination of surface photoligation.

  5. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #174 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. Gulf of Mexico sperm whale photo-ID catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photo-identification data on sperm whales occupying the north central Gulf of Mexico have been collected during vessel surveys. Photographs of sperm whales are taken...

  8. 1935 15' Quad #363 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #375 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 1935 15' Quad #222 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  11. 1935 15' Quad #386 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  12. 1935 15' Quad #267 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  13. 1935 15' Quad #181 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  14. 1935 15' Quad #227 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #298 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #082 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #132 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #149 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. Low-energy photo- and electroproduction for physical pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMullen, J.T.

    1979-02-01

    The Ward identities of current algebra are combined with gauge invariance constraints, on-shell PCAC and the Bjorken limit to obtain the low-energy expressions of the pion photo- and electroproduction invariant amplitudes for physical pions

  20. 1935 15' Quad #415 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. 1935 15' Quad #063 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  2. Studies on Nano-Engineered TiO2 Photo Catalyst for Effective Degradation of Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S. R.; Madhu, G. M.; Hashir, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    All Heterogeneous photo catalysis employing efficient photo-catalyst is the advanced dye degradation technology for the purification of textile effluent. The present work focuses on Congo red dye degradation employing synthesized Ag doped TiO2 nanoparticles as photocatalyst which is characterized using SEM, XRD and FTIR. Studies are conducted to study the effect of various parameters such as initial dye concentration, catalyst loading and pH of solution. Ag Doped TiO2 photocatalyst improve the efficacy of TiO2 by reducing high band gap and electron hole recombination of TiO2. The reaction kinetics is analyzed and the process is found to follow pseudo first order kinetics.

  3. Protective behaviour monitoring on wood photo-degradation by spectroscopic techniques coupled with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Giuseppe; Calienno, Luca; Pelosi, Claudia; Scacchi, Martina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Agresti, Giorgia; Picchio, Rodolfo; Santamaria, Ulderico; Serranti, Silvia; Monaco, Angela Lo

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the investigation on the effect of protective materials on poplar (Populus sp.) wood modifications as consequence of artificial photo-degradation in controlled environment. The novelty of this work is to try to understand what happens to wood surface under the protective layer. Shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® were tested to compare traditional and novel products generally used for wood. The samples, uncovered and covered by these protective layers, were artificially aged. Colour and chemical modifications due to ageing were investigated at different time intervals by reflectance spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging. The obtained data were elaborated by statistical and chemometric tools in order to verify their significance and to assess the relationship between groups of measurements. The results highlighted that shellac, beeswax and Linfoil® materials have a very low protective effect on wood photo-degradation for long times of exposure, by little reducing the changes of wood components.

  4. Iron-doped Pt-TiO2 nanotubes for photo-catalytic water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, D; Motta, M; Windle, A H

    2009-02-04

    In this work we report on the photo-catalytic performance of phase-pure and iron-doped anatase and rutile nanotubes, produced via a sol-gel process using pristine carbon nanotubes as templates. The encapsulated iron residues can be used to in situ dope the TiO(2) nanotubes without phase separation. The anatase and rutile nanotubes were further impregnated with platinum crystals with a uniform dispersion and an average size of approximately 2 nm. The materials showed dramatically improved activities for the photo-catalytic splitting of water compared to commercial TiO(2) with similar surface area (up to two orders of magnitudes), due to their higher illumination area, extended absorption range and reduced electron-hole recombination rate. The homogeneous dispersion of platinum nanoparticles further increased the hydrogen evolution rate for anatase nanotubes by a factor of seven in comparison to that for the pristine material, thus proving the great potential for commercial applications.

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  6. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  7. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  9. Study of mosquito attractants for photo catalytic mosquito trap

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Tristantini; Slamet -; Angela Jessica Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Photo catalytic mosquito trap is made of TiO2-Activated Carbon (AC) with a certain composition of AC. Research concerns on the heat spectrum which is produced by combination process of existing CO2 and humid air. The purpose of performance testing is to observe capability of this device in trapping mosquitoes related to the air temperature profile for heat spectrum is play important role for attracting mosquitoes. Result shows photo catalytic mosquito trap is more effective than devices which...

  10. Content-aware photo collage using circle packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zongqiao; Lu, Lin; Guo, Yanwen; Fan, Rongfei; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Wenping

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically creating the photo collage that assembles the interest regions of a given group of images naturally. Previous methods on photo collage are generally built upon a well-defined optimization framework, which computes all the geometric parameters and layer indices for input photos on the given canvas by optimizing a unified objective function. The complex nonlinear form of optimization function limits their scalability and efficiency. From the geometric point of view, we recast the generation of collage as a region partition problem such that each image is displayed in its corresponding region partitioned from the canvas. The core of this is an efficient power-diagram-based circle packing algorithm that arranges a series of circles assigned to input photos compactly in the given canvas. To favor important photos, the circles are associated with image importances determined by an image ranking process. A heuristic search process is developed to ensure that salient information of each photo is displayed in the polygonal area resulting from circle packing. With our new formulation, each factor influencing the state of a photo is optimized in an independent stage, and computation of the optimal states for neighboring photos are completely decoupled. This improves the scalability of collage results and ensures their diversity. We also devise a saliency-based image fusion scheme to generate seamless compositive collage. Our approach can generate the collages on nonrectangular canvases and supports interactive collage that allows the user to refine collage results according to his/her personal preferences. We conduct extensive experiments and show the superiority of our algorithm by comparing against previous methods.

  11. Theory of photo- and electroproduction of mesons: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Davidson, R.; Bourdeau, M.; Nergiz, S.; Wittman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The state of theoretical understandings of the photo- and electroproduction of pions from nucleons is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the unitarity and dynamics. Understandings of these processes in the delta region are summarized, with emphasis on the hadron structure. Some problems and prospects for future studies of the high-energy photo- and electroproduction of mesons at CEBAF are discussed. 35 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Symposium “Photo Archives V: The Paradigm of Objectivity”

    OpenAIRE

    Görgen, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Given the fairly recent material and digital “turns” in our discipline, photo historians are increasingly confronted with the question of how and where to preserve, appreciate, and disseminate our primary sources in the most efficient way. Starting in 2009, the conference cycle “Photo Archives” has addressed these and other interdisciplinary questions in a series of symposia, the fifth of which was organized in Los Angeles at the Getty Center and The Huntington on February 25 and 26, 2016. Sp...

  13. Increasing tetracycline concentrations on the performance and communities of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yanghui

    2017-12-11

    This study investigated the impact of varying concentrations of tetracycline on the performance of mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. Photo-bioreactors were assessed for their ability to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the biogas of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (anMBR), and nutrients from the anaerobic effluent. The varying concentrations of tetracycline had no impact on the removal of CO2 from biogas. 29% v/v of CO2 was completely removed to generate >20% v/v of oxygen (O2) in all reactors. Removal of nutrients and biomass was not affected at low concentrations of tetracycline (≤150μg/L), but 20mg/L of tetracycline lowered the biomass generation and removal efficiencies of phosphate. Conversely, high chlorophyll a and b content was observed at 20mg/L of tetracycline. High tetracycline level had no impact on the diversity of 18S rRNA gene-based microalgal communities but adversely affected the 16S rRNA gene-based microbial communities. Specifically, both Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla decreased in relative abundance but not phylum Chloroplast. Additionally, both nitrogen-fixing (e.g. Flavobacterium, unclassified Burkholderiales and unclassified Rhizobiaceae) and denitrifying groups (e.g. Hydrogenophaga spp.) were significantly reduced in relative abundance at high tetracycline concentration. Phosphate-accumulating microorganisms, Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were similarly reduced upon exposure to high tetracycline concentration. Unclassified Comamonadaceae, however, increased in relative abundance, which correlated with an increase in the abundance of tetracycline resistance genes associated with efflux pump mechanism. Overall, the findings demonstrate that antibiotic concentrations in municipal wastewaters will not significantly affect the removal of nutrients by the mixed microalgae-bacteria photo-bioreactors. However, utilizing such photo-bioreactors as a polishing step for anMBRs that treat wastewaters with high tetracycline

  14. Emittance investigation of RF photo-injector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Mao Rong; Li Zheng; Li Ming; Xu Zhou

    2002-01-01

    A high-power laser beam illuminates a photocathode surface placed on an end wall of an RF cavity. The emitted electrons are accelerated immediately to a relativistic energy by the strong RF find in the cavity. But space charge effect induces beam emittance growth especially near the cathode where the electrons are still nonrelativistic. The author analyzes the factors which lead the transverse emittance growth and method how to resolve this problem. After introducing solenoidal focusing near the photocathode, the beam emittance growth is suppressed dramatically. The beam emittance is given also after compensation and simulation results. The measurements show these results are coincident

  15. Involving, Sharing, Analysing—Potential of the Participatory Photo Interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Kolb

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phases—involving, sharing and analysing—and explores potential influences on data quality. In the first phase, researchers use the photo interview method to involve community residents from different levels of society in the research process. In the second phase, the photo interview method encourages community residents and scientists to share insights and perspectives and to partner in developing a common understanding of local structures, processes, and possible solutions. In the third phase, the photo interview method allows researchers to analyse visual and textual data as a representation of a local societal context. In decoding images, researchers ground the analysis in subjective perspectives, use residents' visual codes along with other methods to further analyse community data, and explore the wider societal context in which the study is embedded. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803127

  16. SILVER RECYCLING FROM PHOTO-PROCESSING WASTE USING ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Feri Hadiyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver electrodeposition of photo-processing waste and without addition of KCN 1,0 M has been studied for silver recycling. Photo procesing waste containing silver in form of [Ag(S2O32]3- was electrolysed at constant potential and faradic efficiency was determined at various of electrolysis times. Electrolysis of 100 mL photo processing waste without addition of KCN 1,0 M was carried out at constant potential 1.20 Volt, while electrolysis 100 mL photo procesing waste with addition of 10 mL KCN 1,0 M electrolysis was done at 1.30 Volt.The results showed that for silver electrodeposition from photo processing waste with addition of KCN 1,0 M was more favorable with faradic efficiency respectively were 93,16; 87,02; 74,74 and 78,35% for 30; 60; 90 and 120 minutes of electrolysis.   Keywords: Silver extraction, electrodeposition, photo-processing waste

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  18. The PhotoElectron Boundary as observed by MAVEN instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, P.; Steckiewicz, M.; Mazelle, C. X.; Xu, S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Holmberg, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Andersson, L.; Brain, D.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Savaud, J. A.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Photoelectron peaks in the 20-30 eV energy range are commonly observed in planetary atmospheres (Earth, Mars, Titan...), produced by the intense photoionization from solar 30.4 nm photons. At Mars, these photoelectrons result from the ionization of CO2 and O atmospheric neutrals, and are known to escape the planet down its tail, making them tracers for the atmospheric escape (Frahm et al., 2006). Furthermore, their presence or absence allows us to define the so-called PhotoElectron Boundary (PEB), that separates the sunlit photoelectron-dominated ionosphere from the solar wind controlled environment, as initially observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) MAG/ER instrument (Mitchell et al. (2000, 2001). We provide here a detailed statistical analysis of the location and properties of the PEB based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission electron and magnetic field data. Our dataset includes 1696 dayside PEB crossings obtained from September 2014 until May 2016 (the observations of escaping photoelectrons in the wake being not included). The PEB appears as mostly sensitive to the solar wind dynamic and crustal magnetic fields pressures, for which a quantitative dependance is derived and compared with two other important boundaries : the bow shock and magnetic pileup boundary. The PEB altitude is highly variable, leading to a variable wake cross section for escape (up to +- 50%), which is important for deriving global escape rates from in situ photoelectron escape rates. The PEB is not always sharp, and is, despite a strong variability, characterized on average by : a magnetic field topology typical for the edge of the Magnetic Pile Up Region above it, more field aligned fluxes above than below, and a clear change of the altitude dependence of both electron fluxes and total density (that appears different from the ionopause). The PEB thus appears as a transition region between two plasma and field configurations which is determined by the

  19. On the potential of Hg-Photo-CVD process for the low temperature growth of nano-crystalline silicon (Topical review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    2005-08-01

    Mercury-Sensitized Photo-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (Hg-Photo-CVD) technique opens new possibilities for reducing thin film growth temperature and producing novel semiconductor materials suitable for the future generation of high efficiency thin film solar cells onto low cost flexible plastic substrates. This paper provides an overview of this technique, with the emphasis on its potential in low temperature elaboration of nano-crystalline silicon for the development of thin films photovoltaic technology. (author)

  20. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  1. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  2. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  3. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  4. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  5. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  6. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  7. Golden Jubilee Photos - The cathedrals of matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In their day, LEP and its four detectors were the biggest of "big science," both in the size of the detectors and the international collaborations that produced them. Initially each detector had certain measurements in which it excelled, and with later upgrades they all performed well across-the-board. By making overlapping measurements, but using different methods, the results from the four detectors reinforced each other. For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's biggest. The experiment also became renowned for its innovative software for visualizing particle collisions. Of the LEP detectors, DELPHI was the most innovative, including what was the world's largest superconducting magnet. One of DELPHI's main strengths was its ability to unambiguously identify many types of charged particles. L3's strong point was accurate measurements of the momenta of electrons and their heavier c...

  8. Photo-Sensitivity of Large Area Physical Vapor Deposited Mono and Bilayer MoS2 (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    releasAfter dark dc characterization, we illuminated the de- vices with a 30 W light - bulb located at about 10 cm distance. The measured luminous flux per...holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to...strong size effect in light -matter interaction. The photo-voltaic effect was observed to highly direction dependent in the film plane, which suggests

  9. Effects of seasonality and a daily photo-protection upon some facial signs of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Qiu, H

    2017-06-01

    These were two-fold: (i) to record through standardized pictures, the possible changes in 31 facial signs induced, in a 6-month period, by the periodical shift from winter to summer in a group of 43 Chinese women and (ii) to appraise the preventive effects of a strong photo-protective product, daily applied to the faces of an additional group (N = 40) of women of same age-range and presenting same severities of facial signs in winter. Facial signs (structural and pigmentation-related) were scored in blind by a panel of 12 experts from photographs taken under standard conditions. Scorings were performed under specific scales as established by a previously published referential Skin Aging Atlas, Volume 2, Asian Type. A significant seasonal impact was found for more than 60% of facial signs, that is presenting a higher severity in summer in the unprotected group. Some changes are of a low or subtle extent, whereas some others show significant amplitudes. The latter comprise eight signs, among the 31, that became, far above scoring threshold, indeed affected during this 6-month period. The observed changes in six of these eight signs, in majority related to pigmentation, appeared efficiently alleviated in the photo-protected group. The shift from winter to summer exposure is confirmed in altering some facial pigmented signs among Chinese women. Such changes appear much alleviated by a daily strong photo-protective regimen. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photo-activated simple molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceppatelli, M; Bini, R; Caporali, M; Peruzzini, M; Fanetti, S

    2014-01-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In addition the photo-activation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photo-activators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photo-induced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using membrane Diamond (DAC) and Sapphire (SAC) anvil cells. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occurred in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2–1.5 GPa).

  11. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  12. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  13. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  14. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  15. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  16. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  17. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  18. Etude Experimentale du Photo-Injecteur de Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Orsay

    2001-01-01

    TESLA (TeV Superconducting Linear Accelerator) is an international collaboration which is studying the feasibility of an $e^+e^-$ collider of energy 0.8 TeV in the center of mass. One of the first goals of this collaboration was to construct a prototype linear accelerator at the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg, the TESLA Test Facility (TTF), in order to establish the technical basis for the collider. Two injectors were developed for TTF: a thermionic injector (developed by LAL-Orsay, IPN-Orsay, and CEA-Saclay) and a photo-injector (developed by Fermilab). The thermionic injector was used from February 1997 to October 1998, and then it was replaced by the photo-injector, which was first operated in December 1998. Another photo-injector, identical to the one delivered to TTF, was installed at Fermilab in the $A{\\emptyset}$ Building. The first beam from the latter was produced on 3 March 1999. The photo-injector consists of an RF gun, followed by a superconducting cavity. The RF gun is a 1.625-cell copper cavity with a resonant frequency of 1.3 GHz. The gun contains a cesium telluride ($C_{s_2}$Te) photo-cathode, which is illuminated by UV pulses from a Nd:YLF laser. The system can produce trains of 800 bunches of photo-electrons of charge 8 nC per bunch with spacing between bunches of 1$\\mu$s and 10 Hz repetition rate. Upon emerging from the RF gun, the beam energy is 4 to 5 MeV; the beam is then rapidly accelerated by the superconducting cavity to an energy of 17 to 20 MeV. Finally, a magnetic chicane, consisting of 4 dipoles, produces longitudinal compression of the electron bunches. This thesis describes the installation of the photo-injector at Fermilab and presents the experimentally-measured characteristics of the injector. The principal measurements were quantum eciency, dark current, transverse emittance, and bunch length. The conclusion from these studies is that the quality of the photo-injector beam fullls the design goals. The photo-injector at Fermilab is

  19. Golden Jubilee Photos: Peering inside protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The 50 m long BCDMS apparatus, with particle detectors sandwiched between slabs of magnetized iron, tracked the paths of muons after they scattered off atoms' nuclei. At first many doubted the results from CERN's BCDMS experiment, which ran from 1978 to 1985 and was a crucial early test of quantum chromodynamics, or QCD. This theory, which was still in its infancy at that time, describes the strong force that governs protons and neutrons. BCDMS slammed muons, heavier cousins of electrons, into the simplest atoms: hydrogen, with a lone proton in its nucleus, and deuterium, with a proton and neutron. When the muons showed a type of collision called deep inelastic scattering, they revealed the inner workings of protons and neutrons: the quarks and gluons. However, the measurements from BCDMS at lower energies didn't fit with those from other CERN experiments, the EMC muon experiment and the CDHS neutrino experiment. These were some of the pre-eminent experiments of the time on deep ...

  20. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  1. Simulation of Photo-isomerization of Functionalized Azobenzene Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazohi, Pedram; Herberger, Zachary; Lewis, James

    Photo-isomerization is the process of changing the isomer (cis , trans) of a molecule using light. In azobenzene this process can be utilized in a Metal Organic Framework (MOF) for adsorption of CO2. MOFs are created by two major components, metal ions, and organic molecules which are called linkers. The metal ions and linkers can be coordinated in a way that they form a porous material. In the cis isomer of azobenzene, the MOF's pore is available to be filled by CO2, but in the trans isomer the pore is filled with a benzene ring. The change from cis to trans will evacuate the pore if CO2 is present. The important considerations in using azobenzene photo-isomerization as a photo-switch in MOFs are, the quantum yield of the process, and the wavelength of the light which triggers photo-isomerization. By substitution of the functional groups of azobenzene and using the fewest switches surface-hopping algorithm in FIREBALL to simulate the photo-isomerization process we can tune the properties of the molecule as we desire and predict the best substitution sites for azobenzene functional groups. We studied the effects of functionalizing the molecule with OH, CH3, NH2, NO2 and COOH on isomerization quantum yield.

  2. Introducing New Library Services: Nuclear Malaysia Gallery Photos and Videos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Nasaruddin Ahmad; Habibah Adnan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the existing of library is to preserve books and journals for the organizations main business. The role of library itself is to organize the books such as borrowing and renewal services as consulting their customers on getting the best references for the customers need and demand. Nowadays, the role of library also expands and the need for storing and preserving non-monograph resources such as photo and video also increase. Follow that current situation, Nuclear Malaysia's Library also take a step forwards by introducing new services so called Photo and Video Gallery. Realizing that Nuclear Malaysia also have their valuable photo and video that contains so called memorable moment and must be preserve for future reference, the management of Nuclear Malaysia's Library have decided to buy the system so called P-Canvas. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the library new services, Photo and Video Gallery, development and advantage of this system in storing and preserving Nuclear Malaysia's photo and video. (author)

  3. Photo-oxidation of proteins and its role in cataractogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Truscott, R J

    2001-01-01

    Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for photo-oxidation. Two major types of processes can occur with proteins. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from the absorption of UV radiation by the p...... a role in the aetiology of the disease, and tryptophan-derived metabolites act as UV filters.......Proteins comprise approximately 68% of the dry weight of cells and tissues and are therefore potentially major targets for photo-oxidation. Two major types of processes can occur with proteins. The first of these involves direct photo-oxidation arising from the absorption of UV radiation...... that are generated on amino acids and proteins, and the subsequent reactions of these species, and not the identity or chemistry of the sensitizer itself, unless the sensitizing group is itself intrinsic to the protein. A particular system is then discussed--the cataractous lens--where UV photo-oxidation may play...

  4. Degradation of flumequine by the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Evaluation of residual antimicrobial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Maniero, Milena Guedes; Rath, Susanne; Guimarães, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Flumequine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of the quinolone class, and it is widely used as a veterinary drug in food-producing animals. The presence of flumequine in the environment may contribute to the development of drug resistant bacterial strains. In this study, water samples fortified with flumequine (500 μg L −1 ) were degraded using the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The maximum degradation efficiency for flumequine by the Fenton process was approximately 40% (0.5 mmol L −1 Fe(II), 2.0 mmol L −1 H 2 O 2 and 15 min). By applying UV radiation (photo-Fenton process), the efficiency reached more than 94% in 60 min when 0.25 mmol L −1 Fe(II) and 10.0 mmol L −1 H 2 O 2 were used. Under these conditions, the Fenton process was able to reduce the biological activity, whereas the photo-Fenton process eliminated almost all of the antimicrobial activity because it was not detected. Four byproducts with an m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified by mass spectrometry, and a degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed. The byproducts were derived from decarboxylation and defluorination reactions and from modifications in the alkylamino chain of the fluoroquinolone. - Highlights: ► Photo-Fenton process achieved the maximum performance, degrading 94% of flumequine. ► As the flumequine concentration decreased, antimicrobial activity also decreased. ► Four byproducts with m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified. ► A degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed

  5. Degradation of phenols in olive oil mill wastewater by biological, enzymatic, and photo-Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Celine; Marques, Ana Gabriela; Duarte, Kátia Reis; Duarte, Armando Costa; Pereira, Ruth; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Freitas, Ana Cristina

    2010-03-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) environmental impacts minimization have been attempted by developing more effective processes, but no chemical or biological treatments were found to be totally effective to mitigate their impact on receiving systems. This work is the first that reports simultaneously the efficiency of three different approaches: biological treatment by two fungal species (Trametes versicolor or Pleurotus sajor caju), enzymatic treatment by laccase, and chemical treatment by photo-Fenton oxidation on phenols removal. Those treatments were performed on OOMW with or without phenol supplement (p-coumaric, vanillin, guaiacol, vanillic acid, or tyrosol). OOMW samples resulted from treatments were extracted for phenols using liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Treatment with T. versicolor or P. sajor caju were able to remove between 22% and 74% and between 8% and 76% of phenols, respectively. Treatment by laccase was able to reduce 4% to 70% of phenols whereas treatment by photo-Fenton oxidation was responsible for 100% phenols reduction. Range of phenol degradation was equivalent between T. versicolor, P. sajor caju and laccase for p-coumaric, guaiacol, caffeic acid, and tyrosol in supplemented OOMW, which enhances this enzyme role in the biological treatment promoted by these two species. Phenols were removed more efficiently by photo-Fenton treatment than by biological or enzymatic treatments. Use of fungi, laccase, or photo-Fenton presents great potential for removing phenols from OOMW. This should be further assessed by increasing the application scale and the reactor configurations effect on the performance, besides a toxicity evaluation of treated wastewater in comparison to raw wastewater.

  6. Degradation of flumequine by the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes: Evaluation of residual antimicrobial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues-Silva, Caio; Maniero, Milena Guedes [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rath, Susanne [Chemistry Institute, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, CEP 13084-971, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Guimarães, José Roberto, E-mail: jorober@fec.unicamp.br [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6021, CEP 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Flumequine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent of the quinolone class, and it is widely used as a veterinary drug in food-producing animals. The presence of flumequine in the environment may contribute to the development of drug resistant bacterial strains. In this study, water samples fortified with flumequine (500 μg L{sup −1}) were degraded using the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The maximum degradation efficiency for flumequine by the Fenton process was approximately 40% (0.5 mmol L{sup −1} Fe(II), 2.0 mmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 15 min). By applying UV radiation (photo-Fenton process), the efficiency reached more than 94% in 60 min when 0.25 mmol L{sup −1} Fe(II) and 10.0 mmol L{sup −1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were used. Under these conditions, the Fenton process was able to reduce the biological activity, whereas the photo-Fenton process eliminated almost all of the antimicrobial activity because it was not detected. Four byproducts with an m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified by mass spectrometry, and a degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed. The byproducts were derived from decarboxylation and defluorination reactions and from modifications in the alkylamino chain of the fluoroquinolone. - Highlights: ► Photo-Fenton process achieved the maximum performance, degrading 94% of flumequine. ► As the flumequine concentration decreased, antimicrobial activity also decreased. ► Four byproducts with m/z of 244, 238, 220 and 202 were identified. ► A degradation pathway for flumequine was proposed.

  7. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  8. Photos taken during the assembly of the first 4-plane wheel prototype, built in 1998.

    CERN Multimedia

    Dixon, N.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - One plane complete. Photo 2 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - Radiator Foil. Photo 3 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing technique. Photo 4 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 5 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 6 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Completed straw plane. Photo 7 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Webs on assembly table. Photo 8 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Operations on inner ring. Photo 9 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing operations. Photo 10 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing equipment. Photo 11 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Assembly of 4-plane wheel. Photo 12 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 13 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Testing. Photo 14 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glued to web ring 2. Photo 15 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 16 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Detail o...

  9. The photo-induced phase and coherent phonon in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Koshihara, Shin-ya [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Shao Xiangfeng [Non-equilibrium Dynamics Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, c/o KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi [Research Center for Low Temperature and Materials Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: konda@chem.titech.ac.jp

    2008-06-04

    We have investigated the nature of the photo-induced state and coherent phonon in the conducting charge transfer complex (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} by measuring the ultrafast reflectivity change over a wide photon energy range from 0.069 eV (18 {mu}m) to 2.1 eV (580 nm). The photo-induced spectra just after photo-excitation indicate that the photo-induced phase is similar to but clearly different from that in a thermally induced metal phase though they are the same for general photo-induced phase transition. The temporal profiles at each probe photon energy are accompanied by extraordinarily large amplitude oscillation originating from coherent phonon generation. The period of the coherent phonon depends discretely on the probe photon energy, while the generation efficiency of both the photo-induced phase and coherent photon reaches a maximum when the peak top of a charge transfer band is excited. These results are probably attributable to the strong electron-vibration coupling in this complex.

  10. Solar photo-Fenton treatment of microcystin-LR in aqueous environment: Transformation products and toxicity in different water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karci, Akin; Wurtzler, Elizabeth M; de la Cruz, Armah A; Wendell, David; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2018-05-05

    Transformation products and toxicity patterns of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a common cyanotoxin in freshwaters, during degradation by solar photo-Fenton process were studied in the absence and presence of two major water components, namely fulvic acid and alkalinity. The transformation products m/z 795, 835, 515/1030 and 532 can be formed through attack of OH on the conjugated carbon double bonds of Adda. Transformation products with m/z 1010, 966 and 513 can be generated through the attack of OH on the methoxy group of Adda. The transformation products m/z 783, 508 and 1012 can be originated from the attack of OH on the cyclic structure of MC-LR. Transformation products (m/z 522, 1028, 1012, 1046 and 514) formed after hydroxylation of the aromatic ring with OH were also identified in this study. The toxicity study revealed that fulvic acid and alkalinity strongly influence the toxicity profiles of solar photo-Fenton treated MC-LR. Fulvic acid enhanced the detoxification whereas low level total alkalinity (1.8 mg L -1 CaCO 3 ) inhibited the detoxification of MC-LR by solar photo-Fenton process as assessed by protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) inhibition assay. This work provides insights on the utility of solar photo-Fenton destruction of MC-LR in water based on transformation products and toxicity data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C

    2013-01-01

    The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.

  12. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  13. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Production Submodule Photos (current)

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Step 7 - Painting Photo 14 - The paint we use is toxic and also settles very quickly, so it must be stirred before every use. Another great product from the Czech Republic. Photo 15 - We even use a motor to stir up the paint. Photo 16 - This is where we paint our Submodules with the "rust proof" paint. Photo 17 - This is a Submodule waiting to be painted in the tank. Photo 18 - Here Dave grinds off excess paint from the end of the Submodule. Photo 19 - Heres what happens to the steel after being painted. Photo 20 - The paint appears to be chaotic in the confined space of .004 inches.

  14. Simulation of morphologically structured photo-thermal neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissler, Y.; Farah, N.; Shoham, S.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Rational design of next-generation techniques for photo-thermal excitation requires the development of tools capable of modeling the effects of spatially- and temporally-dependent temperature distribution on cellular neuronal structures. Approach. We present a new computer simulation tool for predicting the effects of arbitrary spatiotemporally-structured photo-thermal stimulation on 3D, morphologically realistic neurons. The new simulation tool is based on interfacing two generic platforms, NEURON and MATLAB and is therefore suited for capturing different kinds of stimuli and neural models. Main results. Simulation results are validated using photo-absorber induced neuro-thermal stimulation (PAINTS) empirical results, and advanced features are explored. Significance. The new simulation tool could have an important role in understanding and investigating complex optical stimulation at the single-cell and network levels.

  15. Capturing Better Photos and Video with your iPhone

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, J Dennis; Sammon, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Offers unique advice for taking great photos and videos with your iPod or iPhone!. Packed with unique advice, tips, and tricks, this one-of-a-kind, full-color reference presents step-by-step guidance for taking the best possible quality photos and videos using your iPod or iPhone. Top This unique book walks you through everything from composing a picture, making minor edits, and posting content to using apps to create more dynamic images. You'll quickly put to use this up-to-date coverage of executing both common and uncommon photo and video tasks on your mobile device.: Presents unique advice

  16. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  17. Experiment of solidifying photo sensitive polymer by using UV LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byoung Hun; Shin, Sung Yeol

    2008-11-01

    The development of Nano/Micro manufacturing technologies is growing rapidly and in the same manner, the investments in these areas are increasing. The applications of Nano/Micro technologies are spreading out to semiconductor production technology, biotechnology, environmental engineering, chemical engineering and aerospace. Especially, SLA is one of the most popular applications which is to manufacture 3D shaped microstructure by using UV laser and photo sensitive polymer. To make a high accuracy and precision shape of microstructures that are required from the diverse industrial fields, the information of interaction relationship between the photo resin and the light source is necessary for further research. Experiment of solidifying photo sensitive polymer by using UV LED is the topic of this paper and the purpose of this study is to find out what relationships do the reaction of the resin have in various wavelength, power of the light and time.

  18. Photo-induced travelling waves in condensed Langmuir monolayers

    CERN Document Server

    Tabe, Y; Yokoyama, H

    2003-01-01

    We report the detailed properties of photo-induced travelling waves in liquid crystalline Langmuir monolayers composed of azobenzene derivatives. When the monolayer, in which the constituent rodlike molecules are coherently tilted from the layer normal, is weakly illuminated to undergo the trans-cis photo-isomerization, spatio-temporal periodic oscillations of the molecular azimuth begin over the entire excited area and propagate as a two-dimensional orientational wave. The wave formation takes place only when the film is formed at an asymmetric interface with broken up-down symmetry and when the chromophores are continuously excited near the long-wavelength edge of absorption to induce repeated photo-isomerizations between the trans and cis forms. Under proper illumination conditions, Langmuir monolayers composed of a wide variety of azobenzene derivatives have been confirmed to exhibit similar travelling waves with velocity proportional to the excitation power irrespective of the degree of amphiphilicity. T...

  19. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  20. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  1. Solar photo-catalysis to remove paper mill wastewater pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, A.M.; Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, EPSA-UPV, Paseo del Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Lopez, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, EPSA-UPV, Paseo del Viaducto 1, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Miranda, M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-10-01

    Solar degradation of effluents in board paper industries has been studied using different photo-catalysts: Fenton reagent and TiO{sub 2}. p-Toluenesulfonic acid was chosen as a model compound for sulfonated pollutants already present in the incoming waters. The abatement of a 0.005M solution of this pollutant after 6h was found to be 47% for photo-Fenton and 27% for TiO{sub 2} (pseudo-first-order rate constants 0.002 and 0.001min{sup -1}, respectively). Eugenol and guaiacol were chosen as models for lignin degradation products. They were efficiently degraded by both photo-catalysts, and reaction rates were higher for eugenol (0.0024min{sup -1}) than for guaiacol (0.0018min{sup -1}). A solution of sodium acetate, sodium butyrate and d-glucose was chosen to study the effect of photo-catalysis towards volatile fatty acids and saccharides arising from starch degradation. In this case a clearly worse performance was observed: only 20% degradation was observed after 7h of treatment. When the real wastewater was treated with photo-catalytic methods, the best performance was obtained in closed circuits, when the COD values were higher. This fact can be explained by taking into account that closure of the circuits results in an accumulation of reluctant phenolic pollutants, while starch derivatives are continuously degraded by microorganisms in the circuits; as phenolic compounds are more easily degraded by photo-catalytic means, these methods are suitable for closed circuits. Finally, changes in the BOD{sub st} were determined by means of active sludges respirometry. A noticeable BOD{sub st} increase (30-50%) was observed in all cases, attributable to chemical oxidation of biodegradable species. (author)

  2. Dissipative Strong-Field Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    A dissipative Lorentz-covariant Ohm's law which uses only the electromagnetic degrees of freedom is proposed. For large conductivity, Maxwell equations equipped with this Ohm's law reduce to the equations of Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) with small dissipative corrections, but only in the regions where the ideal FFE 4-current is space-like. This might indicate that the pulsar emission comes primarily from the magnetic separartrix.

  3. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of ordered mesoporous indium oxide nanocrystals in the conversion of CO2 into methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondal, M A; Dastageer, M A; Oloore, L E; Baig, U; Rashid, S G

    2017-07-03

    Ordered mesoporous indium oxide nanocrystal (m-In 2 O 3 ) was synthesized by nanocasting technique, in which highly ordered mesoporous silca (SBA-15) was used as structural matrix. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halanda (BJH) studies were carried out on m-In 2 O 3 and the results revealed that this material has a highly ordered mesoporous surface with reduced grain size, increased surface area and surface volume compared to the non porous indium oxide. The diffuse reluctance spectrum exhibited substantially improved light absorption efficiency in m-In 2 O 3 compared to normal indium oxide, however, no considerable change in the band gap energies of these materials was observed. When m-In 2 O 3 was used as a photo-catalyst in the photo-catalytic process of converting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into methanol under the pulsed laser radiation of 266-nm wavelengths, an enhanced photo-catalytic activity with the quantum efficiency of 4.5% and conversion efficiency of 46.3% were observed. It was found that the methanol production yield in this chemical process is as high as 485 µlg -1 h -1 after 150 min of irradiation, which is substantially higher than the yields reported in the literature. It is quite clear from the results that the introduction of mesoporosity in indium oxide, and the consequent enhancement of positive attributes required for a photo-catalyst, transformed photo-catalytically weak indium oxide into an effective photo-catalyst for the conversion of CO 2 into methanol.

  4. Photo refractive effect in an Azo-dye doped polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshsima, H.

    1997-01-01

    Photo refractive, todays, is the frontier of nonlinear optics. The higher nonlinear properties, the more photo refractive effect will appear. In this experimental study, applying the experimental arrangement for Degenerate Four Wave Minx ing, we got benefit of P.V.K base polymer made complex with T.N.F, that is basically charge carrier. D.M.N.P.A.A chromophore molecules are used to produce second order nonlinear optics effect. Under the best experimental condition, the measured diffraction efficiency was about 70%

  5. Technological Challenges for High-Brightness Photo-Injectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Suberlucq, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Many applications, from linear colliders to free-electron lasers, passing through light sources and many other electron sources, require high brightness electron beams, usually produced by photo-injectors. Because certain parameters of these applications differ by several orders of magnitude, various solutions were implemented for the design and construction of the three main parts of the photo-injectors: lasers, photocathodes and guns. This paper summarizes the different requirements, how they lead to technological challenges and how R&D programs try to overcome these challenges. Some examples of state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  6. Quasi-free K+ photo-production in 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Asano, S.; Emura, T.; Endo, I.; Endo, S.; Ito, S.; Itoh, H.; Ifuku, K.; Konno, O.; Koike, M.; Maruyama, K.; Niki, K.; Niwa, K.; Okuno, H.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T.; Sumi, Y.; Takeya, M.; Terasawa, T.; Uchida, H.; Yamashita, H.; Yoshida, K.

    1994-01-01

    Quasi-free K + photo-production in the 12 C(γ,K + ) reaction has been investigated in a photon energy range of 0.7-1.1GeV. Differential cross sections for the quasi-free process of the 12 C(γ,K + ) reaction have been obtained and they are compared with a calculation of a quasi-free K + photo-production. The effective proton number Z eff =4.2±0.6 obtained from the experiment was in good agreement with a calculation of a semi-classical attenuation model. ((orig.))

  7. Holographic interferometry using a digital photo-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, H.; Hledik, S.

    2001-01-01

    The possibilities of running digital holographic interferometry using commonly available compact digital zoom photo-cameras are studied. The recently developed holographic setup, suitable especially for digital photo-cameras equipped with an un detachable object lens, is used. The method described enables a simple and straightforward way of both recording and reconstructing of a digital holographic interferograms. The feasibility of the new method is verified by digital reconstruction of the interferograms acquired, using a numerical code based on the fast Fourier transform. Experimental results obtained are presented and discussed. (authors)

  8. PWO photo-elastic parameter calibration by laser-based polariscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciriaco, A.; Davi', F.; Lebeau, M.; Majni, G.; Paone, N.; Pietroni, P.; Rinaldi, D.

    2007-01-01

    We systematically measured the photo-elastic parameter f σ of PbWO 4 (PWO) for crystals of different thicknesses. We observed a linear behaviour of f σ as a function of the thickness for low level applied stresses. This result was corroborated by numerical simulations. f σ allows the evaluation of the residual internal stress, useful for crystal quality control. In this work, we also propose a new polariscope based on laser light, which allows a fast measurement and mapping of the internal stress of crystals with high resolution owing to the reduced laser-beam dimension

  9. Inner-shell photo-ionized x-ray laser schemes for low-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S. J.; Eder, D. C.; Strobel, G. L.

    1995-01-01

    Gain calculations for inner-shell photo-ionized lasing in C at 45 A are performed. An incident x-ray source represented by a 150 eV blackbody with a rise time of 50 fsec gives a gain of order 10 cm -1 . The x-ray source and thus the driving optical laser requirements are significantly reduced as compared to what is needed for Ne at 15 A. We expect that existing ultra-short pulse lasers can produce the required x-ray source and thus produce a table-top x-ray laser at 45 A

  10. Quenching of TiO2 photo catalysis by silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vece, Marcel; Laursen, Anders Bo; Bech, Lone

    2012-01-01

    important consequences for photocatalysis. Here the effect of silver nanoparticles of a size up to 30nm and at maximum 0.50 monolayers on the photocatalytic oxidation of ethylene on TiO2 is studied. Since the plasmon resonance energy of silver nanoparticles is comparable with the TiO2 band gap, dipole......–dipole interaction converts excitons into heat at the silver nanoparticle. This indicates that plasmonic interaction with TiO2 semiconductor catalysts can reduce the photo catalytic activity considerably....

  11. Sharp correlations in the ARPES spectra of strongly disordered topological boundary modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ringel, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    Data from angle resolved photo-emission spectroscopy (ARPES) often serves as a smoking-gun evidence for the existence of topological materials. It provides the energy dispersion curves of the topological boundary modes which characterize these phases. Unfortunately this method requires a sufficiently regular boundary such that these boundary modes remain sharp in momentum space. Here the seemingly random data obtained from performing ARPES on strongly disordered topological insulators and Wey...

  12. Effect of natural organic matter on the photo-induced toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Alexis M; Coral, Jason; Alloy, Matthew M; Delmarè, Carmen L; Mansfield, Charles M; Klaine, Stephen J; Bisesi, Joseph H; Roberts, Aaron P

    2017-06-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is the most widely used form of nanoparticles in commercial industry and comes in 2 main configurations: rutile and anatase. Rutile TiO 2 is used in ultraviolet (UV) screening applications, whereas anatase TiO 2 crystals have a surface defect that makes them photoreactive. There are numerous reports in the literature of photo-induced toxicity to aquatic organisms following coexposure to anatase nano-TiO 2 and UV. All natural freshwater contains varying amounts of natural organic matter (NOM), which can drive UV attenuation and quench reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aquatic ecosystems. The present research examined how NOM alters the photo-induced toxicity of anatase nano-TiO 2 . Daphnia magna neonates were coexposed to NOM and photoexcited anatase nano-TiO 2 for 48 h. Natural organic matter concentrations as low as 4 mg/L reduced anatase nano-TiO 2 toxicity by nearly 100%. These concentrations of NOM attenuated UV by <10% in the exposure system. However, ROS production measured using a fluorescence assay was significantly reduced in a NOM concentration--dependent manner. Taken together, these data suggest that NOM reduces anatase nano-TiO 2 toxicity via an ROS quenching mechanism and not by attenuation of UV. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1661-1666. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Photo- and biophysical studies of lectin-conjugated fluorescent nanoparticles: reduced sensitivity in high density assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaqi; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Basu, Amit; Zimmt, Matthew B

    2010-11-18

    Lectin-conjugated, fluorescent silica nanoparticles (fNP) have been developed for carbohydrate-based histopathology evaluations of epithelial tissue biopsies. The fNP platform was selected for its enhanced emissive brightness compared to direct dye labeling. Carbohydrate microarray studies were performed to compare the carbohydrate selectivity of the mannose-recognizing lectin Concanavalin A (ConA) before and after conjugation to fluorescent silica nanoparticles (ConA-fNP). These studies revealed surprisingly low emission intensities upon staining with ConA-fNP compared to those with biotin-ConA/Cy3-streptavidin staining. A series of photophysical and biophysical characterizations of the fNP and ConA-fNP conjugates were performed to probe the low sensitivity from fNP in the microarray assays. Up to 1200 fluorescein (FL) and 80 tetramethylrhodamine (TR) dye molecules were incorporated into 46 nm diameter fNP, yielding emissive brightness values 400 and 35 times larger than the individual dye molecules, respectively. ConA lectin conjugated to carboxylic acid surface-modified nanoparticles covers 15-30% of the fNP surface. The CD spectra and mannose substrate selectivity of ConA conjugated to the fNP differed slightly compared to that of soluble ConA. Although, the high emissive brightness of fNP enhances detection sensitivity for samples with low analyte densities, large fNP diameters limit fNP recruitment and binding to samples with high analyte densities. The high analyte density and nearly two-dimensional target format of carbohydrate microarrays make probe size a critical parameter. In this application, fNP labels afford minimal sensitivity advantage compared to direct dye labeling.

  14. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  15. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  16. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  17. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  18. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  19. VUV PHOTO-PROCESSING OF PAH CATIONS: QUANTITATIVE STUDY ON THE IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Junfeng; Castillo, Sarah Rodriguez; Joblin, Christine; Mulas, Giacomo; Sabbah, Hassan; Giuliani, Alexandre; Nahon, Laurent; Martin, Serge; Champeaux, Jean-Philippe; Mayer, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are strongly affected by the absorption of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons in the interstellar medium (ISM), yet the branching ratio between ionization and fragmentation is poorly studied. This is crucial for the stability and charge state of PAHs in the ISM in different environments, affecting in turn the chemistry, the energy balance, and the contribution of PAHs to the extinction and emission curves. We studied the interaction of PAH cations with VUV photons in the 7–20 eV range from the synchrotron SOLEIL beamline, DESIRS. We recorded by action spectroscopy the relative intensities of photo-fragmentation and photo-ionization for a set of eight PAH cations ranging in size from 14 to 24 carbon atoms, with different structures. At photon energies below ∼13.6 eV fragmentation dominates for the smaller species, while for larger species ionization is immediately competitive after the second ionization potential (IP). At higher photon energies all species behave similarly; the ionization yield gradually increases, leveling off between 0.8 and 0.9 at ∼18 eV. Among isomers, PAH structure appears to mainly affect the fragmentation cross section but not the ionization cross section. We also measured the second IP for all species and the third IP for two of them; all are in good agreement with theoretical ones, confirming that PAH cations can be further ionized in the diffuse ISM. Determining actual PAH dication abundances in the ISM will require detailed modeling. Our measured photo-ionization yields for several PAH cations provide a necessary ingredient for such models.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain pathogenic bacterial strains. Ravi Kant Upadhyay, Pratibha Dwivedi and Shoeb Ahmad. Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, U.P. India- ...

  1. Photo-bleaching of polymer discoloration caused by quinone methides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zweifel, H.; Kuthan, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2002), s. 251-255 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1050901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : quinone methide * photo-bleaching * polymer discoloration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.145, year: 2002

  2. Photo-orientation in azobenzene containing polybutadiene based polymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Zakrevskyy, Y.; Stumpe, J.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Studenovský, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2005), s. 1371-1375 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4112401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : azobenzene * polybutadien * photo-orientation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  3. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation binary combination of photo activated and it binary combinations was determined against seven bacterial strains. Photoactivated cow urine has shown MIC value 0.25 ml/ml MIC value against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778), Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC ...

  4. A Comparison of Demonstration and Tutorials in Photo Editing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbiyik, Cenk

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this study, tutorial and demonstration methods in photo editing instruction were compared. The instruction method was the independent variable of the study while cognitive load, state anxiety level, student performance, student achievement, and task duration were dependent variables. The research was conducted with 62 undergraduate…

  5. Photo-crystallization of a-Se thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mously, M.K.; Mina, M.K.

    1981-07-01

    Photo-crystallization of a-Se films (75-90 0 C) was discussed by optical microscope observation and electrical conductivity measurement. Kinetics of phase transformation was presented using the Avrami equation and a suggested model for the conductivity of a binary system. No change in the activation energy of crystallization by illumination was indicated. (author)

  6. Photo-orientation at liquid crystal–polymer interfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is suggested that liquid crystal–polymer interfaces are coupled systems, in which the components mutually influence the orientational state of each other. The photo-orientation process at liquid crystal–polymer interfaces provides a striking example of such a coupling. Experiments show that the anisotropic structure ...

  7. Onboard photo: Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  8. Concentrated Light for Accelerated Photo Degradation of Polymer Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Tromholt, Thomas; Norrman, Kion

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated light is used to perform photochemical degradation of polymer solar cell materials with acceleration factors up to 1200. At constant temperature the photon efficiency in regards to photo degradation is constant for 1–150 suns and oxygen diffusion rates are not a limiting factor....... Accelerated degradation by concentrated light thus allows for rapid and precise evaluations of one sun polymer stabilities....

  9. Cobaloxime-based photo-catalytic devices for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fihri, A.; Artero, V.; Razavet, M.; Baffert, C.; Fontecave, M. [CEA Grenoble, DSV, iRTSV, Lab Chim et Biol Metaux, CNRS, UMR 5249, Univ Grenoble 1, F-38054 Grenoble 9 (France); Leibl, W. [CEA, DSV, iBiTecS, Lab Photocatalyse et Biohydrogene, CNRS, URA 2096, Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is described the synthesis and activity of a series of novel hetero-dinuclear ruthenium-cobaloxime photo-catalysts able to achieve the photochemical production of hydrogen with the highest turnover numbers so far reported for such devices. First of all, substituting cobalt for rare and expensive platinum, palladium, or rhodium metals in photo-catalysts is a first step toward economically viable hydrogen production. Cobaloximes appear to be good candidates for H{sub 2}-evolving catalysts, and they may provide a good basis for the design of photo-catalysts that function in pure water as both the solvent and the sustainable proton source. Secondly, a molecular connection between the sensitizer and the H{sub 2}-evolving catalyst seems to provide advantages regarding the photo-catalytic activity. Structural modifications of this connection should allow a better tuning of the electron transfer between the light-harvesting unit and the catalytic center and thus an increase of the efficiency of the system. (O.M.)

  10. Soft tissue cavernous haemangioma: Photo essay | Girma | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft tissue cavernous haemangioma: Photo essay. Edom Girma, Asfaw Atnafu. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jemp.v4i1.10614 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  11. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatek, M

    2008-01-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment.

  12. Photo-induced antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Chem. Sci. Vol. 125, No. 5, September 2013, pp. 1015–1027. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Photo-induced antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies ... †Present address: Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam, India. #Present address: ..... C overnight and exam- ined for ...

  13. Photo of the alignment for the ARIA experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2017-01-01

    Photo of the alignment for the ARIA experiment. After placing the 3 modules next to each other on the floor in bdg 180, we will soon proceed to align them. That will imply lifting and rotations of some of the modules.

  14. Effects of Concept Mapping on Creativity in Photo Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simper, Natalie; Reeve, Richard; Kirby, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    This research tested the use of concept map planning to support the development of creativity in photo stories, hypothesizing that skills taught to support organization would improve creativity. Concept maps are a type of graphic organizer, used to represent an ordering of ideas with nodes and linking words that form propositional statements. They…

  15. Aerial photo guide to New England forest cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Riemann Hershey; William A. Befort

    1995-01-01

    NOTE large file size. Presents color infrared photos in stereo pairs for the identification of New England forest cover types. Depicts range maps, ecological relations, and range of composition for each forest cover type described. The guide is designed to assist the needs of interpreters of medium to large-scale color infrared aerial photography.

  16. On the nature of photo charge carriers in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V. F.; Khusnatdinov, N. N.

    1994-06-01

    A method of photoelectromotive force (PEMF) was developed to find the charge sign, mobility, and lifetime of photo charge carriers in ice generated by photons with energy hν≳6.5 eV. It was determined that the most mobile photo charge carriers are negative ones, with mobility μ increasing from 2×10-3 cm2/V s at T=-10 °C to 4×10-2 cm2/V s at T=-30 °C, and with their lifetime decreasing from 30 to 10 s in the same temperature range. Activation energies of the mobility and the lifetime are Eμ=-0.77 eV and Eτ=0.32 eV, respectively. In addition to the negative photo charge carriers positive ones arise with mobility μ=2.3×10-4 cm2/V s and lifetime τ=26 min at T=-15 °C. We suggest that the negative photo charge carriers in ice are mobile complexes of an electron, vacancy and D-defect (e-+V+D). To take into account a specific mechanism of charge transport in ice, configurational vector Ω, and the generation of complexes (e-+V+D), a reaction of ``autoionization'' was modified for ice, 2H2O+hν→H3O++OH•int(e-+V+D).

  17. Today’s Mumbai as Photo-Textuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to enquire into representations of the city of Mumbai whose urban development has produced images of heaven and hell, sometimes within enclosed boundaries. What is interesting to tackle here is its aestheticisation in a photo-book which presents itself as ‘image-text’ (Mitchel, Stafford, Bombay/Mumbai. Immersions (2013. Not differently from what happens in other cities, such as Cape Town, for instance, here considered only very briefly as counterpoint, the Indian megalopolis’s development has produced disconnected images of urban heaven and hell. The photo-text here discussed presents itself as a composite narrative of words and photos, as the product of the cooperation between an Indian woman poet, Priya Sarukkai Chabria, and an English photographer now based in France, Christopher Taylor. Last but certainly not least in a long sequence of urban photo-texts, this new project requires the reader’s attention in order to try and clarify its role, its meaning, its function, its ethical/aesthetic responsibilities.

  18. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  19. Aerosol and Photo-Oxidant Processes in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazaridis, M.; Spyridaki, A.; Solberg, S.; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír; Eleftheriadis, K.; Aleksandropoulos, V.; Hov, O.; Georgopoulos, P. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2004), s. 5455-5514 ISSN 1680-7367 Grant - others:ENVK2(XE) 1999-00052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : aerosol * mesoscale modeling * photo-oxidant processes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Synthesis, characterization and photo-epoxidation performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, characterization and photo-epoxidation performance of Au-loaded photocatalysts. VAN-HUY NGUYEN, HSIANG-YU CHAN and JEFFREY C S WU. ∗. Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan e-mail: cswu@ntu.edu.tw. MS received 7 November 2012; revised 11 ...

  1. Creating aesthetic, institutional and symbolic boundaries in fashion photo shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Kuipers, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a ‘bottom-up’, micro-sociological analysis of cultural production. Drawing on detailed observations of fashion photo shoots and interviews with fashion professionals in the Netherlands, we analyse how the division between ‘high’ (editorial) and ‘low’ (commercial) culture is

  2. High-Speed Photo-Polarimetry of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Potter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I review recent highlights of the SAAO High-speed Photo-POlarimeter (HIPPO on the study of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables. Its high-speed capabilities are demonstrated with example observations made of the intermediate polar NY Lup and the polar IGRJ14536-5522.

  3. Physical conditions in Photo-Dissociation Regions around Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard-Salas, J; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    We present observations of the infrared fine-structure lines of [Si II] (34.8 mum), [O I] (63.2 and 145.5 mum) and [C II] (157.7 mum) obtained with the ISO SWS and LWS spectrographs of nine Planetary Nebulae (PNe). These lines originate in the Photo-Dissociation Regions (PDRs) associated with the

  4. Origin of photo-induced transmitting oscillations in chalcogenide glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, HaiZheng; Yang, ZhiYong; Lucas, Pierre

    2009-09-28

    Light-induced oscillatory behaviors of transmission in chalcogenide glasses are investigated using a continuous wave tunable Ti-sapphire laser. It is shown that phase change, thermal fluctuation, nonlinear index change and periodic self focusing are not at the origin of light-induced oscillatory transmittance in chalcogenide glasses. Instead, results indicate that the interference of transmitting and reflecting light is at the origin of the oscillatory behaviors of transmitted light. Just like the principle of Fabry-Pérot interferometer, these interferences result in a periodic change in transmission as the related interferential beams get in and out of phase. However, this transmitting oscillatory behavior can be registered by the detector only when the change of optical path length difference initiated by photo-induced effects is slower enough compared with the corresponding response time of the detector. Several photo-structural effects contribute to that phenomenon including photo-expansion, photo-darkening, and permanent self focusing. It appears that fluctuations of the light source intensity induce a wide distribution of the oscillatory periods.

  5. Digital holography using a digital photo-camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekanina, H.; Pospíšil, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 13 (2002), s. 2083-2092 ISSN 0950-0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : digital holography * photo-camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2002

  6. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  7. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  8. A Shift from Spectator to Creator: A Study of Blog Writing in a Print and Photo High School Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Olav Nygard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a study of written blog texts from 12 third grade high school students produced during one academic year, commenting on their photos and artwork as part of their curriculum in the discipline Print and Photo. The article aims to capture a change in how the students position themselves as photographers in their blog texts from the beginning towards the end of the academic year. An initial hypothesis is that the students develop a disciplinary language throughout one year of writing about their photo activities. This hypothesis is the basis for the research question: Throughout one year of blogging, is there a change in the students’ writing with a focus on how they through resources in language construe a perspective on their role as participants in a discipline or profession? Analysis of the texts shows that there is a clear tendency to reduce constructions with forms of to be from the beginning towards the end of the academic year, whereas constructions with forms of to have increase in the same time span. This finding is detailed by analyzing one of the students’ texts, finding a shift from predominantly descriptive accounts of the images to using language to position themselves as active participants focusing on the process of composition. Examining the distribution of abstract versus concrete nouns in the same texts shows that the frequency of abstracts nouns stays the same whereas there is a reduced frequency of concrete nouns. These findings suggest a change in the students’ language from descriptions of elements in their photos into a particular kind of abstraction where the students discuss their photos in terms of how they compose the images. This change in language use suggests a shift in the students’ positions from spectators to creators.

  9. Elongational rheology and cohesive fracture of photo-oxidated LDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolón-Garrido, Víctor H.; Wagner, Manfred H.

    2014-01-01

    It was found recently that low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with different degrees of photo-oxidation represent an interesting system to study the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture and the aspects of the cohesive rupture in elongational flow. Sheets of LDPE were subjected to photo-oxidation in the presence of air using a xenon lamp to irradiate the samples for times between 1 day and 6 weeks. Characterisation methods included Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solvent extraction method, and rheology in shear and uniaxial extensional flows. Linear viscoelasticity was increasingly affected by increasing photo-oxidation due to crosslinking of LDPE, as corroborated by the carbonyl index, acid and aldehydes groups, and gel fraction. The molecular stress function model was used to quantify the experimental data, and the nonlinear model parameter β was found to be correlated with the gel content. The uniaxial data showed that the transition from ductile to cohesive fracture was shifted to lower elongational rates, the higher the gel content was. From 2 weeks photo-oxidation onwards, cohesive rupture occurred at every strain rate investigated. The true strain and true stress at cohesive fracture as well as the energy density applied to the sample up to fracture were analyzed. At low gel content, rupture was mainly determined by the melt fraction while at high gel content, rupture occurred predominantly in the gel structure. The strain at break was found to be independent of strain rate, contrary to the stress at break and the energy density. Thus, the true strain and not the stress at break or the energy density was found to be the relevant physical quantity to describe cohesive fracture behavior of photo-oxidated LDPE. The equilibrium modulus of the gel structures was correlated with the true strain at rupture. The stiffer the gel structure, the lower was the deformation tolerated before the sample breaks

  10. Photo-Curing: UV Radiation curing of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    The Polymers Branch of the Materials Division is dedicated to the development of high-performance for a variety of applications. Areas of significant interest include high- temperature polymers, low density, and high strength insulating materials, conductive polymers, and high density polymer electrolytes. This summer our group is working diligently on a photo-curing project. There is interest in the medical community feel the need for a new and improved balloon that will be used for angioplasty (a form of heart surgery). This product should maintain flexibility but add many other properties. Like possibly further processability and resistance to infection. Our group intends on coming up with this product by using photo-enolization (or simply, photo-curing) by Diels-Alder trapping. The main objective was to synthesize a series of new polymers by Diels-Alder cycloaddition of photoenols with more elastomeric properties. Our group was responsible for performing the proper photo-curing techniques of the polymers with diacrylates and bismaleimides, synthesizing novel monomers, and evaluating experimental results. We attempted to use a diacrylate to synthesize the polymer because of previous research done within the Polymers Branch here at NASA. Most acrylates are commercially available, have more elastometric properties than a typical rigid aromatic structure has and they contain ethylene oxides in the middle of their structure that create extensive flexibility. The problem we encountered with the acrylates is that they photo chemically and thermally self polymerize and create diradicals at low temperatures; these constraints caused a lot of unnecessary side reactions. We want to promote solely, diketone polymerization because this type of polymerization has the ability to cause very elastic polymers. We chose to direct our attention towards the usage of maleimides because they are known for eliminating these unnecessary side reactions.

  11. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  12. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  13. Photo-Acoustic Spectroscopy Reveals Extrinsic Optical Chirality in GaAs-Based Nanowires Partially Covered with Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronijevic, E.; Leahu, G.; Belardini, A.; Centini, M.; Li Voti, R.; Hakkarainen, T.; Koivusalo, E.; Rizzo Piton, M.; Suomalainen, S.; Guina, M.; Sibilia, C.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the extrinsic chirality behavior of GaAs-based NWs asymmetrically hybridized with Au. The samples are fabricated by a recently developed, lithography-free self-organized GaAs growth, with the addition of AlGaAs shell and GaAs supershell. The angled Au flux is then used to cover three-out-of-six sidewalls with a thin layer of Au. Oblique incidence and proper sample orientation can lead to circular dichroism. We characterize this chiral behavior at 532 {nm} and 980 {nm} by means of photo-acoustic spectroscopy, which directly measures the difference in absorption for the circularly polarized light of the opposite headedness. For the first time to our knowledge, circular dichroism is observed in both the amplitude and the phase of the photo-acoustic signal. We strongly believe that such samples can be used for chiral applications, spanning from circularly polarized light emission, to the enantioselectivity applications.

  14. Photo-physical and interactional behavior of two members of group B vitamins in different solvent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Zare Haghighi, L.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, absorption and fluorescence spectra of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) were recorded in solvents with different polarity, at room temperature. These vitamins' photo-physical behavior depends strongly on the solvent's nature along with different attached groups in their structures. In order to investigate the solvent-solute interactions and environmental effect on spectral variations, linear solvation energy relationships concept, suggested by Kamlet and Taft was used. Solvatochromic method was also used for measuring the ground and excited state dipole moments of these vitamins. According to our experimental results, dipole moment of these groups of vitamins in excited state is larger than ground state. Furthermore, obtained photo-physical and interactional properties of used vitamins can give important information on how this group of vitamins behaves in biological systems.

  15. First-principles simulation of transient x-ray absorption spectroscopy of photo-excited molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Das; Closser, Kristina; Prendergast, David; Simes; Molecular Foundry Collaboration Collaboration

    We explore the utility of beyond-ground-state density functional methods such as constrained density functional theory (c-DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the interpretation of time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopies investigating chemical dynamics in photo-excited molecular systems. Recent results based on a methodology that combines a state-by-state self-consistent field description such as c-DFT with a frequency domain linear-response TDDFT approach to model the core-level spectroscopy of photo-excited ring-opening dynamics in small molecular systems is discussed. Illustrative case studies involving the strong-field ionization of Selenophene and resonant UV-vis excitation of 1,3-cyclohexadiene are presented.

  16. How to Use SANC to Improve the PHOTOS Monte Carlo Simulation of Bremsstrahlung In Leptonic W-Boson Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanava, G.; ); Was, Z.; )

    2003-01-01

    Using the SANC system we study the one-loop electroweak standard model predictions, including virtual and real photon emission, for the decays of the on-shell vector boson, W → lν l γ. The complete one-loop corrections and exact photon emission matrix element are taken into account. For the phase space integration, the Monte Carlo technique is used. This provides a useful element, first for the evaluation of the theoretical uncertainty of PHOTOS. Later we analyse the source of the differences between SANC and PHOTOS and we calculate the additional weight, which once installed, improves predictions of PHOTOS simulations. We can conclude that, after the correction of the weight is implemented, the theoretical uncertainty of PHOTOS simulations due to an incomplete first-order matrix element is reduced to below, for observables not tagging the photon in a direct way, and to 10% otherwise. This is interesting for applications in the phenomenology of the ongoing LEP2 and future LC and LHC experimental studies. (author)

  17. Photo-electrochemical properties of graphene wrapped hierarchically branched nanostructures obtained through hydrothermally transformed TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, Y.; Jaiswal, Manu; Roy, Somnath C.

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchically structured nanomaterials play an important role in both light absorption and separation of photo-generated charges. In the present study, hierarchically branched TiO2 nanostructures (HB-MLNTs) are obtained through hydrothermal transformation of electrochemically anodized TiO2 multi-leg nanotubes (MLNT) arrays. Photo-anodes based on HB-MLNTs demonstrated 5 fold increase in applied bias to photo-conversion efficiency (%ABPE) over that of TiO2 MLNTs without branches. Further, such nanostructures are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films to enhance the charge separation, which resulted in ∼6.5 times enhancement in %ABPE over that of bare MLNTs. We estimated charge transport (η tr) and charge transfer (η ct) efficiencies by analyzing the photo-current data. The ultra-fine nano branches grown on the MLNTs are effective in increasing light absorption through multiple scattering and improving charge transport/transfer efficiencies by enlarging semiconductor/electrolyte interface area. The charge transfer resistance, interfacial capacitance and electron decay time have been estimated through electrochemical impedance measurements which correlate with the results obtained from photocurrent measurements.

  18. Pilot Testing a Photo-Based Food Diary in Nine- to Twelve- Year Old- Children from Dunedin, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany K. Davison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9–12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based food dairy on four days, followed by four more days using a photo-based diary on an iPod. This photo-based diary used a combination of photographs and short written descriptions of foods consumed. The photo-based diaries produced similar results to written diaries for all macronutrients and major micronutrients (e.g., calcium, fibre, vitamin C. Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods for all nutrients, except sugars, were above 0.3. However, burden on researchers and participants was reduced for the photo-based diary, primarily due to the additional information obtained from photographs. Participating children needed less help from parents with completing the electronic diaries and preferred them to the paper version. This electronic diary is likely to be suitable, after additional formal validity testing, for use in measuring nutrient intake in children.

  19. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  20. Photo-activated porphyrin in combination with antibiotics: therapies against Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheyb, Sana S.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcal infections have become difficult to treat due to antibiotic insensitivity and resistance. Antimicrobial combination therapies may minimize acquisition of resistance and photodynamic therapy is an attractive candidate for these combinations. In this manuscript, we explore combined use of antibiotics and meso-tetra (4-aminophenyl) porphine (TAPP), a cationic porphyrin, for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus contamination. We characterize the antimicrobial activity of photoactivated TAPP and show that activity is largely lost in the presence of a radical scavenger. Importantly, TAPP can be reactivated with continued, albeit attenuated, antibacterial activity. We then show that the antimicrobial activity of illuminated TAPP is additive with chloramphenicol and tobramycin for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and synergistic for MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Chloramphenicol + methylene blue, another photosensitizer, also show additivity against Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, ceftriaxone and vancomycin do not strongly augment the low level effects of TAPP against S. aureus. Eukaryotic cells exhibit a dose-dependent toxicity with illuminated TAPP. Our results suggest that even sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels of photo-activated TAPP could be used to boost the activity of waning antibiotics. This may play an important role in treatments reliant on antibiotic controlled release systems where augmentation with photo-active agents could extend their efficacy. PMID:24148969

  1. Tuning the photo-response in monolayer MoS2 by plasmonic nano-antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiu; Ji, Qingqing; Chu, Saisai; Zhang, Yanfeng; Li, Yan; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Kaihui; Shi, Kebin

    2016-03-01

    Monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted intense interests due to its remarkable optical properties of valley-selected optical response, strong nonlinear wave mixing and photocurrent/photovoltaic generation and many corresponding potential applications. However, the nature of atomic-thin thickness of monolayer MoS2 leads to inefficient light-matter interactions and thereby hinders its optoelectronic applications. Here we report on the enhanced and controllable photo-response in MoS2 by utilizing surface plasmonic resonance based on metallic nano-antenna with characteristic lateral size of 40 × 80 nm. Our nano-antenna is designed to have one plasmonic resonance in the visible range and can enhance the MoS2 photoluminescence intensity up to 10 folds. The intensity enhancement can be effectively tuned simply by the manipulation of incident light polarization. In addition, we can also control the oscillator strength ratio between exciton and trion states by controlling polarization dependent hot carrier doping in MoS2. Our results demonstrate the possibility in controlling the photo-response in broad two-dimensional materials by well-designed nano-antenna and facilitate its coming optoelectronic applications.

  2. The hybrid methylene blue-zeolite system: a higher efficient photo catalyst for photo inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolinska, M.; Cik, G.; Sersen, F.; Caplovicova, M.; Takacova, A.; Kopani, M.

    2015-01-01

    The composite system can be prepared by incorporation of methylene blue into the channels of zeolite and by adsorption on the surface of the crystals. The composite photo sensitizer effectively absorbs the red light (kmax = 648 nm) and upon illumination with light-emitting diode at a fluence rate of 1.02 mW cm-2 generates effectively reactive singlet oxygen in aqueous solution, which was proved by EPR spectroscopy. To test efficiency for inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms, we measured photo killing of bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans. We found out that after the microorganisms have been adsorbed at the surface of such modified zeolite, the photo generated singlet oxygen quickly penetrates their cell walls, bringing about their effective photo inactivation. The growth inhibition reached almost 50 % at 200 and 400 mg modified zeolite in 1 ml of medium in E. coli and C. albicans, respectively. On the other hand, the growth inhibition of S. aureus reached 50 % at far smaller amount of photo catalyst (30 lg per 1 ml of medium). These results demonstrate differences in sensitivities of bacteria and yeast growth. The comparison revealed that concentration required for IC50 was in case of C. albicans several orders of magnitude lower for a zeolite-immobilized dye than it was for a freely dissolved dye. In S. aureus, this concentration was even lower by four orders of magnitude. Thus, our work suggested a new possibility to exploitation of zeolite and methylene blue in the protection of biologically contaminated environment, and in photodynamic therapy.

  3. Thermal- and photo-induced degradation of perfluorinated carboxylic acids: Kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaoqin; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Zunyao; Mendoza-Sanchez, Itza; Sharma, Virender K

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) of different carbon chain lengths are chemicals of concern to human health and their removal, using conventional remediation technologies, is challenging. The present paper pursuits thermal and photo-induced degradation of PFCAs (F(CF 2 ) n COOH, n = 1-9) under various concentrations of four different acids (HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HCl, and H 3 PO 4 ) covering a range of strong acidic to basic pH. For thermal-induced experiments, the temperature was set at 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C at acid strengths of 0.04-18.4 M. Photo-induced experiments were conducted at pH 0.5, 7.0, and 13.0 under a light intensity of (150 ± 10) × 100 μW/cm 2 . The degradation first-order rate constant (k 1, h -1 ) as a function of [H + ] was modeled by considering equilibrium of nondissociated (F(CF 2 ) n COOH, HX) and dissociated (F(CF 2 ) n COO - , X - ) species of PFCAs (HX ⇌ X -  + H + , pK a  = -0.1). Species-specific rate constants, k 1 HX , reasonably described the trend of thermal and photo decay of PFCAs, where k 1 HX increased with acidity of solution and the carbon chain length of PFCAs. Mechanism of degradation of PFCAs (e.g. perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) involved homolytic breakage of CC bond between alkyl and carboxyl groups, which produced radicals and subsequently decarboxylation to perfluoroheptene-1. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations supported the mechanism. The calculations indicated that a breaking of CC bond is more feasible with nondissociated HX than dissociated X - species of PFCAs and also with increase in chain length. The potential of a combination of thermal- and photo-induced processes under acidic conditions to enhance degradation of PFOA in water is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Orientation control of photo-immobilized antibodies on the surface of azobenzene-containing polymers by the introduction of functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Makoto; Ikawa, Taiji; Narita, Mamiko; Hoshino, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Osamu

    2010-06-11

    In our photo-induced immobilization technique for an antibody (IgG) using azopolymers, the introduction of COOH and NMe(2) into the azopolymers, which can introduce surface charges, strongly affected the immobilization properties such as the efficiency of immobilization and the activity of the immobilized IgG (i.e., the orientation of the immobilized IgG). The introduction of COOH promoted a more active orientation of the immobilized IgG. The orientation was determined during the adsorption process onto the azopolymer surface in solution before photo-immobilization, and was maintained during the photo-immobilization. The surface charge of the azopolymer appears to be an important factor for IgG orientation, which involves electrostatic interactions between its Fab and the azopolymer surface.

  5. A Self-Aligned a-IGZO Thin-Film Transistor Using a New Two-Photo-Mask Process with a Continuous Etching Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the parasitic capacitance and the number of photo-masks can improve operational speed and reduce fabrication costs. Therefore, in this study, a new two-photo-mask process is proposed that exhibits a self-aligned structure without an etching-stop layer. Combining the backside-ultraviolet (BUV exposure and backside-lift-off (BLO schemes can not only prevent the damage when etching the source/drain (S/D electrodes but also reduce the number of photo-masks required during fabrication and minimize the parasitic capacitance with the decreasing of gate overlap length at same time. Compared with traditional fabrication processes, the proposed process yields that thin-film transistors (TFTs exhibit comparable field-effect mobility (9.5 cm2/V·s, threshold voltage (3.39 V, and subthreshold swing (0.3 V/decade. The delay time of an inverter fabricated using the proposed process was considerably decreased.

  6. Photo excitation and laser detachment of C60 − anions in a storage ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støchkel, Kristian; Andersen, Jens Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the photo physics of C60 − anions in the electrostatic storage ring ELISA with ions produced in a plasma source and cooled and bunched in a He filled ion trap. A previous study using delayed electron detachment as a signal of resonance-enhanced multiphoton electron detachment...... from a principal component analysis of these spectra. In good agreement with the earlier REMPED experiment, an origin band for transitions between the two lowest electronic levels of the anion, with t 1u and t 1g symmetry, is observed at 9380 cm−1, with strong sidebands from excitation of the two A g...... level, is much weaker in the new measurements and could be an H g vibrational sideband. Also earlier studies of direct laser detachment from C60 − in the storage ring ASTRID have been revisited, with ions cooled by liquid nitrogen in the ion trap. We confirm the previous measurement with a determination...

  7. Resistive switching in individual ZnO nanorods: delineating the ionic current by photo-stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandopadhyay, K.; Prajapati, K. N.; Mitra, J.

    2018-03-01

    Resistive switching in nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors has been broadly understood to originate from the dynamics of its native point defects. Experimental results of switching observed in individual n-ZnO nanorods grown on a p-type polymer is presented along with an empirical model describing the underlying defect dynamics necessary to observe bi-polar switching. Selective photo excitation of electrons into the defect states delineates the incidence and role of an ionic current in the switching behavior. The understanding further extends to the observance of a negative differential resistance regime that is often coincident in such systems. The analysis not only unifies the underlying physics of the two phenomena but also offers further confidence in the proposed mechanism. We conclude by demonstrating that the effective memresistance of such devices is a strong function of the operating bias and identify parameters that optimize switching performance.

  8. Photo-assisted generation of phospholipid polymer substrates for regiospecific protein conjugation and control of cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Novel photo-reactive phospholipid polymers were synthesized for use in the preparation of nonfouling surfaces with protein conjugation capacity. Poly[2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-ran-N-methacryloyl-(l)-tyrosinemethylester (MAT)] (P(MPC/MAT)) was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization, with the MAT units capable of being oxidized by 254nm UV irradiation. Because of this photo-oxidation, active species such as catechol and quinone were alternately generated in the copolymer. A silicon wafer was subjected to surface modification through spin coating of P(MPC/MAT) from an aqueous solution for use as a model substrate. The surface was then irradiated several times with UV light. The thickness of the polymer layers formed on the Si wafers was influenced by various parameters such as polymer concentration, UV irradiation time, and composition of the MAT units in P(MPC/MAT). Oxidized MAT units were advantageous not only for polymer adhesion to a solid surface but also for protein conjugation with the adhered polymers. The amount of protein immobilized on UV-irradiated P(MPC/MAT) was dependent on the composition of the MAT units in the polymer. Furthermore, it was confirmed that protein immobilization on the polymer occurred through the oxidized MAT units because the protein adsorption was significantly reduced upon blocking these units through pretreatment with glycine. Conjugation of regiospecific protein could also be achieved through the use of a photomask. In addition, nonspecific protein adsorption was reduced on the non-irradiated regions whose surface was covered with physisorbed P(MPC/MAT). Therefore, P(MPC/MAT) can be used in the preparation of nonfouling substrates, which enable micrometer-sized manipulation of proteins through photo-irradiation. Function of proteins immobilized on MPC copolymers was also confirmed by cell adhesion test. As such, photo-reactive MPC copolymers are suitable for performing controlled protein conjugation

  9. Photo-Fenton treatment of water containing natural phenolic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernjak, Wolfgang; Krutzler, Thomas; Glaser, Andreas; Malato, Sixto; Caceres, Julia; Bauer, Rupert; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2003-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are known to be present in high concentrations in various types of agro-industrial wastes. As they are highly biorecalcitrant, the possibility of treatment by advanced oxidation processes should be investigated. In this work, six model phenolic compounds (vanillin, protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and L-tyrosine) were chosen for a demonstration of degradation by photo-Fenton reaction, under artificial light in laboratory experiments in Vienna and under sunlight in pilot-plant experiments at the Plataforma Solar de Almería in Spain. All compounds were completely mineralised. No non-degradable intermediates were produced, either in experiments with single substances or in a more complex matrix of a mixture of phenolic compounds. The expected selectivity of the photo-Fenton reaction for aromatic compounds was proven by comparison of the decrease in total organic carbon with the removal of total phenolic content.

  10. View and Manage Your Photos on the iPad

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2010-01-01

    One of the iPad's big pluses is its beautiful, high-resolution display. That makes it a perfect way to stroll down memory lane-from the comfort of your armchair. View and Manage Your Photos on the iPad: The Mini Missing Manual shows you how to import, organize, and enjoy your photos using clear, jargon-free explanations and step-by-step instructions. You'll learn to create slideshows complete with your own soundtrack and transitions, connect your tablet to a big-screen TV so you can gather the family around, turn your slab into a digital picture frame (a great idea when you recharge your 'Pa

  11. Measuring the arrival times of overlapped photo-events

    CERN Document Server

    Stoyanov, D V; Kolarov, G V

    2000-01-01

    We have developed and tested experimentally and by computer simulations a novel method for measuring the individual arrival times of temporally non-resolved (overlapped) single-photon detector pulses in high-intensity streams. The method is based on a set of linear transformations of photo-event pulses into a deconvolution, a transformation to standardized functions, a non-linear Chi-square fitting, etc. The retrieving accuracy varies within the range of 2-4 ns at an ADC sampling interval of 50 ns. The simultaneous measurement without dead time effects of the main photon statistics distributions as the distribution of intraevent intervals and the charge distributions has been demonstrated. The method covers the intermediate scale of intensities, where other well-known techniques for processing of photo-events are ineffective. It can be effectively applied in nuclear experiments, time-resolved spectroscopy, optical remote sensing, etc.

  12. LIGHT INTENSITY INFLUENCE ON STRONTIUM TITANATE BASED PHOTO- ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hertkorn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of light intensity on photo-electrochemical cells (PECs consisting of an n-type strontium titanate (SrTiO₃ photoanode and nickel cathode in potassium hydroxide electrolyte is studied. The band levels of an electrolyte-metal-semiconductor-electrolyte system are presented and the effect of different light intensities on the energy levels is investigated. Photocurrent density, quantum efficiency, and open circuit potential measurements are performed on the processed PECs under different light intensities (375 nm. It is demonstrated that a threshold value of the light intensity has to be reached in order to obtain positive photo activity and that beyond this value the performance remains nearly constant.

  13. Effects of natural water constituents on the photo-decomposition of methylmercury and the role of hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moon-Kyung; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2013-01-01

    Photo-decomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in surface water is thought to be an important process that reduces the bioavailability of mercury (Hg) to aquatic organisms. In this study, photo-initiated decomposition of MeHg was investigated under UVA irradiation in the presence of natural water constituents including NO 3 − , Fe 3+ , and HCO 3 − ions, and dissolved organic matter such as humic and fulvic acid. MeHg degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics; the rate constant increased with increasing UVA intensity (0.3 to 3.0 mW cm −2 ). In the presence of NO 3 − , Fe 3+ , and fulvic acid, the decomposition rate of MeHg increased significantly due to photosensitization by reactive species such as hydroxyl radical. The presence of humic acid and HCO 3 − ions lowered the degradation rate through a radical scavenging effect. Increasing the pH of the solution increased the degradation rate constant by enhancing the generation of hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals play an important role in the photo-decomposition of MeHg in water, and natural constituents in water can affect the photo-decomposition of MeHg by changing radical production and inhibition. - Highlights: ► The abiotic photodecomposition of methylmercury (MeHg) in water was examined. ► UVA light is a primary factor inducing MeHg photodecomposition in water. ► Fulvic acid, NO 3 − , and Fe 3+ ion increased MeHg photo-decomposition rate significantly. ► Humic acid and HCO 3 − ions inhibited photodecomposition through radical scavenging. ► OH radical is an important compound affecting photodecomposition of MeHg in water

  14. Study of multi anode photo multiplier tubes at low gains

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhardt, S; Bibby, J; Libby, J

    2001-01-01

    We describe a preliminary study of the signal shape of the Multianode Photo Multiplier Tubes (MaPMT) at low gain. We investigate the feasibility of running the MaPMT at gains of around 30000 e which would allow to use front-end chips that have been developed for silicon detectors or micro strip gas chambers. In addition we have investigated the focusing properties of an improved design of the MaPMT.

  15. Solar photo catalytic treatment of simulated dyestuff effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositzi, M.; Antoniadis, A.; Poulios, I.; Kiridies, I.; Malato, S.

    2003-07-01

    The photo catalytic organic content reduction of two selected synthetic wastewater from the textile dyeing industry, by the use heterogeneous and homogeneous photo catalytic methods under solar irradiation, has been studied at a pilot plant scale at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria. the effect of two different TiO{sub 2} modifications with oxidants such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}, on the decolorisation and the organic content reduction (DOC) of the wastewater was examined. the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system seems to be more efficient in comparison to the synergetic action which appears when using persulfate and TiO{sub 2} in these specific wastewaters. By an accumulation energy of 50 KJ L''-1 the synergetic effect of TiO{sub 2} P-25 with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} leads to a 70% and 57% DOC reduction, respectively, in the case of cotton synthetic wastewater, while the decolorisation was almost complete. The photo catalytic decolorisation, as well as the DOC reduction in the case of naylon simulated wastewater is a slower process and by an accumulation energy of 50 KJ L''-1 leads to 54% mineralization in both cases. The Photo-Fenton process in both cases was more efficient for this type of wastewater in comparison to the TiO{sub 2}/oxidant system. An accumulation of energy of 50 KJ L''-1 leads to 90% reduction of the organic content. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Hepatic volumetry with PhotoShop in personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Chang; Wang, Hao-Hua

    2004-02-01

    Convenient way to clarify liver volume or tumor volume in the liver is eagerly demanded by hepatobiliary surgeons, for so many aspects of clinical work need to know the liver volumetry. At present, some methods have been used to measure the liver volumetry, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, three-dimensional ultrasound volumetric system([1]) and 3-dimensional sonography([2,3]) et al. But enough volumetric information was failed to obtain by surgeons and a new way of measuring the liver volumetry that can be operated by themselves is exigent. Whereas we devise a new method of using PhotoShop in personal computer to measure the liver volumetry. A piece of whole CT film was transformed to a high quality digitized image by digital camera or scanner and then the digitized image was conducted as JPEG file into personal computer. The JPEG image file of CT film was opened by PhotoShop. Determining the edge of interested areas, and the data of pixel values of the interested areas divided by 1 cm2 pixel value will produce the actual area with the unit of square centimeter. If section thickness of CT scan is 1 cm, the sum of the areas of the liver or tumor in all sections naturally is the volume of the liver or tumor. Comparison of 10 hepatic volumes gained by this method and those gained by the GE Prospeed CT set showed a good relativity between the two groups. The volumes of three right lobes were calculated by this method before lobectomy and their real volumes were obtained postoperatively by a volumenometer. Their variation was limited to 5%. Hepatic volume obtained by PhotoShop is reliable. This method can be used to measure hepatic volume perfectly to meet clinical demand, and many parameters such as liver resection rate, graft volume can be achieved. The disadvantage of this method is the step of copying the pixel value from PhotoShop to Microsoft Excel.

  17. 4th International Conference on New Photo-Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Conference is to discuss new ideas and recent developments in photo-detectors and their applications in various fields: high energy physics, neutrino physics, particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear physics, nuclear medicine and industry. The main topics of the Conference relate to APD, SiPM, PMT, Hybrid PMT, MCP-PMT, and electronics: front-end and readout of large systems.

  18. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinu, N. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France)], E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bondil-Blin, S. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Chaumat, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De La Taille, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Del Guerra, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Llosa, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, S. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Tarolli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Vagnucci, J.F. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  19. Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, N.; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Boscardin, M.; Chaumat, V.; Collazuol, G.; De La Taille, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Puill, V.; Tarolli, A.; Vagnucci, J.F.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.

  20. The University of Glasgow at ImageClefPhoto 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccon, G.; Leelanupab, T.; Goyal, A.; Halvey, M.; Punitha, P.; Jose, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe the approaches adopted to generate the five runs submitted to ImageClefPhoto 2009 by the University of Glasgow. The aim of our methods is to exploit document diversity in the rankings. All our runs used text statistics extracted from the captions associated to each image in the collection, except one run which combines the textual statistics with visual features extracted from the provided images. \\ud The results suggest that our methods based on text captions signif...