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Sample records for strongly orientation dependent

  1. What Feels Parallel Strongly Depends on Hand Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Liefers, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel in the outside world is not necessarily perceived as parallel. Previous studies have shown that what is felt as parallel can deviate significantly from what is physically parallel. In a new set-up, the influence of hand/arm orientation is investigated in detail by systematically varying the

  2. Orientation dependent slip and twinning during compression and tension of strongly textured magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: al-samman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Chowdhury, S. Ghosh [CSIR National Metallurgical Laboratory, MST Division, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Over recent years there have been a remarkable number of studies dealing with compression of magnesium. A literature search, however, shows a noticeably less number of papers concerned with tension and a very few papers comparing both modes, systematically, in one study. The current investigation reports the anisotropic deformation behavior and concomitant texture and microstructure evolution investigated in uniaxial tension and compression tests in two sample directions performed on an extruded commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 at different Z conditions. For specimens with the loading direction parallel to the extrusion axis, the tension-compression strength anisotropy was pronounced at high Z conditions. Loading at 45{sup o} from the extrusion axis yielded a tension-compression strength behavior that was close to isotropic. During tensile loading along the extrusion direction the extrusion texture resists twinning and favors prismatic slip (contrary to compression). This renders the shape change maximum in the basal plane and equal to zero along the c-axis, which resulted in the orientation of individual grains remaining virtually intact during all tension tests at different Z conditions. For the other investigated sample direction, straining was accommodated along the c-axis, which was associated with a lattice rotation, and thus, a change of crystal orientation. Uniaxial compression at a low Z condition (400 deg. C/10{sup -4} s{sup -1}) yielded a desired texture degeneration, which was explained on the basis of a more homogeneous partitioning of slip systems that reduces anisotropy and enhanced dynamic recrystallization (DRX), which counteracts the strong deformation texture. The critical strains for the nucleation of DRX in tensiled specimens at the highest investigated Z condition (200 deg. C/10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were found to range between 4% and 5.6%.

  3. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  4. Bioinspired orientation-dependent friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Longjian; Iturri, Jagoba; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; del Campo, Aránzazu

    2014-09-23

    Spatular terminals on the toe pads of a gecko play an important role in directional adhesion and friction required for reversible attachment. Inspired by the toe pad design of a gecko, we study friction of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars terminated with asymmetric (spatular-shaped) overhangs. Friction forces in the direction of and against the spatular end were evaluated and compared to friction forces on symmetric T-shaped pillars and pillars without overhangs. The shape of friction curves and the values of friction forces on spatula-terminated pillars were orientation-dependent. Kinetic friction forces were enhanced when shearing against the spatular end, while static friction was stronger in the direction toward the spatular end. The overall friction force was higher in the direction against the spatula end. The maximum value was limited by the mechanical stability of the overhangs during shear. The aspect ratio of the pillar had a strong influence on the magnitude of the friction force, and its contribution surpassed and masked that of the spatular tip for aspect ratios of >2.

  5. Orientation-Dependent Handedness and Chiral Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Efrati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirality occupies a central role in fields ranging from biological self-assembly to the design of optical metamaterials. The definition of chirality, as given by Lord Kelvin, associates chirality with the lack of mirror symmetry: the inability to superpose an object on its mirror image. While this definition has guided the classification of chiral objects for over a century, the quantification of handed phenomena based on this definition has proven elusive, if not impossible, as manifest in the paradox of chiral connectedness. In this work, we put forward a quantification scheme in which the handedness of an object depends on the direction in which it is viewed. While consistent with familiar chiral notions, such as the right-hand rule, this framework allows objects to be simultaneously right and left handed. We demonstrate this orientation dependence in three different systems—a biomimetic elastic bilayer, a chiral propeller, and optical metamaterial—and find quantitative agreement with chirality pseudotensors whose form we explicitly compute. The use of this approach resolves the existing paradoxes and naturally enables the design of handed metamaterials from symmetry principles.

  6. Strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals: Orientation dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J. M.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the strength or elastic limit of diamond single crystals is of considerable scientific and technological importance, and has been a subject of long standing theoretical and experimental interest. To examine the effect of crystalline anisotropy on strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals, plate impact experiments were conducted to measure wave profiles at various elastic impact stresses up to ˜120 GPa along [110] and [111] crystal orientations. Using laser interferometry, particle velocity histories and shock velocities in the diamond samples were measured and were compared with similar measurements published previously for shock compression along the [100] direction. Wave profiles for all three orientations showed large elastic wave amplitudes followed by time-dependent inelastic deformation. From the measured wave profiles, the elastic limits were determined under well characterized uniaxial strain loading conditions. The measured elastic wave amplitudes for the [110] and [111] orientations were lower for higher elastic impact stress (stress attained for an elastic diamond response), consistent with the result reported previously for [100] diamond. The maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS) on the {111}⟨110⟩ slip systems was determined for each orientation, revealing significant orientation dependence. The MRSS values for the [100] and [110] orientations (˜33 GPa) are 25%-30% of theoretical estimates; the MRSS value for the [111] orientation is significantly lower (˜23 GPa). Our results demonstrate that the MRSS depends strongly on the stress component normal to the {111} planes or the resolved normal stress (RNS), suggesting that the RNS plays a key role in inhibiting the onset of inelastic deformation. Lower elastic wave amplitudes at higher peak stress and the effect of the RNS are inconsistent with typical dislocation slip mechanisms of inelastic deformation, suggesting instead an inelastic response

  7. Strong typing of object-oriented languages revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Magnusson, Boris; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relation between subtyping and subclassing and their influence on programming language design. Traditionally subclassing as introduced by Simula has also been used for defining a hierarchical type system. The type system of a language can be characterized as strong...

  8. Towards Self-adaptation for Dependable Service-Oriented Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Valeria; Casalicchio, Emiliano; Grassi, Vincenzo; Lo Presti, Francesco; Mirandola, Raffaela

    Increasingly complex information systems operating in dynamic environments ask for management policies able to deal intelligently and autonomously with problems and tasks. An attempt to deal with these aspects can be found in the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) paradigm that foresees the creation of business applications from independently developed services, where services and applications build up complex dependencies. Therefore the dependability of SOA systems strongly depends on their ability to self-manage and adapt themselves to cope with changes in the operating conditions and to meet the required dependability with a minimum of resources. In this paper we propose a model-based approach to the realization of self-adaptable SOA systems, aimed at the fulfillment of dependability requirements. Specifically, we provide a methodology driving the system adaptation and we discuss the architectural issues related to its implementation. To bring this approach to fruition, we developed a prototype tool and we show the results that can be achieved with a simple example.

  9. Orientation dependent fracture behavior of nanotwinned copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobler, Aaron; Hahn, Horst; Hodge, Andrea M.; Kübel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Columnar grown nanotwinned Cu was tensile tested in-situ inside the TEM in combination with automated crystal orientation mapping scanning transmission electron microscopy to investigate the active deformation mechanisms present in this material. Two tensile directions were applied, one parallel to the twin boundaries and the other perpendicular to the twin boundaries. In case of tensile testing perpendicular to the twin boundaries, the material deformed by detwinning and the formation of new grains, whereas in the parallel case, no new grains were formed and the fracture happened along the twin boundaries and a boundary that has formed during the deformation

  10. Visual dependence and spatial orientation in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Maitreyi A; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Cohen, Helen S

    2018-01-01

    People with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) probably have otoconial particles displaced from the utricle into the posterior semicircular canal. This unilateral change in the inertial load distributions of the labyrinth may result in visual dependence and may affect balance control. The goal of this study was to explore the interaction between visual dependence and balance control. We compared 23 healthy controls to 17 people with unilateral BPPV on the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance on compliant foam with feet together, the Rod-and-Frame Test and a Mental Rotation Test. In controls, but not BPPV subjects, subjects with poor balance scores had significantly greater visual dependence, indicating that reliance on visual cues can affect balance control. BPPV and control subjects did not differ on the mental rotation task overall but BPPV reaction time was greater at greater orietantions, suggesting that this cognitive function was affected by BPPV. The side of impairment was strongly related to the side of perceived bias in the Earth vertical determined by BPPV subjects, indicating the relationship between the effect of asymmetric otolith unloading with simultaneous canal loading on spatial orientation perception.

  11. Orientation Dependent Directed Etching of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Nyung; Seo, Jong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The direct-current electroetching of high purity aluminum in hot aqueous-chloride solution produces a high density of micrometer-wide tunnels whose walls are made up of the |100| planes and penetrate aluminum in the directions at rates of micrometer per second. In the process of the alternating-current pitting of aluminum, cathodic polarization plays an important role in the nucleation and growth of the pits during the subsequent polarization. The direct-current tunnel etching and alternating-current etching of aluminum are basically related to the formation of poorly crystallized or amorphous passive films. If the passive film forms on the wall, a natural misfit exists between the film and the aluminum substrate, which in turn gives rise to stress in both the film and the substrate. Even though the amorphous films do not have directed properties, their stresses are influenced by the substrate orientation. the films on elastically soft substrate are likely to be less stressed and more stable than those on elastically hard substrate. The hardest and softest planes of aluminum are the |111| and |100| planes, respectively. Therefore, the films on the |111| substrates are most likely to be attacked, and those on the |100| substrates, are least likely to be attacked. For the tunnel etching, it follows that the tunnel walls tend to be made of four closely packed |111| planes in order to minimize the surface energy, which gives rise to the tunnel etching

  12. Orientation dependence for Br formation in the reaction of oriented OH radical with HBr molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Che, Dock-Chil; Nakamura, Masaaki; Lin, King-Chuen; Kasai, Toshio

    2011-01-28

    The orientation dependence of Br-atom formation in the reaction of the oriented OH radical with the HBr molecule using the hexapole electrostatic field was studied. Experimental results for the orientation dependence in the reaction were analyzed using a Legendre polynomial fit. The results show two reactive sites. It was found that O-end attack is most favored for this reaction, and that H-end attack also shows a pronounced reactivity. The reactivity of the side-ways attack was found to be small. By comparing the results of the orientation dependence in the reaction with studies of inelastic collisions and theoretical calculations, two reaction pathways are proposed. Reaction by O-end attack is followed by a direct abstraction of the H-atom from the HBr molecule. The mechanism for H-end attack may have H-atom migration from HBr to form the water molecule.

  13. Dependence of dislocation structure on orientation and slip systems in highly oriented nanotwinned Cu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Qiuhong; You, Zesheng; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    To explore the correlation between orientation, active slip systems and dislocation structure, highly oriented nanotwinned Cu has been deformed in compression to 2% and 6% strain. The compression directions are 90°, 0° and 45° with respect to the twin boundaries (TBs) of the almost parallel twins...... parallel to the twin plane. The analysis of the dislocation structures illustrate the strong correlation between active slip systems and the dislocation structure and the strong effect of slip mode anisotropy on both the flow stress and strain hardening rate of nanotwinned Cu....

  14. Orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure in compressed aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, G.M.; Godfrey, A.; Hong, Chuanshi

    2012-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure has been investigated in aluminum compressed to 20% reduction. The dislocation boundaries formed can be classified, as for tension, into one of three types: dislocation cells (Type 2), and extended planar boundaries near (Type 1...

  15. Density dependence of orientational order in one-patch particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yasutaka; Kimura, Yasuyuki

    2017-07-26

    Closely packed spherical patchy particles exhibit a range of orientationally ordered equilibrium structures depending on patch size and particle arrangement due to the existence of a sticky inter-patch interaction and rotational degrees of freedom. We experimentally study the packing density dependence of such ordering in particles with a thin deposited patch which imparts a shape anisotropy of a few percent in aspect ratio. These are confined between flat substrates with a chamber thickness of up to two particle layers. When the particles are tightly packed and almost in contact with each other, the anisotropic hard-body interaction dictates the orientational order. Thus, the order depends little on patch size, with rotational motion almost frozen. A small decrease in the density allows free rotational motion while translation is restricted to vibrational motion. This drastically changes the ordering mechanism, giving rise to a patch-size dependent equilibrium orientational order. Furthermore, within this density regime, we find yet another density-dependent transition within the tetragonal bilayer. This transition is reproduced by numerical simulation assuming no shape anisotropy, indicating that shape anisotropy is unnecessary for the transition and translational entropy significantly affects the equilibrium orientational order even in such a closely packed structure. Our study demonstrates the sensitivity of the ordering mechanism and the resulting order to the packing density, where the effect of such a tiny shape anisotropy is clearly observable owing to the patch opacity. The dependence of cluster structure in particle dispersions on patch size, confinement thickness and packing density is also reported.

  16. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  17. Dependence of Crystallographic Orientation on Pitting Corrosion Behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr Alloy 028

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, LiNa; Szpunar, Jerzy A.; Dong, JianXin; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.; Wang, Xu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of crystallographic orientation on the pitting corrosion behavior of Ni-Fe-Cr alloy 028 was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), potentiodynamic polarization technique, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that there is anisotropy of pitting corrosion that strongly depends on crystallographic orientation of the surface plane. The distribution of pit density in a standard stereographic triangle indicates that the crystallographic planes close to {100} are more prone to pitting corrosion compared to planes {110} and {111}. The surface energy calculation of (001) and (111) shows that the plane with a high atomic packing density has a low surface energy with concomitant strong resistance to pitting corrosion. A correlation function between crystallographic orientation and pitting corrosion susceptibility suggests a method that not only predicts the pitting resistance of known textured materials, but also could help to improve corrosion resistance by controlling material texture.

  18. Dependence of echo amplitude on defect orientation in ultrasonic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.; Kutzner, J.; Engl, G.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical assessment for the orientation dependence of an ultrasonic defect indication is described. Although other characteristics specific to the object (e.g. the sensitivity variations due to different surfaces and materials) have to be considered, the quantitative estimation for the crack detection and the reliability of the inspection methods for thick walled nuclear components can be estimated by means of the relations described in this paper

  19. arXiv Strong reduction of the effective radiation length in an oriented PWO scintillator crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, L.; Romagnoni, M.; Argiolas, N.; Bagli, E.; Ballerini, G.; Berra, A.; Brizzolani, C.; Camattari, R.; De Salvador, D.; Haurylavets, V.; Mascagna, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Prest, M.; Soldani, M.; Sytov, A.; Vallazza, E.

    We measured a considerable increase of the emitted radiation by 120 GeV/c electrons in an axially oriented lead tungstate scintillator crystal, if compared to the case in which the sample was not aligned with the beam direction. This enhancement resulted from the interaction of particles with the strong crystalline field. The data collected at the external lines of CERN SPS were critically compared to Monte Carlo simulations based on the Baier Katkov quasiclassical method, highlighting a reduction of the scintillator radiation length by a factor of five in case of beam alignment with the [001] crystal axes. As a consequence, oriented scintillator crystals may be profitably exploited to reduce the amount of material in electromagnetic calorimeters/detectors for fixed-target experiments in high-energy physics, as well as for satellite-borne gamma-telescopes in astrophysics.

  20. Extraordinary photoluminescence and strong temperature/angle-dependent Raman responses in few-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-09-23

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (two to five layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us to use an optical method to quickly determine the crystalline orientation without tunneling electron microscopy or scanning tunneling microscopy. Our results provide much needed experimental information about the band structures and exciton nature in few-layer phosphorene.

  1. Deep Ocean Sound Propagation in Environments with Strong Range Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    follow carbon dioxide uptake into the ocean from the atmosphere have been modeled to have a small but potentially detectable impact on ocean acoustic...to scattering). This work is being presented at the NPAL workshop. 8. Ambient noise level change due to ocean acidification A simplified model...range dependence. In addition, a study of oceanic acoustic response to acidification has been made. IMPACT/APPLICATIONS The research described

  2. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  3. Strong dependence of ultracold chemical rates on electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.

    2010-01-01

    We use the quantum threshold laws combined with a classical capture model to provide an analytical estimate of the chemical quenching cross sections and rate coefficients of two colliding particles at ultralow temperatures. We apply this quantum threshold model (QT model) to indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules in an electric field. At ultracold temperatures and in weak electric fields, the cross sections and rate coefficients depend only weakly on the electric dipole moment d induced by the electric field. In stronger electric fields, the quenching processes scale as d 4(L+(1/2)) where L>0 is the orbital angular-momentum quantum number between the two colliding particles. For p-wave collisions (L=1) of indistinguishable fermionic polar molecules at ultracold temperatures, the quenching rate thus scales as d 6 . We also apply this model to pure two-dimensional collisions and find that chemical rates vanish as d -4 for ultracold indistinguishable fermions. This model provides a quick and intuitive way to estimate chemical rate coefficients of reactions occuring with high probability.

  4. Orientation of glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes in strong static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, T; Sagawa, S; Ashida, N; Takeuchi, T

    1996-01-01

    In a uniform static magnetic field up to 8 Telsa, glutaraldehyde-fixed erythrocytes showed an orientation in which their disk plane was perpendicular to the magnetic field. The paramagnetism of membrane-bound hemoglobin was through to contribute significantly to this orientation. The observation of magnetic orientation is directed toward understanding the fundamental microstructural aspects of the erythrocyte.

  5. Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.

  6. Orientation dependence of temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxi; You, Yongsing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Reis, David A.; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the connection between crystal symmetry and temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids. We calculate the orientation-dependent harmonic spectrum driven by an intense, linearly polarized infrared laser field, using a momentum-space description of the generation process in terms of strong-field-driven electron dynamics on the band structure. We show that the orientation dependence of both the spectral yield and the subcycle time profile of the harmonic radiation can be understood in terms of the coupling strengths and relative curvatures of the valence band and the low-lying conduction bands. In particular, we show that in some systems this gives rise to a rapid shift of a quarter optical cycle in the timing of harmonics in the secondary plateau as the crystal is rotated relative to the laser polarization. We address recent experimental results in MgO [Y. S. You et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 345 (2017)., 10.1038/nphys3955] and show that the observed change in orientation dependence for the highest harmonics can be interpreted in the momentum space picture in terms of the contributions of several different conduction bands.

  7. Brittle Creep of Tournemire Shale: Orientation, Temperature and Pressure Dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Zhi; Bonnelye, Audrey; Dick, Pierre; David, Christian; Chen, Mian; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Time and temperature dependent rock deformation has both scientific and socio-economic implications for natural hazards, the oil and gas industry and nuclear waste disposal. During the past decades, most studies on brittle creep have focused on igneous rocks and porous sedimentary rocks. To our knowledge, only few studies have been carried out on the brittle creep behavior of shale. Here, we conducted a series of creep experiments on shale specimens coming from the French Institute for Nuclear Safety (IRSN) underground research laboratory located in Tournemire, France. Conventional tri-axial experiments were carried under two different temperatures (26˚ C, 75˚ C) and confining pressures (10 MPa, 80 MPa), for three orientations (σ1 along, perpendicular and 45˚ to bedding). Following the methodology developed by Heap et al. [2008], differential stress was first increased to ˜ 60% of the short term peak strength (10-7/s, Bonnelye et al. 2016), and then in steps of 5 to 10 MPa every 24 hours until brittle failure was achieved. In these long-term experiments (approximately 10 days), stress and strains were recorded continuously, while ultrasonic acoustic velocities were recorded every 1˜15 minutes, enabling us to monitor the evolution of elastic wave speed anisotropy. Temporal evolution of anisotropy was illustrated by inverting acoustic velocities to Thomsen parameters. Finally, samples were investigated post-mortem using scanning electron microscopy. Our results seem to contradict our traditional understanding of loading rate dependent brittle failure. Indeed, the brittle creep failure stress of our Tournemire shale samples was systematically observed ˜50% higher than its short-term peak strength, with larger final axial strain accumulated. At higher temperatures, the creep failure strength of our samples was slightly reduced and deformation was characterized with faster 'steady-state' creep axial strain rates at each steps, and larger final axial strain

  8. Strong exchange bias with the (110)-oriented BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feiming; Yu, Guo; Wang, Yicheng; Jin, Lichuan; Zeng, Huizhong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2012-08-01

    Epitaxial BiFeO3 films were grown on the (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. Using CoFe as ferromagnetic layer, we have shown that both large exchange bias and coercive field enhancement can be observed in the (001)- and (110)-oriented BiFeO3. But no exchange bias was found in the (111)-oriented BiFeO3 films, which can be understood by the lack of either 109° or 71° ferroelectric domain walls and the preservation of the spatial modulated cycloid spin structure. The observation of large exchange bias field with the (110)-oriented BiFeO3 film may lead to an alternative choice towards reversible control exchange bias by electrical field.

  9. Quark matter and quark stars in strong magnetic fields at finite temperature within the confined-isospin-density-dependent mass model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Peng-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Hong-Yang; Wang, Bin; Dong, Yu-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of strange quark matter (SQM) and quark stars (QSs) in strong magnetic fields within the extended confined isospin-density-dependent mass (CIDDM) model including the temperature dependence of the equivalent mass for quarks. The quark symmetry energy, quark symmetry free energy, and the equation of state (EOS) of SQM in constant magnetic fields at finite temperature are investigated, and it is found that including the temperature dependence in CIDDM model and considering strong magnetic fields can both significantly influence the properties of the SQM and the maximum mass of quark stars. Using the density-dependent magnetic field and assuming two extreme cases for the magnetic field orientation in QSs (the radial orientation in which the local magnetic fields are along the radial direction and the transverse orientation in which the local magnetic fields are randomly oriented but perpendicular to the radial orientation), we analyze the mass-radius relations for different stages of the protoquark stars (PQSs) along the star evolution. Our results indicate that the maximum mass of magnetized PQSs may depend on not only the strength distribution and the orientation of the magnetic fields inside the PQSs, but also the heating process and the cooling process in the star evolution.

  10. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  11. Orientation dependence in the four-atom reaction of OH + HBr using the single-state oriented OH radical beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Che, Dock-Chil; Nakamura, Masaaki; Lin, King-Chuen; Kasai, Toshio

    2010-03-20

    The orientation dependence for the Br atom formation in the reaction of the oriented OH radicals with HBr molecules at 0.26 eV collision energy has been observed for the first time using the hexapole electric field, and we found that the reaction cross-section for O-end attack is more favorable than that for H-end attack by a factor of 3.4 +/- 2.3.

  12. Off-resonant vibrational excitation: Orientational dependence and spatial control of photofragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2000-01-01

    Off-resonant and resonant vibrational excitation with short intense infrared (IR) laser pulses creates localized oscillating wave packets, but differs by the efficiency of the excitation and surprisingly by the orientational dependence. Orientational selectivity of the vibrational excitation...... of randomly oriented heteronuclear diatomic molecules can be obtained under simultaneous irradiation by a resonant and an off-resonant intense IR laser pulse: Molecules with one initial orientation will be vibrationally excited, while those with the opposite orientation will be at rest. The orientation...

  13. Highly controlled orientation of CaBi4Ti4O15 using a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tohru S.; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Ando, Akira; Sakka, Yoshio; Sakabe, Yukio

    2006-09-01

    The texture of feeble magnetic ceramics can be controlled by a strong magnetic field. When the magnetic susceptibility of the c axis is smaller than that of the other axes, the c axis aligns perpendicular to the magnetic field; however, the direction is randomly oriented on the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The authors demonstrate in this letter that a highly controlled texture in bismuth titanate, which has a c-axis susceptibility smaller than the other axes, can be achieved using a two-step magnetic field procedure. This highly controlled orientation is effective for improving the electromechanical coupling coefficient.

  14. Orientation dependence of the work function for metal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingyuan; Souto-Casares, Jaime; Chelikowsky, James R.; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2017-12-01

    Work function values measured at different surfaces of a metal are usually different. This raises an interesting question: What is the work function of a nano-size crystal, where differently oriented facets can be adjacent? Work functions of metallic nanocrystals are also of significant practical interest, especially in catalytic applications. Using real space pseudopotentials constructed within density functional theory, we compute the local work function of large aluminum and gold nanocrystals. We investigate how the local work function follows the change of the surface plane orientation around multifaceted nanocrystals, and we establish the importance of the orbital character near the Fermi level in determining work function differences between facets.

  15. Wavelength dependence of light diffusion in strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, W.H.; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of light transport through strongly scattering macroporous gallium phosphide at various vacuum wavelengths between 705 nm and 855 nm. Within this range the transport mean free path is strongly wavelength dependent, whereas the observed energy velocity is shown

  16. A Transparent, Hazy, and Strong Macroscopic Ribbon of Oriented Cellulose Nanofibrils Bearing Poly(ethylene glycol)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hu; Butchosa, Nuria; Zhou, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A macroscopic ribbon of oriented cellulose nanofibrils bearing polyethylene glycol is fabricated by stretching the cellulose nanofibrils network structure in the hydrogel state. The covalently grafted polyethylene glycol on the nanofibril surface facilitates the alignment and compartmentalization of individual nanofibrils in the ribbon. The ribbon has ultrahigh tensile strength (576 +/- 54 MPa), modulus (32.3 +/- 5.7 GPa), high transparency, and haze. QC 20150504

  17. A transparent, hazy, and strong macroscopic ribbon of oriented cellulose nanofibrils bearing poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hu; Butchosa, Núria; Zhou, Qi

    2015-03-25

    A macroscopic ribbon of oriented cellulose nanofibrils bearing polyethylene glycol is fabricated by stretching the cellulose nanofibrils network structure in the hydrogel state. The covalently grafted polyethylene glycol on the nanofibril surface facilitates the alignment and compartmentalization of individual nanofibrils in the ribbon. The ribbon has ultrahigh tensile strength (576 ± 54 MPa), modulus (32.3 ± 5.7 GPa), high transparency, and haze. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Measurements of extreme orientation-dependent temperature increase around an irradiated gold nanorod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Haiyan; Bendix, Pól Martin; Oddershede, Lene Broeng

    2012-01-01

    this system and is generally applicable to any irradiated nanoparticle system. The nanorods are irradiated with a tightly focused laser beam at a wavelength of 1064 nm where biological matter exhibits a minimum in absorption. By controlling the polarization of the laser light we show that the absorption...... of light by the nanorod and the corresponding dissipated heat strongly depends on the orientation of the nanorod with respect to the polarization. Finally, by comparing to spherical gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate how a change in shape, from spherical to rod like, leads to a dramatic enhancement......When irradiated at its resonance frequency, a metallic nanoparticle efficiently converts the absorbed energy into heat which is locally dissipated. This effect can be used in photothermal treatments, e.g., of cancer cells. However, to fully exploit the functionality of metallic nanoparticles...

  19. Orientation-dependent imaging of electronically excited quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc; Goings, Joshua J.; Nguyen, Huy A.; Lyding, Joseph; Li, Xiaosong; Gruebele, Martin

    2018-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that we can image electronic excitations of quantum dots by single-molecule absorption scanning tunneling microscopy (SMA-STM). With this technique, a modulated laser beam periodically saturates an electronic transition of a single nanoparticle, and the resulting tunneling current modulation ΔI(x0, y0) maps out the SMA-STM image. In this paper, we first derive the basic theory to calculate ΔI(x0, y0) in the one-electron approximation. For near-resonant tunneling through an empty orbital "i" of the nanostructure, the SMA-STM signal is approximately proportional to the electron density |φi) (x0,y0)|imaged. We then show experimentally that we can nudge quantum dots on the surface and roll them, thus imaging excited state electronic structure of a single quantum dot at different orientations. We use density functional theory to model ODMs at various orientations, for qualitative comparison with the SMA-STM experiment. The model demonstrates that our experimentally observed signal monitors excited states, localized by defects near the surface of an individual quantum dot. The sub-nanometer super-resolution imaging technique demonstrated here could become useful for mapping out the three-dimensional structure of excited states localized by defects within nanomaterials.

  20. "I Have Strong Hopes for the Future": Time Orientations and Resilience Among Canadian Indigenous Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Andrew R; Pearl, Tamara; Bird-Naytowhow, Kelley; Judge, Andrew; Sjoblom, Erynne; Liebenberg, Linda

    2017-07-01

    In this article, we demonstrate how concepts of time and the future inform processes of resilience among Indigenous adolescents within an urban Canadian context. This study employed a modified grounded theory methodology by conducting 38 qualitative interviews with 28 Indigenous youth (ages 15-25) over the course of 1 year. The analysis revealed complex processes of and navigations between moments of distress and strategies for resilience. The distressing contexts in which Indigenous youth often find themselves can impact the development of their concepts of time and limit their abilities to conceptualize a future. A future time orientation (FTO) emerged as central to processes of resilience and was supported by (a) nurturing a sense of belonging, (b) developing self-mastery, and (c) fostering cultural continuity.

  1. Shape-dependent orientation of thermophoretic forces in microsystems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qi

    2013-09-24

    It is generally acknowledged that the direction of the thermophoretic force acting on microparticles is largely determined by the imposed temperature gradient, and the shape of the microparticle has little influence on its direction. We show that one type of thermophoretic force, emerged due to the advent of microfabrication techniques, is highly sensitive to object shape, and it is feasible to tune force orientation via proper shape design. We reveal the underlying mechanism by an asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation and point out the reason why the classical thermophoretic force is insensitive to the particle shape, but the force in microsystems is. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in methods for microparticle manipulation and separation.

  2. Grain orientation dependence of deformation twinning in pure Cu subjected to dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, C.S.; Tao, N.R.; Lu, K.

    2009-01-01

    A clear grain orientation dependence of deformation twinning has been identified in coarse-grained copper subjected to dynamic plastic deformation. Deformation twins tend to occur in grains with orientations near the [0 0 1] corner but not in grains near the [1 0 1] corner, which can be explained...

  3. Body Emotion Recognition Disproportionately Depends on Vertical Orientations during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Auen, Amanda; Saville, Alyson; Schmidt, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Children's ability to recognize emotional expressions from faces and bodies develops during childhood. However, the low-level features that support accurate body emotion recognition during development have not been well characterized. This is in marked contrast to facial emotion recognition, which is known to depend upon specific spatial frequency…

  4. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  5. Interpretation of the temperature dependence of the strong visible photoluminescence of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkbeiner, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Weber, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-01-15

    The temperature dependence of the strong visible photoluminescence (550-850nm) is studied in differently prepared porous silicon samples. The variation in the photoluminescence intensity with temperature is a result of a decrease in the radiative decay time and an increase in the non-radiative recombination process with increasing temperatures. The strong visible photoluminescence is interpreted by a recombination of singlet and triplet excitons. The singlet-triplet splitting is comparable for all samples but depends on the detection wavelength and on sample preparation. We present similar data for the recombination process in siloxene which supports the model of a common origin of the strong visible photoluminescence in these very differently prepared samples. ((orig.))

  6. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  7. Stretching a semiflexible polymer with orientation-dependent interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen Yi; Vilgis, Thomas A

    2009-01-01

    The mean field variational approach is employed to study the effect of a nematic field and an external constant force field on the elasticity of a semiflexible polymer. In the stationary phase, we obtain the force–extension relationship and calculate the hairpin density of a stretched semiflexible polymer in nematic solvents. The force–extension behavior is found to be controlled by the parameters gl p and gf where g is the strength of the nematic field, l p is the bare persistence length and f is the external force. Several distinct regimes for the elastic response and the hairpin density emerge depending on the value of gl p and gf. Qualitative comparisons between our computation and other theories are presented

  8. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...... that the electron scattering time decreases from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density changes from 1015 to 1019 cm−3....

  9. Object-oriented Bayesian networks for paternity cases with allelic dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Amanda B; Weir, Bruce S

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the current use of Bayesian networks by incorporating the effects of allelic dependencies in paternity calculations. The use of object-oriented networks greatly simplify the process of building and interpreting forensic identification models, allowing researchers to solve new, more complex problems. We explore two paternity examples: the most common scenario where DNA evidence is available from the alleged father, the mother and the child; a more complex casewhere DNA is not available from the alleged father, but is available from the alleged father's brother. Object-oriented networks are built, using HUGIN, for each example which incorporate the effects of allelic dependence caused by evolutionary relatedness.

  10. Optical Orientation and Inverse Spin Hall Effect as Effective Tools to Investigate Spin-Dependent Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Finazzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address optical orientation, a process consisting in the excitation of spin polarized electrons across the gap of a semiconductor. We show that the combination of optical orientation with spin-dependent scattering leading to the inverse spin-Hall effect, i.e., to the conversion of a spin current into an electrical signal, represents a powerful tool to generate and detect spin currents in solids. We consider a few examples where these two phenomena together allow addressing the spin-dependent transport properties across homogeneous samples or metal/semiconductor Schottky junctions.

  11. Dependence of Fe/Cr superlattice magnetoresistance on orientation of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, V.V.; Romashev, L.N.; Minin, V.I.; Semerikov, A.V.; Del', A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into giant magnetoresistance of [Fe/Cr] 30 /MgO superlattices obtained using molecular-beam epitaxy under various orientations of magnetic field relatively to the layers of superlattice and to the direction of current flow. Theory of orientation dependence of superlattice magnetoresistance enabling to describe satisfactorily behaviour of magnetoresistance at arbitrary direction of magnetic field on the ground of results of magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of layers, is elaborated. It is pointed out that it is possible to obtain field dependence of superlattice magnetization on the ground of measurement results. 9 refs., 6 figs

  12. On the penetration of a hot diapir through a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, S. F.; Raefsky, A.

    1985-01-01

    The ascent of a hot spherical body through a fluid with a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity has been studied using an axisymmetric finite element method. Numerical solutions range over Peclet numbers of 0.1 - 1000 from constant viscosity up to viscosity variations of 100,000. Both rigid and stress-free boundary conditions were applied at the surface of the sphere. The dependence of drag on viscosity variation was shown to have no dependence on the stress boundary condition except for a Stokes flow scaling factor. A Nusselt number parameterization based on the stress-free constant viscosity functional dependence on the Peclet number scaled by a parameter depending on the viscosity structure fits both stress-free and rigid boundary condition data above viscosity variations of 100. The temperature scale height was determined as a function of sphere radius. For the simple physical model studied in this paper pre-heating is required to reduce the ambient viscosity of the country rock to less than 10 to the 22nd sq cm/s in order for a 10 km diapir to penetrate a distance of several radii.

  13. Moderate and strong static magnetic fields directly affect EGFR kinase domain orientation to inhibit cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Li, Zhiyuan; Liu, Juanjuan; Yang, Xingxing; Ji, Xinmiao; Luo, Yan; Hu, Chen; Hou, Yubin; He, Qianqian; Fang, Jun; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Qingsong; Li, Guohui; Lu, Qingyou; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) can affect cell proliferation in a cell-type and intensity-dependent way but the mechanism remains unclear. At the same time, although the diamagnetic anisotropy of proteins has been proposed decades ago, the behavior of isolated proteins in magnetic fields has not been directly observed. Here we show that SMFs can affect isolated proteins at the single molecular level in an intensity-dependent manner. We found that Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a protein that is overexpressed and highly activated in multiple cancers, can be directly inhibited by SMFs. Using Liquid-phase Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) to examine pure EGFR kinase domain proteins at the single molecule level in solution, we observed orientation changes of these proteins in response to SMFs. This may interrupt inter-molecular interactions between EGFR monomers, which are critical for their activation. In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, 1-9T SMFs caused increased probability of EGFR in parallel with the magnetic field direction in an intensity-dependent manner. A superconducting ultrastrong 9T magnet reduced proliferation of CHO-EGFR cells (Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with EGFR overexpression) and EGFR-expressing cancer cell lines by ~35%, but minimally affected CHO cells. We predict that similar effects of magnetic fields can also be applied to some other proteins such as ion channels. Our paper will help clarify some dilemmas in this field and encourage further investigations in order to achieve a better understanding of the biological effects of SMFs. PMID:27223425

  14. Optical orientation and spin-dependent recombination in GaAsN alloys under continuous-wave pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivchenko, E L; Kalevich, V K; Shiryaev, A Yu; Afanasiev, M M; Masumoto, Y

    2010-11-24

    We present a systematic theoretical study of spin-dependent recombination and its effect on optical orientation of photoelectron spins in semiconductors with deep paramagnetic centers. For this aim we generalize the Shockley-Read theory of recombination of electrons and holes through the deep centers with allowance for optically-induced spin polarization of free and bound electrons. Starting from consideration of defects with three charge states we turn to the two-charge-state model possessing nine parameters and show that it is compatible with available experimental data on undoped GaAsN alloys. In the weak- and strong-pumping limits, we derive simple analytic equations which are useful in prediction and interpretation of experimental results. Experimental and theoretical dependences of the spin-dependent recombination ratio and degree of photoluminescence circular polarization on the pumping intensity and the transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed.

  15. Extraordinary Photoluminescence and Strong Temperature/Angle-Dependent Raman Responses in Few-Layer Phosphorene

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Jiong; Xu, Renjing; Wang, Fan; Li, Weifeng; Ghufran, Muhammad; Zhang, Yong-wei; Yu, Zongfu; Zhang, Gang; Qin, Qinghua; Lu, Yuerui

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene is a new family member of two-dimensional materials. We observed strong and highly layer-dependent photoluminescence in few-layer phosphorene (2 to 5 layers). The results confirmed the theoretical prediction that few-layer phosphorene has a direct and layer-sensitive band gap. We also demonstrated that few-layer phosphorene is more sensitive to temperature modulation than graphene and MoS2 in Raman scattering. The anisotropic Raman response in few-layer phosphorene has enabled us ...

  16. Strong temperature dependence of extraordinary magnetoresistance correlated to mobility in a two-contact device

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2012-02-21

    A two-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device has been fabricated and characterized at various temperatures under magnetic fields applied in different directions. Large performance variations across the temperature range have been found, which are due to the strong dependence of the EMR effect on the mobility. The device shows the highest sensitivity of 562ω/T at 75 K with the field applied perpendicularly. Due to the overlap between the semiconductor and the metal shunt, the device is also sensitive to planar fields but with a lower sensitivity of about 20 to 25% of the one to perpendicular fields. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  17. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  18. Dependence of extinction cross-section on incident polarization state and particle orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ping; Wendisch, Manfred; Bi Lei; Kattawar, George; Mishchenko, Michael; Hu, Yongxiang

    2011-01-01

    This note reports on the effects of the polarization state of an incident quasi-monochromatic parallel beam of radiation and the orientation of a hexagonal ice particle with respect to the incident direction on the extinction process. When the incident beam is aligned with the six-fold rotational symmetry axis, the extinction is independent of the polarization state of the incident light. For other orientations, the extinction cross-section for linearly polarized light can be either larger or smaller than its counterpart for an unpolarized incident beam. Therefore, the attenuation of a quasi-monochromatic radiation beam by an ice cloud depends on the polarization state of the beam if ice crystals within the cloud are not randomly oriented. Furthermore, a case study of the extinction of light by a quartz particle is also presented to illustrate the dependence of the extinction cross-section on the polarization state of the incident light.

  19. Orientation Dependence of the Critical Magnetic Field for Multiferroic BiFeO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishman, Randy Scott [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3 undergoes a transition from a distorted spiral phase to a G-type antiferromagnet above a critical field Hc that depends on the orientation m of the field. We show that Hc(m) has a maximum when oriented along a cubic diagonal parallel to the electric polarization P and a minimum in the equatorial plane normal to P when two magnetic domains with the highest critical fields are degenerate. The measured critical field along a cubic axis is about 19 T but Hc is predicted to vary by as much as 2.5 T above and below this value. The orientational dependence of Hc(m) is more complex than indicated by earlier work, which did not consider the competition between magnetic domains.

  20. Statistical thermodynamics of fluids with orientation - dependent interactions : applications to water in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, N.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a lattice theory for systems, homogeneous as well as heterogeneous, containing molecules with orientation- dependent interactions such as water. It was soon recognised that the so-called Bragg-Williams mean-field approximation is not capable of

  1. Light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in amphibians and insects: candidate receptors and candidate molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John B.; Jorge, Paulo E.; Muheim, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic compass orientation by amphibians, and some insects, is mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism. Cryptochrome photopigments, best known for their role in circadian rhythms, are proposed to mediate such responses. In this paper, we explore light-dependent properties of magnetic sensing at three levels: (i) behavioural (wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation), (ii) physiological (photoreceptors/photopigment systems with properties suggesting a role in magnetoreception), and (iii) molecular (cryptochrome-based and non-cryptochrome-based signalling pathways that are compatible with behavioural responses). Our goal is to identify photoreceptors and signalling pathways that are likely to play a specialized role in magnetoreception in order to definitively answer the question of whether the effects of light on magnetic compass orientation are mediated by a light-dependent magnetoreception mechanism, or instead are due to input from a non-light-dependent (e.g. magnetite-based) magnetoreception mechanism that secondarily interacts with other light-dependent processes. PMID:20124357

  2. Orientational Analysis of Dodecanethiol and P-Nitrothiophenol SAMs on Metals with Polarisation - dependent SFG spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, A.

    2011-01-01

    Polarisation-dependent sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy is used to investigate the orientation of molecules on metallic surfaces. In particular, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of dodecanethiol (DDT) and of p-nitro thiophenol (p-NTP), grown on Pt and on Au, have been chosen as models to highlight the ability of combining ppp and ssp polarizations sets (representing the polarisation of the involved beams in the conventional order of SFG, Vis and IR beam) to infer orientational information at metallic interfaces. Indeed, using only the ppp set of data, as it is usually done for metallic surfaces, is not sufficient to determine the full molecular orientation. We show here that simply combining ppp and ssp polarizations enables both the tilt and rotation angles of methyl groups in DDT SAMs to be determined. Moreover, for p-NTP, while the SFG active vibrations detected with the ppp polarisation alone provide no orientational information, however, the combination with ssp spectra enables to retrieve the tilt angle of the p-NTP 1,4 axis. Though orientational information obtained by polarisation-dependent measurements has been extensively used at insulating interfaces, we report here their first application to metallic surfaces. (author)

  3. Comment on ``Heterojunction valence-band-discontinuity dependence on face orientation''

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Walle, Chris G.; Martin, Richard M.

    1988-03-01

    In a recent Rapid Communication [Phys. Rev. B 35, 6468 (1987)], Mun~oz, Sánchez-Dehesa, and Flores presented a self-consistent tight-binding analysis of valence-band offsets in GaAs/AlAs and CdTe/HgTe, and found a sizable dependence upon interface orientation for the latter system. This result differs from that obtained by the present authors for CdTe/HgTe heterojunctions. A more general study, building upon our previous heterojunction calculations, indicates in fact that independence of interface orientation is a general characteristic of a wide class of nonpolar interfaces.

  4. SLK-dependent activation of ERMs controls LGN-NuMA localization and spindle orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Mickael; de Frutos, Cristina A; Fink, Jenny; Rocancourt, Murielle; Lombardi, Yannis; Garel, Sonia; Piel, Matthieu; Echard, Arnaud

    2014-06-23

    Mitotic spindle orientation relies on a complex dialog between the spindle microtubules and the cell cortex, in which F-actin has been recently implicated. Here, we report that the membrane-actin linkers ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERMs) are strongly and directly activated by the Ste20-like kinase at mitotic entry in mammalian cells. Using microfabricated adhesive substrates to control the axis of cell division, we found that the activation of ERMs plays a key role in guiding the orientation of the mitotic spindle. Accordingly, impairing ERM activation in apical progenitors of the mouse embryonic neocortex severely disturbed spindle orientation in vivo. At the molecular level, ERM activation promotes the polarized association at the mitotic cortex of leucine-glycine-asparagine repeat protein (LGN) and nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein, two essential factors for spindle orientation. We propose that activated ERMs, together with Gαi, are critical for the correct localization of LGN-NuMA force generator complexes and hence for proper spindle orientation. © 2014 Machicoane et al.

  5. Fast gain recovery rates with strong wavelength dependence in a non-linear SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Ciaran S; Power, Mark J; Schneider, Simon; Webb, Roderick P; Manning, Robert J

    2010-12-06

    We report remarkably fast and strongly wavelength-dependent gain recovery in a single SOA without the aid of an offset filter. Full gain recovery times as short as 9 ps were observed in pump-probe measurements when pumping to the blue wavelength side of a continuous wave probe, in contrast to times of 25 to 30 ps when pumping to the red wavelength side. Experimental and numerical analysis indicate that the long effective length and high gain led to deep saturation of the second half of the SOA by the probe. The consequent absorption of blue-shifted pump pulses in this region resulted in device dynamics analogous to those of the Turbo-Switch.

  6. Strongly enhanced temperature dependence of the chemical potential in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L. C.; Watson, M. D.; Haghighirad, A. A.; Eschrig, M.; Kim, T. K.

    2017-05-01

    Employing a 10-orbital tight-binding model, we present a set of hopping parameters fitted directly to our latest high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data for the high-temperature tetragonal phase of FeSe. Using these parameters, we predict a large 10 meV shift of the chemical potential as a function of temperature. To confirm this large temperature dependence, we performed ARPES experiments on FeSe and observed a ˜25 meV rigid shift to the chemical potential between 100 and 300 K. This strong shift has important implications for theoretical models of superconductivity and of nematic order in FeSe materials.

  7. Orientation-Dependent Exciton-Plasmon Coupling in Embedded Organic/Metal Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong Jun; Hong, Yan; Peng, Qian; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng

    2017-10-24

    The excitation of surface plasmons by optical emitters based on exciton-plasmon coupling is important for plasmonic devices with active optical properties. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the orientation of exciton dipole can significantly influence the coupling strength, yet systematic study of the coupling process in nanostructures is still hindered by the lack of proper material systems. In this work, we have experimentally investigated the orientation-dependent exciton-plasmon coupling in a rationally designed organic/metal nanowire heterostructure system. The heterostructures were prepared by inserting silver nanowires into crystalline organic waveguides during the self-assembly of dye molecules. Structures with different exciton orientations exhibited varying coupling efficiencies. The near-field exciton-plasmon coupling facilitates the design of nanophotonic devices based on the directional surface plasmon polariton propagations.

  8. Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest

  9. Ascaroside expression in Caenorhabditis elegans is strongly dependent on diet and developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kaplan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascarosides form a family of small molecules that have been isolated from cultures of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. They are often referred to as "dauer pheromones" because most of them induce formation of long-lived and highly stress resistant dauer larvae. More recent studies have shown that ascarosides serve additional functions as social signals and mating pheromones. Thus, ascarosides have multiple functions. Until now, it has been generally assumed that ascarosides are constitutively expressed during nematode development.Cultures of C. elegans were developmentally synchronized on controlled diets. Ascarosides released into the media, as well as stored internally, were quantified by LC/MS. We found that ascaroside biosynthesis and release were strongly dependent on developmental stage and diet. The male attracting pheromone was verified to be a blend of at least four ascarosides, and peak production of the two most potent mating pheromone components, ascr#3 and asc#8 immediately preceded or coincided with the temporal window for mating. The concentration of ascr#2 increased under starvation conditions and peaked during dauer formation, strongly supporting ascr#2 as the main population density signal (dauer pheromone. After dauer formation, ascaroside production largely ceased and dauer larvae did not release any ascarosides. These findings show that both total ascaroside production and the relative proportions of individual ascarosides strongly correlate with these compounds' stage-specific biological functions.Ascaroside expression changes with development and environmental conditions. This is consistent with multiple functions of these signaling molecules. Knowledge of such differential regulation will make it possible to associate ascaroside production to gene expression profiles (transcript, protein or enzyme activity and help to determine genetic pathways that control ascaroside biosynthesis. In conjunction with findings

  10. Orientation dependence of the dislocation microstructure in compressed body-centered cubic molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Wang, M.P.; Chen, C.; Xiao, Z.; Jia, Y.L.; Li, Z.; Wang, Z.X.

    2014-01-01

    The orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure has been investigated in commercial pure molybdenum. After deformation, the dislocation boundaries of compressed molybdenum can be classified, similar to that in face-centered cubic metals, into three types: dislocation cells (Type 2), and extended planar boundaries parallel to (Type 1) or not parallel to (Type 3) a (110) trace. However, it shows a reciprocal relationship between face-centered cubic metals and body-centered cubic metals on the orientation dependence of the deformation microstructure. The higher the strain, the finer the microstructure is and the smaller the inclination angle between extended planar boundaries and the compression axis is. - Highlights: • A reciprocal relationship between FCC metals and BCC metals is confirmed. • The dislocation boundaries can be classified into three types in compressed Mo. • The dislocation characteristic of different dislocation boundaries is different

  11. Polarized light modulates light-dependent magnetic compass orientation in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muheim, Rachel; Sjöberg, Sissel; Pinzon-Rodriguez, Atticus

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoreception of the light-dependent magnetic compass in birds is suggested to be mediated by a radical-pair mechanism taking place in the avian retina. Biophysical models on magnetic field effects on radical pairs generally assume that the light activating the magnetoreceptor molecules is nondirectional and unpolarized, and that light absorption is isotropic. However, natural skylight enters the avian retina unidirectionally, through the cornea and the lens, and is often partially polarized. In addition, cryptochromes, the putative magnetoreceptor molecules, absorb light anisotropically, i.e., they preferentially absorb light of a specific direction and polarization, implying that the light-dependent magnetic compass is intrinsically polarization sensitive. To test putative interactions between the avian magnetic compass and polarized light, we developed a spatial orientation assay and trained zebra finches to magnetic and/or overhead polarized light cues in a four-arm “plus” maze. The birds did not use overhead polarized light near the zenith for sky compass orientation. Instead, overhead polarized light modulated light-dependent magnetic compass orientation, i.e., how the birds perceive the magnetic field. Birds were well oriented when tested with the polarized light axis aligned parallel to the magnetic field. When the polarized light axis was aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, the birds became disoriented. These findings are the first behavioral evidence to our knowledge for a direct interaction between polarized light and the light-dependent magnetic compass in an animal. They reveal a fundamentally new property of the radical pair-based magnetoreceptor with key implications for how birds and other animals perceive the Earth’s magnetic field. PMID:26811473

  12. A simulation of orientation dependent, global changes in camera sensitivity in ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieszk, J.A.; Hawman, E.G.; Malmin, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    ECT promises the abilities to: 1) observe radioisotope distributions in a patient without the summation of overlying activity to reduce contrast, and 2) measure quantitatively these distributions to further and more accurately assess organ function. Ideally, camera-based ECT systems should have a performance that is independent of camera orientation or gantry angle. This study is concerned with ECT quantitation errors that can arise from angle-dependent variations of camera sensitivity. Using simulated phantoms representative of heart and liver sections, the effects of sensitivity changes on reconstructed images were assessed both visually and quantitatively based on ROI sums. The sinogram for each test image was simulated with 128 linear digitization and 180 angular views. The global orientation-dependent sensitivity was modelled by applying an angular sensitivity dependence to the sinograms of the test images. Four sensitivity variations were studied. Amplitudes of 0% (as a reference), 5%, 10%, and 25% with a cosθ dependence were studied as well as a cos2θ dependence with a 5% amplitude. Simulations were done with and without Poisson noise to: 1) determine trends in the quantitative effects as a function of the magnitude of the variation, and 2) to see how these effects are manifested in studies having statistics comparable to clinical cases. For the most realistic sensitivity variation (cosθ, 5% ampl.), the ROIs chosen in the present work indicated changes of <0.5% in the noiseless case and <5% for the case with Poisson noise. The effects of statistics appear to dominate any effects due to global, sinusoidal, orientation-dependent sensitivity changes in the cases studied

  13. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-03-13

    Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (theta) of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function of theta are obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electron g-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  14. Strong composition-dependent disorder in InAs1-xNx alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaissa, H.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the main causes of disorder in the InAs 1-x N x alloys (x = 0, 0.03125, 0.0625, 0.09375, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.875, 0.90625, 0.9375, 0.96875 and 1). The calculation is based on the density-functional theory in the local-density approximation. We use a plane wave-expansion non-norm conserving ab initio Vanderbilt pseudopotentials. To avoid the difficulty of considering the huge number of atomic configurations, we use an appropriate strategy in which we consider four configurations for a given composition where the N atoms are not randomly distributed. We mainly show that the band gap decreases (increases) rapidly with increasing (decreasing) compositions of N. As a consequence the optical band gap bowing is found to be strong and composition dependent. The obtained compounds, from these alloys, may change from semi-conducting to metal (passing to a negative bowing) and could be useful for device applications, especially at certain composition.

  15. A strong angular dependence of magnetic properties of magnetosome chains: Implications for rock magnetism and paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Kunpeng; Pan, Yongxin; Williams, Wyn; Liu, Qingsong; Qin, Huafeng

    2013-10-01

    Single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria (magnetosomes) and aligned in chains are of great interest in the biosciences and geosciences. Here, we investigated angular variation of magnetic properties of aligned Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, each of which contains one single fragmental chain of magnetosomes. With measurements at increasing angles from the chain direction, we observed that (i) the hysteresis loop gradually changes from nearly rectangular to a ramp-like shape (e.g., Bc and remanence decrease), (ii) the acquisition and demagnetization curves of IRM shift toward higher fields (e.g., Bcr increases), and (iii) the FORC diagram shifts toward higher coercivity fields (e.g., Bc,FORC increases). For low-temperature results, compared to unoriented samples, the samples containing aligned chains have a much lower remanence loss of field-cooled (δFC) and zero-field-cooled (δZFC) remanence upon warming through the Verwey transition, higher δ-ratio (δ = δFC/δZFC) for the measurement parallel to the chain direction, and lower δ-ratio, larger δFC and δZFC values for the perpendicular measurement. Micromagnetic simulations confirm the experimental observations and reveal that the magnetization reversal of magnetosome chain appears to be noncoherent at low angles and coherent at high angles. The simulations also demonstrate that the angular dependence of magnetic properties is related to the dispersion degree of individual chains, indicating that effects of anisotropy need to be accounted for when using rock magnetism to identify magnetosomes or magnetofossils once they have been preserved in aligned chains. Additionally, this study experimentally demonstrates an empirical correspondence of the parameter Bc,FORC to Bcr rather than Bc, at least for magnetite chains with strong shape anisotropy. This suggests FORC analysis is a good discriminant of magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.

  16. Suppressing an anti-inflammatory cytokine reveals a strong age-dependent survival cost in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Belloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The central paradigm of ecological immunology postulates that selection acts on immunity as to minimize its cost/benefit ratio. Costs of immunity may arise because the energetic requirements of the immune response divert resources that are no longer available for other vital functions. In addition to these resource-based costs, mis-directed or over-reacting immune responses can be particularly harmful for the host. In spite of the potential importance of immunopathology, most studies dealing with the evolution of the immune response have neglected such non resource-based costs. To keep the immune response under control, hosts have evolved regulatory pathways that should be considered when studying the target of the selection pressures acting on immunity. Indeed, variation in regulation may strongly modulate the negative outcome of immune activation, with potentially important fitness consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we experimentally assessed the survival costs of reduced immune regulation by inhibiting an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 with anti-IL-10 receptor antibodies (anti-IL-10R in mice that were either exposed to a mild inflammation or kept as control. The experiment was performed on young (3 months and old (15 months individuals, as to further assess the age-dependent cost of suppressing immune regulation. IL-10 inhibition induced high mortality in old mice exposed to the mild inflammatory insult, whereas no mortality was observed in young mice. However, young mice experienced a transitory lost in body mass when injected with the anti-IL-10R antibodies, showing that the treatment was to a lesser extent also costly for young individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a major role of immune regulation that deserves attention when investigating the evolution of immunity, and indicate that the capacity to down-regulate the inflammatory response is crucial for late survival and longevity.

  17. Modeling Scale and Orientation-Dependent Effects in Snow Particles at Microwave Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyager, R. E.; Liu, G.; Nowell, H.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of satellite-borne radar and radiometers, it is now possible to observe cloud processes throughout the globe with unprecedented levels of precision. However, interpreting the large amount of data generated by such instruments requires detailed understanding of how light is scattered in-cloud by ice. Unlike liquid water, ice exhibits complex shapes and orientation-dependent effects. This is of particularly great importance at microwave wavelengths, where ice aggregates are easily detected by radar and radiometers. When modeling such irregular particles, it is desirable to have a large collection of particle that resemble those found in nature. There is a tradeoff, however, in modeling fine features of particles and system resources (processing time and memory requirements). This becomes increasingly significant at particle sizes that are significantly larger than the considered wavelengths. Both pristine flakes and aspect-ratio correct bullet rosette aggregates were first considered using the Discrete Dipole Approximation. These initial flakes were subjected to a variety of decimation conditions, where adjacent dipoles were combined, thus producing equivalent particles with slightly lower fractal complexity. Calculations using such decimated particles were an order of magnitude faster, and exhibited scattering cross-sections to within twenty percent of initial values. Similar methods of approximating particles with dielectric-scaled ellipsoids and clusters of spherical particles were also examined using the T-matrix method. Many microwave radiative transfer models currently make the implicit assumption that all scattering sources are randomly oriented. This is generally true of the bulk atmosphere, but dynamical simulations suggest that this does not hold for asymmetric ice crystals in nonturbulent conditions. Ensembles of such particles were constructed according to established size, density and aspect ratio relationships. Relative orientation

  18. Exogenous orienting of attention depends upon the ability to execute eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel T; Rorden, Chris; Jackson, Stephen R

    2004-05-04

    Shifts of attention can be made overtly by moving the eyes or covertly with attention being allocated to a region of space that does not correspond to the current direction of gaze. However, the precise relationship between eye movements and the covert orienting of attention remains controversial. The influential premotor theory proposes that the covert orienting of attention is produced by the programming of (unexecuted) eye movements and thus predicts a strong relationship between the ability to execute eye movements and the operation of spatial attention. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that impaired spatial attention is observed in an individual (AI) who is neurologically healthy but who cannot execute eye movements as a result of a congenital impairment in the elasticity of her eye muscles. This finding provides direct support for the role of the eye-movement system in the covert orienting of attention and suggests that whereas intact cortical structures may be necessary for normal attentional reflexes, they are not sufficient. The ability to move our eyes is essential for the development of normal patterns of spatial attention.

  19. Orientation dependence of deformation and penetration behavior of tungsten single crystal rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchey, W.J. Jr.; Horwath, E.J.; Kingman, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on deformation and flow at a target/penetrator interface that occurs under conditions of high hydrostatic pressure and associated heat generation. To further elucidate the role of material structure in the penetration process, oriented single crystals of tungsten have been launched into steel targets and the residual penetrators recovered and analyzed. Both the penetration depth and the deformation characteristics were strongly influenced by the crystallographic orientation. Deformation modes for the left-angle 100 right-angle rod, which exhibited the best performance, appeared to involve considerable localized slip/cleavage and relatively less plastic working; the residual penetrator was extensively cracked and the eroded penetrator material was extruded in a smooth tube lined with an oriented array of discrete particle exhibiting cleavage fractures. Deformation appeared to be much less localized and to involve more extensive plastic working in the left-angle 011 right-angle rod, which exhibited the poorest penetration, while the left-angle 111 right-angle behaved in an intermediate fashion

  20. Effect of deformation and orientation on spin orbit density dependent nuclear potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajni; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2017-11-01

    Role of deformation and orientation is investigated on spin-orbit density dependent part VJ of nuclear potential (VN=VP+VJ) obtained within semi-classical Thomas Fermi approach of Skyrme energy density formalism. Calculations are performed for 24-54Si+30Si reactions, with spherical target 30Si and projectiles 24-54Si having prolate and oblate shapes. The quadrupole deformation β2 is varying within range of 0.023 ≤ β2 ≤0.531 for prolate and -0.242 ≤ β2 ≤ -0.592 for oblate projectiles. The spin-orbit dependent potential gets influenced significantly with inclusion of deformation and orientation effect. The spin-orbit barrier and position gets significantly influenced by both the sign and magnitude of β2-deformation. Si-nuclei with β220. The possible role of spin-orbit potential on barrier characteristics such as barrier height, barrier curvature and on the fusion pocket is also probed. In reference to prolate and oblate systems, the angular dependence of spin-orbit potential is further studied on fusion cross-sections.

  1. Reliability-dependent contributions of visual orientation cues in parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E.

    2014-01-01

    Creating accurate 3D representations of the world from 2D retinal images is a fundamental task for the visual system. However, the reliability of different 3D visual signals depends inherently on viewing geometry, such as how much an object is slanted in depth. Human perceptual studies have correspondingly shown that texture and binocular disparity cues for object orientation are combined according to their slant-dependent reliabilities. Where and how this cue combination occurs in the brain is currently unknown. Here, we search for neural correlates of this property in the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) by measuring slant tuning curves using mixed-cue (texture + disparity) and cue-isolated (texture or disparity) planar stimuli. We find that texture cues contribute more to the mixed-cue responses of CIP neurons that prefer larger slants, consistent with theoretical and psychophysical results showing that the reliability of texture relative to disparity cues increases with slant angle. By analyzing responses to binocularly viewed texture stimuli with conflicting texture and disparity information, some cells that are sensitive to both cues when presented in isolation are found to disregard one of the cues during cue conflict. Additionally, the similarity between texture and mixed-cue responses is found to be greater when this cue conflict is eliminated by presenting the texture stimuli monocularly. The present findings demonstrate reliability-dependent contributions of visual orientation cues at the level of the CIP, thus revealing a neural correlate of this property of human visual perception. PMID:25427796

  2. Polarization-Dependent Measurements of Molecular Super Rotors with Oriented Angular Momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Toro, Carlos; Liu, Qingnan; Mullin, Amy S.

    2014-05-01

    Controlling molecular motion would enable manipulation of energy flow between molecules. Here we have used an optical centrifuge to investigate energy transfer between molecular super rotors with oriented angular momenta. The polarizable electron cloud of the molecules interacts with the electric field of linearly polarized light that angularly accelerates over the time of the optical pulse. This process drives molecules into high angular momentum states that are oriented with the optical field and have energies far from equilibrium. High resolution transient IR spectroscopy reveals the dynamics of collisional energy transfer for these super excited rotors. The results of this study leads to a more fundamental understanding of energy balance in non-equilibrium environments and the physical and chemical properties of gases in a new regime of energy states. Results will be presented for several super rotor species including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acetylene. Polarization-dependent measurements reveal the extent to which the super rotors maintain spatial orientation of high angular momentum states.

  3. Substrate-orientation dependent epitaxial growth of highly ordered diamond nanosheet arrays by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Ji, Xixi; Ao, Yu; Yu, Jie

    2018-02-08

    Three-dimensional ordering of two-dimensional nanomaterials has long been a challenge. Simultaneously, diamond nanomaterials are difficult to synthesize due to the harsh synthesizing conditions required. Here, we report substrate-crystal-orientation dependent growth of diamond nanosheets (DNSs) by chemical vapor deposition, which generates different DNS arrays on different substrates. The DNSs are grown by the in-plane epitaxy of the diamond {111} planes. So the arrays are highly ordered and solely determined by the spatial orientation of the {111} planes in the diamond FCC structure. The DNSs grown on the {110}, {111}, {001}, and {113} oriented substrates show inclination angles ranging from 90 to 29.5°. The DNSs with larger inclination angles grow preferentially, forming parallelogram arrays with inclination angles of 90° on the {110} substrates and parallel-line arrays with inclination angles of 80° on the {113} substrates. The density, thickness, size, and morphology of the DNSs have been well controlled. The present understanding and materials are highly promising for many applications such as sensors, catalysis, photonics, thermal management, and electronics.

  4. No apparent influence of psychometrically-defined schizotypy on orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien J. Mannion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the ability to detect a visual target pattern. Target detection is typically impaired by a surrounding pattern (context with an orientation that is parallel to the target, relative to a surrounding pattern with an orientation that is orthogonal to the target (orientation-dependent contextual modulation. Based on reports that this effect is reduced in those with schizophrenia, we hypothesised that there would be a negative relationship between the relative score on psychometrically-defined schizotypy and the relative effect of orientation-dependent contextual modulation. We measured visual contrast detection thresholds and scores on the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE from a non-clinical sample (N = 100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find an absence of a monotonic relationship between the relative magnitude of orientation-dependent contextual modulation of visual contrast detection and the relative score on any of the subscales of the O-LIFE. The apparent difference of this result with previous reports on those with schizophrenia suggests that orientation-dependent contextual modulation may be an informative condition in which schizophrenia and psychometrically-defined schizotypy are dissociated. However, further research is also required to clarify the strength of orientation-dependent contextual modulation in those with schizophrenia.

  5. Orientation dependence of shape memory and super elastic effects in Ti-30% Ni-20% Cu single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumlyakov, Yu.I.; Kireeva, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystals of Ti-30% Ni-20% Cu (at.%) alloy experiencing B2-B19 martensitic transformation are used to study the dependence of deforming stress σ cr , shape memory effect and super elasticity on test temperature, crystal orientation and the sign of tension/compression stresses. It is shown that experimental values of shape memory effect and super elasticity as well as their dependences on orientation and loading regime are described within the frameworks of the model taking into account lattice distortions only. The orientation dependence and axial stress asymmetry in the temperature range of stress-induced martensite formation are determined by the dependence of lattice distortion during B2-B19 martensitic transformations on the orientation and the sign of applied stresses [ru

  6. Electron-Spin Precession in Dependence of the Orientation of the External Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electron-spin dynamics in semiconductor-based heterostructures has been investigated in oblique magnetic fields. Spins are generated optically by a circularly polarized light, and the dynamics of spins in dependence of the orientation (θ of the magnetic field are studied. The electron-spin precession frequency, polarization amplitude, and decay rate as a function ofθare obtained and the reasons for their dependences are discussed. From the measured data, the values of the longitudinal and transverse components of the electrong-factor are estimated and are found to be in good agreement with those obtained in earlier investigations. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects are also discussed.

  7. Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping reveals nanocrystal orientation patterns in carbonate biominerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Pupa U.P.A., E-mail: pupa@physics.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystal orientation shown by Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) maps. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIC-mapping of carbonate biominerals reveals their ultrastructure at the nanoscale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation mechanisms of biominerals is discovered by PIC-mapping using PEEM. -- Abstract: Carbonate biominerals are one of the most interesting systems a physicist can study. They play a major role in the CO{sub 2} cycle, they master templation, self-assembly, nanofabrication, phase transitions, space filling, crystal nucleation and growth mechanisms. A new imaging modality was introduced in the last 5 years that enables direct observation of the orientation of carbonate single crystals, at the nano- and micro-scale. This is Polarization-dependent Imaging Contrast (PIC) mapping, which is based on X-ray linear dichroism, and uses PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (PEEM). Here we present PIC-mapping results from biominerals, including the nacre and prismatic layers of mollusk shells, and sea urchin teeth. We describe various PIC-mapping approaches, and show that these lead to fundamental discoveries on the formation mechanisms of biominerals.

  8. Strong invariance principles for sequential Bahadur--Kiefer and Vervaat error processes of long-range dependent sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgő, Miklós; Szyszkowicz, Barbara; Wang, Lihong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study strong approximations (invariance principles) of the sequential uniform and general Bahadur--Kiefer processes of long-range dependent sequences. We also investigate the strong and weak asymptotic behavior of the sequential Vervaat process, that is, the integrated sequential Bahadur--Kiefer process, properly normalized, as well as that of its deviation from its limiting process, the so-called Vervaat error process. It is well known that the Bahadur--Kiefer and the Vervaa...

  9. Strong renormalization scheme dependence in τ-lepton decay: Fact or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    1995-01-01

    The question of the renormalization scheme dependence of the τ semileptonic decay rate is examined in response to a recent criticism. Particular attention is payed to a distinction between a consistent quantitative description of this dependence and the actual selection of a subset of ''acceptable'' renormalization schemes. It is pointed out that this criticism is valid only within a particular definition of the ''strength'' of the renormalization scheme dependence and should not discourage further attempts to use the semileptonic τ decay rate for quantitative tests of perturbative QCD

  10. Orientation and impact-parameter dependence of dissociative ionization of H2 by slow ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afaneh, F; Schmidt, L Ph H; Schoeffler, M; Stiebing, K E; Al-Jundi, J; Schmidt-Boecking, H; Doerner, R

    2007-01-01

    We have used the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy imaging technique to investigate dissociative ionization of H 2 by 25 keV proton impact. A kinematically complete picture of the dissociative ionization dynamics for slow proton collision has been obtained. The results show a strong impact-parameter dependence of the fragmentation process of H 2 . This clearly emerged in the energy distributions of the H + ions generated for different impact parameters. At large impact parameters the H + ions equally share the energy liberated in the collision whereas at small impact parameters, the energy sharing is quite asymmetric. We also observed a strong dependence of the electron emission on molecular alignment. The momentum distribution of the emitted electron generated for a fixed-in-space H 2 molecule displays that the electrons are more likely to be emitted perpendicular to the molecular axis

  11. On local strong solutions to the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with density-dependent viscosity and vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sisi

    2018-04-01

    This paper concerns the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations with density-dependent viscosity and vacuum on Ω \\subset R^3. The domain Ω \\subset R^3 is a general connected smooth one, either bounded or unbounded. In particular, the initial density can have compact support when Ω is unbounded. First, we obtain the local existence and uniqueness of strong solution to the three-dimensional nonhomogeneous incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations without any compatibility condition assumed on the initial data. Then, we also prove the continuous dependence of strong solution on the initial data under an additional compatibility condition.

  12. Spin dynamics and spin-dependent recombination of a polaron pair under a strong ac drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Rajesh K.; Raikh, M. E.

    2017-08-01

    We study theoretically the recombination within a pair of two polarons in magnetic field subject to a strong linearly polarized ac drive. Strong drive implies that the Zeeman frequencies of the pair partners are much smaller than the Rabi frequency, so that the rotating wave approximation does not apply. What makes the recombination dynamics nontrivial is that the partners recombine only when they form a singlet S . By admixing singlet to triplets, the drive induces the triplet recombination as well. We calculate the effective decay rate of all four spin modes. Our main finding is that, under the strong drive, the major contribution to the decay of the modes comes from short time intervals when the driving field passes through zero. When the recombination time in the absence of drive is short, fast recombination from S leads to anomalously slow recombination from the other spin states of the pair. We show that, with strong drive, this recombination becomes even slower. The corresponding decay rate falls off as a power law with the amplitude of the drive.

  13. Improving personality/character traits in individuals with alcohol dependence: the influence of mindfulness-oriented meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The study of personality is critical to enhance current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of alcohol dependence. Recent evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation positively influences healthy individuals' character. Here, it was assessed whether 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation promotes similar changes in a group of alcohol-dependent individuals. A control group with alcohol dependence was also tested. Mindfulness-oriented meditation participants showed an increase in the character scores of the temperament and character inventory together with reduced risks of relapse. These longitudinal data highlight the importance of assessing personality in alcohol-dependent individuals and support the utility of therapeutic interventions for alcohol dependence aimed at enhancing individuals' character.

  14. Hyphal orientation of Candida albicans is regulated by a calcium-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Alexandra; Shanks, Scott; Duncan, Vanessa M S; Yang, Meng; Mackenzie, Kevin; Gow, Neil A R

    2007-02-20

    Eukaryotic cells from fungal hyphae to neurites that grow by polarized extension must coordinate cell growth and cell orientation to enable them to exhibit growth tropisms and to respond to relevant environmental cues. Such cells generally maintain a tip-high Ca(2+) cytoplasmic gradient, which is correlated with their ability to exhibit polarized tip growth and to respond to growth-directing extracellular signals. In yeast and other fungi, the polarisome, exocyst, Arp2/3, and Spitzenkörper protein complexes collectively orchestrate tip growth and cell polarity, but it is not clear whether these molecular complexes also regulate cell orientation or whether they are influenced by cytoplasmic Ca(2+) gradients. Hyphae of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans reorient their growth axis in response to underlying surface topography (thigmotropism) and imposed electric fields (galvanotropism). The establishment and maintenance of directional growth in relation to these environmental cues was Ca(2+) dependent. Tropisms were attenuated in media containing low Ca(2+), or calcium-channel blockers, and in mutants where calcium channels or elements of the calcium signaling pathway were deleted. Therefore galvanotropism and thigmotropism may both be mediated by localized Ca(2+) influx at sites of polarized growth via Ca(2+) channels that are activated by appropriate environmental signals.

  15. Connectedness through a Strong Form of TBLT, Classroom Implementation of the CEFR, Cyclical Learning, and Learning-Oriented Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Fergus; Imig, Alexander; Nagai, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    This paper, fundamentally a procedural paper, outlines pedagogical practices which others may want to adapt for their own purposes. We demonstrate how a strong form of task-based language learning and teaching (TBLT), classroom implementation of the CEFR, cyclical learning, and assessment fulfilling roles, such as informing the next learning…

  16. STRONG VELOCITY DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRON-CAPTURE IN COLLISIONS BETWEEN ALIGNED NA-ASTERISK(3P) AND HE-2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHLATMANN, AR; HOEKSTRA, R; MORGENSTERN, R; OLSON, RE; PASCALE, J

    1993-01-01

    By analyzing spectra of emitted photons, we have studied state-selective electron capture in collisions of He2+ on aligned Na*(3p) atoms that span the ''velocity-matching'' energy between projectile and target electron. We find a strong dependence of the capture cross sections on the Na*(3p) orbital

  17. A note on the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove some almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences under some mild conditions. The results extend the ASCLT to nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences and give substantial improvements for the weight sequence obtained by Lin et al. (Comput. Math. Appl. 62(2:635-640, 2011.

  18. Orientation dependent band alignment for p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M. J.; Lu, B.; Zhou, T. T.; Ye, Z. Z.; Lu, J. G.; Pan, X. H.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpolor a-plane and polar c-plane ZnO thin films were prepared on r-plane sapphire and quartz substrates, respectively. The electronic structure of the interface between subsequently fabricated NiO/ZnO heterojunctions has been investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and the band offsets are determined together with information yielded from UV-vis transition spectra. It is found that a type-II band alignment forms at the interface for both the samples. The revealed ZnO-orientation dependent band offsets are analyzed and are attributed mainly due to the variations in internal electric field arose from spontaneous polarization effect. The accurate determination of the band alignment is important for the design and application of NiO/ZnO based hybrid devices.

  19. Orientation dependent band alignment for p-NiO/n-ZnO heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, M. J.; Lu, B.; Zhou, T. T.; Ye, Z. Z.; Lu, J. G.; Pan, X. H. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-04-28

    Nonpolor a-plane and polar c-plane ZnO thin films were prepared on r-plane sapphire and quartz substrates, respectively. The electronic structure of the interface between subsequently fabricated NiO/ZnO heterojunctions has been investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and the band offsets are determined together with information yielded from UV-vis transition spectra. It is found that a type-II band alignment forms at the interface for both the samples. The revealed ZnO-orientation dependent band offsets are analyzed and are attributed mainly due to the variations in internal electric field arose from spontaneous polarization effect. The accurate determination of the band alignment is important for the design and application of NiO/ZnO based hybrid devices.

  20. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-11-07

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their gender and sexual orientation. While unaware of the suppressed pictures, heterosexual males' attention was attracted to invisible female nudes, heterosexual females' attention was attracted to invisible male nudes, gay males behaved similarly to heterosexual females, and gay/bisexual females performed in-between heterosexual males and females.

  1. Orientation-dependent backbone-only residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordner Andrew J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical scoring functions have proven useful in protein structure modeling. Most such scoring functions depend on protein side chain conformations. However, backbone-only scoring functions do not require computationally intensive structure optimization and so are well suited to protein design, which requires fast score evaluation. Furthermore, scoring functions that account for the distinctive relative position and orientation preferences of residue pairs are expected to be more accurate than those that depend only on the separation distance. Results Residue pair scoring functions for fixed backbone protein design were derived using only backbone geometry. Unlike previous studies that used spherical harmonics to fit 2D angular distributions, Gaussian Mixture Models were used to fit the full 3D (position only and 6D (position and orientation distributions of residue pairs. The performance of the 1D (residue separation only, 3D, and 6D scoring functions were compared by their ability to identify correct threading solutions for a non-redundant benchmark set of protein backbone structures. The threading accuracy was found to steadily increase with increasing dimension, with the 6D scoring function achieving the highest accuracy. Furthermore, the 3D and 6D scoring functions were shown to outperform side chain-dependent empirical potentials from three other studies. Next, two computational methods that take advantage of the speed and pairwise form of these new backbone-only scoring functions were investigated. The first is a procedure that exploits available sequence data by averaging scores over threading solutions for homologs. This was evaluated by applying it to the challenging problem of identifying interacting transmembrane alpha-helices and found to further improve prediction accuracy. The second is a protein design method for determining the optimal sequence for a backbone structure by applying Belief Propagation

  2. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-22

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  3. Laser based imaging of time depending microscopic scenes with strong light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Wilhelm, Eugen; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    Investigating volume scatterometry methods based on short range LIDAR devices for non-static objects we achieved interesting results aside the intended micro-LIDAR: the high speed camera recording of the illuminated scene of an exploding wire -intended for Doppler LIDAR tests - delivered a very effective method of observing details of objects with extremely strong light emission. As a side effect a schlieren movie is gathered without any special effort. The fact that microscopic features of short time processes with high emission and material flow might be imaged without endangering valuable equipment makes this technique at least as interesting as the intended one. So we decided to present our results - including latest video and photo material - instead of a more theoretical paper on our progress concerning the primary goal.

  4. On Strong Positive Frequency Dependencies of Quality Factors in Local-Earthquake Seismic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Igor B.; Jhajhria, Atul; Deng, Wubing

    2018-03-01

    Many observations of seismic waves from local earthquakes are interpreted in terms of the frequency-dependent quality factor Q( f ) = Q0 f^{η } , where η is often close to or exceeds one. However, such steep positive frequency dependencies of Q require careful analysis with regard to their physical consistency. In particular, the case of η = 1 corresponds to frequency-independent (elastic) amplitude decays with time and consequently requires no Q-type attenuation mechanisms. For η > 1, several problems with physical meanings of such Q-factors occur. First, contrary to the key premise of seismic attenuation, high-frequency parts of the wavefield are enhanced with increasing propagation times relative to the low-frequency ones. Second, such attenuation cannot be implemented by mechanical models of wave-propagating media. Third, with η > 1, the velocity dispersion associated with such Q(f) occurs over unrealistically short frequency range and has an unexpected oscillatory shape. Cases η = 1 and η > 1 are usually attributed to scattering; however, this scattering must exhibit fortuitous tuning into the observation frequency band, which appears unlikely. The reason for the above problems is that the inferred Q values are affected by the conventional single-station measurement procedure. Both parameters Q 0 and are apparent, i.e., dependent on the selected parameterization and inversion method, and they should not be directly attributed to the subsurface. For η ≈ 1, parameter Q 0 actually describes the frequency-independent amplitude decay in access of some assumed geometric spreading t -α , where α is usually taken equal one. The case η > 1 is not allowed physically and could serve as an indicator of problematic interpretations. Although the case 0 < η < 1 is possible, its parameters Q 0 and may also be biased by the measurement procedure. To avoid such difficulties of Q-based approaches, we recommend measuring and interpreting the amplitude-decay rates

  5. Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties of Grain-Oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kimura, Masahiko; Ando, Akira; Sakabe, Yukio

    2001-09-01

    Piezoelectric properties of grain-oriented bismuth layer structured compound CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics and their temperature dependencies were studied. The grain-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics were fabricated by the templated grain growth method. The highly preferentially (00l) oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 ceramics were obtained and their Lotgering (00l) orientation degree was almost 100%. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the longitudinal vibration mode (k33) was approximately three times as large as that of the nonoriented specimen, and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (|fr-TC|) was the same as that of the nonoriented specimen. The 24 vibration mode is separated from the 15 vibration mode in the thickness shear vibration of the grain-oriented ceramics. The electromechanical coupling coefficient k15 of the grain-oriented specimen was twice as large as k15 of the nonoriented ceramics, while, k24 was one-third that of k15 of the nonoriented specimen. The |fr-TC| of the 15 vibration mode of the grain-oriented specimen was half that of the 15 vibration mode in the nonoriented ceramics, and that of the 24 vibration mode of the oriented specimen was much larger than that of the 15 vibration mode in the nonoriented ceramics.

  6. Tunable photonic crystal for THz radiation in layered superconductors: Strong magnetic-field dependence of the transmission coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Nori, Franco

    2006-01-01

    Josephson plasma waves are scattered by the Josephson vortex lattice. This scattering results in a strong dependence, on the in-plane magnetic-field H ab , of the reflection and transmission of THz radiation propagating in layered superconductors. In particular, a tunable band-gap structure (THz photonic crystal) occurs in such a medium. These effects can be used, by varying H ab , for the selective frequency-filtering of THz radiation

  7. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with Strong Vortex Pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, strong pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness dependent at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness dependent. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.

  8. PROLARM: Cancer risk from medical diagnostic exposures is strongly dependent upon patients' prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschner, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Matthias; Dietlein, Markus; Schicha, Harald

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: a) To evaluate the impact of the reduced life expectancy of patients (compared to a non-patient group with same age distribution) on their risk of developing cancer from the diagnostic use of radiation. b) To find an approximation to such reduction in risk which depends only on the patient's age, a, and his life expectancy, but is independent of the choice of values for the baseline risk of cancer incidence, m(a), and the enhanced relative risk ERR(a) from radiation exposure. Method: The lifetime attributable risk LAR (of a radiation-induced malignancy to manifest itself) is a function of age at exposure, e, and given by integrating over attained age, a, the product of ERR(a), baseline cancer risk m(a) and the relative probability of surviving to age a, S'(a,e). We define a 'prognosis-based LAR modifier' (PROLARM) as the ratio of risks for non-patient, LAR(a), and patient, LAR p (a), a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of reduction of LAR due to the patient's prognosis. With the survival of the patient group, S p ' (a,e), and for any choice of fitted function for ERR(a) like those used in BEIR VII report, PROLARM ≥∫d'(a,e) da/∫S p '(a,e) da, i.e. the ratio of the survival integrals gives a lower (thus conservative) estimate of the reduction in risk. Results: The method was applied to n=4285 patients with metastatic breast cancer for whom survival as a function of age at metastasis was known. Figure shows that LAR is decreased significantly for all ages at exposure. At younger ages, this decrease is more pronounced (PROLARM ≥ 20 for e ≤ 65). Example: using ERR values of BEIR VII, the LAR due to 10 mSv effective dose at age a = 50 would drop from 1.2 E-3 for non-patient to 4.3E-5 for a patient, i.e. by a factor (PROLARM) of 29. Using only survival data, that factor is 27 (but no LAR can be computed). In other words: 10 mSv for a patient correspond risk-wise to 0.4 mSv for non-patient. The method can be applied to any pathology

  9. Orientation-dependent interfacial mobility governs the anisotropic swelling in lithiated silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Shan; Huang, Xu; Fan, Feifei; Liang, Wentao; Liu, Xiao Hua; Chen, Long-Qing; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Ju; Zhu, Ting; Zhang, Sulin

    2012-04-11

    Recent independent experiments demonstrated that the lithiation-induced volume expansion in silicon nanowires, nanopillars, and microslabs is highly anisotropic, with predominant expansion along the direction but negligibly small expansion along the direction. The origin of such anisotropic behavior remains elusive. Here, we develop a chemomechanical model to study the phase evolution and morphological changes in lithiated silicon nanowires. The model couples the diffusive reaction of lithium with the lithiation-induced elasto-plastic deformation. We show that the apparent anisotropic swelling is critically controlled by the orientation-dependent mobility of the core-shell interface, i.e., the lithiation reaction rate at the atomically sharp phase boundary between the crystalline core and the amorphous shell. Our results also underscore the importance of structural relaxation by plastic flow behind the moving phase boundary, which is essential to quantitative prediction of the experimentally observed morphologies of lithiated silicon nanowires. The study sheds light on the lithiation-mediated failure in nanowire-based electrodes, and the modeling framework provides a basis for simulating the morphological evolution, stress generation, and fracture in high-capacity electrodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Orientation-dependent chemistry and band-bending of Ti on polar ZnO surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghetti, Patrizia; Mouchaal, Younes; Dai, Zongbei; Cabailh, Gregory; Chenot, Stéphane; Lazzari, Rémi; Jupille, Jacques

    2017-04-19

    Orientation-dependent reactivity and band-bending are evidenced upon Ti deposition (1-10 Å) on polar ZnO(0001)-Zn and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces. At the onset of the Ti deposition, a downward band-bending was observed on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O while no change occurred on ZnO(0001)-Zn. Combining this with the photoemission analysis of the Ti 2p core level and Zn L 3 (L 2 )M 45 M 45 Auger transition, it is established that the Ti/ZnO reaction is of the form Ti + 2ZnO → TiO 2 + 2Zn on ZnO(0001)-Zn and Ti + yZnO → TiZn x O y + (y - x)Zn on ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O. Consistently, upon annealing thicker Ti adlayers, the metallic zinc is removed to leave ZnO(0001)-Zn surfaces covered with a TiO 2 -like phase and ZnO(0001[combining macron])-O surfaces covered with a defined (Ti, Zn, O) compound. Finally, a difference in the activation temperature between the O-terminated (500 K) and Zn-terminated (700 K) surfaces is observed, which is tentatively explained by different electric fields in the space charge layer at ZnO surfaces.

  11. Cyclic Experimental Studies on Damage Evolution Behaviors of Shale Dependent on Structural Orientations and Confining Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage process of shale is of great importance when considering the wellbore stability and reservoir stimulation during the work of shale gas recovery. As shale has typical transversely isotropic structures and may be under different stress states in the reservoir, the damage process should be studied while considering both loading directions and confining pressures. A series of cyclic uniaxial and tri-axial compressive tests have been carried out on the shale samples with different oriented weak planes and confining pressures. The dissipated strain energy and its ratio to the releasable elastic strain energy have been studied comparing with the fracturing patterns of the samples. Based on the strain energy dissipation, damage variable is defined and the damage evolution equation is built to describe the damage process of shale samples dependent on loading directions and confining pressures. The damage equation shows that the damage of the shale samples increases as a power function of the axial stress. Under higher confining pressures, the damage is limited in the early loading stage, while it increases significantly with the formation of macro shear fractures when the peak strength is approaching. The change of increasing rate is weak for the shale samples (β = 60° as the main failure pattern is slip along the weak planes. This study is helpful for understanding the damage process and failure of wellbore, as well as the stimulation effect of the shale gas reservoir.

  12. Heroin impairs map-picture-following and memory tasks dependent on gender and orientation of the tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian Hong; Liu, Xiao Fen; Chen, Yan Mei; Sun, Hua Yin; Fu, Yu; Ma, Man Xiu; He, Jing; Wang, Hai Yan; Wilson, Fraser A W; Carlson, Synnöve; Ma, Yuan Ye

    2007-08-01

    Male and female heroin-dependent patients (HDPs) matched with "normal" people were tested on 4 topographical orientation tasks: schematic map-following, map-memory, schematic picture-following, and picture-memory tasks. The results showed that, in general, female HDPs demonstrated greater performance deficits in map-following and map-picture-memory tasks than did other participants. In the map-picture-following tasks, participants showed a preference for turning right versus turning left, reflected by lower correct scores and longer latencies in completing left-oriented tasks. In contrast, no difference in orientation preference was found for participants in memory tasks, except for female HDPs. Asymmetric dopamine receptor distribution in the brain, sex steroidal hormone, brain areas related to motor functioning and working memory, and gender-dependent lateralization may be involved in the different effects of heroin and rightward bias between men and women. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Orientation-dependent mobilities from analyses of two-dimensional TiN(111) island decay kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareno, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Khare, S.V.; Swiech, W.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of orientation-dependent mobilities Γ eff (φ) based upon analyses of the detachment-limited coarsening/decay kinetics of equilibrium-shaped two-dimensional islands. An exact analytical expression relating the orientation-dependence of Γ eff (φ) to that of the anisotropic step energies β(φ) is derived. This provides relative values of Γ eff (φ) to within an orientation-independent scale factor that is proportional to the decay rate of the island area. Using in situ high temperature (T = 1550-1700 K) low-energy electron microscopy measurements of two-dimensional TiN island coarsening/decay kinetics on TiN(111) terraces for which β(φ) values are known [Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 35409], we demonstrate the applicability of our analytic formulation for the determination of absolute Γ eff (φ) values

  14. Compositional dependence of the Young's modulus and piezoelectric coefficient of (110)-oriented pulsed laser deposited PZT thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeer, H.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Abelmann, Leon; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the compositional dependence of the mechanical and piezoelectric properties of Pb(ZrₓTi₿₋ₓ)O₃ (PZT) thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These films grow epitaxially on silicon with a (110) preferred orientation and have excellent piezoelectric

  15. Observations of orientation dependence of surface morphology in tungsten implanted by low energy and high flux D plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H.Y.; Zhang, Yubin; Yuan, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification by formation of blistering and nanostructures with pronounced orientation dependence has been observed on surfaces of rolled tungsten and recrystallized tungsten after exposure to a low energy (38 eV) deuterium (D) plasma with a high flux of 1024 m-2 s -1. The correlation bet...

  16. Orientation-dependent proton double-quantum NMR build-up function for soft materials with anisotropic mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Anna; Tschierske, Carsten; Saalwächter, Kay

    In recent years, the analysis of proton double-quantum NMR build-up curves has become an important tool to quantify anisotropic mobility in different kinds of soft materials such as polymer networks or liquid crystals. In the former case, such data provides a measure of orientation-dependent residual (time-averaged) dipolar couplings arising from anisotropic segmental motions, informing about the length and the state of local stretching of the network chains. Previous studies of macroscopically ordered, i.e. stretched, networks were subject to the limitation that a detailed build-up curve analysis on the basis of a universal "Abragam-like" (A-l) build-up function valid for a proton multi-spin system was only possible for an isotropic orientation-averaged response. This situation is here remedied by introducing a generic orientation-dependent build-up function for an anisotropically mobile protonated molecular segment. We discuss an application to the modeling of data for a stretched network measured at different orientations with respect to the magnetic field, and present a validation by fitting data of different liquid-crystal molecules oriented in the magnetic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From import dependency to export orientation the case of the chilean dairy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Rytkönen

    2011-12-01

    replaced by a highly liberalized process paved the way for breaking import dependency. Strategic decisions by the industry resulted in long term improved competitive power and a final shift towards exports. Contrary to previous research, this article shows that globalization is the main force behind the reorientation of the dairy sector in Chile from import dependency to export orientation.

  18. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ejiri, J. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. SNP rs16969968 as a Strong Predictor of Nicotine Dependence and Lung Cancer Risk in a North Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Namita; Pal, Soumyadip; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Guleria, Randeep; Mohan, Anant; Srivastava, Tapasya

    2017-01-01

    Background: The 15q24-25 loci contain genes (CHRNA5 and CHRNA3) encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits. We here determined for the first time the association of genetic variants rs16969968 and rs3743074 in CHRNA5 and CHRNA3, respectively, on nicotine dependence and lung cancer risk in a North Indian population by a case-control approach. Methods: Venous blood samples were obtained from 324 participants (108 lung cancer patients and 216 healthy individuals). DNA was extracted and PCR amplified with primers flanking the SNPs rs16969968 and rs3743074. Amplicons were subjected to sequencing and logistic regression was used to analyze association between variables. Results: The risk variant SNP rs16969968 in both heterozygous and homozygous forms appeared to exert a significant effect on nicotine dependence [GA (OR=2.77) and AA (OR=2.53)]. As expected, smoking was strongly associated with lung cancer (OR= 2.62). Risk allele rs16969968 in CHRNA5 also showed a significant association with increased lung cancer risk in our cohort, alone (OR= 4.99) and with smoking as a co-variable (OR= 4.28). Comparison of our analysis with other populations suggested that individuals with rs16969968 risk allele in the Indian population are more susceptible to lung cancer. Conclusion: Overall, the results strongly indicated that, in our cohort North Indian population, the genetic variant rs16969968, but not rs3743074, is significantly associated with both nicotine dependence and increased risk of lung cancer. While the results are significant, there is further need to increase the sample size and improve precision of our risk prediction. PMID:29172281

  20. Orientation dependence of the stress rupture properties of Nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of orientation of the stress rupture behavior of Mar-M247 single crystals was studied. Stress rupture tests were performed at 724 MPa and 774 C where the effect of anisotropy is prominent. The mechanical behavior of the single crystals was rationalized on the basis of the Schmid factors for the operative slip systems and the lattice rotations which the crystals underwent during deformation. The stress rupture lives were found to be greatly influenced by the lattice rotations required to produce intersecting slip, because steady-state creep does not begin until after the onset of intersecting slip. Crystals which required large rotations to become oriented for intersecting slip exhibited a large primary creep strain, a large effective stress level at the onset of steady-state creep, and consequently a short stress rupture life. A unified analysis was attained for the stress rupture behavior of the Mar-M247 single crystals tested in this study at 774 C and that of the Mar-M200 single crystals tested in a prior study at 760 C. In this analysis, the standard 001-011-111 stereographic triangle was divided into several regions of crystallographic orientation which were rank ordered according to stress rupture life for this temperature regime. This plot indicates that those crystals having orientations within about 25 deg of the 001 exhibited significantly longer lives when their orientations were closer to the 001-011 boundary of the stereographic triangle than to the 001-111 boundary.

  1. HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandslund, Ivan; Nielsen, Aneta Aleksandra; Hyldtoft Petersen, Per

    HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality......HbA1c as the diagnostic criterion for diabetes reduces incidence and prevalence of DM2 by 25% but strongly depending on analytical quality...

  2. Interactions between the phase stress and the grain-orientation-dependent stress in duplex stainless steel during deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, N.; Peng, R. Lin; Wang, Y.D.; Chai, G.C.; Johansson, S.; Wang, G.; Liaw, P.K.

    2006-01-01

    The development of phase stress and grain-orientation-dependent stress under uniaxial compression was investigated in a duplex stainless steel consisting of austenite and ferrite. Using in situ neutron diffraction measurements, the strain response of several h k l planes to the applied compressive stress was mapped as a function of applied stress and sample direction. Analysis based on the experimental results and elastoplastic self-consistent simulations shows that phase stresses of thermal origin further increase during elastic loading but decrease with increased plastic deformation. Grain-orientation-dependent stresses become significant in both austenite and ferrite after loading into the plastic region. After unloading from the plastic regime, a considerable intergranular stress remains in the austenitic phase and dominates over the phase stress. This study provides fundamental experimental inputs for future micromechanical modeling aiming at the evaluation and prediction of the mechanical performance of multiphase materials

  3. Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force in seeded melt grown single-domain YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D.; Qu, D.; Sagar, S.; Lahiri, K.

    1997-01-01

    Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force has been determined for single-domain YBa 2 Cu 3 O x . The single-domain material is obtained from a seeded melt growth process. The levitation force has been found to reach a maximum as the c axis of the domain is parallel to the direction of the force. The levitation force decreases in a cosine law fashion as the angle θ (the angle between the direction of the force and the c axis) increases from 0 degree to 60 degree. A maximum anisotropy of levitation force of 2.29 has been found. A physical model is proposed to explain the observed orientation dependence. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. He 2++ molecular ion in a strong time-dependent magnetic field: a current-density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas

    2011-08-01

    The He 2++ molecular ion exposed to a strong ultrashort time-dependent (TD) magnetic field of the order of 10(9) G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) and current-density functional theory (CDFT) based approach using vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential and energy density functional that depend not only on the electronic charge-density but also on the current density. The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed in a parallel internuclear-axis and magnetic field-axis configuration at the field-free equilibrium internuclear separation R = 1.3 au with the field-strength varying between 0 and 10(11) G. The TD behavior of the exchange- and correlation energy of the He 2++ is analyzed and compared with that obtained using a [B-TD-QFD-density functional theory (DFT)] approach based on the conventional TD-DFT under similar computational constraints but using only scalar XC potential and energy density functional dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The CDFT based approach yields TD exchange- and correlation energy and TD electronic charge-density significantly different from that obtained using the conventional TD-DFT based approach, particularly, at typical magnetic field strengths and during a typical time period of the TD field. This peculiar behavior of the CDFT-based approach is traced to the TD current-density dependent vector XC potential, which can induce nonadiabatic effects causing retardation of the oscillating electronic charge density. Such dissipative electron dynamics of the He 2++ molecular ion is elucidated by treating electronic charge density as an electron-"fluid" in the terminology of QFD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Noise-induced extinction for a ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Partha Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastically forced ratio-dependent predator-prey model with strong Allee effect in prey population. In the deterministic case, we show that the model exhibits the stable interior equilibrium point or limit cycle corresponding to the co-existence of both species. We investigate a probabilistic mechanism of the noise-induced extinction in a zone of stable interior equilibrium point. Computational methods based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique are applied for the analysis of the dispersion of random states near stable interior equilibrium point. This method allows to construct a confidence domain and estimate the threshold value of the noise intensity for a transition from the coexistence to the extinction.

  6. Dependence of crystallite formation and preferential backbone orientations on the side chain pattern in PBDTTPD polymers

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman

    2014-11-26

    (Figure Presented) Alkyl substituents appended to the π-conjugated main chain account for the solution-processability and film-forming properties of most π-conjugated polymers for organic electronic device applications, including field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Beyond film-forming properties, recent work has emphasized the determining role that side-chain substituents play on polymer self-assembly and thin-film nanostructural order, and, in turn, on device performance. However, the factors that determine polymer crystallite orientation in thin-films, implying preferential backbone orientation relative to the device substrate, are a matter of some debate, and these structural changes remain difficult to anticipate. In this report, we show how systematic changes in the side-chain pattern of poly(benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-alt-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione) (PBDTTPD) polymers can (i) influence the propensity of the polymer to order in the π-stacking direction, and (ii) direct the preferential orientation of the polymer crystallites in thin films (e.g., "face-on" vs "edge-on"). Oriented crystallites, specifically crystallites that are well-ordered in the π-stacking direction, are believed to be a key contributor to improved thin-film device performance in both FETs and BHJ solar cells.

  7. Help to perpetuate traditional gender roles: Benevolent sexism increases engagement in dependency-oriented cross-gender helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Kende, Anna; Bareket, Orly; Lazar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Based on theorizing that helping relations may serve as a subtle mechanism to reinforce intergroup inequality, the present research (N = 1,315) examined the relation between benevolent sexism (i.e., a chivalrous yet subtly oppressive view of women) and helping. In cross-gender interactions, the endorsement of (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or exposure to (Study 2) benevolent sexism predicted (a) men's preference to provide women with dependency-oriented help (i.e., direct assistance) rather than tools for autonomous coping, and (b) women's preference to seek dependency-oriented help rather than tools for autonomous coping. Benevolent sexism did not predict men's and women's engagement in dependency-oriented helping relations in same-gender interactions. Studies 1 and 2 examined behavioral intentions in response to a series of hypothetical scenarios; Studies 3 and 4 examined actual behavior in tests of mathematical and logical ability, and pointed to assumed partner's expectations as a potential mediator. The converging evidence supports the hypothesis that benevolent sexism encourages engagement in cross-gender helping relations that perpetuate traditional gender roles. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Magnetic field and temperature dependence of flux creep in oriented grained and single-crystalline YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.; Kuepfer, H.; Gurevich, A.; Meier-Hirmer, R.; Wolf, T.; Fluekiger, R.; Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

    1990-01-01

    Thermally activated flux creep of oriented grained and single-crystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O x was studied in fields up to 12 T and at temperatures ranging between 4 and 90 K. In fixed fields the activation energy U 0 of both samples was found to increase with temperature, pass through some maximum and drop to the order of k B T around the irreversibility line. While at constant temperature U 0 of the oriented grained sample showed a monotonous decrease with field; in the case of the single crystal it was found to follow a characteristic minimum-maximum structure paralleled by the previously observed field dependence of the shielding current. This clearly demonstrates the influence of the coupling properties, i.e., bulk behavior of the oriented grained sample and granularity of the single crystal, on relaxation. Therefore, models exclusively based either on a pinning or on a junction approach alone could not describe our experimental findings. A more appropriate explanation is based on the properties of the defect structure. Depending on field and temperature, defective regions are driven into the normal state whereby additional pinning centers are created which in turn give rise to increasing activation energies. The connectivity of the sample then depends on size and density of these defects

  9. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 μm in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  10. Size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires with strong surface atomic bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shiwen; Bi, Sheng; Li, Qikun; Guo, Qinglei; Liu, Junshan; Ouyang, Zhongliang; Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    The mechanical properties of size-dependent nanowires are important in nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMSs), and have attracted much research interest. Characterization of the size effect of nanowires in atmosphere directly to broaden their practical application instead of just in high vacuum situations, as reported previously, is desperately needed. In this study, we systematically studied the Young’s modulus of vertical ZnO nanowires in atmosphere. The diameters ranged from 48 nm to 239 nm with a resonance method using non-contact atomic force microscopy. The values of Young’s modulus in atmosphere present extremely strong increasing tendency with decreasing diameter of nanowire due to stronger surface atomic bonds compared with that in vacuum. A core-shell model for nanowires is proposed to explore the Young’s modulus enhancement in atmosphere, which is correlated with atoms of oxygen occurring near the nanowire surface. The modified model is more accurate for analyzing the mechanical behavior of nanowires in atmosphere compared with the model in vacuum. Furthermore, it is possible to use this characterization method to measure the size-related elastic properties of similar wire-sharp nanomaterials in atmosphere and estimate the corresponding mechanical behavior. The study of the size-dependent Young’s modulus in ZnO nanowires in atmosphere will improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of nanomaterials as well as providing guidance for applications in NEMSs, nanogenerators, biosensors and other related areas.

  11. The Impact of Power on Information Processing Depends on Cultural Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Carlos J.; Shavitt, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two studies show that different culturally based concepts of interpersonal power have distinct implications for information processing. People with a vertical individualist (VI) cultural orientation view power in personalized terms (power is for gaining status over and recognition by others), whereas people with a horizontal collectivist (HC) cultural orientation view power in socialized terms (power is for benefitting and helping others). The distinct goals associated with these power concepts are served by different mindsets, such as stereotyping others versus learning the individuating needs of others. Therefore, for high-VI individuals, making personalized power salient increases stereotyping in processing product information. That is, they recognize better information that is congruent with their prior product expectations, relative to their recognition of incongruent information. In contrast, for high-HC people, making socialized power salient increases individuating processes, characterized by better memory for incongruent information. PMID:21779130

  12. Orientation-Dependent Oxygen Evolution on RuO2 without Lattice Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kolb, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    RuO2 catalysts exhibit record activities toward the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is crucial to enable efficient and sustainable energy storage. Here we examine the RuO2 OER kinetics on rutile (110), (100), (101), and (111) orientations, finding (100) the most active. We assess...... the potential involvement of lattice oxygen in the OER mechanism with online electrochemical mass spectrometry, which showed no evidence of oxygen exchange on these oriented facets in acidic or basic electrolytes. Similar results were obtained for polyoriented RuO2 films and particles, in contrast to previous...... work, suggesting lattice oxygen is not exchanged in catalyzing OER on crystalline RuO2 surfaces. This hypothesis is supported by the correlation of activity with the number of active Ru-sites calculated by density functional theory, where more active facets bind oxygen more weakly. This new...

  13. Orthogonal Liquid Crystal Alignment Layer: Templating Speed-Dependent Orientation of Chromonic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yun Jeong; Gim, Min-Jun; Ahn, Hyungju; Shin, Tae Joo; Jeong, Joonwoo; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-05-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been extensively studied because of the interesting structural characteristics of the linear aggregation of their plank-shaped molecules in aqueous solvents. We report a simple method to control the orientation of LCLCs such as Sunset Yellow (SSY), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), and DNA by varying pulling speed of the top substrate and temperatures during shear flow induced experiment. Crystallized columns of LCLCs are aligned parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction, at fast and slow pulling speeds of the top substrate, respectively. On the basis of this result, we fabricated an orthogonally patterned film that can be used as an alignment layer for guiding rodlike liquid crystals (LCs) to generate both twisted and planar alignments simultaneously. Our resulting platform can provide a facile method to form multidirectional orientation of soft materials and biomaterials in a process of simple shearing and evaporation, which gives rise to potential patterning applications using LCLCs due to their unique structural characteristics.

  14. Hyphal Orientation of Candida albicans Is Regulated by a Calcium-Dependent Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Alexandra; Shanks, Scott; Duncan, Vanessa M.S.; Yang, Meng; Mackenzie, Kevin; Gow, Neil A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells from fungal hyphae to neurites that grow by polarized extension must coordinate cell growth and cell orientation to enable them to exhibit growth tropisms and to respond to relevant environmental cues. Such cells generally maintain a tip-high Ca2+ cytoplasmic gradient, which is correlated with their ability to exhibit polarized tip growth and to respond to growth-directing extracellular signals [1?5]. In yeast and other fungi, the polarisome, exocyst, Arp2/3, and Spit...

  15. Phase diagrams of dune shape and orientation depending on sand availability

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech

    2015-01-01

    New evidence indicates that sand availability does not only control dune type but also the underlying dune growth mechanism and the subsequent dune orientation. Here we numerically investigate the development of bedforms in bidirectional wind regimes for two different conditions of sand availability: an erodible sand bed or a localized sand source on a non-erodible ground. These two conditions of sand availability are associated with two independent dune growth mechanisms and, for both of the...

  16. The Thatcher illusion reveals orientation dependence in brain regions involved in processing facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psalta, Lilia; Young, Andrew W; Thompson, Peter; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Although the processing of facial identity is known to be sensitive to the orientation of the face, it is less clear whether orientation sensitivity extends to the processing of facial expressions. To address this issue, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to measure the neural response to the Thatcher illusion. This illusion involves a local inversion of the eyes and mouth in a smiling face-when the face is upright, the inverted features make it appear grotesque, but when the face is inverted, the inversion is no longer apparent. Using an fMRI-adaptation paradigm, we found a release from adaptation in the superior temporal sulcus-a region directly linked to the processing of facial expressions-when the images were upright and they changed from a normal to a Thatcherized configuration. However, this release from adaptation was not evident when the faces were inverted. These results show that regions involved in processing facial expressions display a pronounced orientation sensitivity.

  17. Temperature dependence of Cu2O orientations in the oxidation of Cu (111)/ZnO (0001) by oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun-Qiang; Mei Zeng-Xia; Ye Da-Qian; Hou Yao-Nan; Liu Yao-Ping; Du Xiao-Long; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The role of temperature on the oxidation dynamics of Cu 2 O on ZnO (0001) was investigated during the oxidation of Cu (111)/ZnO (0001) by using oxygen plasma as the oxidant. A transition from single crystalline Cu 2 O (111) orientation to micro-zone phase separation with multiple orientations was revealed when the oxidation temperature increased above 300 °C. The experimental results clearly show the effect of the oxidation temperature with the assistance of oxygen plasma on changing the morphology of Cu (111) film and enhancing the lateral nucleation and migration abilities of cuprous oxides. A vertical top-down oxidation mode and a lateral migration model were proposed to explain the different nucleation and growth dynamics of the temperature-dependent oxidation process in the oxidation of Cu (111)/ZnO (0001). (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  18. Fitness Effects of Chlorpyrifos in the Damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum Strongly Depend upon Temperature and Food Level and Can Bridge Metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Janssens

    Full Text Available Interactions between pollutants and suboptimal environmental conditions can have severe consequences for the toxicity of pollutants, yet are still poorly understood. To identify patterns across environmental conditions and across fitness-related variables we exposed Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae to the pesticide chlorpyrifos at two food levels or at two temperatures and quantified four fitness-related variables (larval survival, development time, mass at emergence and adult cold resistance. Food level and temperature did not affect survival in the absence of the pesticide, yet the pesticide reduced survival only at the high temperature. Animals reacted to the pesticide by accelerating their development but only at the high food level and at the low temperature; at the low food level, however, pesticide exposure resulted in a slower development. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in smaller adults except in animals reared at the high food level. Animals reared at the low food level and at the low temperature had a higher cold resistance which was not affected by the pesticide. In summary our study highlight that combined effects of exposure to chlorpyrifos and the two environmental conditions (i were mostly interactive and sometimes even reversed in comparison with the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, (ii strongly differed depending on the fitness-related variable under study, (iii were not always predictable based on the effect of the environmental condition in isolation, and (iv bridged metamorphosis depending on which environmental condition was combined with the pesticide thereby potentially carrying over from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. These findings are relevant when extrapolating results of laboratory tests done under ideal environmental conditions to natural communities.

  19. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  20. Fretting wear damage of HexTOOL{sup TM} composite depending on the different fibre orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terekhina, S; Salvia, M; Fouvry, S [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR CNRS ECL ENISE ENSMSE 5513, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 69134 Ecully cedex (France); Malysheva, G; Tarasova, T, E-mail: svetlana.terekhina@ec-lyon.fr, E-mail: svetlanaterekhina@yandex.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 105005 Moscow, 5, 2nd Baumanskaya str (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15

    The composites have drawn considerable interest in the mould processes. The vibrations and fatigue stresses induced in the moulds made evident to characterize the composite HexTOOL{sup TM} under fretting conditions. Fretting is a small-amplitude oscillatory motion between contacting surfaces. The running conditions fretting maps (RCFM) of composite at ambient conditions were established. The influence of different fiber orientations of HexTOOL{sup TM} composite on the wear kinetics was shown. An energy wear approach was developed. According to results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the viscoelastic properties of composite material were obtained.

  1. Comparing the epidermal growth factor interaction with four different cell lines: intriguing effects imply strong dependency of cellular context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Björkelund

    Full Text Available The interaction of the epidermal growth factor (EGF with its receptor (EGFR is known to be complex, and the common over-expression of EGF receptor family members in a multitude of tumors makes it important to decipher this interaction and the following signaling pathways. We have investigated the affinity and kinetics of (125I-EGF binding to EGFR in four human tumor cell lines, each using four culturing conditions, in real time by use of LigandTracer®.Highly repeatable and precise measurements show that the overall apparent affinity of the (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction is greatly dependent on cell line at normal culturing conditions, ranging from K(D ≈ 200 pM on SKBR3 cells to K(D≈8 nM on A431 cells. The (125I-EGF - EGFR binding curves (irrespective of cell line have strong signs of multiple simultaneous interactions. Furthermore, for the cell lines A431 and SKOV3, gefitinib treatment increases the (125I-EGF - EGFR affinity, in particular when the cells are starved. The (125I-EGF - EGFR interaction on cell line U343 is sensitive to starvation while as on SKBR3 it is insensitive to gefitinib and starvation.The intriguing pattern of the binding characteristics proves that the cellular context is important when deciphering how EGF interacts with EGFR. From a general perspective, care is advisable when generalizing ligand-receptor interaction results across multiple cell-lines.

  2. Strong Dependence of U.S. Summertime Air Quality on the Decadal Variability of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Leibensperger, Eric M.; Li, Mingwei

    2017-12-01

    We find that summertime air quality in the eastern U.S. displays strong dependence on North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, resulting from large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions. Using observations, reanalysis data sets, and climate model simulations, we further identify a multidecadal variability in surface air quality driven by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In one-half cycle ( 35 years) of the AMO from cold to warm phase, summertime maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations increase by 1-4 ppbv and PM2.5 concentrations increase by 0.3-1.0 μg m-3 over much of the east. These air quality changes are related to warmer, drier, and more stagnant weather in the AMO warm phase, together with anomalous circulation patterns at the surface and aloft. If the AMO shifts to the cold phase in future years, it could partly offset the climate penalty on U.S. air quality brought by global warming, an effect which should be considered in long-term air quality planning.

  3. Magnetic-field dependence of strongly anisotropic spin reorientation transition in NdFeO3: a terahertz study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Song, Gaibei; Wang, Dongyang; Jin, Zuanming; Tian, Zhen; Lin, Xian; Han, Jiaguang; Ma, Guohong; Cao, Shixun; Cheng, Zhenxiang

    2016-03-23

    One of the biggest challenges in spintronics is finding how to switch the magnetization of a material. One way of the spin switching is the spin reorientation transition (SRT), a switching of macroscopic magnetization rotated by 90°. The macroscopic magnetization in a NdFeO3 single crystal rotates from Γ4 to Γ2 via Γ24 as the temperature is decreased from 170 to 100 K, while it can be switched back to Γ4 again by increasing the temperature. However, the precise roles of the magnetic-field induced SRT are still unclear. By using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), here, we show that the magnetic-field induced SRT between Γ4 and Γ2 is strongly anisotropic, depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field. Our experimental results are well interpreted by the anisotropy of rare-earth Nd(3+) ion. Furthermore, we find that the critical magnetic-field required for SRT can be modified by changing the temperature. Our study suggests that the anisotropic SRT in NdFeO3 single crystal provides a platform to facilitate the potential applications in robust spin memory devices.

  4. Age-dependent differences in brain tissue microstructure assessed with neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Andrew P; Dean, Douglas C; Adluru, Nagesh; Suryawanshi, Gaurav S; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Oh, Jennifer M; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay; Zhang, Hui; Johnson, Sterling C; Alexander, Andrew L; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2016-07-01

    Human aging is accompanied by progressive changes in executive function and memory, but the biological mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not fully understood. Using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we sought to examine the relationship between age, cellular microstructure, and neuropsychological scores in 116 late middle-aged, cognitively asymptomatic participants. Results revealed widespread increases in the volume fraction of isotropic diffusion and localized decreases in neurite density in frontal white matter regions with increasing age. In addition, several of these microstructural alterations were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and executive function. These results suggest that neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging is capable of measuring age-related brain changes and the neural correlates of poorer performance on tests of cognitive functioning, largely in accordance with published histological findings and brain-imaging studies of people of this age range. Ultimately, this study sheds light on the processes underlying normal brain development in adulthood, knowledge that is critical for differentiating healthy aging from changes associated with dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Orientation-dependent electromagnetic properties of basalt fibre/nickel core–shell heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Qing, Kang; Mao-Sheng, Cao; Xiao-Yong, Fang; Jie, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orientation on electromagnetic properties of basalt fibre/nickel core–shell heterostructures prepared by a simple electroless plating method is investigated. For comparison, the same investigation is also performed on naked basalt fibres. For electromagnetic measurement, the directions of basalt fibre/nickel and naked basalt fibres are parallel, random and perpendicular to the direction of external electric field, termed E || sample, random sample and E p erpendicular sample, respectively. Electromagnetic anisotropy can be clearly observed in the basalt fibre/nickel core–shell heterostructures, while electromagnetic properties of naked basalt fibres are unrelated to the orientation. The E p erpendicular basalt fibre/nickel shows the highest dielectric loss but the lowest magnetic loss, and E || basalt fibre/nickel exhibits the highest magnetic loss but the lowest dielectric loss. The dielectric loss of E p erpendicular basalt fibre/nickel is several times as large as that of E || basalt fibre/nickel, which could be attributed to the increase of polarization relaxation time as a consequence of the nanosize-confinement effect. The magnetic loss of E || basalt fibre/nickel is even one order of magnitude higher than that of E p erpendicular basalt fibre/nickel, which originates mainly from the natural magnetic resonance of basalt fibre/nickel core–shell heterostructures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Visual mismatch negativity for changes in orientation--a sensory memory-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astikainen, Piia; Lillstrang, Elina; Ruusuvirta, Timo

    2008-12-01

    It remains unclear whether the mismatch negativity of event-related potentials (ERPs) in vision resembles its auditory counterpart in terms of memory relatedness. We recorded ERPs to visual bars in adult humans engaged in an auditory task. In one condition, a bar ('standard') repeated at 400- or 1100-ms non-stimulated intervals was rarely (P = 0.1) replaced by another bar of a different orientation ('deviant'). In the other condition (400-ms intervals), the occurrences of the standards were replaced by 10 (P = 0.1 each) bars of different orientations, including that of the deviant ('control-deviant'). Deviants shifted ERPs towards negative polarity relative to standards in occipital electrodes and towards positive polarity in frontal electrodes at 185-205 ms post-stimulus but only when 400-ms non-stimulated intervals were applied. Furthermore, the shift existed even relative to ERPs to control-deviants. The findings suggest that, as in audition, vision supports the detection of voluntarily unattended changes per se within the constraints of sensory memory. The findings also pave the way for the future exploration of both intact and impaired memory-based visual processing and memory capacity.

  7. Expression of transgenes targeted to the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus is orientation dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Strathdee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeting transgenes to a chosen location in the genome has a number of advantages. A single copy of the DNA construct can be inserted by targeting into regions of chromatin that allow the desired developmental and tissue-specific expression of the transgene.In order to develop a reliable system for reproducibly expressing transgenes it was decided to insert constructs at the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus. A cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was used to drive expression of the Tetracycline (tet transcriptional activator, rtTA2(s-M2, and test the effectiveness of using the ROSA26 locus to allow transgene expression. The tet operator construct was inserted into one allele of ROSA26 and a tet responder construct controlling expression of EGFP was inserted into the other allele.Expression of the targeted transgenes was shown to be affected by both the presence of selectable marker cassettes and by the orientation of the transgenes with respect to the endogenous ROSA26 promoter. These results suggest that transcriptional interference from the endogenous gene promoter or from promoters in the selectable marker cassettes may be affecting transgene expression at the locus. Additionally we have been able to determine the optimal orientation for transgene expression at the ROSA26 locus.

  8. Adaptation rearrangements of heart of young sportsmen depending on the orientation of the training activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Lastochkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: studying of the main parameters of morphofunctional condition of the left ventricular cavity of heart of sportsmen in the conditions of the training and competitive activity. Material & Methods: three groups of children (n=30 of 7–9, 10–12, 13–14 years old, who begin to train in sports with the manifestation of endurance and high-speed and power qualities, the qualified sportsmen at the age of 15–16 years old, who are engaged in run on 400 m with barriers, and karatekas (n=15+n=15, not engaged children of the same aged groups (n=40. The following methods of the research were applied: analysis of special literature, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, echocardiological methods of the research. Results: the considerable connection of types of heart of young sportsmen with indicators of exercise stress of various orientations is established. Sportsmen with the optimum vegeto-rhythmic indicators have the essential advantages in adaptation morphofunctional displacements in heart and warm productivity at sportsmen with satisfactory vegetative-rhythmic indicators. Conclusions: adaptation morphofunctional displacements in activity of the cardio-respiratory system are closely connected with the prevailing orientation of the training process and can be used as the objective test of adaptation to the special loadings in sport.

  9. Balancing energetic and cognitive resources: memory use during search depends on the orienting effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Search outside the laboratory involves tradeoffs among a variety of internal and external exploratory processes. Here we examine the conditions under which item specific memory from prior exposures to a search array is used to guide attention during search. We extend the hypothesis that memory use increases as perceptual search becomes more difficult by turning to an ecologically important type of search difficulty - energetic cost. Using optical motion tracking, we introduce a novel head-contingent display system, which enables the direct comparison of search using head movements and search using eye movements. Consistent with the increased energetic cost of turning the head to orient attention, we discover greater use of memory in head-contingent versus eye-contingent search, as reflected in both timing and orienting metrics. Our results extend theories of memory use in search to encompass embodied factors, and highlight the importance of accounting for the costs and constraints of the specific motor groups used in a given task when evaluating cognitive effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. About angular dependence of intensity of absent-minded radiation in approach of the strong dissipation of colliding ionic-sound waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solikhov, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to angular dependence of intensity of absent-minded radiation in approach of the strong dissipation of colliding ionic-sound waves. The operation angular dependence of dimensionless of intensity of absent-minded radiation in two-dimensional field of localisation of a wave of a rating in approach of the strong dissipation of passers is ionic-sound waves is viewed. (author)

  11. The predictive validity of the Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawayama Toru

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior such as positive alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking and perception of drinking problems are considered to have a significant influence on treatment effects and outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. However, the development of a rating scale on lack of perception or denial of drinking problems and impaired control over drinking has not been substantial, even though these are important factors in patients under abstinence-oriented treatment as well as participants in self-help groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA. The Drinking-Related Cognitions Scale (DRCS is a new self-reported rating scale developed to briefly measure cognitive factors associated with drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent patients under abstinence-oriented treatment, including positive alcohol expectancies, abstinence self-efficacy, perception of impaired control over drinking, and perception of drinking problems. Here, we conducted a prospective cohort study to explore the predictive validity of DRCS. Methods Participants in this study were 175 middle-aged and elderly Japanese male patients who met the DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Alcohol Dependence. DRCS scores were recorded before and after the inpatient abstinence-oriented treatment program, and treatment outcome was evaluated one year after discharge. Results Of the 175 participants, 30 were not available for follow-up; thus the number of subjects for analysis in this study was 145. When the total DRCS score and subscale scores were compared before and after inpatient treatment, a significant increase was seen for both scores. Both the total DRCS score and each subscale score were significantly related to total abstinence, percentage of abstinent days, and the first drinking occasion during the one-year post-treatment period. Therefore, good treatment outcome was significantly predicted by low

  12. Orientation Dependence of Cracking in Hot-Dip Zn-Al-Mg Alloy Coatings on a Sheet Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y. B.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, S. G.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, T. C.; Oh, M. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2017-03-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating a basic cause of cracking in hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings on an extra deep drawing quality sheet steel. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was employed to examine the crystallographic planes of the cracks generated before and after bending deformation of the coated steel sheets. It was clarified that the occurrence of cracking in the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings absolutely depends on the orientation of the primary Zn and eutectic Zn alloy phases. Finally, a cracking mechanism was proposed on the basis of the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the Young's modulus in the phases constituting the coatings.

  13. Orientation-dependent recrystallization in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel after dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Tao, N.R.; Mishin, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel PM2000 has been investigated after compression by dynamic plastic deformation to a strain of 2.1 and after subsequent annealing at 715 °C. Nanoscale lamellae, exhibiting a strong 〈100〉 + 〈111〉 duplex fibre texture, form during...

  14. Orientation dependence of transport property and microstructural characterization of Al-doped ZnO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Hisashi; Kinemuchi, Yoshiaki; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Watari, Koji; Nakano, Hiromi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Makiya, Atsushi; Kato, Zenji; Uematsu, Keizo

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between thermoelectric properties and crystallographic texture strengths of Al-doped ZnO ceramics prepared by the high magnetic field alignment method was investigated. The relationship between texture strength and electrical conductivity showed a unique characteristic, in which electrical conductivity increased with increasing texture strength, while the Seebeck coefficient was almost independent of the texture strength. Theoretical calculation indicated that the electrical conductivity was not only a function of crystal orientation but also of grain boundary structures. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that an interfacial layer or segregation of Al at grain boundaries was not observed; however, the coincidence site lattice such as Σ49 was observed at higher texture strength, suggesting that the unique microstructure was the main cause of these transport differences

  15. Orientational ordering of colloidal dispersions by application of time-dependent external forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2013-08-01

    We discuss a method of organizing incoherent motion of a colloidal suspension to produce synchronized, coherent motion, extending the discussion of our recent Letter [Moths and Witten, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.028301 110, 028301 (2013)]. The method does not require interaction between the objects. Instead, the effect is controlled by the “twist matrix” which gives the angular velocity of an asymmetric object in a fluid resulting from a weak external force. We analyze the two types of forcing considered in the Letter: a force alternating between two directions and a continuously rotating force. For the alternating force, we justify the claim of the Letter that under appropriate forcing conditions, the orientational entropy of the objects decreases indefinitely with time, on average. We provide a bound on that rate in terms of the twist matrix. For the case of rotating force, we derive conditions for phased-locked motion of the objects to the force and prove that there is only one stable phase-locked orientation under these conditions. We find numerically that the fastest alignment typically occurs for tilt angles of order unity. We discuss how the alignment effect scales with the object size for external forcing caused by gravity or an electric field. Under practical forcing conditions we estimate that the alignment should persist despite rotational diffusion for objects larger than about 10 microns. Potential misalignment owing to hydrodynamic interaction of the objects is estimated to be negligible at volume fractions smaller than about 10-4.5 (10-3) when the forcing is gravitational (electrophoretic).

  16. Underground anemotactic orientation in leaf-cutting ants: perception of airflow and experience-dependent choice of airflow direction during digging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halboth, Florian; Roces, Flavio

    2017-10-01

    Air exchange between the large nests of Atta vollenweideri leaf-cutting ants and the environment strongly relies on a passive, wind-induced ventilation mechanism. Air moves through nest tunnels and airflow direction depends on the location of the tunnel openings on the nest mound. We hypothesized that ants might use the direction of airflow along nest tunnels as orientation cue in the context of climate control, as digging workers might prefer to broaden or to close tunnels with inflowing or outflowing air in order to regulate nest ventilation. To investigate anemotactic orientation in Atta vollenweideri, we first tested the ants' ability to perceive air movements by confronting single workers with airflow stimuli in the range 0 to 20 cm/s. Workers responded to airflow velocities ≥ 2 cm/s, and the number of ants reacting to the stimulus increased with increasing airflow speed. Second, we asked whether digging workers use airflow direction as an orientation cue. Workers were exposed to either inflow or outflow of air while digging in the nest and could subsequently choose between two digging sites providing either inflow or outflow of air, respectively. Workers significantly chose the side with the same airflow direction they experienced before. When no airflow was present during initial digging, workers showed no preference for airflow directions. Workers developed preferences for airflow direction only after previous exposure to a given airflow direction. We suggest that experience-modified anemotaxis might help leaf-cutting ants spatially organize their digging activity inside the nest during tasks related to climate control.

  17. Underground anemotactic orientation in leaf-cutting ants: perception of airflow and experience-dependent choice of airflow direction during digging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halboth, Florian; Roces, Flavio

    2017-09-19

    Air exchange between the large nests of Atta vollenweideri leaf-cutting ants and the environment strongly relies on a passive, wind-induced ventilation mechanism. Air moves through nest tunnels and airflow direction depends on the location of the tunnel openings on the nest mound. We hypothesized that ants might use the direction of airflow along nest tunnels as orientation cue in the context of climate control, as digging workers might prefer to broaden or to close tunnels with inflowing or outflowing air in order to regulate nest ventilation. To investigate anemotactic orientation in Atta vollenweideri, we first tested the ants' ability to perceive air movements by confronting single workers with airflow stimuli in the range 0 to 20 cm/s. Workers responded to airflow velocities ≥ 2 cm/s, and the number of ants reacting to the stimulus increased with increasing airflow speed. Second, we asked whether digging workers use airflow direction as an orientation cue. Workers were exposed to either inflow or outflow of air while digging in the nest and could subsequently choose between two digging sites providing either inflow or outflow of air, respectively. Workers significantly chose the side with the same airflow direction they experienced before. When no airflow was present during initial digging, workers showed no preference for airflow directions. Workers developed preferences for airflow direction only after previous exposure to a given airflow direction. We suggest that experience-modified anemotaxis might help leaf-cutting ants spatially organize their digging activity inside the nest during tasks related to climate control.

  18. Field-orientation dependence of the specific heat of PrOs4Sb12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Jeroen; Namai, Yukie; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-05-01

    The superconducting (SC) gap of the Pr-based skutterudite PrOs4Sb12 has been investigated by means of field-angle-dependent specific heat C(H,ϕ) experiments. At fixed temperatures, H was varied and rotated in the basal planes. A 4-fold oscillation of C(H,ϕ) is observed in the entire H- T SC phase diagram. The minima are located along the [1 0 0] directions suggesting the excistence of gap nodes or minima along these directions. The oscillation amplitude |A| becomes maximum at H/H≈0.3. Below, |A|→0. The temperature variation of |A| follows a quadratic dependence.

  19. Perceived Intensity and Discrimination Ability for Lingual Electrotactile Stimulation Depends on Location and Orientation of Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M. Stone-Roy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Malfunctioning sensory systems can severely impact quality of life and repair is not always possible. One solution, called sensory substitution, is to use another sensory system to bring lost information to the brain. This approach often involves the use of bioengineered devices that electrically stimulate somatosensory fibers. Interestingly, the tongue is an ideal location for electrotactile stimulation due to its dense innervation, moisture, and protected environment. Success with transmitting visual and vestibular information through the tongue indicates promise for future applications. However, sensitivity and discrimination ability varies between individuals and across the tongue surface complicating efforts to produce reliable and consistent sensations. The goals of the present study were to investigate these differences more precisely to better understand the mechanosensory innervation of the tongue so that future electrotactile devices can be designed more effectively. Specifically, we tested whether stimulation of certain regions of the tongue consistently result in better perception, whether the spacing of stimulating electrodes affects perceived intensity, and whether the orientation of electrodes affects perceived intensity and discrimination. To test these hypotheses, we built a custom tongue stimulation device, recruited 25 participants, and collected perceived intensity and discrimination data. We then subjected the data to thorough statistical analyses. Consistent with previous studies, we found that stimulation of the anterior medial tongue region was perceived as more intense than stimulation of lateral and posterior regions. This region also had the best discrimination ability for electrodes. Dividing the stimulated tongue area into 16 distinct regions allowed us to compare perception ability between anterior and posterior regions, medial and lateral regions, and the left and right sides of the tongue. Stimulation of the most

  20. Tailoring of the flip effect in the orientation of a magnet levitating over a superconducting torus: Geometrical dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Sander, Berit; Timm, Lauri; Perez-Diaz, Jose-Luis

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A local model is used to demonstrate a flip effect in the orientation of a magnet over a superconductor. → A superconducting torus shape is studied. → Increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. → There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that help to fit the flip effect point. - Abstract: In a previous study, a general local model was used in order to demonstrate the apparition of a flip effect in the equilibrium orientation of a magnet when it is over a superconducting torus. This effect can be easily used in devices such as binary position detectors for magneto-microscopy, contactless sieves or magnetic levels amongst others. We present an initial study useful to design devices based on the flip effect between magnets and torus superconductors. It demonstrates that varying different geometrical parameters the flip effect point can be fixed. Also, it can be observed that increasing the inner radius of the torus elevates the flip effect point. A magneto-mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is exposed. For an increment of cross-section diameter occurs the same behavior. There are linear piecewises in the geometrical dependency functions that can be used for a more accurate fitting of the flip effect point.

  1. The development of grain-orientation-dependent residual stressess in a cyclically deformed alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Tian, Hongbo; Stoica, Alexandru D; Wang, Xun-Li; Liaw, Peter K; Richardson, James W

    2003-02-01

    There have been numerous efforts to understand and control the resistance of materials to fracture by repeated or cyclic stresses. The micromechanical behaviours, particularly the distributions of stresses on the scale of grain size during or after mechanical or electrical fatigue, are crucial to a full understanding of the damage mechanisms in these materials. Whether a large microstress develops during cyclic deformation with a small amount of monotonic strain but a large amount of accumulated strain remains an open question. Here, we report a neutron diffraction investigation of the development of intergranular stresses, which vary as a function of grain orientations, in 316 stainless steel during high-cycle fatigue. We found that a large intergranular stress developed before cracks started to appear. With further increase of fatigue cycles, the intergranular stress decreased, while the elastic intragranular stored energy continued to grow. One implication of our findings is that the ratio between the intergranular and intragranular stored energies during various stages of fatigue deformation may validate the damage mechanism and can be used as a fingerprint for monitoring the state of fatigue damage in materials.

  2. Crystalline orientation dependent photoresponse and heterogeneous behaviors of grain boundaries in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanpeng; Zhang, Pengpeng

    2018-02-01

    Using photoconductive atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, we characterize the local electrical properties of grains and grain boundaries of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) thin films on top of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/ITO substrate. Three discrete photoconductivity levels are identified among perovskite grains, likely corresponding to the crystal orientation of each grain. Local J-V curves recorded on these grains further suggest an anti-correlation behavior between the short circuit current (JSC) and open circuit voltage (VOC). This phenomenon can be attributed to diffusion-limited surface recombination at the non-selective perovskite-tip contact, where a higher carrier mobility established in the perovskite grain results in an enhanced surface recombination and thus a lower VOC. In addition, the photoresponse of perovskite films displays a pronounced heterogeneity across the grain boundaries, with the boundaries formed between grains of the same photoconductivity level displaying even enhanced photocurrent and open circuit voltage compared to those of the adjacent grain interiors. These observations highlight the significance of controlling the microstructure of perovskite thin films, which will be a necessary route for further improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells.

  3. Roles of visual experience and intrinsic mechanism in the activity-dependent self-organization of orientation maps: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigeru; Miyashita, Masanobu; Ribot, Jérôme

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that functional maps in the mammalian visual cortex such as ocular dominance columns and orientation columns are formed depending on neural activity. There is still, however, controversy on how much visual experience contributes to the map formation during development. In the present study, we address this issue from mathematical modeling and experimental investigation. Using a model of activity-dependent self-organization of geniculo-cortical afferent inputs, we showed that spontaneous activity in the LGN can produce orientation maps, while the exposure to drifting gratings results in sharply segregated orientation maps as observed in cat visual cortex. The restricted exposure to a single orientation of the grating led to the over-representation of the exposed orientation, which was moderated by the contribution of learning based on the spontaneous activity. These theoretical results were confirmed by intrinsic optical recordings from area 18 of kittens reared under various visual conditions.

  4. Fast software-oriented hash function based on data-dependent lookup operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovyan N.A.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a method of the construction of the iterated hash function on the bases of the data-dependent lookup operations used previously in the design of the fast software suitable ciphers. To transform encryption function into a block one-way function we use the data-dependent initial condition at each transformation cycle of the round function except the first cycle. The variable initial conditions has been also used to strengthen chaining while constructing the iterated hash function. While fixing initial condition the round function can be transformed into a block cipher suitable to perform fast disk encryption. The size of the input data block of the round function and of the block cipher is parameterized defining their suitability for different practical applications.

  5. Field-orientation dependence of the specific heat of PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custers, Jeroen; Namai, Yukie; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) gap of the Pr-based skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 has been investigated by means of field-angle-dependent specific heat C(H,φ) experiments. At fixed temperatures, H was varied and rotated in the basal planes. A 4-fold oscillation of C(H,φ) is observed in the entire H-T SC phase diagram. The minima are located along the [100] directions suggesting the excistence of gap nodes or minima along these directions. The oscillation amplitude vertical bar A vertical bar becomes maximum at H/H c2 ∼0.3. Below, vertical bar A vertical bar->0. The temperature variation of vertical bar A vertical bar follows a quadratic dependence

  6. A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Costello, Patricia; Fang, Fang; Huang, Miner; He, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Human observers are constantly bombarded with a vast amount of information. Selective attention helps us to quickly process what is important while ignoring the irrelevant. In this study, we demonstrate that information that has not entered observers' consciousness, such as interocularly suppressed (invisible) erotic pictures, can direct the distribution of spatial attention. Furthermore, invisible erotic information can either attract or repel observers' spatial attention depending on their ...

  7. Orientation and impact-parameter dependence of dissociative ionization of H{sub 2} by slow ion impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afaneh, F [Physics Department, Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Schmidt, L Ph H [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Schoeffler, M [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Stiebing, K E [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Al-Jundi, J [Physics Department, Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Schmidt-Boecking, H [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Doerner, R [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2007-09-14

    We have used the cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy imaging technique to investigate dissociative ionization of H{sub 2} by 25 keV proton impact. A kinematically complete picture of the dissociative ionization dynamics for slow proton collision has been obtained. The results show a strong impact-parameter dependence of the fragmentation process of H{sub 2}. This clearly emerged in the energy distributions of the H{sup +} ions generated for different impact parameters. At large impact parameters the H{sup +} ions equally share the energy liberated in the collision whereas at small impact parameters, the energy sharing is quite asymmetric. We also observed a strong dependence of the electron emission on molecular alignment. The momentum distribution of the emitted electron generated for a fixed-in-space H{sub 2} molecule displays that the electrons are more likely to be emitted perpendicular to the molecular axis.

  8. Msd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchorage ensures spindle orientation and primary cilia formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Akiko; Ikebe, Chiho; Tada, Masazumi; Toda, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring microtubules to the centrosome is critical for cell geometry and polarity, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that the conserved human Msd1/SSX2IP is required for microtubule anchoring. hMsd1/SSX2IP is delivered to the centrosome in a centriolar satellite-dependent manner and binds the microtubule-nucleator ?-tubulin complex. hMsd1/SSX2IP depletion leads to disorganised interphase microtubules and misoriented mitotic spindles with reduced length and intensity....

  9. Wavelength and orientation dependent capture of light by diatom frustule nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Julien; Valmalette, Jean-Christophe; Chauton, Matilde Skogen; Tranell, Gabriella; Einarsrud, Mari-Ann; Vadstein, Olav

    2015-12-02

    The ecological success of diatoms is emphasized by regular blooms of many different species in all aquatic systems, but the reason behind their success is not fully understood. A special feature of the diatom cell is the frustule, a nano-patterned cell encasement made of amorphous biosilica. The optical properties of a cleaned single valve (one half of a frustule) from the diatom Coscinodiscus centralis were studied using confocal micro-spectroscopy. A photonic crystal function in the frustule was observed, and analysis of the hyperspectral mapping revealed an enhancement of transmitted light around 636 and 663 nm. These wavelengths match the absorption maxima of chlorophyll a and c, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that a highly efficient light trapping mechanism occurred, resulting from strong asymmetry between the cribrum and foramen pseudo-periodic structures. This effect may prevent transmitted light from being backscattered and in turn enhance the light absorption. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the multi-scaled layered structure of the frustule improves photosynthetic efficiency by these three mechanisms. The optical properties of the frustule described here may contribute to the ecological success of diatoms in both lentic and marine ecosystems, and should be studies further in vivo.

  10. Dissection of TALE-dependent gene activation reveals that they induce transcription cooperatively and in both orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Jana; Baum, Heidi; Grau, Jan; Stuttman, Johannes; Boch, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas bacteria inject transcription activator-like effector proteins (TALEs) into host cells to specifically induce transcription of plant genes and enhance susceptibility. Although the DNA-binding mode is well-understood it is still ambiguous how TALEs initiate transcription and whether additional promoter elements are needed to support this. To systematically dissect prerequisites for transcriptional initiation the activity of one TALE was compared on different synthetic Bs4 promoter fragments. In addition, a large collection of artificial TALEs spanning the OsSWEET14 promoter was compared. We show that the presence of a TALE alone is not sufficient to initiate transcription suggesting the requirement of additional supporting promoter elements. At the OsSWEET14 promoter TALEs can initiate transcription from various positions, in a synergistic manner of multiple TALEs binding in parallel to the promoter, and even by binding in reverse orientation. TALEs are known to shift the transcriptional start site, but our data show that this shift depends on the individual position of a TALE within a promoter context. Our results implicate that TALEs function like classical enhancer-binding proteins and initiate transcription in both orientations which has consequences for in planta target gene prediction and design of artificial activators. PMID:28301511

  11. Micromagnetic simulation of the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujisaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the micromagnetic simulation study about the orientation dependence of grain boundary properties on the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets. A multigrain object with a large number of meshes is introduced to analyze such anisotropic grain boundaries and the simulation is performed by combining the finite element method and the parallel computing. When the grain boundary phase parallel to the c-plane is less ferromagnetic the process of the magnetization reversal changes and the coercivity of the multigrain object increases. The simulations with various magnetic properties of the grain boundary phases are executed to search for the way to enhance the coercivity of polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets.

  12. Ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics of H2 in an elliptical strong laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-18

    We study the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold (NT) harmonics of pre-aligned H2 molecules using the time-dependent density functional theory. The anomalous maximum appearing at a non-zero ellipticity for the generated NT harmonics can be attributed to multiphoton effects of the orthogonally polarized component of the elliptical driving laser field. Our calculation also shows that the structure of the bound-state, such as molecular alignment and bond length, can be sensitively reflected on the ellipticity dependence of the near-threshold harmonics.

  13. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    direction changes in a jaw muscle pain condition and this information can be used to further characterize functional pain in the masticatory muscle system. The changes were dependent on the incising frequency generated by the central pattern generator for incising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the model dependence of the determination of the strong coupling constant in second order QCD from e+e--annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achterberg, O.; D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Forstbauer, B.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Henkes, T.; Hopp, G.; Krueger, M.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Bonneaud, G.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Le Diberder, F.; Mallik, U.; Ros, E.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-12-01

    Hadronic events obtained with the CELLO detector at PETRA are compared with second order QCD predictions using different models for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. We find that the model dependence in the determination of the strong coupling constant persists when going from first to second order QCD calculations. (orig.)

  15. Strong dependence of rain-induced lidar depolarization on the illumination angle: experimental evidence and geometrical-optics interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, G; Bissonnette, L R

    2001-09-20

    Backscatter and depolarization lidar measurements from clouds and precipitation are reported as functions of the elevation angle of the pointing lidar direction. We recorded the data by scanning the lidar beam (Nd:YAG) at a constant angular speed of ~3.5 degrees /s while operating at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We show that in rain there is an evident and at times spectacular dependence on the elevation angle. That dependence appears to be sensitive to raindrop size. We have developed a three-dimensional polarization-dependent ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the backscatter and the depolarization ratio by large nonspherical droplets. We have applied it to raindrop shapes derived from existing static and dynamic (oscillating) models. We show that many of the observed complex backscatter and depolarization features can be interpreted to a good extent by geometrical optics. These results suggest that there is a definite need for more extensive calculations of the scattering phase matrix elements for large deformed raindrops as functions of the direction of illumination. Obvious applications are retrieval of information on the liquid-solid phase of precipitation and on the size and the vibration state of raindrops.

  16. Response of heat shock protein genes of the oriental fruit moth under diapause and thermal stress reveals multiple patterns dependent on the nature of stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Jincheng; Liang, Lina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2016-07-01

    Heat shock protein gene (Hsp) families are thought to be important in thermal adaptation, but their expression patterns under various thermal stresses have still been poorly characterized outside of model systems. We have therefore characterized Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta, a widespread global orchard pest, and compared patterns of expression in this species to that of other insects. Genes from four Hsp families showed variable expression levels among tissues and developmental stages. Members of the Hsp40, 70, and 90 families were highly expressed under short exposures to heat and cold. Expression of Hsp40, 70, and Hsc70 family members increased in OFM undergoing diapause, while Hsp90 was downregulated. We found that there was strong sequence conservation of members of large Hsp families (Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70) across taxa, but this was not always matched by conservation of expression patterns. When the large Hsps as well as small Hsps from OFM were compared under acute and ramping heat stress, two groups of sHsps expression patterns were apparent, depending on whether expression increased or decreased immediately after stress exposure. These results highlight potential differences in conservation of function as opposed to sequence in this gene family and also point to Hsp genes potentially useful as bioindicators of diapause and thermal stress in OFM.

  17. miRNA independent hepacivirus variants suggest a strong evolutionary pressure to maintain miR-122 dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yingpu; Scheel, Troels K.H.; Luna, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) requires the liver specific micro-RNA (miRNA), miR-122, to replicate. This was considered unique among RNA viruses until recent discoveries of HCV-related hepaciviruses prompting the question of a more general miR-122 dependence. Among hepaciviruses, the closest known HCV...... generated infectious NPHV/HCV chimeric viruses with the 5’ end of NPHV replacing orthologous HCV sequences. These chimeras were viable even in cells lacking miR-122, although miR-122 presence enhanced virus production. No other miRNAs bound this region. By random mutagenesis, we isolated HCV variants...... partially dependent on miR-122 as well as robustly replicating NPHV/HCV variants completely independent of any miRNAs. These miRNA independent variants even replicate and produce infectious particles in non-hepatic cells after exogenous delivery of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Our findings suggest that miR-122...

  18. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  19. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  20. Optical band gap demarcation around 2.15 eV depending on preferred orientation growth in red HgI{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Pankaj, E-mail: pankajtyagicicdu@gmail.com

    2017-04-01

    Thermally evaporated stoichiometric films of red HgI{sub 2} show preferred orientation growth with either (102) or (002) orientation. The as grown films shows a change from one preferred orientation to another depending on their thickness, open-air heat-treatment and in-situ heat treatment of films. The in-situ heat-treatment of thermally evaporated stoichiometric films of red HgI{sub 2} with preferred growth of (102) orientation shows a gradual linear decrease in film thickness with in-situ heat-treatment temperature. On in-situ heat-treatment above 80 °C, it is found that HgI{sub 2} films become thinner than 900 nm, which are otherwise difficult to grow due to high vapor pressure of HgI{sub 2}. For these films the preferred orientation also changed from (102) to (002). The optical band gap (E{sub g}) also found to increase linearly with in-situ heat-treatment temperature. It is interesting to note that in-situ heat-treated films having (002) orientation had higher values of optical band gap than (102) orientation films. On combining these results with those of as grown and open-air heat-treated red HgI{sub 2} films reported in the literature, it is evident that there exists an optical band gap demarcation around 2.15 eV for red HgI{sub 2} thin films depending on their preferred orientation growth. Films with (102) orientation are found to have optical band gap less than 2.15 eV and those with (002) orientation are found to have optical band gap more than 2.15 eV. This is irrespective of the physical mean of obtaining the preferred orientation. The preferred orientation can be achieved by either physical means such as growing films with higher thickness, heat-treating them for short duration in open air or heat-treating them in-situ.

  1. Highly anisotropic magneto-transport and field orientation dependent oscillations in aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Brian; Kumar, Raj; Reynolds, C. Lewis; Peters, Kara; Bradford, Philip D.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely investigated as additive materials for composites with potential applications in electronic devices due to their extremely large electrical conductivity and current density. Here, highly aligned CNT composite films were created using a sequential layering fabrication technique. The degree of CNT alignment leads to anisotropic resistance values which varies >400× in orthogonal directions. Similarly, the magnetoresistance (MR) of the CNT composite differs depending upon the relative direction of current and the applied magnetic field. A suppression of negative to positive MR crossover was also observed. More importantly, an overall positive magnetoresistance behavior with localized +/- oscillations was discovered at low fields which persists up to room temperature when the current (I) and in-plane magnetic field (B) were parallel to the axis of CNT (B∥I∥CNT), which is consistent with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in our CNT/epoxy composites. When the current, applied magnetic field, and nanotube axis are aligned, the in-plane MR is positive instead of negative as observed for all other field, current, and tube orientations. Here, we provide in-depth analysis of the conduction mechanism and anisotropy in the magneto-transport properties of these aligned CNT-epoxy composites.

  2. ARE THERE ANY DIFFERENCES IN TEACHERS’ WORK-ORIENTED BEHAVIOR DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT?: A FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BAKAN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing competitive business environment competitive advantage is an important source of human resources and because it is thought that the empowered employee will contribute more to the business,  it is an important issue for today's business to reveal how to make a difference in the behavior of the empowered employees in the workplace because the empowered employee is thought to contribute more to the business  The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of psychological empowerment in work-oriented behaviors. In order to achieve this aim, the relationships between psychological empowerment and work-related behaviors (Participatory Decision Making, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, Work-Family Conflict, Family-Job Conflict, Role Conflict, Role Uncertainty were examined and then related to different levels of psychological empowerment, it was researched whether there was a significant difference in participants' perception of work-related behavior. Significant differences were found between participant decision making, job performance, job satisfaction, family-work conflict, role conflict, and role ambiguity perceptions, depending on the level of psychological empowerment of the teachers.These findings show that differences occur in work-related behaviors according to the level of psychological empowerment of employees, supports the literature which argues that psychological empowerment has significant influence on behavior.

  3. Organization dependent collective magnetic properties of secondary nanostructures with differential spatial ordering and magnetic easy axis orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, K. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Sarma, D.D. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Deb, P., E-mail: pdeb@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India)

    2016-06-15

    Achieving control on the formation of different organization states of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to harness their organization dependent physical properties in desired ways. In this study, three organization states of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), defining as (i) assembly (ii) network aggregate and (iii) cluster, have been developed by simply changing the solvent evaporation conditions. All three systems have retained the same phase and polydispersity of primary particles. Magnetic measurements show that the partial alignment of the easy axes of the particles in the network system due to the stacking aggregation morphology can result in significant enhancement of the coercivity and remanence values, while the opposite is obtained for the cluster system due to the random orientation of easy axes. Partial alignment in the aggregate system also results in noticeable non-monotonic field dependence of ZFC peak temperature (T{sub peak}). The lowest value of the blocking temperature (T{sub B}) for the cluster system is related to the lowering of the effective anisotropy due to the strongest demagnetizing effect. FC (Field cooled) memory effect was observed to be decreasing with the increasing strength of dipolar interaction of organization states. Therefore, the stacking aggregation and the cluster formation are two interesting ways of magnetic nanoparticles organization for modulating collective magnetic properties significantly, which can have renewed application potentials from recording devices to biomedicine. - Highlights: • Three organization states of magnetic nanoparticles were developed. • Aggregation enhances the H{sub c} and M{sub r}/M{sub s,} while spherical clustering shows opposite. • Organization morphology hardly effects on FC memory effect. • Developed secondary systems can have renewed application potentials in wide spectrum.

  4. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  5. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  7. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  8. Prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia: a transcultural comparative study between Germany as a western, liberal, industrialised country and Syria as an oriental society with a strong Islamic tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Peter Herbert; Juratli, Nour; Kabalan, Younes

    2010-10-01

    Prolactinomas and hyperprolactinaemia cause hypogonadism and impairment of sexual and reproductive function. In this transcultural study, clinical characteristics of prolactinoma/hyperprolactinaemia were compared between a liberal, western, industrialised country and a more traditional, Islamic, oriental society. Sixty-two Syrian patients with hyperprolactinaemia were compared to 62 German patients with hyperprolactinaemia. In Syria and Germany, prolactinoma and hyperprolactinaemia were more frequent in females than in males (Syria 87% females; Germany 63% females). Prolactinomas were larger in males, males were older at diagnosis in both countries. Recorded clinical symptoms were comparable, even if culturally determined differences in spontaneous reporting of and asking for symptoms might be considered. The average age of the Syrian patients at diagnosis of hyperprolactinaemia was more than 6 years lower than in the German cohort (33.4 ± 10.4 vs. 39.7 ± 17.6 years). In Germany, a variety of therapeutic regimens were applied. In Syria, bromocriptine was prescribed exclusively. The differences may be attributed to culturally determined differences in sexual and reproductive behaviour, i.e. sexual intercourses of young, unmarried girls and women in association to the use of oral contraceptives regulating the menstrual cycle, maternal age at first delivery and birth frequency. Exclusive prescription of bromocriptine in Syria may be associated to limited resources and the safety of bromocriptine during pregnancy.

  9. Orientation Dependent MR Signal Decay Differentiates between People with MS, Their Asymptomatic Siblings and Unrelated Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enedino Hernández-Torres

    Full Text Available R2* relaxometry of the brain is a quantitative magnetic resonance technique which is influenced by iron and myelin content across different brain regions. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common inflammatory, demyelinating disease affecting both white and grey matter regions of the CNS. Using R2*, increased iron deposition has been described in deep gray matter of MS patients. Iron accumulation might promote oxidative stress in the brain, which can lead to cell death and neurodegeneration. However, recent histological work indicates that iron may be reduced within the normal appearing white matter (WM in MS. In the present study we analyzed the R2* signal across the white matter in 39 patients with MS, 31 asymptomatic age matched siblings of patients and 30 age-matched controls. The measurement of R2* in white matter is affected by the signal's dependency on white matter fibre orientation with respect to the main magnetic field which can be accounted using diffusion tensor imaging. We observed a clear separation of the three study groups in R2*. The values in the MS group were significantly lower compared to the siblings and controls, while the siblings group presented with significantly higher R2* values than both unrelated healthy controls and patients. Furthermore, we found significantly decreased normal-appearing white matter R2* values in patients with more severe disease course. Angle resolved analysis of R2* improves the sensitivity for detecting subtle differences in WM R2* compared to standard histogram based analyses. Our findings suggest that the decreased R2* values in MS are due to diffuse tissue damage and decreased myelin in the normal appearing and diffusely abnormal WM. The increased R2* in unaffected siblings may identify a predisposition to increased iron and the potential for oxidative stress as a risk factor for developing MS.

  10. Evolution of surface topography in dependence on the grain orientation during surface thermal fatigue of polycrystalline copper

    CERN Document Server

    Aicheler, M; Taborelli, M; Calatroni, S; Neupert, H; Wuensch, W; Sgobba, S

    2011-01-01

    Surface degradation due to cyclic thermal loading plays a major role in the Accelerating Structures (AS) of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) In this article results on surface degradation of thermally cycled polycrystalline copper as a function of the orientation of surface grains are presented Samples with different grain sizes were subjected to thermal fatigue using two different methods and were then characterized using roughness measurements and Orientation Imaging Scanning-Electron-Microscopy (OIM-SEM) Samples fatigued by a pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage accumulation as the sample fatigued by pulsed Radio-Frequency-heating (RF) it is clearly shown that 11 1 1] surface grains develop significantly more damage than the surface grains oriented in {[}100] and three reasons for this behaviour are pointed out Based on observations performed near grain boundaries their role in the crack initiation process is discussed The results are in good agreement with previous f...

  11. Orientation of liquid crystalline blue phases on unidirectionally orienting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Misaki; Ohkawa, Takuma; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Hirostugu; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Liquid crystalline cholesteric blue phases (BPs) continue to attract interest due to their fast response times and quasi-polarization-independent phase modulation capabilities. Various approaches have recently been proposed to control the crystal orientation of BPs on substrates; however, their basic orientation properties on standard, unidirectionally orienting alignment layers have not been investigated in detail. Through analysis of the azimuthal orientation of Kossel diagrams, we study the 3D crystal orientation of a BP material—with a phase sequence of cholesteric, BP I, and BP II—on unidirectionally orienting surfaces prepared using two methods: rubbing and photoalignment. BP II grown from the isotropic phase is sensitive to surface conditions, with different crystal planes orienting on the two substrates. On the other hand, strong thermal hysteresis is observed in BPs grown through a different liquid crystal phase, implying that the preceding structure determines the orientation. More specifically, the BP II–I transition is accompanied by a rotation of the crystal such that the crystal direction defined by certain low-value Miller indices transform into different directions, and within the allowed rotations, different azimuthal configurations are obtained in the same cell depending on the thermal process. Our findings demonstrate that, for the alignment control of BPs, the thermal process is as important as the properties of the alignment layer.

  12. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Hash(0x125f4490)

    2011-02-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field ( B) of strength up to 1011 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >109 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >109 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs "dynamically" from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints.

  13. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  14. Efficient three-photon luminescence with strong polarization dependence from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd3+ and Tb3+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-Can; Zhang, Cheng-Yun; Deng, Hai-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yin; Lan, Sheng; Qian, Qi-; Yang, Zhong-Min; Gopal, Achanta Venu

    2013-03-11

    Efficient three-photon luminescence (3PL) from a scintillating silicate glass co-doped with Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) was generated by using a focused femtosecond laser beam at 800 nm. Four emission bands centered at 496, 541, 583, and 620 nm were identified as the electronic transitions between the energy levels of Tb(3+) followed by three-photon absorption (3PA) in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and the resonant energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Tb(3+). More interestingly, a strong polarization dependence of the 3PL was observed and it is ascribed to the polarization dependent 3PA in Gd(3+) and Tb(3+) and/or the angular distribution of photogenerated electrons in the glass.

  15. Dependence of the structure of ion-modified NiTi single crystal layers on the orientation of irradiated surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletika, T. M.; Meisner, L. L.; Girsova, S. L.; Tverdokhlebova, A. V.; Meisner, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The composition and structure of Si layers implanted into titanium nickelide single crystals with different orientations relative to the ion beam propagation direction have been studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The role of the "soft" [111]B2 and "hard" [001]B2 NiTi orientations in the formation of the structure of ion-modified surface layer, as well as the defect structure of the surface layers of the single crystals, has been revealed. Orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling of ions, which control the composition and thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers being formed, ion and impurity penetration depth, as well as the concentration profile of the Ni distribution over the surface, have been detected.

  16. Chain length dependence of the helix orientation in Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Le-Thu T.; Ardana, Aditya; Vorenkamp, Eltjo J.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Schouten, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of chain length on the helix orientation of alpha-helical diblock copolypeptides in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers is reported for the first time. Amphiphilic diblock copolypeptides (PLGA-b-PMLGSLGs) of poly(alpha-L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and

  17. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas [Quantum Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, 160014 Chandigrah (India)

    2011-02-15

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10{sup 11} G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10{sup 9} G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10{sup 9} G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  18. Bias voltage dependence of molecular orientation of dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester at the liquid–graphite interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibino, Masahiro, E-mail: hibino@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Department of Applied Sciences, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) were formed on a graphite surface at the liquid–solid interface. • Orientations of the molecules in SAMs on the substrate were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. • A perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing up on the surface is favorable for a substrate with negative charge and vice versa. - Abstract: Molecular orientations of self-assembled 18-pentatriacontanone (as ketone) and stearyl stearate (as ester) monolayers adsorbed on a graphite surface were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at the liquid–solid interface. At a positive sample bias, the central areas of the dialkyl ketone and fatty acid alkyl ester molecules in the STM images appeared as two bright regions on both sides of a dim spot and a bright region on one side of a dim spot, whereas at a negative sample bias, the areas appeared dim. This contrast variation indicates that a perpendicular carbon skeleton-plane orientation with the CO pointing down on the surface is favorable for a substrate with positive charge and vice versa because of the greater electronegativity of the oxygen atom. Upon the bias voltage reversal, the delay time for the STM image contrast change in the region was observed on a time scale of minutes. The difference between the delay time lengths for the direction of bias polarity change indicates that the perpendicular configuration with CO pointing up is more stable than that with CO pointing down. These results indicate that the use of an electric field along a direction vertical to the monolayer on the substrate provides control over the orientations of the molecules between two stable states at the liquid–solid interface.

  19. Orientation dependence of magnetoelectric coefficient in 1-3-type BaTiO3/CoFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Gang; Shao, Hui; Zhang, Cheng; Yan, Chao; Zhao, Ning; Song, Bo; Wong, C. P.

    2018-03-01

    Orientation dependence of magnetoelectric coefficient αE33 in 1-3-type BaTiO3/CoFe2O4 composites was calculated in arbitrary directions by three-dimensional coordinate transformation method. The space distributions of pc11‧, pc12‧, e31‧ for piezoelectric phase and mc11‧, mc12‧, q31‧ for magnetic phase were obtained independently using relative experimental data and original matrices for 4mm BaTiO3 and m3m CoFe2O4. Elastic stiffness coefficients show little orientation differences, while e31‧ and q31‧ exhibit high dependence on crystal orientation, with the MAX absolute e31‧ = 2.96 C/m2 and the MAX q31‧ = 556 × 10-12 m/A are found at θ = 0° and θ = 0°, ϕ = 45°, respectively. For space distribution of αE33‧, BaTiO3||[0 0 1]/CoFe2O4||[0 0 1] combination has the maximum value which applies to both 1-3 p/m (1.485 V/A) and 1-3 m/p composites (1.529 V/A). Volume fraction is quite independent of orientations of both piezoelectric and magnetic phases and the volume fraction for magnetic phase f around 0.5 obtains the largest αE33. The results suggest an approach to significantly enhancing magnetoelectric coefficient of composite multiferroic materials through crystal orientation controls of single crystals and textured ceramics.

  20. Hippocampal-dependent familiar area map supports corrective re-orientation following navigational error during pigeon homing: a GPS-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Ioalè, Paolo; Savini, Maria; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Bingman, Verner P

    2009-06-01

    It is hypothesized that a central role of the vertebrate hippocampal formation (HF) in behavior is the learning and operation of a map-like representation of familiar landmarks and landscape features. One critical property of a map is that it should enable an individual to re-orient towards a goal location following a navigational error. To test this prediction on a spatial scale consistent with their naturally occurring behavior, control and HF-lesioned homing pigeons were trained from two locations and then subsequently released, while carrying portable GPS-tracking devices, following a phase-shift treatment. Analyses revealed that the HF-lesioned pigeons were less successful than control pigeons in re-orienting homewards following the phase-shift-induced error in their initial orientation. Furthermore, the observation that HF-lesioned pigeons were found to routinely ignore a land-sea landscape boundary when returning home from one of the release sites suggests that coarse landscape features may be an underappreciated source of navigational information for homing pigeons. The data demonstrate that, on a scale of tens of kilometers, homing pigeons are able to learn a hippocampal-dependent, map-like representation of familiar landmarks/landscape features that can support corrective re-orientation following a navigational error.

  1. Orientation dependence of stress-induced martensite formation during nanoindentation in NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplanche, G.; Pfetzing-Micklich, J.; Eggeler, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we used nanoindentation with a spherical indenter tip to study the formation of stress-induced martensite in NiTi shape memory alloys. Prior to nanoindentation, orientation imaging was performed to select austenite grains with specific crystallographic orientations, including the principal crystallographic directions [0 0 1], [1 0 1] and [1 1 1]. We studied a material where stress-induced martensite is stable at room temperature and found surface patterns with four-, two- and threefold symmetries for the [0 0 1], [1 0 1] and [1 1 1] crystallographic indentation directions, respectively. Atomic force microscopy investigations of the topography showed that the surface patterns were associated with sink-ins. The crystallographic sink-in patterns disappeared during heating, which proved their martensitic origin. Our results provide clear experimental evidence which shows that the crystallographic anisotropy of nanoindentation is governed by the crystallographic anisotropy of the stress-induced formation of martensite

  2. Strongly Nonlinear Dependence of Energy Transfer Rate on sp(2) Carbon Content in Reduced Graphene Oxide-Quantum Dot Hybrid Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yitong; Son, Dong Hee

    2015-01-02

    The dependence of the energy transfer rate on the content of sp(2)-hybridized carbon atoms in the hybrid structures of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Mn-doped quantum dot (QD(Mn)) was investigated. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of QD(Mn)'s dopant luminescence lifetime only to the energy transfer process without interference from the charge transfer process, the correlation between the sp(2) carbon content in RGO and the rate of energy transfer from QD(Mn) to RGO was obtained. The rate of energy transfer showed a strongly superlinear increase with increasing sp(2) carbon content in RGO, suggesting the possible cooperative behavior of sp(2) carbon domains in the energy transfer process as the sp(2) carbon content increases.

  3. Verification test problems for the calculation of probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-dependent systems with multiple weak and strong links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)

    2006-06-01

    Four verification test problems are presented for checking the conceptual development and computational implementation of calculations to determine the probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) in temperature-dependent systems with multiple weak links (WLs) and strong links (SLs). The problems are designed to test results obtained with the following definitions of loss of assured safety: (1) Failure of all SLs before failure of any WL, (2) Failure of any SL before failure of any WL, (3) Failure of all SLs before failure of all WLs, and (4) Failure of any SL before failure of all WLs. The test problems are based on assuming the same failure properties for all links, which results in problems that have the desirable properties of fully exercising the numerical integration procedures required in the evaluation of PLOAS and also possessing simple algebraic representations for PLOAS that can be used for verification of the analysis.

  4. Shear-Induced Precursor Relaxation-Dependent Growth Dynamics and Lamellar Orientation of β-Crystals in β-Nucleated Isotactic Polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Hui; Fang, Du-Fei; Lei, Jun; Li, Liang-Bin; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2015-04-30

    Although a shear flow field and β-nucleating agents (β-NAs) can separately induce the formation of β-crystals in isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in an efficient manner, we previously encountered difficulty in obtaining abundant β-crystals when these two factors were applied due to the competitive growth of α- and β-crystals. In the current study, to induce the formation of a high fraction of β-crystals, a strategy that introduces a relaxation process after applying a shear flow field but before cooling to crystallize β-nucleated iPP was proposed. Depending on the relaxation state of the shear-induced oriented precursors, abundant β-crystals with a refined orientation morphology were indeed formed. The key to producing these crystals lay in the partially dissolved shear-induced oriented precursors as a result of the relaxation process's ability to generate β-crystals by inducing the formation of needlelike β-NAs. Therefore, the content of β-crystals gradually increased with relaxation time, whereas the overall crystallization kinetics progressively decreased. Moreover, more time was required for the content of the β-phase to increase to the (maximum) value observed in quiescent crystallization than for the effect of flow on crystallization kinetics to be completely eliminated. The c-axis of the oriented β-lamellae was observed to be perpendicular, rather than parallel, to the fiber axis of the needlelike β-NAs, as first evidenced by the unique small-angle X-ray scattering patterns obtained. The significance of the relaxation process was manifested in regulating the content and morphology of oriented β-crystals in sheared, β-nucleated iPP and thus in the structure and property manipulation of iPP.

  5. Internet Dependence in an Undergraduate Population: The Roles of Coping with Stress, Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Sex Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaci, Hatice; Çelik, Çigdem B.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between Internet dependence in university students and forms of coping with stress and self-efficacy and investigated whether Internet dependence varies according to such variables as sex roles, gender, and duration of Internet use. The study was performed with 632 university students. The Internet Addiction…

  6. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barati, Ali [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Hamid, E-mail: abd@iasbs.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation–Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. - Highlights: • Novel pH-sensitive carbon dots with strong FL changes towards pH are reported. • Ratiometric FL pH-sensors for both acidic and basic ranges of pH are constructed. • Multivariate calibration methods were used to calibrate a broad range of pH. • Using EEM of carbon dots and ANN, pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. • The pH prediction is stable even at high ionic strength up to 2 M NaCl.

  7. Vibrational tug-of-war: The pKA dependence of the broad vibrational features of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.

    2018-04-01

    of strongly hydrogen-bonded structures depend on the relative pKA and other structural parameters will guide studies of biological structures and analysis of proton transfer studies using photoacids.

  8. In situ neutron diffraction study of grain-orientation-dependent phase transformation in 304L stainless steel at a cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Kaixiang; Wall, James J.; Li, Hongqi; Brown, Donald W.; Vogel, Sven C.; Choo, Hahn

    2006-01-01

    In situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction was performed to investigate the martensitic phase transformation during quasistatic uniaxial compression testing of 304L stainless steel at 300 and 203 K. In situ neutron diffraction enabled the bulk measurement of intensity evolution for various hkl atomic planes during the austenite (fcc) to martensite (hcp and bcc) phase transformation. Based on the neutron diffraction patterns, the martensite phases were observed from the very beginning of the plastic deformation at 203 K. However, at 300 K, no newly formed martensite, except a small amount of preexisting hcp phase, was observed throughout the test. From the changes in the relative intensities of individual hkl atomic planes, the grain-orientation-dependent phase transformation was investigated. The preferred orientation of the newly formed martensite grains was also investigated for the sample deformed at 203 K using neutron diffraction. The results reveal the orientation relationships between the austenite and the newly formed martensites. The fcc grain family diffracting with (200) plane normal parallel to the loading axis is favored for the fcc to bcc transformation and the bcc (200) plane normals are primarily aligned along the loading direction. For the fcc to hcp transformation, the fcc grains with (111) plane normals at an angle in between about 10 deg. and 50 deg. to the loading direction are favored

  9. The roles of bulk and interfacial molecular orientations in determining the performance of organic bilayer solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ngongang Ndjawa, Guy O.

    2014-09-09

    Molecular orientation plays a significant role in determining the performance of small molecule solar cells. Key photovoltaic processes in these cells are strongly dependent on how the molecules are oriented in the active layer. We isolate contributions arising from the bulk molecular orientations vs. those from interfacial orientations in ZnPc/C60 bilayer systems and we probe these contributions by comparing device pairs in which only the bulk or the interface differ. By controlling the orientation in the bulk the current can be strongly modulated, whereas controlling the interfacial molecular orientation and degree of intermixing mediate the voltage.

  10. Excision Efficiency Is Not Strongly Coupled to Transgenic Rate: Cell Type-Dependent Transposition Efficiency of Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac DNA Transposons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacsek, Orsolya; Erdei, Zsuzsa; Apáti, Ágota; Sándor, Sára; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) DNA transposons represent an emerging new gene delivery technology, potentially suitable for human gene therapy applications. Previous studies pointed to important differences between these transposon systems, depending on the cell types examined and the methodologies applied. However, efficiencies cannot always be compared because of differences in applications. In addition, “overproduction inhibition,” a phenomenon believed to be a characteristic of DNA transposons, can remarkably reduce the overall transgenic rate, emphasizing the importance of transposase dose applied. Therefore, because of lack of comprehensive analysis, researchers are forced to optimize the technology for their own “in-house” platforms. In this study, we investigated the transposition of several SB (SB11, SB32, SB100X) and PB (mPB and hyPB) variants in various cell types at three levels: comparing the excision efficiency of the reaction by real-time PCR, testing the overall transgenic rate by detecting cells with stable integrations, and determining the average copy number when using different transposon systems and conditions. We concluded that high excision activity is not always followed by a higher transgenic rate, as exemplified by the hyperactive transposases, indicating that the excision and the integration steps of transposition are not strongly coupled as previously thought. In general, all levels of transposition show remarkable differences depending on the transposase used and cell lines examined, being the least efficient in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In spite of the comparably low activity in those special cell types, the hyperactive SB100X and hyPB systems could be used in hESCs with similar transgenic efficiency and with reasonably low (2–3) transgene copy numbers, indicating their potential applicability for gene therapy purposes in the future. PMID:25045962

  11. Carbon dots with strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards pH. Application as nanosensors for a broad range of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2016-08-10

    In this study, preparation of novel pH-sensitive N-doped carbon dots (NCDs) using glucose and urea is reported. The prepared NCDs present strong excitation-dependent fluorescence changes towards the pH that is a new behavior from these nanomaterials. By taking advantage of this unique behavior, two separated ratiometric pH sensors using emission spectra of the NCDs for both acidic (pH 2.0 to 8.0) and basic (pH 7.0 to 14.0) ranges of pH are constructed. Additionally, by considering the entire Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) of NCDs as analytical signal and using a suitable multivariate calibration method, a broad range of pH from 2.0 to 14.0 was well calibrated. The multivariate calibration method was independent from the concentration of NCDs and resulted in a very low average prediction error of 0.067 pH units. No changes in the predicted pH under UV irradiation (for 3 h) and at high ionic strength (up to 2 M NaCl) indicated the high stability of this pH nanosensor. The practicality of this pH nanosensor for pH determination in real water samples was validated with good accuracy and repeatability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  13. Effect of delayed link failure on probability of loss of assured safety in temperature-dependent systems with multiple weak and strong links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. D. (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)

    2007-05-01

    Weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems constitute important parts of the overall operational design of high consequence systems, with the SL system designed to permit operation of the system only under intended conditions and the WL system designed to prevent the unintended operation of the system under accident conditions. Degradation of the system under accident conditions into a state in which the WLs have not deactivated the system and the SLs have failed in the sense that they are in a configuration that could permit operation of the system is referred to as loss of assured safety. The probability of such degradation conditional on a specific set of accident conditions is referred to as probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS). Previous work has developed computational procedures for the calculation of PLOAS under fire conditions for a system involving multiple WLs and SLs and with the assumption that a link fails instantly when it reaches its failure temperature. Extensions of these procedures are obtained for systems in which there is a temperature-dependent delay between the time at which a link reaches its failure temperature and the time at which that link actually fails.

  14. Strain Amount Dependent Grain Size and Orientation Developments during Hot Compression of a Polycrystalline Nickel Based Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoai He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Controlling grain size in polycrystalline nickel base superalloy is vital for obtaining required mechanical properties. Typically, a uniform and fine grain size is required throughout forging process to realize the superplastic deformation. Strain amount occupied a dominant position in manipulating the dynamic recrystallization (DRX process and regulating the grain size of the alloy during hot forging. In this article, the high-throughput double cone specimen was introduced to yield wide-range strain in a single sample. Continuous variations of effective strain ranging from 0.23 to 1.65 across the whole sample were achieved after reaching a height reduction of 70%. Grain size is measured to be decreased from the edge to the center of specimen with increase of effective strain. Small misorientation tended to generate near the grain boundaries, which was manifested as piled-up dislocation in micromechanics. After the dislocation density reached a critical value, DRX progress would be initiated at higher deformation region, leading to the refinement of grain size. During this process, the transformations from low angle grain boundaries (LAGBs to high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs and from subgrains to DRX grains are found to occur. After the accomplishment of DRX progress, the neonatal grains are presented as having similar orientation inside the grain boundary.

  15. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  16. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  17. Sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori detection by Giemsa staining is poor in comparison with immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization and strongly depends on inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsmár, Éva; Szirtes, Ildikó; Kramer, Zsófia; Szijártó, Attila; Bene, László; Buzás, György Miklós; Kenessey, István; Bronsert, Peter; Csanadi, Agnes; Lutz, Lisa; Werner, Martin; Wellner, Ulrich Friedrich; Kiss, András; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Lotz, Gábor

    2017-08-01

    Conventional stainings (including H&E and special stains like Giemsa) are the most widely applied histopathologic detection methods of Helicobacter pylori (HP). We aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of Giemsa staining with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a monocentric cohort of 2896 gastric biopsies and relate results to histologic alterations in order to find such histopathologic subgroups in which these methods underperform. All cases were categorized regarding presence or absence of chronic gastritis, inflammatory activity, and mucosal structural alterations. Giemsa revealed 687 cases (23.7%), IHC 795 cases (27.5%), and FISH 788 cases (27.2%) as being HP positive. Giemsa showed significantly lower overall sensitivity (83.3%) compared to IHC (98.8%) and FISH (98.0%). Moreover, the sensitivity of Giemsa dramatically dropped to 33.6% in the nonactive cases. We found that sensitivity of Giemsa strongly depends on HP density and, accordingly, on the presence of activity. Structural alterations (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy, etc.) had only no or weak effect on sensitivity of the three stainings. Both IHC and FISH proved to be equally reliable HP detecting techniques whose diagnostic performance is minimally influenced by mucosal inflammatory and structural alterations contrary to conventional stainings. We highly recommend immunohistochemistry for clinically susceptible, nonactive chronic gastritis cases, if the conventional stain-based HP detection is negative. Moreover, we recommend to use IHC more widely as basic HP stain. Helicobacter pylori FISH technique is primarily recommended to determine bacterial clarithromycin resistance. Furthermore, it is another accurate diagnostic tool for HP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.A.; Stacey, W.M.; Rapp, J.

    2001-01-01

    The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n(bar sign) and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots

  19. Orientation dependence of grain-boundary energy in metals in the view of a pseudoheterophase dislocation core model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missol, W.

    1976-01-01

    A new dislocation model for symmetric tilt grain boundaries was developed as a basis for deriving the quantitative dependence of grain-boundary energy upon misorientation angle in the form of an expression similar to that given by Read and Shockley [Phys. Rev. 78: 275(1950)]. The range of applicability of this equation was extended to over 20 degrees. A comparison of theory and experiment was made for Bi, Ag, Cu, and Fe--Si 3 percent in the teen-degree range of misorientation angles and for Au, α-Fe, Mo, and W in the high-angle range

  20. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  1. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na x CoO 2 and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general considerations on

  2. Unconventional superconductivity in cuprates, cobaltates and graphene. What is universal and what is material-dependent in strongly versus weakly correlated materials?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesel, Maximilian Ludwig

    2013-02-08

    A general theory for all classes of unconventional superconductors is still one of the unsolved key issues in condensed-matter physics. Actually, it is not yet fully settled if there is a common underlying pairing mechanism. Instead, it might be possible that several distinct sources for unconventional (not phonon-mediated) superconductivity have to be considered, or an electron-phonon interaction is not negligible. The focus of this thesis is on the most probable mechanism for the formation of Cooper pairs in unconventional superconductors, namely a strictly electronic one where spin fluctuations are the mediators. Studying different superconductors in this thesis, the emphasis is put on material-independent features of the pairing mechanism. In addition, the investigation of the phase diagrams enables a view on the vicinity of superconductivity. Thus, it is possible to clarify which competing quantum fluctuations enhance or weaken the propensity for a superconducting state. The broad range of superconducting materials requires the use of more than one numerical technique to study an appropriate microscopic description. This is not a problem but a big advantage because this facilitates the approach-independent description of common underlying physics. For this evaluation, the strongly correlated cuprates are simulated with the variational cluster approach. Especially the question of a pairing glue is taken into consideration. Furthermore, it is possible to distinguish between retarded and non-retarded contributions to the gap function. The cuprates are confronted with the cobaltate Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} and graphene. These weakly correlated materials are investigated with the functional renormalization group (fRG) and reveal a comprehensive phase diagram, including a d+id-wave superconductivity, which breaks time-reversal symmetry. The corresponding gap function is nodeless, but for NaCoO, it features a doping-dependent anisotropy. In addition, some general

  3. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log 10 [M * /M ☉ ] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log 10 [SFR/M ☉ yr –1 ] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ SFR ) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s –1 ∼–200 km s –1 and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M ☉ yr –1 and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot out /SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  4. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  5. Photoabsorption properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoislands grown on Si(111) and Si(001): Dependence on substrate orientation studied by nano-spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Nobuyasu, E-mail: naruse@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (ISIR), Ibaraki, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshiaki, E-mail: nakamura@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Toyonaka, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Mera, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Masakazu; Maeda, Koji [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-10-03

    Photoabsorption properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoislands epitaxially grown on Si(111) and Si(001) have been discussed using photoabsorption nano-spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscope. The obtained spectra exhibit clear features around 0.86-0.91 eV and around 0.71-0.74 eV, which are explained as a direct and an indirect photoabsorption edge of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2}, respectively. We also observed a blue shift of spectrum obtained from {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoislands on Si(111) substrates, compared to those on Si(001) substrates. We attributed the dependence on Si-substrate orientation not to a quantum confinement effect but to an effect of elastic strain in the {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} nanoislands epitaxially grown on the substrate.

  6. Orientation of the brush-border membranal proteinase which specifically splits the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, H; Schmeeda, H; Shaltiel, S

    1987-12-15

    The active site of the rat intestinal brush-border membranal proteinase [Alhanaty E. and Shaltiel S. (1979) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 89, 323-332], which splits the catalytic subunit (C) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a remarkable specificity [Alhanaty E., Tauber-Finkelstein, M., Schmeeda, H. and Shaltiel, S. (1985) Curr. Topics Cell. Regul. 27, 267-277], is shown to face predominantly the cell exterior; vesicles prepared from these brush-borders (mostly sealed and right-side-out) fully express the proteinase activity as judged by the fact that there is no increase in activity upon rupture or solubilization of the vesicles. Although the brush-border vesicles contain a cAMP-dependent protein kinase, this membrane-bound kinase is not likely to be the physiological target of the proteinase, since it appears to have an intracellular orientation and, at least in the vesicles, to be inaccessible to the proteinase. It is, therefore, suggested that the physiological substrate of the proteinase might be either an extracellular cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which is lost (e.g. removed, inactivated or degraded) in the course of vesicle isolation, or a kinase domain in one of the family of proteins recently shown to have a considerable structural and conformational homology with C. Alternatively the physiological site of action of this kinase-splitting proteinase might be an intracellular organelle to which it is translocated by endocytosis.

  7. Magnetic field orientation dependence of flux pinning in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3O7-x coated conductor with tilted lattice and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Specht, E.D.; Cantoni, C.; Christen, D.K.; Thompson, J.R.; Sinclair, J.W.; Goyal, A.; Zuev, Y.L.; Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.P.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density (J c ) on the orientation of an applied magnetic field was studied for a prototype (Gd,Y)Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (GdYBCO) coated conductor fabricated by MOCVD on an IBAD-MgO template. Additional rare-earth cations (Y and Gd) and Zr were incorporated into the superconducting film to form (Y,Gd) 2 O 3 and BaZrO 3 nanoparticles extended nearly parallel to the a-b planes and to the c-axis, respectively, to enhance the flux pinning. In-field measurement of J c was carried out with electrical current flowing either along or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tape, while a maximum Lorentz force configuration was always maintained. Details in the angular dependence of J c were related to the unique structure of the film, specifically the tilt in the GdYBCO lattice and the tilts in the extended (Y,Gd) 2 O 3 and BaZrO3 nanoparticles. XRD and TEM were used to study the structure of the coated conductor. The effect of the misalignment between the external field H and the internal field B on the angular dependence of J c is discussed.

  8. Magnetic field orientation dependence of flux pinning in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3O7-x coated conductor with tilted lattice and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Sinclair, J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thompson, James R [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density (J{sub c}) on the orientation of an applied magnetic field was studied for a prototype (Gd,Y)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7?x} (GdYBCO) coated conductor fabricated by MOCVD on an IBAD-MgO template. Additional rare-earth cations (Y and Gd) and Zr were incorporated into the superconducting film to form (Y,Gd){sub 2}O{sub 3} and BaZrO{sub 3} nanoparticles extended nearly parallel to the a-b planes and to the c-axis, respectively, to enhance the flux pinning. In-field measurement of J{sub c} was carried out with electrical current flowing either along or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tape, while a maximum Lorentz force configuration was always maintained. Details in the angular dependence of J{sub c} were related to the unique structure of the film, specifically the tilt in the GdYBCO lattice and the tilts in the extended (Y,Gd){sub 2}O{sub 3} and BaZrO{sub 3} nanoparticles. XRD and TEM were used to study the structure of the coated conductor. The effect of the misalignment between the external field H and the internal field B on the angular dependence of J{sub c} is discussed.

  9. Could cognitive event-related potentials be used to orient neuropsychological rehabilitation? A perspective paper through the example of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Schroder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of relapse is a main challenge to face with in alcohol dependence. Two major cognitive factors can partially account for alcoholics’ inability to remain abstinent: attentional biases directed towards alcohol-related stimuli that increase the urge to drink, and impaired response inhibition towards these cues that makes it more difficult for alcoholics to resist temptation. A recent study of ours investigated response inhibition in alcohol dependent patients, by means of an event-related potentials (ERP modified Go/No-Go paradigm, right after a three weeks detoxification cure. Main results of the study are: (1 among 27 recently detoxified patients, 13 relapsed after a three month follow-up period; (2 at a behavioural level, patients displayed more commission errors than healthy matched controls; however, behavioural data did not allow to discriminate between future relapsers and non-relapsers; and (3 the only parameter discriminating relapsers and non-relapsers was the No-Go P300 component: future relapsers displayed increased amplitudes, suggesting that patients who involve more neural resources to perform inhibition will be those of higher risk to relapse. These preliminary data suggest a great clinical potential of the ERP technique in preventing relapse in alcohol dependent patients, as using cognitive ERP may orient an individual patient to an adapted cognitive rehabilitation program.

  10. Distinguishing the laser-induced spin precession excitation mechanism in Fe/MgO(001) through field orientation dependent measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T. P.; Zhang, S. F.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Z. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Wu, Y. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational field dependence of laser-induced magnetization precession in a single-crystal Fe/MgO(001) sample was studied by the time resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. Polar and longitudinal magnetization components were separated by measuring precession dynamics under opposite fields. When the applied field is weaker than the anisotropy field of an Fe film, the precession amplitude is small for the field direction near the easy axis and becomes larger as the field rotates towards the hard axis, showing a four-fold symmetry in agreement with the in-plane magnetic anisotropy; whereas at higher fields, the amplitude displays a drop near the hard axis. Such precession behavior can be well reproduced using an excitation model with rapidly modified but slowly recovered magnetic anisotropy and considering the elliptical precession trajectory. Our results indicate that the dominant mechanism for triggering Fe spin precession is the anisotropy modulation correlating with the lattice thermalization, rather than the transient anisotropy modulation due to the high electron temperature within 1 ps.

  11. Time-dependent fracture probability of bilayer, lithium-disilicate-based, glass-ceramic, molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusavice, Kenneth J; Jadaan, Osama M; Esquivel-Upshaw, Josephine F

    2013-11-01

    Recent reports on bilayer ceramic crown prostheses suggest that fractures of the veneering ceramic represent the most common reason for prosthesis failure. The aims of this study were to test the hypotheses that: (1) an increase in core ceramic/veneer ceramic thickness ratio for a crown thickness of 1.6mm reduces the time-dependent fracture probability (Pf) of bilayer crowns with a lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic core, and (2) oblique loading, within the central fossa, increases Pf for 1.6-mm-thick crowns compared with vertical loading. Time-dependent fracture probabilities were calculated for 1.6-mm-thick, veneered lithium-disilicate-based glass-ceramic molar crowns as a function of core/veneer thickness ratio and load orientation in the central fossa area. Time-dependent fracture probability analyses were computed by CARES/Life software and finite element analysis, using dynamic fatigue strength data for monolithic discs of a lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic core (Empress 2), and ceramic veneer (Empress 2 Veneer Ceramic). Predicted fracture probabilities (Pf) for centrally loaded 1.6-mm-thick bilayer crowns over periods of 1, 5, and 10 years are 1.2%, 2.7%, and 3.5%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 1.0 (0.8mm/0.8mm), and 2.5%, 5.1%, and 7.0%, respectively, for a core/veneer thickness ratio of 0.33 (0.4mm/1.2mm). CARES/Life results support the proposed crown design and load orientation hypotheses. The application of dynamic fatigue data, finite element stress analysis, and CARES/Life analysis represent an optimal approach to optimize fixed dental prosthesis designs produced from dental ceramics and to predict time-dependent fracture probabilities of ceramic-based fixed dental prostheses that can minimize the risk for clinical failures. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  12. Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Sillenite-Type Bi12TiO20 and Bi12SiO20 Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanying Shen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The full matrix of electro-elastic constants of sillenite-type crystals Bi12TiO20 (BTO and Bi12SiO20 (BSO were determined by the resonance method, with d14 and k14 being on the order of 40–48 pC/N and 31%–36%, respectively. In addition, double-rotated orientation dependence of d33 was investigated, with the maximum values of 25–28 pC/N being achieved in ZXtl45°/54°-cut samples. The electrical resistivity of BSO was found to be two orders higher than that of BTO, being on the order of 7 × 105 Ω cm at 500 °C. The temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. BSO exhibited a high thermal stability in the temperature range of 25–500 °C, while BTO showed a variation of ~3% in the range of 25–350 °C. The high values of d14 and k14, together with the good thermal stability, make BTO and BSO crystals potential candidates for electromechanical applications in medium temperature range.

  13. Direction-specific interactions control crystal growth by oriented attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; Lee, Jonathan R.I.

    2012-01-01

    The oriented attachment of molecular clusters and nanoparticles in solution is now recognized as an important mechanism of crystal growth in many materials, yet the alignment process and attachment mechanism have not been established. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy...... initiated at the contact point. Interface elimination proceeds at a rate consistent with the curvature dependence of the Gibbs free energy. Measured translational and rotational accelerations show that strong, highly direction-specific interactions drive crystal growth via oriented attachment....

  14. Effects of orientation on hardness, strain accumulation, and fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K.S., E-mail: santharamsuresh@gmail.com; Kitashima, T.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.

    2014-11-17

    Effects of orientation on mechanical properties of near α titanium alloy IMI834 have been investigated. Orientation dependent hardness was characterized by micro hardness testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). Strain accumulation of samples subjected to tensile, compression and Charpy impact tests at room temperature and at 650 °C was analyzed using EBSD. The [0001] orientation shows the highest hardness; lower values of hardness occurred for orientations along the [101{sup ¯}0][312{sup ¯}0] axis. Differences in hardness between different orientations were discussed based on the activation of different slip and twinning systems. During tensile and Charpy impact tests at both temperatures, localized deformations restricted the strain accumulation at regions farther from the fracture surface. In both high-temperature tensile and compression tests, large orientation gradients occurred primarily at grains having lower hardness; however, the converse was not true. Apart from grain orientation, orientations of neighboring grains also have a strong influence on the development of orientation gradient. Irrespective of the test conditions and orientation, twinned regions accommodate considerably less strain and orientation gradient compared with those of the surrounding matrix.

  15. The grain size dependency of vesicular particle shapes strongly affects the drag of particles. First results from microtomography investigations of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Daniela; Dioguardi, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Acknowledging the grain size dependency of shape is important in volcanology, in particular when dealing with tephra produced and emplaced during and after explosive volcanic eruptions. A systematic measurement of the tridimensional shape of vesicular pyroclasts of Campi Flegrei fallout deposits (Agnano-Monte Spina, Astroni 6 and Averno 2 eruptions) varying in size from 8.00 to 0.016 mm has been carried out by means of X-Ray Microtomography. Data show that particle shape changes with size, especially for juvenile vesicular clasts, since it is dependent on the distribution and size of vesicles that contour the external clast outline. Two drag laws that include sphericity in the formula were used for estimating the dependency of settling velocity on shape. Results demonstrate that it is not appropriate to assume a size-independent shape for vesicular particles, in contrast with the approach commonly employed when simulating the ash dispersion in the atmosphere.

  16. Orientation dependence and tension/compression asymmetry of shape memory effect and superelasticity in ferromagnetic Co40Ni33Al27, Co49Ni21Ga30 and Ni54Fe19Ga27 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumlyakov, Y.; Panchenko, E.; Kireeva, I.; Karaman, I.; Sehitoglu, H.; Maier, H.J.; Tverdokhlebova, A.; Ovsyannikov, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study the effects of crystal axis orientation, stress state (tension/compression) and test temperature on shape memory effect and superelasticity of Ni 54 Fe 19 Ga 27 (I), Co 40 Ni 33 Al 27 (II), Co 49 Ni 21 Ga 30 (III) (numbers indicate at.%) single crystals were investigated. The shape memory effect, the start temperature of superelasticity T 1 and the mechanical hysteresis Δσ were found to be dependent on crystal axis orientation and stress state. Superelasticity was observed at T 1 = A f (A f , reverse transformation-finish temperature) in tension/compression for [0 0 1]-oriented Ni-Fe-Ga crystals and in compression for [0 0 1]-oriented Co-Ni-Ga crystals, which all displayed a small mechanical hysteresis (Δσ ≤ 30 MPa). An increase in Δσ of up to 90 MPa in the Co-Ni-Al and the Co-Ni-Ga crystals lead to stabilization of the stress-induced martensite, and an increase in to T 1 = A f + Δ. The maximal value of Δ (75 K) was found in [0 0 1]-oriented Co-Ni-Al crystals in tension. A thermodynamic criterion describing the dependencies of the start temperature of superelasticity T 1 on crystal axis orientation, stress state and the magnitude of mechanical hysteresis is discussed

  17. Outcome of Treatment of Human HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells With Roscovitine Strongly Depends on the Dosage and Cell Cycle Status Prior to the Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Borza, A.; Walzi, E.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Maurer, M.; Komina, O.; Wandl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 5 (2009), s. 937-955 ISSN 0730-2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CELL CYCLE ARREST * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  18. Neutrophil Cathepsin G, but Not Elastase, Induces Aggregation of MCF-7 Mammary Carcinoma Cells by a Protease Activity-Dependent Cell-Oriented Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously found that a neutrophil serine protease, cathepsin G, weakens adherence to culture substrates and induces E-cadherin-dependent aggregation of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells through its protease activity. In this study, we examined whether aggregation is caused by degradation of adhesion molecules on the culture substrates or through an unidentified mechanism. We compared the effect of treatment with cathepsin G and other proteases, including neutrophil elastase against fibronectin- (FN- coated substrates. Cathepsin G and elastase potently degraded FN on the substrates and induced aggregation of MCF-7 cells that had been subsequently seeded onto the substrate. However, substrate-bound cathepsin G and elastase may have caused cell aggregation. After inhibiting the proteases on the culture substrates using the irreversible inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, we examined whether aggregation of MCF-7 cells was suppressed. PMSF attenuated cell aggregation on cathepsin G-treated substrates, but the effect was weak in cells pretreated with high concentrations of cathepsin G. In contrast, PMSF did not suppress cell aggregation on elastase-treated FN. Moreover, cathepsin G, but not elastase, induced aggregation on poly-L-lysine substrates which are not decomposed by these enzymes, and the action of cathepsin G was nearly completely attenuated by PMSF. These results suggest that cathepsin G induces MCF-7 aggregation through a cell-oriented mechanism.

  19. Object-oriented Programming Laws for Annotated Java Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Falconieri Freitas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Object-oriented programming laws have been proposed in the context of languages that are not combined with a behavioral interface specification language (BISL. The strong dependence between source-code and interface specifications may cause a number of difficulties when transforming programs. In this paper we introduce a set of programming laws for object-oriented languages like Java combined with the Java Modeling Language (JML. The set of laws deals with object-oriented features taking into account their specifications. Some laws deal only with features of the specification language. These laws constitute a set of small transformations for the development of more elaborate ones like refactorings.

  20. Dye concentration dependence of spectral triplet in one-dimensional photonic crystal with cyanine dye J-aggregate in strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Sakata, Tomohiro; Takenobu, Ryouya; Uemura, Shinobu; Miyagawa, Hayato; Nakanishi, Shunsuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki

    2017-10-01

    We report on the dye concentration dependence of nonlinear transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities containing cyanine dye J-aggregates. Using femtosecond nonlinear transmission spectroscopy, we observed a transition from a polariton doublet state to a spectral triplet state over the whole tested concentration range, even at room temperature. In these samples, changes in the dye concentration affected the Rabi splitting energy in the linear transmission measurements; however, we found that changes in the concentration did not greatly affect the triplet formation.

  1. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    energies in 〈111〉- and 〈100〉-oriented regions in deformed and annealed samples, as well as investigations of the growth of recrystallizing grains, are used to analyze the annealing behavior. It is concluded that recrystallization in the given material occurs by a combination of oriented nucleation...

  2. Strong dependence of a pioneer shrub on seed dispersal services provided by an endemic endangered lizard in a Mediterranean island ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghme, Constanza; Santamaría, Luís; Calviño-Cancela, María

    2017-01-01

    The accelerating rate of vertebrate extinctions and population declines threatens to disrupt important ecological interactions, altering key ecosystem processes such as animal seed dispersal. The study of highly specialized mutualistic interactions is crucial to predict the consequences of population declines and extinctions. Islands offer unique opportunities to study highly specialized interactions, as they often have naturally depauperated faunas and are experiencing high rates of human-driven extinctions. In this study, we assess the effect of seed dispersal on seedling recruitment of Ephedra fragilis (Ephedraceae) on a Mediterranean island ecosystem. We used field data and stochastic simulation modeling to estimate seed fate and recruitment patterns of this pioneer shrub typical of arid and semiarid areas, and to estimate the dependence of recruitment on the lizard Podarcis lilfordi (Lacertidae), its only known seed disperser. Ephedra fragilis recruitment highly depended on lizards: lizards produced 3.8 times more newly-emerged seedlings than non-dispersed seeds and no seedlings from undispersed seeds survived the study period. Seed dispersal by lizards was mostly to open sites, which was key for the increased success observed, while undispersed seeds, falling under mother plants, suffered higher predation and lower seedling emergence and survival. The ability of this pioneer shrub to get established in open ground is crucial for vegetation colonization and restoration, especially on degraded lands affected by desertification, where they act as nurse plants for other species. Lizards are key in this process, which has important consequences for community structure and ecosystem functioning.

  3. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carleo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  4. Nanocrystal Size-Dependent Efficiency of Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells in the Strongly Coupled CdSe Nanocrystals/TiO2 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeong Jin; Paik, Taejong; Diroll, Benjamin; Edley, Michael E; Baxter, Jason B; Murray, Christopher B

    2016-06-15

    Light absorption and electron injection are important criteria determining solar energy conversion efficiency. In this research, monodisperse CdSe quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized with five different diameters, and the size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency of CdSe quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSCs) is investigated by employing the atomic inorganic ligand, S(2-). Absorbance measurements and transmission electron microscopy show that the diameters of the uniform CdSe QDs are 2.5, 3.2, 4.2, 6.4, and 7.8 nm. Larger CdSe QDs generate a larger amount of charge under the irradiation of long wavelength photons, as verified by the absorbance results and the measurements of the external quantum efficiencies. However, the smaller QDs exhibit faster electron injection kinetics from CdSe QDs to TiO2 because of the high energy level of CBCdSe, as verified by time-resolved photoluminescence and internal quantum efficiency results. Importantly, the S(2-) ligand significantly enhances the electronic coupling between the CdSe QDs and TiO2, yielding an enhancement of the charge transfer rate at the interfacial region. As a result, the S(2-) ligand helps improve the new size-dependent solar energy conversion efficiency, showing best performance with 4.2-nm CdSe QDs, whereas conventional ligand, mercaptopropionic acid, does not show any differences in efficiency according to the size of the CdSe QDs. The findings reported herein suggest that the atomic inorganic ligand reinforces the influence of quantum confinement on the solar energy conversion efficiency of QDSSCs.

  5. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  6. Decrypting Strong and Weak Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Interactions with Mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels Using Molecular Docking and Perturbation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Durruthy, Michael; Werhli, Adriano V; Seus, Vinicius; Machado, Karina S; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R; González-Díaz, Humberto; Monserrat, José M

    2017-10-16

    The current molecular docking study provided the Free Energy of Binding (FEB) for the interaction (nanotoxicity) between VDAC mitochondrial channels of three species (VDAC1-Mus musculus, VDAC1-Homo sapiens, VDAC2-Danio rerio) with SWCNT-H, SWCNT-OH, SWCNT-COOH carbon nanotubes. The general results showed that the FEB values were statistically more negative (p  (SWCNT-VDAC1-Mus musculus) > (SWCNT-VDAC1-Homo sapiens) > (ATP-VDAC). More negative FEB values for SWCNT-COOH and OH were found in VDAC2-Danio rerio when compared with VDAC1-Mus musculus and VDAC1-Homo sapiens (p  r 2  > 0.97) was observed between n-Hamada index and VDAC nanotoxicity (or FEB) for the zigzag topologies of SWCNT-COOH and SWCNT-OH. Predictive Nanoparticles-Quantitative-Structure Binding-Relationship models (nano-QSBR) for strong and weak SWCNT-VDAC docking interactions were performed using Perturbation Theory, regression and classification models. Thus, 405 SWCNT-VDAC interactions were predicted using a nano-PT-QSBR classifications model with high accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity (73-98%) in training and validation series, and a maximum AUROC value of 0.978. In addition, the best regression model was obtained with Random Forest (R 2 of 0.833, RMSE of 0.0844), suggesting an excellent potential to predict SWCNT-VDAC channel nanotoxicity. All study data are available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.4802320.v2 .

  7. Light- and pH-dependent conformational changes in protein structure induce strong bending of purple membranes--active membranes studied by cryo-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinow, Daniel; Hampp, Norbert A

    2008-10-16

    Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) undergoes a conformational change during the photocycle and the proton transport through the membrane. For the first time, we could demonstrate by direct imaging of freely suspended native purple membranes (PMs) that the flat disk-like shape of PMs changes dramatically as soon as most of the BRs are in a state characterized by a deprotonated Schiff base. Light-induced shape changes are easily observed with mutated BRs of the BR-D96N type, i.e., all variants which show an increased M 2 lifetime. On the other hand, large-scale shape changes are induced by pH changes with PM containing mutated BRs of the BR-D85T type, where Asp85 is replaced for a neutral amino acid. In such PMs, all BRs are titrated simultaneously and the resulting shape of the membranes depends on the initial shape only. As the majority of PMs in the "flat" state are more or less round disks, the bent membranes often comprise bowl-like and tube-like bent structures. The method presented here enables one to derive size changes of membrane-embedded BRs on the single molecule level from "macroscopic", easily accessible data like the curvature radii observed in cryo-SEM. The potential of BR as a pH-controlled and/or light-controlled microscaled biological actuator needs further consideration.

  8. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2009-07-27

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of {beta}1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPKpathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  9. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Lo, Alvin T; Park, Catherine C; Gray, Joe W; Bissell, Mina J

    2010-07-01

    Development of effective and durable breast cancer treatment strategies requires a mechanistic understanding of the influence of the microenvironment on response. Previous work has shown that cellular signaling pathways and cell morphology are dramatically influenced by three-dimensional (3D) cultures as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayers. Here, we compared 2D and 3D culture models to determine the impact of 3D architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) on HER2 signaling and on the response of HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the HER2-targeting agents Trastuzumab, Pertuzumab and Lapatinib. We show that the response of the HER2-amplified AU565, SKBR3 and HCC1569 cells to these anti-HER2 agents was highly dependent on whether the cells were cultured in 2D monolayer or 3D laminin-rich ECM gels. Inhibition of beta1 integrin, a major cell-ECM receptor subunit, significantly increased the sensitivity of the HER2-amplified breast cancer cell lines to the humanized monoclonal antibodies Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab when grown in a 3D environment. Finally, in the absence of inhibitors, 3D cultures had substantial impact on HER2 downstream signaling and induced a switch between PI3K-AKT- and RAS-MAPK-pathway activation in all cell lines studied, including cells lacking HER2 amplification and overexpression. Our data provide direct evidence that breast cancer cells are able to rapidly adapt to different environments and signaling cues by activating alternative pathways that regulate proliferation and cell survival, events that may play a significant role in the acquisition of resistance to targeted therapies.

  10. Orientation-dependent physical properties of layered perovskite La1.3Sr1.7Mn2O7 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Wei; Guo, Bing; Chen, Chang-Le; Luo, Bing-Cheng; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the resistivity and magnetization of orientation-engineered layered perovskite La1.3Sr1.7Mn2O7 epitaxial thin films have been investigated. Epitaxial thin films were deposited on single-crystalline LaAlO3 (LAO) (001), (110) and (111) substrates by pulse laser deposition (PLD) technique. It is found that only the (100)-oriented thin film performs insulator behavior, whereas the (110) and (111)-oriented thin films exhibit obvious metal-insulator transition at 70 K and between 85 and 120 K, respectively. Moreover, the same spin freezing temperature and different spin-glass-like transition temperatures have been observed in various oriented films. The observed experimental results were discussed according to the electron-transport mechanism and spin dynamics.

  11. Overexpression of KIR inhibitory ligands (HLA-I) determines that immunosurveillance of myeloma depends on diverse and strong NK cell licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, María V; Periago, Adela; Legaz, Isabel; Gimeno, Lourdes; Mrowiec, Anna; Montes-Barqueros, Natividad R; Campillo, José A; Bolarin, José M; Bernardo, María V; López-Álvarez, María R; González, Consuelo; García-Garay, María C; Muro, Manuel; Cabañas-Perianes, Valentin; Fuster, Jose L; García-Alonso, Ana M; Moraleda, José M; Álvarez-Lopez, María R; Minguela, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    -missing-self cancers, e.g., myeloma, mainly depends on NKc licensing.

  12. Assessment of bioelectrical activity of pelvic floor muscles depending on the orientation of the pelvis in menopausal women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence: continued observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszkowski, Kuba; Zdrojowy, Romuald; Slupska, Lucyna; Bartnicki, Janusz; Dembowski, Janusz; Halski, Tomasz; Paprocka-Borowicz, Malgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Menopausal women often experience the prolapse of the uterus, bladder and rectum resulting from the failure and weakening of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). Strengthening of the PFM through the standard exercises is recognized as an effective way of preventive measures and conservative treatment of the symptoms listed above, but still need to be improved. The goal was the objective assessment of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of PFM in women during menopause and its comparison in three different positions of the pelvis: anterior pelvic tilt - position 1 (P1), posterior pelvic tilt - position 2 (P2), and neutral pelvic tilt - position 3 (P3). Prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Department and Clinic of Urology of a University Hospital. The target group of this study included women in the menopausal period (inpatient and outpatient). The study evaluating resting and functional activity of the PFM depending on the orientation of pelvis. Bioelectric activity was assessed with an electromyographic instrument (sEMG) and endovaginal electrodes. The inclination angle was measured with an inclinometer. The comparisons of results between the values obtained in P1, P2, and P3 were performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). One hundred thirty-one registered for the study were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria and on the basis of the results 82 participants were enrolled for analysis. The highest mean resting activity of sEMG PFM (µV) was observed in P2 and it amounted to 11.6 µV (SD=5.5 µV) in P1 the value equaled 9.8 µV (SD=4.8 µV) and P3-9.0 µV (SD=4.2 µV). The results revealed a significant statistical difference (main effect: P=0.0007). Considering the functional sEMG activity of PFM (µV), the highest mean value was recorded in P2. Posterior pelvic tilt position determines higher resting and functional bioelectric activity of PFM. Additionally, electromyographic activity of PFM increases during the pelvic movement

  13. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, G.; Juul Jensen, D.; Liu, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε = 0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within the grains. Large grains have microstructure and orientation scatters similar to those observed in single crystals of similar orientation. The observations are interpreted based on a slip system analysis, considering the relative effects of the initial grain orientation and the interaction between neighbouring grains as well.

  14. Serial dependencies act directly on perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchini, Guido Marco; Mikellidou, Kyriaki; Burr, David

    2017-12-01

    There is good evidence that biological perceptual systems exploit the temporal continuity in the world: When asked to reproduce or rate sequentially presented stimuli (varying in almost any dimension), subjects typically err toward the previous stimulus, exhibiting so-called "serial dependence." At this stage it is unclear whether the serial dependence results from averaging within the perceptual system, or at later stages. Here we demonstrate that strong serial dependencies occur within both perceptual and decision processes, with very little contribution from the response. Using a technique to isolate pure perceptual effects (Fritsche, Mostert, & de Lange, 2017), we show strong serial dependence in orientation judgements, over the range of orientations where theoretical considerations predict the effects to be maximal. In a second experiment we dissociate responses from stimuli to show that serial dependence occurs only between stimuli, not responses. The results show that serial dependence is important for perception, exploiting temporal redundancies to enhance perceptual efficiency.

  15. Controlling orbital moment and spin orientation in CoO layers by strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csiszar, SI; Haverkort, MW; Hu, Z; Tanaka, A; Hsieh, HH; Lin, HJ; Chen, CT; Hibma, T; Tjeng, LH

    2005-01-01

    We have observed that CoO films grown on different substrates show dramatic differences in their magnetic properties. Using polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Co L-2,L-3 edges, we revealed that the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic moments strongly depend on the

  16. Analysis of dependence of fission cross section and angular anisotropy of the 235U fission fragment escape induced by neutrons of intermediate energies (epsilon < or approximately200 keV) on target nucleus orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental data on dependence of fission cross section Σsub(f) (epsilon) and angular anisotropy W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg) of sup(235)U fission fragment escape by neutrons with energy epsilon=100 and 200 keV on orientation of target nuclei are analyzed. 235 U (Isup(πsub(0))=7/2sup(-)) nuclei were orientated at the expense of interaction of quadrupole nucleus momenta with nonuniform electric field of uranyl-rubidium nitrate crystal at crystal cooling to T=0.2 K. The analysis was carried out with three different sets of permeability factors T(epsilon). Results of the analysis weakly depend on T(epsilon) choice. It is shown that a large number of adjusting parameters (six fissionabilities γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and six momenta sub(Jsup(π))) permit to described experimental data on Σsub(f)(epsilon) and W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg), obtained at epsilon=200 keV by introducing essential dependence of γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and sub(Jsup(π)) on Jsup(π). Estimations of fission cross sections Σsub(f)(epsilon) and angular distribution W(epsilon, n vector) up to T approximately equal to 0.01 K in two geometries of the experiment: the orientation axis is parallel and perpendicular to momentum direction p vector of incident neutrons, are conducted

  17. 2D magnetization of grain-oriented 3%-Si steel under uniaxial stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permiakov, V.; Dupre, L.; Pulnikov, A.; Melkebeek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetization in electrical steels is strongly affected by mechanical stress. The stress dependence of magnetic properties of non-oriented steels has been studied at one- and two-dimensional magnetization. This paper deals with the stress effect on one- and two-dimensional magnetization in grain-oriented 3%-Si steel. The special magnetic measurements system is applied to combine uniaxial stress and 2D magnetic measurements. The uniaxial stress ranges from 10 MPa compressive stress to 100 MPa tensile stress. A domain theory is a suitable tool for prediction and a physical explanation of stress dependency in grain-oriented steel

  18. Determination of the specific site occupation of rare earth additions in Y17SM06Lu07Fe5O12 thin films by the orientation dependence of characteristic x-ray emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.M.; Rez, P.; Mishra, R.; Thomas, G.

    1983-11-01

    The orientation dependence of characteristic x-ray emissions have been used to determine specific site occupations of Rare Earth additions in epitaxially grown films of Y 1 7 Sm 0 6 Lu 0 7 Fe 5 O 12 . A theoretical formulation based on the assumption of highly localized inner shell excitations was used not only to predict specific site sensitive orientations, but also to refine experimentally observed data employing a constrained least squares analysis to give probabilities for the occupation of the RE additions in the different crystallographic sites. Thus, it has been shown that in this compound the preference for the RE additions is a predominantly octahedral occupation with a probability greater than or equal to 95%. Some of the assumptions and limitations of the technique have also been discussed

  19. Magnetic anisotropy induced by crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment in directionally-solidified eutectic Mn-Sb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Tie; Dong, Meng; Wu, Chun; Shao, Jian-Guo; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The influences of the crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of polycrystalline materials were investigated. Microstructures obtained in eutectic Mn-Sb alloys via directional solidification simultaneously displayed crystallographic orientation and morphological alignment. Both the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment were able to induce magnetic anisotropy in the alloys, wherein the influence of the crystallographic orientation and the morphological alignment upon the magnetic anisotropic behavior of the alloys strongly depended upon their directions and exhibited either mutual promotion or competition. These findings may provide useful guidance for the fabrication design of functional magnetic materials. - Highlights: • We study effects of orientation in crystal and morphology on magnetic anisotropy. • Both orientation in crystal and morphology can induce magnetic anisotropy. • Their effects depend on direction and exhibit either mutual promotion or competition.

  20. Hyperosmotic stress strongly potentiates serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcriptional activity in ehrlich lettré ascites cells through a mechanism involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Wiwel, Maria; Klingberg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are differentially regulated in ELA cells. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation and SRF-dependent transcriptional activity were strongly augmented 5–30¿min and 24¿h, respectively, after hyperosmotic stress (50% increase in extracellular ionic strength), in a p38...... is transiently inhibited while p38 MAPK is activated, in turn impacting on cell survival (Pedersen et al., 2007, Cell Physiol Biochem 20: 735–750). Here, we show that downstream of these kinases, two transcription factors with major roles in control of cell proliferation and death, serum response factor (SRF......Long-term osmotic stress results in altered gene transcription, however, with the exception of the TonE/TonEBP system, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We previously showed that upon osmotic shrinkage of Ehrlich Lettré Ascites (ELA) fibroblasts, the MEK1-ERK1/2 pathway...

  1. The phenomenology of optically pumped 13C NMR in diamond at 7.05 T: Room temperature polarization, orientation dependence, and the effect of defect concentration on polarization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eric; Drake, Melanie; Reimer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-03-01

    Room temperature optical illumination of NV- imbibed single crystal diamonds with a 532 nm laser produces 13C polarization enhancements up to 200 times greater than that of the thermal equilibrium value at 7.05 T. We report high field NV- mediated 13C polarization as a function of the number and type (NV- and P1) of defects in commercially available diamonds. Surprisingly, both positive and negative 13C polarizations are observed depending on the orientation of the crystal with respect to the external magnetic field and the electric field vector of the optical illumination. The data reported herein cannot be explained by a previously proposed mechanism.

  2. Evaluation of bioelectrical activity of pelvic floor muscles and synergistic muscles depending on orientation of pelvis in menopausal women with symptoms of stress urinary incontinence: a preliminary observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Słupska, Lucyna; Dymarek, Robert; Bartnicki, Janusz; Halska, Urszula; Król, Agata; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald; Ptaszkowski, Kuba

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and the synergistic muscles, depending on the orientation of the pelvis, in anterior (P1) and posterior (P2) pelvic tilt. Preliminary, prospective observational study. Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Thirty-two menopausal and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixteen women aged 55 to 70 years were enrolled in the study. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles by electromyography (sEMG) and vaginal probe. Evaluation of activity of the synergistic muscles by sEMG and surface electrodes. No significant differences between orientations P1 and P2 were found in functional and resting sEMG activity of the PFM. During resting and functional PFM activity, higher electrical activity in P2 than in P1 has been recorded in some of the synergistic muscles. This preliminary study does not provide initial evidence that pelvic tilt influences PFM activation. Although different activity of synergistic muscles occurs in various orientations of the pelvic tilt, it does not have to affect the sEMG activity of the PFM.

  3. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Activity of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Synergistic Muscles Depending on Orientation of Pelvis in Menopausal Women with Symptoms of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Preliminary Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Halski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM and the synergistic muscles, depending on the orientation of the pelvis, in anterior (P1 and posterior (P2 pelvic tilt. Design. Preliminary, prospective observational study. Setting. Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Participants. Thirty-two menopausal and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixteen women aged 55 to 70 years were enrolled in the study. Primary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles by electromyography (sEMG and vaginal probe. Secondary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of activity of the synergistic muscles by sEMG and surface electrodes. Results. No significant differences between orientations P1 and P2 were found in functional and resting sEMG activity of the PFM. During resting and functional PFM activity, higher electrical activity in P2 than in P1 has been recorded in some of the synergistic muscles. Conclusions. This preliminary study does not provide initial evidence that pelvic tilt influences PFM activation. Although different activity of synergistic muscles occurs in various orientations of the pelvic tilt, it does not have to affect the sEMG activity of the PFM.

  4. Evaluation of Bioelectrical Activity of Pelvic Floor Muscles and Synergistic Muscles Depending on Orientation of Pelvis in Menopausal Women with Symptoms of Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Preliminary Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halski, Tomasz; Słupska, Lucyna; Dymarek, Robert; Bartnicki, Janusz; Halska, Urszula; Król, Agata; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and the synergistic muscles, depending on the orientation of the pelvis, in anterior (P1) and posterior (P2) pelvic tilt. Design. Preliminary, prospective observational study. Setting. Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland. Participants. Thirty-two menopausal and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, sixteen women aged 55 to 70 years were enrolled in the study. Primary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of resting and functional bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles by electromyography (sEMG) and vaginal probe. Secondary Outcome Measures. Evaluation of activity of the synergistic muscles by sEMG and surface electrodes. Results. No significant differences between orientations P1 and P2 were found in functional and resting sEMG activity of the PFM. During resting and functional PFM activity, higher electrical activity in P2 than in P1 has been recorded in some of the synergistic muscles. Conclusions. This preliminary study does not provide initial evidence that pelvic tilt influences PFM activation. Although different activity of synergistic muscles occurs in various orientations of the pelvic tilt, it does not have to affect the sEMG activity of the PFM. PMID:24701567

  5. SU-G-IeP1-08: MR Geometric Distortion Dependency On Imaging Sequence, Acquisition Orientation and Receiver Bandwidth of a Dedicated 1.5T MR-Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, M; Yuan, J; Wong, O; Yu, S [Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the 3D geometric distortion of four potential MR sequences for radiotheraptic applications, and its dependency on sequence-type, acquisition-orientation and receiver-bandwidth from a dedicated 1.5T 700mm-wide bore MR-simulator (Magnetom-Aera, Sienmens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany), using a large customized geometric accuracy phantom. Methods: This work studied 3D gradient-echo (VIBE) and spin-echo (SPACE) sequences for anatomical imaging; a specific ultra-short-TE sequence (PETRA) potentially for bone imaging and MR-based dosimetry; and a motion-insensitive sequence (BLADE) for dynamic applications like 4D-MRI. Integrated geometric-correction was employed, three orthogonal acquisition-orientations and up to three receiver-bandwidths were used, yielding 27 acquisitions for testing (Table 1a).A customized geometric accuracy phantom (polyurethane, MR/CT invisible, W×L×H:55×55×32.5cm3) was constructed and filled with 3892 spherical markers (6mm diameter, MR/CT visible) arranged on a 25mm-interval 3D isotropic-grid (Fig.1). The marker positions in MR images were quantitatively calculated and compared against those in the CT-reference using customized MatLab scripts. Results: The average distortion within various diameter-of-spherical-volumes (DSVs) and the usable DSVs under various distortion limits were measured (Tables 1b-c). It was observed that distortions fluctuated when sequence-type, acquisition-orientation or receiver-bandwidth changed (e.g. within 300mm-DSV, the lowest/highest average distortions of VIBE were 0.40mm/0.59mm, a 47.5% difference). According to AAPM-TG66 (<1mm distortion, left-most column of Table 1c), PETRA (Largest-DSV:253.9mm) has the potential on brain treatment, while BLADE (Largest-DSV:207.2mm) may need improvement for thoracic/abdominal applications. The results of VIBE (Largest-DSVs:294.3mm, the best among tested acquisitions) and SPACE (Largest-DSVs:267.7mm) suggests their potentials on head and neck

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  7. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  8. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  9. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement versus CBT for co-occurring substance dependence, traumatic stress, and psychiatric disorders: Proximal outcomes from a pragmatic randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia; Tronnier, Christine D; Graves, Rebecca; Kelley, Karen

    2016-02-01

    In many clinical settings, there is a high comorbidity between substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and traumatic stress. Novel therapies are needed to address these co-occurring issues efficiently. The aim of the present study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) to group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) for previously homeless men residing in a therapeutic community. Men with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, as well as extensive trauma histories, were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of group treatment with MORE (n = 64), CBT (n = 64), or TAU (n = 52). Study findings indicated that from pre-to post-treatment MORE was associated with modest yet significantly greater improvements in substance craving, post-traumatic stress, and negative affect than CBT, and greater improvements in post-traumatic stress and positive affect than TAU. A significant indirect effect of MORE on decreasing craving and post-traumatic stress by increasing dispositional mindfulness was observed, suggesting that MORE may target these issues via enhancing mindful awareness in everyday life. This pragmatic trial represents the first head-to-head comparison of MORE against an empirically-supported treatment for co-occurring disorders. Results suggest that MORE, as an integrative therapy designed to bolster self-regulatory capacity, may hold promise as a treatment for intersecting clinical conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A component of DNA double-strand break repair is dependent on the spatial orientation of the lesions within the higher-order structures of chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.J.; Bryant, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    By the use of a modified neutral filter elution procedure variations in the repair of DNA dsb have been observed between the ionising radiation sensitive mutant xrs-5 and the parent cell line CHO-K1. Conventional neutral filter elution requires harsh lysis conditions to remove higher-order chromatin structures which interfere with elution of DNA containing dsb. By lysing cells with non-ionic detergent in the presence of 2 mol dm -3 salt, histone-depleted structures that retain the higher-order nuclear matrix organization, including chromatin loops, can be produced. Elution from these structures will only occur if two or more dsb lie within a single-looped domain delineated by points of attachment to the nuclear matrix. Repair experiments indicate that in CHO cells repair of dsb in loops containing multiple dsb are repaired with slow kinetics whilst dsb occurring in loops containing single dsb are repaired with fast kinetics. Xrs-5 cells are defective in the repair of multiply damaged loops. This work indicates that the spatial orientation of dsb in the higher-order structures of chromatin are a possible factor in the repair of these lesions. (Author)

  11. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  13. Polarity-dependence of the defect formation in c-axis oriented ZnO by the irradiation of an 8 MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuto; Yano, Mitsuaki; Gonda, Shun-ichi; Uedono, Akira; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kojima, Kazunobu; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2018-04-01

    The polarity dependence of the radiation hardness of single-crystalline ZnO bulk crystals is studied by irradiating the Zn-polar and O-polar c-planes with an 8 MeV proton beam up to the fluence of 4.2 × 1016 p/cm2. To analyze the hardness, radiation-induced defects were evaluated using positron annihilation (PA) analysis, and the recovery by post-annealing was examined using continuous-wave photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. It was suggested by the PA and PL analyses that the major defects in both polarities were VZnVO divacancies. While the PA data did not show the clear dependence on the polarity, the PL and TRPL results showed that the Zn-polar c-plane had a little higher radiation tolerance than that of the O-polar c-plane, which was consistent with the result that the increase in the electrical resistance by proton beam irradiation was smaller for the former one. Considering these results in total, the polarity dependence is considered to be not so large, but the Zn-polar c-plane has a little higher tolerance than that of the O-polar one.

  14. Relationship between behavior and physiology in an invasive pest species: oviposition site selection and temperature-dependent development of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter-Hausmann, Claudia; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-04-01

    Oviposition site selection is crucial for the reproductive success of a herbivore insect species with relatively sedentary larvae. The optimal oviposition theory, i.e., the preference-performance hypothesis, has thus far mainly been tested with a focus on nutritional quality of the host. This study investigates whether female oriental fruit moth Grapholita (Cydia) molesta choose a microhabitat for oviposition characterized by a temperature range within which their offspring perform best. Thermal preferences of females during oviposition were assessed in a circular temperature gradient arena. Offspring performance and survival were assessed under different constant temperature conditions. Females preferred oviposition sites of approximately 30 degrees C over lower and higher temperatures. At this temperature, egg, larval, and pupal development was significantly faster than at 22 and 25 degrees C, and larval development was also faster than at 33 degrees C. At 30 degrees C and at the lower temperatures tested, survival of eggs and larvae was significantly higher than at 33 degrees C, whereas development was precluded at 35 degrees C. Furthermore, female pupal weight attained at 30 and 33 degrees C exceeded that reached at the lower temperatures tested. Considering the potentially reduced predation risk caused by the shorter developmental time of eggs and larvae, the laboratory data suggest that this species maximizes its fitness by selecting a thermally optimal environment for its offspring, supporting the optimal oviposition theory. Conversely, it is known that the codling moth (C. pomonella) lacks a mechanism to avoid temperatures lethal to progeny development, which may reflect the differences in geographic ranges of these tortricids.

  15. Fabrication of oriented wrinkles on polydopamine/polystyrene bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Long, Yuhua; Zhu, Tang; Guo, Jing; Cai, Chao; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-07-15

    Wrinkles exist widely in nature and our life. In this paper, wrinkles on polydopamine (PDA)/polystyrene (PS) bilayer films were formed by thermal annealing due to the different thermal coefficients of expansion of each layer. The factors that influenced the dimensions of wrinkles were studied. We found that oriented wrinkles could be formed if the bilayer films were patterned with micro-grooves, and the degree of the orientation depended on the thickness of the PDA and the dimensions of the grooves. Combined with the strong adhesion, biocompatibility and reactivity of PDA, the oriented wrinkles on PDA/PS patterned bilayers may find potential application in diffraction gratings, optical sensors and microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Orientation politique

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberj, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    L’orientation politique constitue l’ensemble des valeurs, normes et préférences (bref l’idéologie) qui guide ou structure les individus vers un parti ou un camp politique. Contrairement à une vision philosophique de la politique fondée sur un citoyen idéal à la fois rationnel et insensible aux contingences de sa situation personnelle, l’électeur n’est pas seul quand il se présente dans l’isoloir, il amène avec lui ses groupes d’appartenance, son histoire individuelle et ses valeurs. En cela, ...

  17. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  18. An object-oriented implementation of a solver of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using the CUDA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubak, Tomasz; Matulewski, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    We present a set of C++ classes which allow one to use the graphics card processor's cores for quantum ab initio simulations, i.e. a direct solving of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, gaining the benefits from the parallel architecture of the graphical processor units. We use the Chebyshev polynomial and FFT algorithm. The solution is based on NVIDIA CUDA technology. The speed-up factor in the test runs of our classes performed using the graphics card processor can even be of order of 300 in comparison with the test runs using only the single core of CPU. Not only the Schrödinger equation can be integrated using the presented solver. With only small changes it can be used for solving the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation of BEC's dynamics, the heat equation, the diffusion equation or other parabolic partial differential equations of second order. Program summaryProgram title: QnDynCUDA Catalogue identifier: AELE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 101 359 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 165 228 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C for CUDA Computer: Graphics card with CUDA technology recommended Operating system: No limits (tested on 32-bit and 64-bit Windows and 64-bit Linux) Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, number of processors used - one CPU core and all CUDA cores of the selected processor of graphics card RAM: Dependent on user's parameters, typically between several tens of megabytes and several gigabytes (this concerns also the graphics card's memory) Supplementary material: Test input and output files (approx. 3.4 Gigabytes) are available Classification: 2.7, 6.5 Nature of problem: Solving the time-dependent

  19. Ultrafast Electron Transfer at Organic Semiconductor Interfaces: Importance of Molecular Orientation

    KAUST Repository

    Ayzner, Alexander L.

    2015-01-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Much is known about the rate of photoexcited charge generation in at organic donor/acceptor (D/A) heterojunctions overaged over all relative arrangements. However, there has been very little experimental work investigating how the photoexcited electron transfer (ET) rate depends on the precise relative molecular orientation between D and A in thin solid films. This is the question that we address in this work. We find that the ET rate depends strongly on the relative molecular arrangement: The interface where the model donor compound copper phthalocyanine is oriented face-on with respect to the fullerene C60 acceptor yields a rate that is approximately 4 times faster than that of the edge-on oriented interface. Our results suggest that the D/A electronic coupling is significantly enhanced in the face-on case, which agrees well with theoretical predictions, underscoring the importance of controlling the relative interfacial molecular orientation.

  20. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  1. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  2. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    Course d’orientation : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Et c’est reparti pour une nouvelle saison! Pour cette coupe de printemps 2010, le Club d’Orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose le calendrier suivant: – samedi 20 mars : Cossonay (Vd) – samedi 10 avril : Echallens (Vd) – samedi 17 avril : Trélex (Vd) – samedi 24 avril : Genolier (Vd) – samedi 1 mai : Vulbens/Valleiry (74) – samedi 8 mai : Bois de la Rippe (Vd) – samedi 29 mai : Sauvabellin (Vd) : relais – samedi 5 juin: St Cergue (Vd) : grande finale Les courses populaires ont lieu en général le samedi après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Pour cela, divers types de parcours sont &agr...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  4. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  10. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Course d’orientation C’est sous un magnifique soleil que s’est tenue la 7e épreuve de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. Les organisateurs avaient concocté des parcours assez techniques sur le site de La Faucille. Sur le parcours technique long, beau podium avec la victoire de Domenico Lepori (double médaillés aux championnats du monde en 2010 en vétéran) du club Care Vevey en 1:00:23, juste devant Jürg Niggli du club O’Jura en 1:00:56 puis Beat Mueller du club Lausanne-Jorat en 1:04:28. Sur le parcours technique moyen, Franck Longchampt s’est octroyé la première place, sur le parcours technique court, le jeune Julien Vuitton, qui n’a pas tout à fait 11 ans, a remporté son circuit. Coté parcours facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov a une fois de plus gagn&eacut...

  12. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  13. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  14. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  15. Time-Resolved Photoelectron Angular Distributions from Strong-Field Ionization of Rotating Naphthalene Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Lerche; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Dimitrovski, Darko

    2011-01-01

    A nanosecond laser pulse confines the spatial orientation of naphthalene in 1D or 3D while a femtosecond kick pulse initiates rotation of the molecular plane around the fixed long axis. Time-dependent photoelectron angular distributions (PADs), resulting from ionization by an intense femtosecond...... probe pulse, exhibit pronounced changes as the molecular plane rotates. Enhanced 3D alignment, occurring shortly after the kick pulse, provides strongly improved contrast in molecular-frame PADs. Calculations in the strong-field approximation show that the striking structures observed in the PADs...

  16. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  17. Orientation relationship between austenite and non-modulated martensite in Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulist, R.; Faryna, M.; Szczerba, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In-situ electron back scatter diffraction experiments were used to accurately determine the orientation relationships between austenite and martensite in non-modulated Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals. Using a heating stage device direct orientation measurements of austenite and martensite in single-, two- and self-accommodated state were performed. The initial single crystals show a typical self-accommodated microstructure composed of a mixture of variants allowing the distribution of martensitic variants with minimal macroscopic shear. The martensitic variants are observed on different length scales: starting from a few nanometers up to a few micrometers. The corresponding experimental pole figures reveal a strongly asymmetric distribution of martensitic variants with respect to the parent cubic orientation. Combining the microstructural and crystallographic orientation information it is obvious that a hierarchy in twin formation exists. At first the main martensitic variants arise by Bain strain and rigid body rotation. Subsequently, the remaining variants follow a specific crystallographic orientation relationship. Using training procedure a single- or two-variant state in martensite can be obtained. In-situ heating experiments reveal that such configurations show a different orientation relationship between the martensitic variants and austenite compared to that in a self-accommodated state. It strongly suggests that the orientation relationship between these two phases is not strictly fixed, as given by the main models describing this relation, but also depends on the number and width of martensitic variants. The results are discussed with respect to lattice parameters, number of variants and existing models in the literature.

  18. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  19. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  20. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Vers les dernières courses de printemps Une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés sur le site de la Roche Fendue prés de Morez pour gouter à un des 5 parcours proposés par le club du O’Jura. Le terrain était gras mais que peut-on trouver d’autre avec cette météo! Les vainqueurs de chaque circuit sont : Alina Niggli (O’Jura) facile court, Natalja Niggli (O’Jura) facile moyen, Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ) technique court, Yves Rousselot (Balise 25) technique moyen et pour finir François Gonon (O’Jura) avec une victoire haut la main sur le technique long. Il ne reste plus que deux épreuves pour la coupe genevoise de printemps : à savoir samedi 8 juin, course de type longue distance organisée par le club de Lausanne Jorat (COLJ) dans le bois de Seyte sur Mutrux/Concise, inscription de 12h &...

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  2. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Course d'orientation Ces deux dernières semaines, le club a organisé la troisième puis la quatrième étape de la coupe de printemps, une dans la forêt de Collogny/Moissey près de Vulbens, l’autre vers le parcours vita de Trélex. Les résultats sont: Facile court Vulbens : 1er Léo Lonchampt, O’Jura (16:04), 2e Timothée Bazin (23:07), 3e Francesco Pieri (26:57) Trélex : 1er Noora Maurent (23:11), 2e Sarah Stuber, COLJ (26:51), 3e T. Bazin (28:17) Facile moyen Vulbens : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, CO CERN (25:36), 2e Didier Descourvières (28:03), 3e Konstantinos Haider, CO CERN (36:53) Trélex : 1er V. Kuznetsov, COLJ (38:01), 2e K. Haider, CO CERN (43:15), 3e ex aequo Olivia Nguyen et Sven Vietmeier (58:11) Technique court Vulbens : 1er Benoit Bazin (41:21), 2e Colas Gintzburger (55:12), 3e Nathan Freydoz (55:48) Trélex : 1...

  3. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  4. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  5. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  6. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  7. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  10. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  11. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée ce samedi 2 novembre avec une course au score dans le bois Tollot (GE). Les concurrents disposaient d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises différemment placées selon le circuit choisi. Juerg Niggli (club O’Jura) a remporté le parcours technique long. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O’Jura), 2e Jirden Lennart, 3e Daria Niggli. Circuit technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov (COLJ), 2e N...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2012-01-01

    Finale de la coupe d’automne   La coupe d’automne organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est terminée ce samedi 10 novembre avec une course sprint à Prévessins. C’était la 12e épreuve de la saison. En stage dans la région, Tanya Ryabkina, championne d’Europe en titre et médaillée de bronze en moyenne distance lors des championnats du monde à La Givrine cet été, a fait l’honneur de sa présence et termine 2e à 8 secondes de Trygve Buanes, norvégien du club de Bergen. A l’issue de cette dernière épreuve, le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 8 meilleurs résultats de la saison, est ainsi le suivant : Circuit technique long : 1er Jurg Niggli (O&rsqu...

  14. Religious orientation and life aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Patrick R; Clayton, Spencer; Swinyard, William

    2015-04-01

    The effects of religiosity on well-being appear to depend on religious orientation, with intrinsic orientation being related to positive outcomes and extrinsic orientation being related to neutral or negative outcomes. It is not clear, however, why intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity has the relationships they do. Self-determination theory may provide a useful framework of intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations that may help to answer this question. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity would be related to intrinsic and extrinsic life aspirations. We hypothesized that intrinsic religiosity would be positively related to intrinsic life aspirations and negatively related with extrinsic life aspirations, and that extrinsic religiosity would be positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and negatively related to intrinsic aspirations, and that life aspirations would partially mediate the relationships between religious orientation and outcome. To study these hypotheses, a random national sample (total number of 425, average age of 52, 59 % female) completed the measures of religious orientation, life aspirations, affect, and life satisfaction. It was found that intrinsic religiosity was positively related to positive affect, life satisfaction, and intrinsic life aspirations and was negatively related to negative affect and extrinsic life aspirations. Extrinsic religiosity was positively related to extrinsic life aspirations and was not related to the intrinsic life aspirations. When both religious orientation and life aspiration variables were included together in the model predicting outcome, both remained significant indicating that religious orientation and life aspirations are independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, although religious orientation and life aspirations are significantly related to each other and to outcome, life aspirations did not mediate the effects of religious orientation

  15. Size Dependent Orientation of Knudsen Force

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2012-03-03

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was however not observed in the experiment. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

  16. Emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin eRobbins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny. Three- and five-year-old middle class American children (N=162 were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. At the end of the game, the child was offered an opportunity to sacrifice some of her personal gains to punish one of the puppets. By three years, American children demonstrate a willingness to engage in costly punishment. However, only five-year-olds show some evidence of strong reciprocity by orienting their punishment systematically toward the stingy puppet. Further analyses and 3 additional control conditions demonstrate that such propensity is not simply reducible to a straight imitation, or b inequity aversion. To assess the relative universality of such development, a group of five- to six-year-old children from rural Samoa (N=14 were tested and compared to age and gender matched American children. Samoan children did not manifest the same propensity toward strong reciprocity. The results are interpreted as pointing to 1 the developmental emergence of an ethical stance between three and five years of age, and 2 that the expression of such stance by young children could depend on culture.

  17. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  18. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic H2+ show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  19. Molecular alignment dependent electron interference in attosecond ultraviolet photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D

    2015-01-01

    We present molecular photoionization processes by intense attosecond ultraviolet laser pulses from numerical solutions of time-dependent Schrödinger equations. Simulations preformed on a single electron diatomic [Formula: see text] show minima in molecular photoelectron energy spectra resulting from two center interference effects which depend strongly on molecular alignment. We attribute such sensitivity to the spatial orientation asymmetry of the photoionization process from the two nuclei. A similar influence on photoelectron kinetic energies is also presented.

  20. Highly (100) oriented MgO growth on thin Mg layer in MTJ structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbo, K [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S3-42 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nakagawa, S, E-mail: jimbo.k@spin.pe.titech.ac.jp

    2011-01-01

    In order to apply Stress Assisted Magnetization Reversal (SAMR) method to perpendicular magnetoresistive random access memory (p-MRAM) with magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using MgO (001) oriented barrier layer, multilayer of Ta/ Terfenol-D/ Mg/ MgO and Ta/ Terfenol-D/ MgO were prepared. While the MgO layer, deposited directly on the Terfenol-D layer, did not show (100) orientatin, very thin metallic Mg layer, deposited prior to the MgO deposition, was effective to attain MgO (100) orientation. The crystalline orientation was very weak without Mg, however, the multilayer with Mg showed very strong MgO(100) peak and the MgO orientation was shifted depending on the Mg thickness.

  1. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  2. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  3. The influence of grasping habits and object orientation on motor planning in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of habitual grasp strategies and object orientation on motor planning in 3-year-olds and 4- to 5-year-old children and adults. Participants were required to rotate different vertically oriented objects around 180°. Usually, adults perform this task by grasping objects with an awkward grip (thumb and index finger pointing downward) at the beginning of the movement, in order to finish it with a comfortable hand position. This pattern corresponds to the well-known end-state comfort effect (ESC) in grasp planning. The presented objects were associated with different habitual grasp orientations that either corresponded with the grasp direction required to reach end-state comfort (downward) or implied a contrary grasp orientation (upward). Additionally, they were presented either in their usual, canonical orientation (e.g., shovel with the blade oriented downward versus cup with its opening oriented upward) or upside down. As dependent variable we analyzed the number of grips conforming to the end-state comfort principle (ESC score) realized in each object type and orientation condition. The number of grips conforming to ESC strongly increased with age. In addition, the extent to which end-state comfort was considered was influenced by the actual orientation of the objects' functional parts. Thus, in all age-groups the ESC score was highest when the functional parts of the objects were oriented downward (shovel presented canonically with blade pointing downward, cup presented upside down) and corresponded to the hand orientation needed to realize ESC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  5. Ethical Orientation of Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budner, Howard R.

    1987-01-01

    The study examined the level of acceptance of questionable marketing practices by marketing students, instructors, and practitioners. An instrument consisting of 40 such practices was administered to the groups. Results suggest that ethical orientation may be dependent on situational perspectives, proximity to business practice, years of…

  6. Modelling and analysing oriented fibrous structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantala, M; Lassas, M; Siltanen, S; Sampo, J; Takalo, J; Timonen, J

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model for fibrous structures using a direction dependent scaling law is presented. The orientation of fibrous nets (e.g. paper) is analysed with a method based on the curvelet transform. The curvelet-based orientation analysis has been tested successfully on real data from paper samples: the major directions of fibrefibre orientation can apparently be recovered. Similar results are achieved in tests on data simulated by the new model, allowing a comparison with ground truth

  7. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  9. Single Molecule 3D Orientation in Time and Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Richard; Ehrlich, Nicky; Hohlbein, Johannes; Hübner, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between single molecules profoundly depend on their mutual three-dimensional orientation. Recently, we demonstrated a technique that allows for orientation determination of single dipole emitters using a polarization-resolved distribution of fluorescence into several detection

  10. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  11. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  12. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  13. <strong>Anonysense>: privacy-aware people-centric sensingstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Cornelius, Cory; Kapadia, Apu

    2008-01-01

    by personal mobile devices. AnonySense allows applications to submit sensing tasks that will be distributed across anonymous participating mobile devices, later receiving verified, yet anonymized, sensor data reports back from the field, thus providing the first secure implementation of this participatory......Personal mobile devices are increasingly equipped with the capability to sense the physical world (through cameras, microphones, and accelerometers, for example) and the, network world (with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth interfaces). Such devices offer many new opportunities for cooperative sensing...... applications. For example, users' mobile phones may contribute data to community-oriented information services, from city-wide pollution monitoring to enterprise-wide detection of unauthorized Wi-Fi access points. This people-centric mobile-sensing model introduces a new security challenge in the design...

  14. Surface structure of oriented PET films

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, K

    2001-01-01

    crystallinity and the level of molecular orientation of the polymer are highest at the film surface and gradually decrease away from it. The same trend for an increase in structural order nearer the film surface was observed in a series of PET films drawn uniaxially in laboratory conditions. The observed strong dependence of stratification in the oriented films on drawing ratio, lead to the conclusion, that the structural gradients arise as a result of viscous flow. The molecular mechanism of stratification is discussed and leads to the idea of enhanced chain mobility at the PET film surface. The idea is in line with recent studies showing a depression of the glass transition temperature of free polymer surfaces. In addition, the results on structure formation in PET films during drawing, give support to the existing view that polymer crystallisation is assisted by a spinodal-decomposition nucleation process. Polymer films are widely used as substrates in nano-composite materials and therefore have to possess...

  15. Seismic Response of a Sedimentary Basin: Preliminary Results from Strong Motion Downhole Array in Taipei Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B.; Chen, K.; Chiu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strong Motion Downhole Array (SMDA) is an array of 32 triggered strong motion broadband seismometers located at eight sites in Taipei Basin. Each site features three to five co-located three-component accelerometers--one at the surface and an additional two to four each down independent boreholes. Located in the center of Taipei Basin is Taipei City and the Taipei metropolitan area, the capital of Taiwan and home to more than 7 million residents. Taipei Basin is in a major seismic hazard area and is prone to frequent large earthquakes producing strong ground motion. This unique three-dimension seismic array presents new frontiers for seismic research in Taiwan and, along with it, new challenges. Frequency-dependent and site-specific amplification of seismic waves from depth to surface has been observed: preliminary results indicate that the top few tens of meters of sediment--not the entire thickness--are responsible for significant frequency-dependent amplification; amplitudes of seismic waves at the surface may be as much as seven times that at depth. Dominant amplification frequencies are interpreted as quarter-wavelength constructive interference between the surface and major interfaces in the sediments. Using surface stations with known orientation as a reference, borehole seismometer orientations in these data--which are unknown, and some of which vary considerably from event to event--have been determined using several methods. After low-pass filtering the strong motion data, iteratively rotating the two horizontal components from an individual borehole station and cross-correlating them with that from a co-located surface station has proven to be very effective. In cases where the iterative cross-correlation method does not provide a good fit, rotating both surface and borehole stations to a common axis of maximum seismic energy provides an alternative approach. The orientation-offset of a borehole station relative to the surface station may be

  16. An important role of temperature dependent scattering time in understanding the high temperature thermoelectric behavior of strongly correlated system: La0.75Ba0.25CoO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Kumar, Devendra; Pandey, Sudhir K

    2017-03-15

    In the present work, we report the temperature dependent thermopower (α) behavior of La 0.75 Ba 0.25 CoO 3 compound in the temperature range 300-600 K. Using the Heikes formula, the estimated value of α corresponding to high-spin configuration of Co 3+ and Co 4+ ions is found to be  ∼16 [Formula: see text], which is close to the experimental value, ∼13 [Formula: see text], observed at  ∼600 K. The temperature dependent TE behavior of the compound is studied by combining the WIEN2K and BoltzTrap code. The self consistency field calculations show that the compound have ferromagnetic ground state structure. The electronic structure calculations give half metallic characteristic with a small gap of  ∼50 meV for down spin channel. The large and positive value for down spin channel is obtained due to the unique band structure shown by this spin channel. The temperature dependent relaxation time for both the spin-channel charge carriers is considered to study the thermopower data in temperature range 300-600 K. For evaluation of α, almost linear values of [Formula: see text] and a non-linear values of [Formula: see text] are taken into account. By taking the temperature dependent values of relaxation time for both the spin channels, the calculated values of α using two current model are found to be in good agreement with experimental values in the temperature range 300-600 K. At 300 K, the calculated value of electrical conductivity by using the same value of relaxation time, i.e. 0.1 [Formula: see text] 10 -14 seconds for spin-up and [Formula: see text] seconds for spin-dn channel, is found to be equal to the experimentally reported value.

  17. Quantum Hydrodynamical Formulation of Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Probing Strong-Field Multiphoton Processes: Application to the Study of High-Order Harmonic Generation of He and Ne in Intense Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. K.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2002-05-01

    We extend the quantum hydrodynamical (QFD) formulation of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to the study of multiphoton processes of many-electron atomic systems in intense laser fields (A. K. Roy and S. I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A (in press).). The QFD-TDDFT formulation results in a single generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation (GNLSE) and includes the many-body effects through a local time-dependent exchange-correlation (xc) potential. The GNLSE is solved by the time- dependent generalized pseudospectral method (X. M. Tong and S.I. Chu, Chem. Phys. 217) (1997) 119. (X. Chu and S. I. Chu, Phys. Rev. A 63) (2001) 023411.. The procedure is applied to the study of multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high harmonic generation (HHG) of He and Ne in intense laser fields. Four different xc energy functionals are used in the study with an aim to explore the roles of exchange and correlation ovn MPI/HHG processes in details ^1.

  18. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  19. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  20. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  1. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field). (paper)

  2. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  3. High antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses are correlated with strong CD8 T cell viral suppressive activity but not with B57 status in HIV-1 elite controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambotte

    Full Text Available The role of Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC responses in HIV-1 controllers is still unclear due to the heterogeneity of these patients. We analyzed 67 HIV-1 controllers and found significantly higher levels of ADCC antibodies in controllers versus viremic subjects (p = 0.017. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed significantly higher ADCC titers in HLA B57- controllers compared to HLA-B57+ ones (p = 0.0086. These data suggest a role for ADCC in immune control of HIV, especially in HLA B57 negative controllers.

  4. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  5. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  6. Asymmetries in perception of 3D orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C Dobbins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual scene interpretation depends on assumptions based on the statistical regularities of the world. People have some preference for seeing ambiguously oriented objects (Necker cubes as if tilted down or viewed from above. This bias is a near certainty in the first instant (approximately 1 s of viewing and declines over the course of many seconds. In addition, we found that there is modulation of perceived orientation that varies with position--for example objects on the left are more likely to be interpreted as viewed from the right. Therefore there is both a viewed-from-above prior and a scene position-dependent modulation of perceived 3-D orientation. These results are consistent with the idea that ambiguously oriented objects are initially assigned an orientation consistent with our experience of an asymmetric world in which objects most probably sit on surfaces below eye level.

  7. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Emerging Signs of Strong Reciprocity in Human Ontogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Erin; Rochat, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strong reciprocity is considered here as the propensity to sacrifice resources to be kind or to punish in response to prior acts, a behavior not simply reducible to self-interest and a likely force behind human cooperation and sociality. The aim was to capture emerging signs of strong reciprocity in human ontogeny and across highly contrasted cultures. Three- and 5-year-old middle class American children (N = 162) were tested in a simple, multiple round, three-way sharing game involving the child, a generous puppet, and a stingy puppet. At the end of the game, the child was offered an opportunity to sacrifice some of her personal gains to punish one of the puppets. By 3 years, American children demonstrate a willingness to engage in costly punishment. However, only 5-year-olds show some evidence of strong reciprocity by orienting their punishment systematically toward the stingy puppet. Further analyses and three additional control conditions demonstrate that such propensity is not simply reducible to (a) straight imitation, or (b) inequity aversion. To assess the relative universality of such development, a group of 5- to 6-year-old children from rural Samoa (N = 14) were tested and compared to age and gender-matched American children. Samoan children did not manifest the same propensity toward strong reciprocity. The results are interpreted as pointing to (1) the developmental emergence of an ethical stance between 3 and 5 years of age, and (2) that the expression of such stance by young children could depend on culture. PMID:22194730

  10. Brand orientation and financial performance nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Kaličanin Đorđe; Veljković Saša; Bogetić Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article was to find nexus between brand orientation and financial performance in companies doing business in Serbia. We surveyed general managers, marketing managers, and brand managers in order to examine their views on the brand orientation dimensions of their companies. We matched the survey results with financial performance of those companies (EBITDA margin) in order to find linkages between these variables. We got expected results in the sense that strong brand orientatio...

  11. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  12. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  13. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  14. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  15. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...... orientations. Also, these moderating effects are stronger for firms operating in highly competitive environments. For the innovativeness component of entrepreneurship, however, the positive relationship between innovativeness and ROA decreases as the competitive environment becomes more hostile....

  16. Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshihisa; Tomishige, Masahiko; Itoh, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Masao; Shibata, Naho; Kosaka, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2006-05-01

    Effect of horizontal strong static magnetic field on swimming behaviour of Paramecium caudatum was studied by using a superconducting magnet. Around a centre of a round vessel, random swimming at 0 T and aligned swimming parallel to the magnetic field (MF) of 8 T were observed. Near a wall of the vessel, however, swimming round and round along the wall at 0 T and aligned swimming of turning at right angles upon collision with the wall, which was remarkable around 1-4 T, were detected. It was experimentally revealed that the former MF-induced parallel swimming at the vessel centre was caused physicochemically by the parallel magnetic orientation of the cell itself. From magnetic field dependence of the extent of the orientation, the magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (χ ∥-χ ⊥) was first obtained to be 3.4× 10-23 emu cell-1 at 298 K for Paramecium caudatum. The orientation of the cell was considered to result from the magnetic orientation of the cell membrane. On the other hand, although mechanisms of the latter swimming near the vessel wall regardless of the absence and presence of the magnetic field are unclear at present, these experimental results indicate that whether the cell exists near the wall alters the magnetic field effect on the swimming in the horizontal magnetic field.

  17. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  18. Review- Magnetic orientation and magnetic anisotropy in paramagnetic layered oxides containing rare-earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Horii, Atsushi Ishihara, Takayuki Fukushima, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Hiraku Ogino, Tohru S Suzuki, Yoshio Sakka, Jun-ichi Shimoyama and Kohji Kishio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic anisotropies and easy axes of magnetization at room temperature were determined, and the effects of rare-earth (RE ions were clarified for RE-based cuprates, RE-doped bismuth-based cuprates and RE-doped Bi-based cobaltite regarding the grain orientation by magnetic field. The easy axis, determined from the powder orientation in a static field of 10 T, depended qualitatively on the type of RE ion for all three systems. On the other hand, the magnetization measurement of the c-axis oriented powders, aligned in static or rotating fields, revealed that the type of RE ion strongly affected not only the directions of the easy axis but also the absolute value of magnetic anisotropy, and an appropriate choice of RE ion is required to minimize the magnetic field used for grain orientation. We also studied the possibility of triaxial grain orientation in high-critical-temperature superconductors by a modulated oval magnetic field. In particular, triaxial orientation was attempted in a high-oxygen-pressure phase of orthorhombic RE-based cuprates Y2Ba4Cu7Oy. Although the experiment was performed in epoxy resin, which is not practical, in-plane alignment within 3° was achieved.

  19. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  20. Orientalism and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Jouhki

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article Orientalism, a special hegemonic discourse about "the Orient" by Europeans is discussed by focusing on how it is manifested in a "Western" view of India. Orientalism as a discourse about the Orient is a concept first coined by Edward Said in his book Orientalism (1978 and contains a long history of European way of relating to the Orient as a counterpart of European/Western culture. In this article Orientalist discourses about India by hegemonically Western (and particularly Anglo-Saxon sources are portrayed and the so-called Indo-Orientalist essentialism defining Indianness from the outside analyzed. Moreover, a Indo-Orientalism as an imported ideology to be used in Indian nationalist discourses to emphasize a dichotomy between India and "the West" is discussed.

  1. Strategy, market orientation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, R.P.; Zaefarian, Ghasem; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the fit between the strategic posture of a political party and its political market orientation, and analyses the impact of this fit on party performance. For this purpose, a configuration theory logic is applied to the context of the political market; in particular, we...... develop strategic profiles (i.e. strategic postures and political market orientation) of four Belgian political parties represented in the Flemish Parliament. By comparing the strategic profiles derived from a questionnaire administered to 3148 party members with those of ‘theoretically ideal’ profiles......, we uncover the ‘strategic misfit’ (or ‘misalignment’) for each party and then relate this misfit to party performance. Results indicate that there is a strong, negative relationship between the misalignment of actual and perceived strategic profiles on the one hand and performance on the other...

  2. Brand orientation and financial performance nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to find nexus between brand orientation and financial performance in companies doing business in Serbia. We surveyed general managers, marketing managers, and brand managers in order to examine their views on the brand orientation dimensions of their companies. We matched the survey results with financial performance of those companies (EBITDA margin in order to find linkages between these variables. We got expected results in the sense that strong brand orientation and weaker brand barriers lead to better financial performance. Overall brand orientation is significantly positively correlated with EBITDA margin, and brand barriers are significantly negatively correlated with that measure. We analysed the brand orientation and brand barriers between groups of companies classified according to their size, internationalization, origin of company ownership, origin of brand, specific business area of key brands and type of goods sold. Interestingly, there are undoubted differences in brand orientation and brand barriers only between foreign and domestic companies. These differences could be seen as one of the main reasons of differences between their EBITDA margins. Also, we saw some differences in brand orientation in case of companies with international brands in relation to companies with domestic brands, but those differences are fewer and smaller. We did not find any other statistically significant difference. The significance of the paper is in emphasizing that development of brand orientation of domestic companies could lead to improvement of their profitability and competitiveness.

  3. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  4. Study on orientation mechanisms of poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) molecules aligned by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi; Horiuchi, Toshihisa; Ishida, Kenji; Matsushige, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a molecular orientation control technique for polymers utilizing contact-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). In this paper, we studied the molecular alignment mechanism of this technique by applying it to poly(vinylidenefluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). The resultant alignment and formed crystal size were strongly dependent on the temperature during the modification. They also depended on the scan line spacing of the modification. These results made the alignment mechanism clear. The obtained molecular alignment was stable against the heat treatment even at the temperatures just below T m

  5. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Beier, Claus

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... ecosystems with a net ecosystem carbon gain during the second year of 293 +/- 11 g C m(-2) year(-1) showing that the carbon sink strength of heather-dominated ecosystems may be considerable when C. vulgaris is in the building phase of its life cycle. The estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem.......65) was improved when the P-g rate was incorporated into the model (second year; R-2 = 0.79), suggesting that daytime R-E increased with increasing photosynthesis. Furthermore, the temperature sensitivity of R-E decreased from apparent Q(10) values of 3.3 to 3.9 by the classic equation to a more realistic Q(10...

  6. Ecosystem respiration depends strongly on photosynthesis in a temperate heath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, A.; Beier, C.

    2007-01-01

    We measured net ecosystem CO2 flux (F-n) and ecosystem respiration (R-E), and estimated gross ecosystem photosynthesis (P-g) by difference, for two years in a temperate heath ecosystem using a chamber method. The exchange rates of carbon were high and of similar magnitude as for productive forest...... respiration from October to March was 22% and 30% of annual flux, respectively, suggesting that both cold-season carbon gain and loss were important in the annual carbon cycle of the ecosystem. Model fit of R-E of a classic, first-order exponential equation related to temperature ( second year; R-2 = 0......) of 2.5 by the modified model. The model introduces R-photo, which describes the part of respiration being tightly coupled to the photosynthetic rate. It makes up 5% of the assimilated carbon dioxide flux at 0 degrees C and 35% at 20 degrees C implying a high sensitivity of respiration to photosynthesis...

  7. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect......Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...

  8. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  9. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    during SCES 2010. As we learned, past dogmas about strongly correlated materials and phenomena must be re-examined with an open and inquisitive mind. Invited speakers and respected leaders in the field were invited to contribute to this special issue and we have insisted that they present new data, ideas, or perspectives, as opposed to simply an overview of their past work. As with the conference, this special issue touches upon recent developments of strongly correlated electron systems in d-electron materials, such as Sr3Ru2O7, graphene, and the new Fe-based superconductors, but it is dominated by topics in f-electron compounds. Contributions reflect the growing appreciation for the influence of disorder and frustration, the need for organizing principles, as well as detailed investigations on particular materials of interest and, of course, new materials. As this special issue could not possibly capture the full breadth and depth that the conference had to offer, it is being published simultaneously with an issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series containing 157 manuscripts in which all poster presenters at SCES 2010 were invited to contribute. Since this special issue grew out of the 2010 SCES conference, we take this opportunity to give thanks. This conference would not have been possible without the hard work of the SCES 2010 Program Committee, International and National Advisory Committees, Local Committee, and conference organizers, the New Mexico Consortium. We thank them as well as those organizations that generously provided financial support: ICAM-I2CAM, Quantum Design, Lakeshore, the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory and the Department of Energy National Laboratories at Argonne, Berkeley, Brookhaven, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge. Of course, we especially thank the participants for bringing new ideas and new results, without which SCES 2010 would not have been possible. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Spin-orbit coupling and k-dependent

  10. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model ...

  11. Quanitative analysis of service-oriented architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Jonkers, Henk

    2007-01-01

    In this article we address the integration of functional models with non-functional models in the context of service-oriented enterprise architecture. Starting from the observation that current approaches to model-driven development have a strong focus on functionality, we argue the necessity of

  12. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  13. Staying oriented while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, S.N. de

    2002-01-01

    Do elderly drivers have more trouble finding their way and staying spatially oriented than younger drivers do? If spatial orientation is more difficult for elderly drivers it could distract attention from vehicle control resulting in a higher accident rate for elderly drivers. Moreover, it could

  14. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  15. Towards a new orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janet F; Overgaard, Dorthe; Bestle, Morten H

    2017-01-01

    narrative of recovery was 'toward a trajectory of new orientation'. This narrative contained the chronological narratives of being 'at death's door', 'still not out of the woods' and 'on the road to recovery'. The road to recovery was described as downhill, steady-state or progressive. New orientation...

  16. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  17. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  18. Competitiveness through strategic orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Monferrer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to further the study of the factors that influence the international competitive position of international new ventures and, consequently, their international performance. Specifically, we analyze the role of entrepreneurial and market orientations in the international competitive position of such firms. Data were collected at Spanish and Belgian international new ventures. The structural equations model approach was used to test our hypotheses. Both the Spanish and the Belgian sample revealed a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. Furthermore, both orientations have a positive and significant effect on the international competitive position of such firms. Finally, any firm’s international competitive position is positively and significantly related to its international performance. The study therefore appears to indicate that, when it comes to international new ventures, the conjunction of these two orientations is a key factor to attaining a superior competitive position and a positive performance in international markets.

  19. Residual orientation in injection micro-molded samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The orientation of polymer chains after injection molding is usually studied using techniques that measure the average orientation of molecular segments. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a technique for measuring the overall chain orientation and is very sensitive to molecular anisotropy. In this study, a blend of a commercial general-purpose polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene was injection micro-molded under a variety of molding conditions. SANS was then used to measure the residual orientation of the deuterated chains. As expected, the molecular orientation decreased with increasing mold temperature and increased with decreasing mold thickness. However, for these micro-moldings, the residual orientation decreased with increasing injection velocity. The measured orientation also appears to be Q-dependent indicating that the average residual orientation of short-chain segments may not necessarily reflect the overall chain conformation

  20. Thermodynamics of Lithium Intercalation in Randomly Oriented High Graphene Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S. Kadam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the thermodynamics (entropy and enthalpy of intercalation associated with lithium ion in a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG carbon and graphite. Equilibrated OCV (Open Circuit Voltage versus temperature relationship is investigated to determine the thermodynamic changes with the lithium intercalation. ROHG carbon shows entropy of 9.36 J·mol−1·K−1 and shows no dependency on the inserted lithium concentration. Graphite shows initial entropy of 84.27 J·mol−1·K−1 and shows a strong dependence on lithium concentration. ROHG carbon (from −90.85 kJ mol−1 to −2.88 kJ mol−1 shows gradual change in the slope of enthalpy versus lithium ion concentration plot compared to graphite (−48.98 kJ mol−1 to 1.84 kJ mol−1. The study clearly shows that a lower amount of energy is required for the lithium ion intercalation into the ROHG structure compared to graphite structure. Randomly oriented graphene platelet cluster structure of ROHG carbon makes it easier for the intercalation or deintercalation of lithium ion. The ease of intercalation and the small cluster structure of ROHG as opposed to the long linear platelet structure of graphite lead to higher rates of the charge-discharge process for ROHG, when used as an electrode material in electrochemical applications.

  1. In Situ Studies of the Temperature-Dependent Surface Structure and Chemistry of Single-Crystalline (001)-Oriented La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3−δ Perovskite Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zhenxing

    2013-05-02

    Perovskites are used to promote the kinetics of oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells and oxygen permeation membranes. Little is known about the surface structure and chemistry of perovskites at high temperatures and partial oxygen pressures. Combining in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), we report, for the first time, the evolution of the surface structure and chemistry of (001)-oriented perovskite La0.8Sr0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC113) and (La0.5Sr 0.5)2CoO4+δ (LSC214)-decorated LSC113 (LSC113/214) thin films as a function of temperature. Heating the (001)-oriented LSC113 surface leads to the formation of surface LSC214-like particles, which is further confirmed by ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). In contrast, the LSC113/214 surface, with activities much higher than that of LSC 113, is stable upon heating. Combined in situ XRR and APXPS measurements support that Sr enrichment may occur at the LSC113 and LSC214 interface, which can be responsible for its markedly enhanced activities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Heteroepitaxial growth and electric properties of (110)-oriented scandium nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime

    2017-10-01

    ScN films were grown on MgO(110) substrates and α-Al2O3(10 1 bar 0) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy method, and their crystalline orientation, crystallinity, and electric properties were examined. (110)-oriented ScN films were epitaxially grown on MgO(110) substrates with the same crystal orientations, and ScN films with an orientation relationship (110)ScN || (10 1 bar 0)α-Al2O3 and [001]ScN || [ 1 2 bar 10 ]α-Al2O3 were epitaxially grown on α-Al2O3(10 1 bar 0) substrates. Remarkably, electric-resistivity anisotropy was observed for ScN films grown on MgO(110) substrates, and the anisotropy depended on the growth temperature. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the ScN films grown on α-Al2O3(10 1 bar 0) substrates ranged from 1019-1021 cm-3 and 10-150 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The crystallinity, crystalline-orientation anisotropy, and electric properties of the films were strongly affected by growth conditions. For the growth of ScN films with high mobility on α-Al2O3(10 1 bar 0) substrates, a high temperature and an appropriate ratio of source materials were necessary.

  3. Orientational dynamics in a room temperature ionic liquid: Are angular jumps predominant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Biswas, Ranjit

    2018-05-01

    Reorientational dynamics of the constituent ions in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6]), are explored via molecular dynamics simulations, and several features of orientation dynamics are summarized. The anion, [PF6]-, not only exhibits a higher propensity to orientation jumps than the cation, [BMIM]+ but also accesses a wider jump angle distribution and larger peak-angle. Jump and waiting time distributions for both the ions depict power-law dependences, suggesting temporally heterogeneous dynamics for the medium. This heterogeneity feature is further highlighted by the finding that the simulated first rank (ℓ = 1) and second rank (ℓ = 2) average reorientational correlation times reflect a severe break-down of Debye's ℓ(ℓ + 1) law for orientational diffusion in an isotropic homogeneous medium. Simulated average H-bond lifetime resides between the mean orientation jump and waiting times, while the structural H-bond relaxation suggests, as in normal liquids, a pronounced presence of translational motion of the partnering ions. Average simulated jump trajectories reveal a strong rotation-translation coupling and indicate relatively larger changes in spatial and angular arrangements for the anion during an orientation jump. In fact, a closer inspection of all these results points toward more heterogeneous dynamics for [PF6]- than [BMIM]+. This is a new observation and may simply be linked to the ion-size. However, such a generalization warrants further study.

  4. The Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.; Howard, Ian P.; Smith, Theodore; Beall, Andrew C.; Natapoff, Alan; Zacher, James E.; Jenkin, Heather L.

    2003-01-01

    In weightlessness, astronauts must rely on vision to remain spatially oriented. Although gravitational down cues are missing, most astronauts maintain a subjective vertical -a subjective sense of which way is up. This is evidenced by anecdotal reports of crewmembers feeling upside down (inversion illusions) or feeling that a floor has become a ceiling and vice versa (visual reorientation illusions). Instability in the subjective vertical direction can trigger disorientation and space motion sickness. On Neurolab, a virtual environment display system was used to conduct five interrelated experiments, which quantified: (a) how the direction of each person's subjective vertical depends on the orientation of the surrounding visual environment, (b) whether rolling the virtual visual environment produces stronger illusions of circular self-motion (circular vection) and more visual reorientation illusions than on Earth, (c) whether a virtual scene moving past the subject produces a stronger linear self-motion illusion (linear vection), and (d) whether deliberate manipulation of the subjective vertical changes a crewmember's interpretation of shading or the ability to recognize objects. None of the crew's subjective vertical indications became more independent of environmental cues in weightlessness. Three who were either strongly dependent on or independent of stationary visual cues in preflight tests remained so inflight. One other became more visually dependent inflight, but recovered postflight. Susceptibility to illusions of circular self-motion increased in flight. The time to the onset of linear self-motion illusions decreased and the illusion magnitude significantly increased for most subjects while free floating in weightlessness. These decreased toward one-G levels when the subject 'stood up' in weightlessness by wearing constant force springs. For several subjects, changing the relative direction of the subjective vertical in weightlessness-either by body

  5. Oriented growth of thin films of samarium oxide by MOCVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Thin films of Sm2O3 have been grown on Si(100) and fused quartz by low-pressure chemical va- pour deposition using an adducted β-diketonate precursor. The films on quartz are cubic, with no preferred orientation at lower growth temperatures (~ 550°C), while they grow with a strong (111) orientation as the.

  6. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  7. Subject-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, James M.

    Object-Oriented Programming is enabled by advances in compiler technology and programming language design supporting encapsulation and inheritance. This technical adjustment has had a surprisingly broad impact on strategies for design and development of software. This paper explains what Object-Oriented Programming is, why it has attracted so much interest, and then critically examines its impact. The conclusion is that the optimal use of OOP occurs when application clients are empowered to contribute to the inspection, testing and development of the software they need, in a strategy I call Subject-Oriented Programming. The paper concludes by examining what the next important advance in software technology is likely to be.

  8. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  9. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  10. Orienting reaction in patients with night terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozea, R; Florea-Ciocoiu, V

    1985-08-01

    A polygraphic study of the somatic (electromyogram), autonomic (finger plethysmogram, galvanic skin reaction, respiration, pulse), and electroencephalographic (acoustic-evoked potential and EEG-blocking reaction) components of the orienting reaction elicited by an auditory stimulus was performed in 36 patients with night terrors and in 72 matched subjects in two control groups. The study showed a significantly more intense orienting reaction in patients with night terrors than in normal subjects (Control Group I). Moreover, the orienting reaction intensity in subjects with night terrors was significantly lower than in patients with symptomatic epilepsy (Control Group II). The orienting reactions of patients with night terrors depended on the patient's age, the history of nocturnal episodes, and their clinical form, as well as on etiology.

  11. Implementing Strategic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arthur K.; Brownback, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    An HRM case dealing with problems and issues of setting up orientation programs which align with corporate strategy. Discussion concerns how such a case can be used to exhibit the alignment between HRM and business strategy.

  12. Conductivity of oriented bis-azo polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apitz, D.; Bertram, R.P.; Benter, N.

    2006-01-01

    The conductivity properties of electro-optic photoaddressable, dense bis-ozo chromophore polymer films are investigated by using samples corona poled at various temperatures. A dielectric spectrometer is applied to measure the frequency dependence of the conductivity at different temperatures...... before and after heating the material to above the glass transition temperature. The results show that the orientation of the chromophores changes the charge-carrier mobility. Ionic conductivity dominates in a more disordered configuration of the material, while the competing process of hole hopping...... takes over as a transition to a liquid-crystalline phase occurs when the material is heated to much higher than the gloss transition temperature. Such micro-crystallization strongly enhances the conductivity....

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  14. Cultural Orientation and Interdisciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    I begin the article with an account of the background to the German debate on ‘Literaturwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft’, including the introduction of the concept of ’cultural orientation’ as a strategy for achieving interdisciplinarity. This is followed by a consideration of the discussion ...... of the object of literary studies as a way of defining the disciplinarity or identity of literary studies. Finally I summarize some of the characteristics of culturally orientated literary studies....

  15. The relationship between visual orienting responses and clinical characteristics in children attending special education for the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooiker, Marlou J G; Pel, Johan J M; van der Steen, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    We recently introduced a method based on quantification of orienting responses toward visual stimuli to assess the quality of visual information processing in children. In the present study, we examined the relationship between orienting responses and factors that are associated with visual processing impairments in current clinical practice. Response time and fixation quality to visual features such as form, contrast, motion, and color stimuli were assessed in 104 children from 1 to 12 years attending special education for the visually impaired. Using regression analysis, we investigated whether these parameters were affected by clinical characteristics of children. Response times significantly depended on stimulus type. Responses to high-contrast cartoons were significantly slower in children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment. Fixation quality was significantly affected by visual acuity and nystagmus. The results suggest that the quantitative measurement of orienting responses is strongly related to cerebral visual impairment in children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  17. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  19. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  20. PENGARUH CUSTOMER ORIENTATION DAN COMPETITIVE ORIENTATION TERHADAP CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MELALUI SALESPERSON CUSTOMER ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Adiyanto, Yoga; Sunaryo, Deni

    2017-01-01

    The empirical investigation examines the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The objective of this research was investigated the influence of customer orientation and competitive orientation to customer satisfaction mediating with salesperson customer orientation in Smart Telecom company.The design of this research using hypotheses testing in the influence of customer or...

  1. Magnetic resonance on oriented 131I nuclei in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, D.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis experiments are described on 131 I implanted into iron single crystals. It is shown that the magnetization behaviour of iron single crystals in an external magnetic field agrees with the macroscopic theory of domain structure in ferromagnets. This knowledge is used to give the influence of the external field on NMR measurements on the iodine. The iodine atoms that end up in regular lattice sites after the implantation give rise to a strong resonance. The discovery of much smaller satelite resonance, due to I nuclei experiencing a hyperfine field of 92% of that of atoms in regular lattice sites is reported. The splitting of this resonance by quadrupole interaction has enabled it to be identified as due to an implanted iodine atom with a missing nearest neighbour iron atom. The author has measured the relaxation of the iodine nuclei in iron single crystals for different crystallographic orientations. For the first time it is shown that the relaxation rate depends strongly on the magneto-crystalline anisotropy; a high rate results at a low external field. This behaviour can not be explained with the relaxation mechanisms discussed in the literature up till now. It is very likely that the low-field spin-lattice relaxation is largely determined by spin wave interactions, which are strongly field dependent. The anisotropic dispersion relation for these waves are derived, including the dependence on the state of magnetization of the sample. Finally a simple method is given to measure the power saturation of an NMR-ON resonance, from which the fraction of nuclei contributing to this resonance can be derived. (Auth.)

  2. [Customer orientation in ambulant medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, M

    2014-07-01

    Due to developments of the health market, economic aspects of the health system are more relevant. In this upcoming market the patient is regarded as customer and the doctor as provider of medical services. Studies on customer orientation in the ambulant medicine lag behind this dynamic. An aim of the study is to comprehend the attitudes of the doctors referring to the customer orientation. In a second step the findings are discussed according to statements of health-care paticipants. Developments in role comprehension of doctor and patient are focused to gain results in scientific and practical applications. Guideline-supported, partly narrative interviews with n=9 gynaecologists and n=11 general practitioners in Freiburg/Germany are recorded, transcribed and reviewed in a qualitative analysis. The statements of the doctors show patient satisfaction has an incremental meaning sspecially regarding the sequence of patient relationship and economic management of the doctor's workplace. The doctor's role comprehension meets with a refusal of the role of salesman and the patient as customer. The method of interviews is suitable to gather empirical impressions of the doctors. The control sample is adequate, however a bias due to inhomogeneous thematic affinitiy and local social-demographics might be possible. The customer orientation has become an important factor in doctor-patient relationtships. The relevance of the doctor-patient conversation and the risk of misuse of the patient confidence are mentioned by the doctors. The doctor as paternalistic care provider gives way to the customer-focused service provider. The doctor's necessity of autonomyssss and dependency on patient satisfaction have potential for conflict. Intensive mention of customer orientation in medicine in the media emphasises its importance. Rational handling with the possibilities of individual health markets is a prospective challange. Further research could be established in all aspects of

  3. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  4. Determining molecular orientation via single molecule SERS in a plasmonic nano-gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Addison R L; Stokes, Jamie; Viscomi, Francesco N; Proctor, John E; Gierschner, Johannes; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien G; Adawi, Ali M

    2017-11-16

    In this work, plasmonic nano-gaps consisting of a silver nanoparticle coupled to an extended silver film have been fully optimized for single molecule Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The SERS signal was found to be strongly dependent on the particle size and the molecule orientation with respect to the field inside the nano-gap. Using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations to complement the experimental measurements, the complex interplay between the excitation enhancement and the emission enhancement of the system as a function of particle size were highlighted. Additionally, in conjunction with Density Functional Theory (DFT), the well-defined field direction in the nano-gap enables to recover the orientation of individual molecules.

  5. Object shape and orientation do not routinely influence performance during language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2013-11-01

    The role of visual representations during language processing remains unclear: They could be activated as a necessary part of the comprehension process, or they could be less crucial and influence performance in a task-dependent manner. In the present experiments, participants read sentences about an object. The sentences implied that the object had a specific shape or orientation. They then either named a picture of that object (Experiments 1 and 3) or decided whether the object had been mentioned in the sentence (Experiment 2). Orientation information did not reliably influence performance in any of the experiments. Shape representations influenced performance most strongly when participants were asked to compare a sentence with a picture or when they were explicitly asked to use mental imagery while reading the sentences. Thus, in contrast to previous claims, implied visual information often does not contribute substantially to the comprehension process during normal reading.

  6. Plant cortical microtubule dynamics and cell division plane orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakrabortty, Bandan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis work aimed at a better understanding of the molecular basis of oriented cell division in plant cell. As, the efficiency of plant morphogenesis depends on oriented cell division, this work should contribute  towards a fundamental understanding of the  molecular basis of

  7. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  8. Future-Oriented LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Borup, Mads; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    challenges are described and some learnings are derived. Many of the future-oriented LCAs published so far perform relatively short-term prediction of simple comparisons. But for more long-term time horizons foresight methods can be of help. Scenarios established by qualified experts about future......LCA is often applied for decision-making that concerns actions reaching near or far into the future. However, traditional life cycle assessment methodology must be adjusted for the prospective and change-oriented purposes, but no standardised way of doing this has emerged yet. In this chapter some...

  9. Effect of surface roughness, chemical composition, and native oxide crystallinity on the orientation of self-assembled GaN nanowires on Ti foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, G.; Pettersen, S. V.; Pfüller, C.; Ramsteiner, M.; Grepstad, J. K.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Fernández-Garrido, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of almost randomly oriented, uniformly tilted, and vertically aligned self-assembled GaN nanowires (NWs), respectively, on different types of polycrystalline Ti foils. The NW orientation with respect to the substrate normal, which is affected by an in situ treatment of the foil surface before NW growth, depends on the crystallinity of the native oxide. Direct growth on the as-received foils results in the formation of ensembles of nearly randomly oriented NWs due to the strong roughening of the surface induced by chemical reactions between the impinging elements and Ti. Surface nitridation preceding the NW growth is found to reduce this roughening by transformation of the uppermost layers into TiN and TiO x N y species. These compounds are more stable against chemical reactions and facilitate the growth of uniformly oriented GaN NW ensembles on the surface of the individual grains of the polycrystalline Ti foils. If an amorphous oxide layer is present at the foil surface, vertically oriented NWs are obtained all across the substrate because this layer blocks the transfering of the epitaxial information from the underlying grains. The control of NW orientation and the understanding behind the achievement of vertically oriented NWs obtained in this study represent an important step towards the realization of GaN NW-based bendable devices on polycrystalline metal foils.

  10. Object-oriented programming with gradual abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    restrictive. As a central mechanism, weakly classified objects are allowed to borrow methods from each other. ASL2 supports class generalization, as a counterpart to class specialization and inheritance in mainstream object-oriented programming languages. The final abstraction step discussed in this paper......We describe an experimental object-oriented programming language, ASL2, that supports program development by means of a series of abstraction steps. The language allows immediate object construction, and it is possible to use the constructed objects for concrete problem solving tasks. Classes...... and class hierarchies can be derived from the objects - via gradual abstraction steps. We introduce two levels of object classification, called weak and strong object classification. Strong object classification relies on conventional classes, whereas weak object classification is looser, and less...

  11. India’s Experience: Innovation Oriented Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Konovalova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the conditions of tough competition and complicated economic situation, transition of the economy to the innovative social oriented model of development is of the ways to achieve the goal of different strategies of the economy development. In spite of a lot of various opinions, BRICS can determine the «face» of the world in future and in some degree it depends on innovative type of development. India announced current decade as the decade of innovation, which is oriented to stimulation of economic growth.

  12. Positive states in relation to entrepreneurship orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryll L. Shein

    2010-12-01

    Research purpose: The principal objective of the study was the construction of a normative scale to measure the positive states associated with appreciative ability and to relate it to a scale of entrepreneurial orientation. A secondary objective was to determine whether there was a statistically significant relationship between the measures of the constructs and the biographical variables of gender and culture. Motivation: As appreciative ability is a relatively new construct and no instrument exists for measuring the positive states emanating from this construct, it was decided to develop such an instrument and to relate it to entrepreneurship orientation. Research design, approach and method: The primary data were obtained by means of the newly designed instrument, the Positive States Questionnaire and the Entrepreneurship Orientation Questionnaire. A convenience sample of 210 second year commerce students was drawn. Main findings: From a principal factor analysis applied to the two instruments, two factors each were obtained. A significantly high correlation was found, indicating a strong relationship between entrepreneurship orientation and the positive states. No significant differences were found between gender or population in the entrepreneurship orientation and positive states measures. Practical/managerial implications: The study produced an instrument with highly acceptable metrical properties which may be used in future studies and for entrepreneurship development. Contribution/value-add: The results of the study suggest that positive states are invaluable attributes for the entrepreneur and should be explored in the assessment and development of entrepreneurs.

  13. INCORPORATING MARKET ORIENTATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Camelia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the main issues surrounding the concept of market orientation applied in the context of higher education. Considering the important changes taking place in this sector, a strong willingness of universities to adopt marketing concepts can be noticed. The paper seeks to provide a retrospect on this process, starting with the incorporation of marketing in higher education, and moving on to its implementation, which has come to be known as market orientation. Following a stream of the most relevant literature in the field, we present definitions of the main concepts, and integrate them in the education context, with the purpose of establishing the relevance and importance of market orientation for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage and higher institutional performance. The paper does not aim at providing an exhaustive literature review, but rather at presenting the main elements that define a market orientation, and at supporting its implementation, by outlining the significant benefits that could follow. While theoretical by nature, this research contributes to the body of literature in the field, through closely examining the conceptualization and operationalization of market orientation, and also providing the fundamental components that define the concept and help its implementation. Furthermore, the paper provides practitioners with a number of suggested research directions, which could potentially help improve educational institutions’ activity, while also contributing to a better understanding of the concept, and to building richer theories in the field of marketing education. Given that the marketing literature in Romania has mostly overlooked market orientation, both this paper, and all following research in this area will prove to be significant for education managers and researchers alike, promoting the importance and significance of relevant knowledge, and encouraging a

  14. [Development of the theoretical orientation of psychotherapists. SPR Collaborative Research Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambühl, H; Orlinsky, D; Cierpka, M; Buchheim, P; Meyerberg, J; Willutzki, U

    1995-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which, and ways in which, German speaking psychotherapists modify their theoretical orientations as a function of increasing clinical experience. The data for this come from the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (CCQ), an instrument designed by the SPR Collaborative Research Network to collect a broad range of information about the therapist's background, training, practice etc. Two sections ask directly about the theoretical framework used by therapists to guide their therapeutic work, using a set of scales to assess the degree to which practitioners rely on various general models (analytic/psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, cognitive, systems theory, other). This permits the construction of profiles of formal and content based theoretical orientation patterns. By asking the question separately about the therapist's current practice, and about their practices as beginners, it also permits an evaluation of self-assessed change. In order to amplify the meaning of the theoretical background we ask therapists to indicate the relative importance of their patients realizing each of a series of therapeutic goals. The findings show very clearly that psychotherapists are very diverse both in the formal patterns and specific contents of their therapeutic orientations, and that they tend, as a role, to integrate two or more distinct theoretical approaches in guiding their clinical work with patients. The adherence to theoretical orientations has a strong impact on the goals that therapists typically work toward with their patients. Our findings show that therapists do pursue different goals depending on which conceptual framework they rely on.

  15. Development of Autonomy as a Precondition of Adolescents’ Orientation in Moral Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molchanov S.V.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the outcomes of a research on the relationship between developmental levels of autonomy and features of moral orientation in adolescents determined by the priority of the value of justice or care within the cognitive (J. Piaget, L. Kohlberg and empathy approach (C. Gillian, N. Eisenberg. The research proved that high levels of autonomy in the cognitive component correlate with the adolescent’s high estimation of moral qualities in various communicative contexts. Low level of emotional autonomy correlates with orientation towards the value of care, while high level correlates with orientation towards the value of justice. Levels of autonomy also correlate with moral judgments. Adolescents with low levels of autonomy reveal greater dependence on the opinion of other people and a stronger desire to appear a better person in the eyes of others. Adolescents with heterochrony of autonomy structure are more oriented towards the stage of the conventional level, i.e. the opinion of other people, a strong desire to appear a better person in the eyes of others, the significance of social rules and order, and the reflective empathic position that affirms the idea of self-sacrifice and defending the rights of others.

  16. Trunk orientation causes asymmetries in leg function in small bird terrestrial locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrada, Emanuel; Rode, Christian; Sutedja, Yefta; Nyakatura, John A; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-12-22

    In contrast to the upright trunk in humans, trunk orientation in most birds is almost horizontal (pronograde). It is conceivable that the orientation of the heavy trunk strongly influences the dynamics of bipedal terrestrial locomotion. Here, we analyse for the first time the effects of a pronograde trunk orientation on leg function and stability during bipedal locomotion. For this, we first inferred the leg function and trunk control strategy applied by a generalized small bird during terrestrial locomotion by analysing synchronously recorded kinematic (three-dimensional X-ray videography) and kinetic (three-dimensional force measurement) quail locomotion data. Then, by simulating quail gaits using a simplistic bioinspired numerical model which made use of parameters obtained in in vivo experiments with real quail, we show that the observed asymmetric leg function (left-skewed ground reaction force and longer leg at touchdown than at lift-off) is necessary for pronograde steady-state locomotion. In addition, steady-state locomotion becomes stable for specific morphological parameters. For quail-like parameters, the most common stable solution is grounded running, a gait preferred by quail and most of the other small birds. We hypothesize that stability of bipedal locomotion is a functional demand that, depending on trunk orientation and centre of mass location, constrains basic hind limb morphology and function, such as leg length, leg stiffness and leg damping. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of hydrides orientation on strain, damage and failure of hydrided zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, A.

    2005-09-01

    In pressurized water reactors of nuclear power plants, fuel pellets are contained in cladding tubes, made of Zirconium alloy, for instance Zircaloy-4. During their life in the primary water of the reactor (155 bars, 300 C), cladding tubes are oxidized and consequently hydrided. A part of the hydrogen given off precipitates as Zirconium hydrides in the bulk material and embrittles the material. This embrittlement depends on many parameters, among which hydrogen content and orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress. This investigation is devoted to the influence of the orientation of hydrides with respect to the applied stress on strain, damage and failure mechanisms. Macroscopic and SEM in-situ ring tensile tests are performed on cladding tube material (unirradiated cold worked stress-relieved Zircaloy-4) hydrided with about 200 and 500 wppm hydrogen, and with different main hydrides orientation: either parallel or perpendicular to the circumferential tensile direction. We get the mechanical response of the material as a function of hydride orientation and hydrogen content and we investigate the deformation, damage and failure mechanisms. In both cases, digital image correlation techniques are used to estimate local and global strain distributions. Neither the tensile stress-strain response nor the global and local strain modes are significantly affected by hydrogen content or hydride orientation, but the failure modes are strongly modified. Indeed, only 200 wppm radial hydrides embrittle Zy-4: sample fail in the elastic domain at about 350 MPa before strain bands could develop; whereas in other cases sample reach at least 750 MPa before necking and final failure, in ductile or brittle mode. To model this particular heterogeneous material behavior, a non-coupled damage approach which takes into account the anisotropic distribution of the hydrides is proposed. Its parameters are identified from the macroscopic strain field measurements and a

  18. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  19. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA

    2003-01-01

    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  20. QUANTIFYING WILDLIFE ORIENTATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment (P);. Attitudes expressed towards the natural environment (A);. Activity, or the involvement of a person in conservation actions in the broader sense {I). Different combinations of these functions give rise to four typologies of orientation. (Newgard et al., 1986) in the following way: TYPOLOGY. CHARACTERISTICS.

  1. Social Workers’ Orientation Toward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deirdre Beneken genaamd Kolmer; René Schalk; Renske J.M. van der Zwet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers’ orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the

  2. Correlation between grain orientation and the shade of color etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Peter J.; Kardos, I.

    2010-01-01

    Color etching is an extremely effective metallographic technique not only for making grains well visible, but also for making them distinguishable for automated image analyzers. During color etching, a thin film is formed on the surface of the specimen. The thickness of this layer is in the order of magnitude of the visible light and since both the metal-film boundary and the film surface reflect light, an interference occurs. A wavelength-component of the white line is eliminated and its complementary color will be seen on the surface. As the thickness changes, the colors also change grain by grain. The thickness of the film is dependent on several factors, mostly on the type of the phase. However, different color shades can be observed on the surfaces of single phase materials, which phenomenon is caused by the different crystallographic orientations of the grains. This paper shows a combined color etching electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigation of cast iron. An area of the surface of a gray cast iron specimen was etched. Colors were characterized by their luminescence and their red, green and blue intensity. An EBSD orientation map was taken from the same area and the orientations of the individual grains were determined. Results showed that a strong correlation was found between the luminescence and the R, G, B intensity of the color and the angle between the specimen normal and the direction, while such correlation was not observed between the color parameters and the and directions, respectively. This indicates that film thickness is sensitive to the direction of the crystal.

  3. Object-Oriented Approach to Manipulating Acoustic and Seismic Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, D. K; Torrey, Jacob I

    2006-01-01

    The software design and underlying mathematics for an object-oriented, Java-based approach to creating and manipulating frequency-dependent functions, such as power spectral densities, is described...

  4. Dissociating vestibular and somatosensory contributions to spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.B.G.T.; Selen, L.P.J.; Bertolini, G.; Straumann, D.; Medendorp, W.P.; Tarnutzer, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Inferring object orientation in the surroundings heavily depends on our internal sense of direction of gravity. Previous research showed that this sense is based on the integration of multiple information sources, including visual, vestibular (otolithic) and somatosensory signals. The individual

  5. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  6. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  7. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  8. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  9. Decay and fission of the oriented nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kadmenskij, S G

    2002-01-01

    The fragment angular distributions for binary decay of oriented spherical and deformed nuclei with taking into account the correct transformational properties of wave functions under time inversion have been investigated. It has been shown that for description of fragment angular distributions the adiabatic approximation for collective rotational nuclear degrees of freedom is not correct. It has been demonstrated that this approximation is valid for description of spontaneous and induced low-energy nuclear fission. The dependence of partial fission widths on the orientation of the internal axes spins, projections of spins, and relative angular moments of fission fragments has been analyzed. It has been shown that the adiabatic approximation results in coherent interference of wave functions of fragments relative movement. This interference forms fragments the universal angular distributions of fission fragments for oriented nuclei. For these distributions the deviations from A. Bohr's formula have been invest...

  10. A study of the temperature dependence of the local ferroelectric properties of c-axis oriented Bi6Ti3Fe2O18 Aurivillius phase thin films: Illustrating the potential of a novel lead-free perovskite material for high density memory applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faraz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control the growth, texture and orientation of self-nanostructured lead-free Aurivillius phase thin films can in principle, greatly improve their ferroelectric properties, since in these materials the polarization direction is dependent on crystallite orientation. Here, we report the growth of c-plane oriented Bi6Ti3Fe2O18 (B6TFO functional oxide Aurivillius phase thin films on c-plane sapphire substrates by liquid injection chemical vapour deposition (LI-CVD. Microstructural analysis reveals that B6TFO thin films annealed at 850°C are highly crystalline, well textured (Lotgering factor of 0.962 and single phase. Typical Aurivillius plate-like morphology with an average film thickness of 110nm and roughness 24nm was observed. The potential of B6TFO for use as a material in lead-free piezoelectric and ferroelectric data storage applications was explored by investigating local electromechanical (piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at the nano-scale. Vertical and lateral piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM reveals stronger in-plane polarization due to the controlled growth of the a-axis oriented grains lying in the plane of the B6TFO films. Switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM hysteresis loops obtained at higher temperatures (up to 200°C and at room temperature reveal a clear ferroelectric signature with only minor changes in piezoresponse observed with increasing temperature. Ferroelectric domain patterns were written at 200°C using PFM lithography. Hysteresis loops generated inside the poled regions at room and higher temperatures show a significant increase in piezoresponse due to alignment of the c-axis polarization components under the external electric field. No observable change in written domain patterns was observed after 20hrs of PFM scanning at 200°C, confirming that B6TFO retains polarization over this finite period of time. These studies demonstrate the potential of B6TFO thin films for use in piezoelectric

  11. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  12. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  13. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  14. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  15. Beneficial academic orientations and self-actualization of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, William B; Bromfield, Jeffrey M; Beck, Hall P

    2007-04-01

    This study tested the prediction that individual differences in self-actualization would be associated with six academic orientations which influence college students' adjustment to their studies. Volunteer undergraduates, solicited from courses in the sciences and liberal arts and invited to complete internet measures of the academic orientations and self-actualization were 137 men and 311 women (M age=21.1, SD=4.8). Statistically significant bivariate correlations obtained between scores on self-actualization with all six orientations: creative expression, reading for pleasure, academic efficacy, and, inversely, structure dependence, academic apathy, and mistrust of instructors. Regression analysis showed that four orientations were independently related to self-actualization scores. The role of these four orientations in actualizing students' adjustment was discussed, and implications were drawn about the interpretation of scores on the four orientations.

  16. Preferential processing of cardinal over oblique orientations in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2017-11-01

    The oblique effect-poorer performance when contours are in oblique meridians-is here extended from the discrimination of line-orientation to the tilt illusion and to the detection and contextual induction of curvature. The distinction is made between a contour's susceptibility to contextual perturbation and its capacity to induce such perturbation, for which the oblique effect is only about one half. That the cardinal/oblique superiority is retained for the orientation of illusory borders and for the implicit orientation of shapes lacking explicit rectilinear delineation has implications for its neural substrate. To the extent that a geometrical-visual illusion, such as Poggendorff's or Hering's, depends on interaction in the domain of contour orientation, it manifests a corresponding orientational anisotropy. On the other hand, visual functions that govern whether and how well a boundary is visible are invariant with orientation.

  17. Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-León E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.

  18. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  19. Simultaneous achievement of high dielectric constant and low temperature dependence of capacitance in (111-oriented BaTiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-BiFeO3 solid solution thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the capacitance of (111c-oriented (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films is investigated. These films are prepared on (111cSrRuO3/(111Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100Si substrates by the chemical solution deposition technique. All the films have perovskite structures and the crystal symmetry at room temperature varies with increasing x ratio, from pseudocubic when x = 0–0.30 to rhombohedral when x = 0.50–0.90. The pseudocubic phase shows a high relative dielectric constant (εr (ranging between 400 and 560 at room temperature and an operating frequency of 100 kHz and a low temperature dependence of capacitance up to 400°C, while maintaining a dielectric loss (tan δ value of less than 0.2 at 100 kHz. In contrast, εr for the rhombohedral phase increases monotonically with increasing temperature up to 250°C, and increasingly high tan δ values are recorded at higher temperatures. These results indicate that pseudocubic (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films with (111 orientation are suitable candidates for high-temperature capacitor applications.

  20. MARKET ORIENTATION IN DIGITAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES IN A WEB 2.0 NETWORKED WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    NEIL HAIR; LYLE R. WETSCH; CLYDE EIRÍKUR HULL; VICTOR PEROTTI; YU-TING CAISY HUNG

    2012-01-01

    Strong market orientation is essential to firm success. In the diverse and dynamic digital environment, a strong market orientation philosophy is even more important to the digital entrepreneur. We explore the advantages and challenges that the networked world offers the market-oriented digital entrepreneur. In particular, we examine the role of electronic community and communication and how successful digital entrepreneurs takes advantage of electronic community technologies to facilitate mo...

  1. High-throughput investigation of orientations effect on nanoscale magnetization reversal in cobalt ferrite thin films induced by electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Pravarthana; Guo, Shanshan; Wang, Baomin; Yang, Huali; Agarwal, Sandeep; Zhan, Qingfeng; Li, Run-Wei

    2017-10-01

    The magnetoelectric device concept which enables the non-volatile electric field control of magnetism needs to be investigated for the development of practical information storage devices. In this aspect, the emerging field of magneto-ionics based on the modulation of magnetism by field-driven ion migration is promising because it only requires a simple sample structure in the solid state and has good cyclability. However, the degree of ion migration within the magnetic structure is strongly dependent on the crystal orientations. Since the epitaxial films growing on the commercial single crystal substrates have limited orientations, the ability of magnetism modulated by field-driven ion migration cannot be optimized and understood by using these data. In this work, we utilized the high-throughput synthesis approach, namely, combinatorial substrate epitaxy, which utilizes a polycrystalline substrate. This provides a platform to develop and understand the degree of ionic migration in different orientations of the model system CoFe2O4 (CFO) films. The library of electric driven nanoscale magnetization reversal data of CFO with different orientations was obtained by applying the electric field in the same region of known CFO grain orientations. It was determined from the analysis that the [110] crystal direction exhibits the maximum nanoscale magnetization reversal ratio. This is mainly attributed to the ease Co2+ migration in the [110] direction under the electric field assisted by a Fe3+ and oxygen vacancies.

  2. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  3. Electrodynamics and Time Orientability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark J.

    2017-06-01

    On spacetimes that are not time orientable we construct a U(1) bundle to measure the twisting of the time axis. This single assumption, and simple construction, gives rise to Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law and the Einstein-Maxwell equations for electromagnetism coupled to General relativity. The derivations follow the Kaluza Klein theory, but with the constraints required for connections on a U(1) bundle rather than five spacetime dimensions. The non time orientability is seen to justify and constrain Kaluza Klein theories exactly as required to unify gravitation with electromagnetism. Unlike any other schemes, apparent net electric charges arise naturally because the direction of the electric field reverses along a time reversing path. The boundary of a time reversing region can therefore have a net electric flux and appear exactly as a region containing an electric charge. The treatment is purely classical, but motivated by links between acausal structures and quantum theory.

  4. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  5. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  6. AEGIS: Agent Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Unland, R.; Kirn, S.; Wanka, U.; O'Hare, G. M. P. (Greg M. P.); Abbas, S.

    1995-01-01

    Today's enterprises are faced with highly dynamic, sometimes even hostile environments. This paper dicovers that the two most prominent organizational strategies addressing these challenges, namely that of widespread decentralization and of business process orientation, are inherently conflicting. We argue that cooperative knowledge processing technology can contribute to dissolve this conflict. For this purpose, we introduce the reader into the field of Distributed Artificial Intelligence. O...

  7. Cerro Largo South orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradier, B.

    1982-01-01

    This work is about Cerro Largo South orientation. The site is located in the northeast of Uruguay in the south of Melo city, Department of Cerro Largo. The study was carried out in the young edge socket in the East side of a small valley. This metamorphic socket constituted by gneisses and crystalline limestone are in contact with upper carboniferous formations and basal deposits composed by sandstones and conglomerates

  8. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrad, Tzilla (Editor); Filman, Robert E. (Editor); Bader, Atef (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    Computer science has experienced an evolution in programming languages and systems from the crude assembly and machine codes of the earliest computers through concepts such as formula translation, procedural programming, structured programming, functional programming, logic programming, and programming with abstract data types. Each of these steps in programming technology has advanced our ability to achieve clear separation of concerns at the source code level. Currently, the dominant programming paradigm is object-oriented programming - the idea that one builds a software system by decomposing a problem into objects and then writing the code of those objects. Such objects abstract together behavior and data into a single conceptual and physical entity. Object-orientation is reflected in the entire spectrum of current software development methodologies and tools - we have OO methodologies, analysis and design tools, and OO programming languages. Writing complex applications such as graphical user interfaces, operating systems, and distributed applications while maintaining comprehensible source code has been made possible with OOP. Success at developing simpler systems leads to aspirations for greater complexity. Object orientation is a clever idea, but has certain limitations. We are now seeing that many requirements do not decompose neatly into behavior centered on a single locus. Object technology has difficulty localizing concerns invoking global constraints and pandemic behaviors, appropriately segregating concerns, and applying domain-specific knowledge. Post-object programming (POP) mechanisms that look to increase the expressiveness of the OO paradigm are a fertile arena for current research. Examples of POP technologies include domain-specific languages, generative programming, generic programming, constraint languages, reflection and metaprogramming, feature-oriented development, views/viewpoints, and asynchronous message brokering. (Czarneclu and

  9. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bharadwaj; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  10. Understanding voter orientation in the context of political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    modelling to test several hypotheses. While the results show that political parties focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behaviour, especially using an internal and societal orientation as cultural antecedents, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation...

  11. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve: facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes pour la coupe genevoise de printemps: Samedi 22 mars: Apples (...

  12. What is the orientation of the tip in a scanning tunneling microscope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mándi, Gábor; Teobaldi, Gilberto; Palotás, Krisztián

    2015-05-01

    The atomic structure and electronic properties of the tip apex can strongly affect the contrast of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. This is a critical issue in STM imaging given the, to date unsolved, experimental limitations in precise control of the tip apex atomic structure. Definition of statistically robust procedures to indirectly obtain information on the tip apex structure is highly desirable as it would open up for more rigorous interpretation and comparison of STM images from different experiments. To this end, here we introduce a statistical correlation analysis method to obtain information on the local geometry and orientation of the tip used in STM experiments based on large scale simulations. The key quantity is the relative brightness correlation of constant-current topographs between experimental and simulated data. This correlation can be analyzed statistically for a large number of modeled tip orientations and geometries. Assuming a stable tip during the STM scans and based on the correlation distribution, it is possible to determine the tip orientations that are most likely present in an STM experiment, and exclude other orientations. This is especially important for substrates such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) since its STM contrast is strongly tip dependent, which makes interpretation and comparison of STM images very challenging. We illustrate the applicability of our method considering the HOPG surface in combination with tungsten tip models of two different apex geometries and 18,144 different orientations. We calculate constant-current profiles along the direction of the HOPG(0 0 0 1) surface in the | V | ⩽ 1V bias voltage range, and compare them with experimental data. We find that a blunt tip model provides better correlation with the experiment for a wider range of tip orientations and bias voltages than a sharp tip model. Such a combination of experiments and large scale simulations opens up the way for

  13. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  14. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  15. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  16. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  17. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  18. Oriented Poly(dialkylstannane)s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choffat, Fabien; Fornera, Sara; Smith, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic (or 'organometallic') polymers poly(dibutylstannane), poly(dioctylstannane), and poly(didodecylstannane) have been oriented by shear forces, the tensile drawing of blends with polyethylene, and deposition from solution onto glass slides coated with all oriented, friction...

  19. The effects of market orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik, Kåre

    1998-01-01

    This research is designed to accomplish three goals. The first goal is to revisit the market orientation construct in order to define the different facets of it. A review of the market orientation literature is made to assess and synthesize the stock of accumulated knowledge regarding the market orientation construct. The second goal of the research is to develop a theory of the effects ofmarket orientation. Using the literature concerning resource-based theory and organization...

  20. The role of orienting in vibrissal touch sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Robyn A.; Sperber, Anna L.; Prescott, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    Rodents, such as rats and mice, are strongly tactile animals who explore the environment with their long mobile facial whiskers, or macrovibrissae, and orient to explore objects further with their shorter, more densely packed, microvibrissae. Although whisker motion (whisking) has been extensively studied, less is known about how rodents orient their vibrissal system to investigate unexpected stimuli. We describe two studies that address this question. In the first we seek to characterize how...

  1. Pro-Elderly Welfare States within Child-Oriented Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Robert Ivan; Vanhuysse, Pieter; Vargha, Lili

    2018-01-01

    Families and policies both are main vehicles of intergenerational transfers. Working-age people are net contributors; children and older persons net beneficiaries. However, there is an asymmetry in socialization. Working-age people pay taxes and social security contributions to institutionalize...... of elderly-oriented welfare states and strongly child-oriented parents. Since children are ever-scarcer public goods in aging societies, why has investment in them not been socialized more?...

  2. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-10-01

    This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.

  3. Field-free orientation of molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machholm, Mette; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2001-01-01

    The excitation of angular motion, in particular, the creation of a wave packet in the angular degrees of freedom via short-pulse, off-resonant excitation with respect to rotational transitions, was examined. The key result was that field-free time-dependent orientation for a molecule like LiH can...... be generated after the turn-off of a state-of-the-art electromagnetic half-cycle pulse....

  4. Safety-oriented Modular Function Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Markus; Roth, Michael; Lindemann, Udo

    2016-01-01

    While markets demand for individual products, the importance of safety also continuously increases. Modularization methods are a common approach, but they mainly focus on technical dependencies or other module drivers. From a safety perspective, this leads to non-optimal module concepts, which further increase the efforts connected to safety. To avoid this, safety aspects should be better considered. Thus, this paper presents the safety-oriented Modular Function Deployment (sMFD), which integ...

  5. Exploring the Impact of Silos in Achieving Brand Orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard I.; Helm, Clive; Munk, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Brands are widely recognised as important sources of organisational value. Brand orientation describes the extent to which the organisation is orientated around the brand and around maximising brand potential. However, silos or divisions within the culture of an organisation can frustrate...... the achievement of brand orientation. Through inductive analysis of a case study of an organisation implementing a major brand-revitalisation strategy, this paper demonstrates how, despite a strong brand vision and high level of management commitment, functional silos associated with different mindsets...... contributed to the failure of the new brand strategy. The paper concludes with recommendations for the brand platform to be implemented meaningfully and effectively within each silo....

  6. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  7. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  8. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  9. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  10. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  11. Communication: Salt-induced water orientation at a surface of non-ionic surfactant in relation to a mechanism of Hofmeister effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Kaneko, Yohei; Okuno, Masanari; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Ishibashi, Taka-aki; Saito, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya@chem.tsukuba.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    The behavior of water molecules at the surface of nonionic surfactant (monomyristolein) and effects of monovalent ions on the behavior are investigated using the heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy. It is found that water molecules at the surface are oriented with their hydrogen atoms pointing to the bulk, and that the degree of orientation depends on the anion strongly but weakly on the cation. With measured surface potentials in those saline solutions, it is concluded that the heterogeneous distribution of anions and cations in combination with the nonionic surfactant causes the water orientation. This heterogeneous distribution well explains the contrasting order of anions and cations with respect to the ion size in the Hofmeister series.

  12. Sacral orientation and spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Steinberg, Nili; Masharawi, Youssef; Been, Ella; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2009-12-01

    A descriptive study (based on skeletal material) was designed to measure sacral anatomic orientation (SAO) in individuals with and without spondylolysis. To test whether a relationship between SAO and spondylolysis exists. Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the pars interarticularis (mainly of L5). The natural history of the phenomenon has been debated for years with opinions divided, i.e., is it a developmental condition or a stress fracture phenomenon. There is some evidence to suggest that sacral orientation can be a "key player" in revealing the etiology of spondylolysis. The pelvis was anatomically reconstructed and SAO was measured as the angle created between the intersection of a line running parallel to the superior surface of the sacrum and a line running between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the anterior-superior edge of the symphysis pubis (PUBIS).SAO was measured in 99 adult males with spondylolysis and 125 adult males without spondylolysis. The difference between the groups was tested using an unpaired t test. Spondylolysis prevalence is significantly higher in African-Americans compared to European-Americans: 5.4% versus 2.04% in males (P < 0.001) and 2.31% versus 0.4%, P < 0.001 in females. SAO was significantly lower in the spondylolytic group (44.07 degrees +/- 11.46 degrees) compared to the control group (51.07 degrees +/- 8.46 degrees, P < 0.001). A more horizontally oriented sacrum leads to direct impingement on L5 pars interarticularis by both L4 inferior articular facet superiorly and S1 superior articular facet inferiorly. Repetitive stress due to standing (daily activities) or sitting increases the "pincer effect" on this area, and eventually may lead to incomplete synostosis of the neural arch.

  13. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...

  14. Mina Oriental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.; Mari, C.; Lema, F.; Valverde, C.; Haut, R.

    1986-01-01

    This report refers to the obtained results of those geophysical works practiced during the year 1985 in Mina Oriental region, located in the department of Maldonado. The same ones had like object to supplement geophysical studies previous carried out in the area and to investigate a possible connection mineralized in the geologic context with Mina La Esperanza that , where they arose anomalous indications in geochemical prospecting. They were applied the following methods: Induced Polarization, Magnetometry and Electromagnetism. The conclusions and recommendations arrived express one discontinuity among the referred areas, even subtracting some explanations on the detected lateral anomalies.

  15. Emotion-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim

  16. Is pedophilia a sexual orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy. I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

  17. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  18. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  19. Club d'orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION : Coupe Genevoise de printemps 2010 Pour cette première étape de la Coupe Genevoise de printemps, une centaine de coureurs se sont déplacés dans les bois de Cossonay (Vd) pour découvrir un des cinq circuits proposés par le Club de Lausanne-Jorat. Ces circuits techniques et rapides ont été appréciés par la majorité des concurrents. Les vainqueurs du jour sont : technique long, Christophe Vuitton (CO CERN) s’imposant d’une seconde devant Grégoire Schrago (CO Rosé) ; technique moyen, Pekka Marti (Ol Bienne) ; technique court, David Cuenin (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Nicolas Muller (CO Lausanne-Jorat) et pour finir facile court, Julien Vuitton (CO CERN). Les résultats complets - avec temps intermédiaires – sont consultables sur http://cern.ch/club-orientation. Le prochain rendez-vous est pr&...

  20. Course d'Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Course d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

      Coupe de printemps La deuxième étape de la coupe de printemps organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN s’est déroulée le samedi 21 avril dans la forêt de Pougny-Challex. étant donné le temps très humide qui domine depuis début avril, les coureurs ne pouvaient trouver qu’un terrain gras et trempé, mais cela fait partie des défis de la course d’orientation. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par Yvan Balliot, CO Annecy en 51:18 devant Jean-Charles Baritaux en 56:21 et Bruno Barge, CO CERN en 59:39. La prochaine CO populaire se courra à Vulbens le samedi 28 avril. Les inscriptions et les départs se feront entre 13h et 15h. A noter les courses en mai : • Samedi 5 mai : Trelex • Samedi 12 mai : Chancy / Valleiry • Samedi 19 mai : Lausan...

  1. Milestones Universidad de Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Villalón-Infante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 10, 1947, the University of Oriente is founded with the presence of local authorities and the historic Bell of the Damajagua. Since then it has generated outstanding events that have drawn guidelines in its history. These landmarks have taken place in different spheres of social, political and economic life. We have found that most workers and students from the University know less than fifty percent of such events, and we assume that the population outside the walls must have a greater ignorance. The present paper aims to spread these crucial events because knowing them will help appreciate better the real prestige of this house of higher learning through its rich  history, which will result in feelings of admiration and respect for this university. Thus, it is necessary to make a wider propagation through the press, radio and television programs and digital media such as Multimedia, Web Pages and the Internet.The theme landmark at the Universidad de Oriente of the subject Historical and Contemporary Debates implemented in the disciplines of all careers at this university gives freshmen the opportunity to investigate and learn about these remarkable  facts with some impact outside our national territory.

  2. Club d'orientation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2011-01-01

    La première course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise de printemps a eu lieu près de Cossonay samedi 19 mars ; une bonne soixantaine de coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les vainqueurs sont : technique long, Domenico Lepori (Care Vevey) s’imposant d’une minute devant Yannick Gagneret (O’Jura) ; technique moyen, Jean-Rodolphe Knuchel (CO Lausanne-Jorat) devant Cédric Wehrle (CO CERN) ; technique court, Marie Droz (ANCO) ; facile moyen, Elia Martarelli devant Konstantinos Haider (CO CERN); facile court, Sarah Stuber (CO Lausanne-Jorat). Prochain rendez-vous à noter : samedi 26 mars dans la forêt d’Attalens (Canton de Vaud), parking au terrain de foot. Les inscriptions et départs de la course populaire se feront entre 13h et 15h. Pour ceux qui ne connaissent pas l’orientation, c’est l&am...

  3. Fuel cycle oriented approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1987-01-01

    The term fuel cycle oriented approach is currently used to designate two quite different things: the attempt to consider all or part of a national fuel cycle as one material balance area (MBA) or to consider individual MBAs existing in a state while designing a unique safeguards approach for each and applying the principle of nondiscrimination to fuel cycles as a whole, rather than to individual facilities. The merits of such an approach are acceptability by the industry and comparison with the contemplated establishment of long-term criteria. The following points concern the acceptability by the industry: (1) The main interest of the industry is to keep an open international market and therefore, to have effective and efficient safeguards. (2) The main concerns of the industry regarding international safeguards are economic burden, intrusiveness, and discrimination. Answers to these legitimate concerns, which retain the benefits of a fuel cycle oriented approach, are needed. More specifically, the problem of reimbursing the operator the costs that he has incurred for the safeguards must be considered

  4. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  5. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  6. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  7. Kinetics of oriented crystallization of polymers in the linear stress-orientation range in the series expansion approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jarecki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An analytical formula is derived for the oriented crystallization coefficient governing kinetics of oriented crystallization under uniaxial amorphous orientation in the entire temperature range. A series expansion approach is applied to the free energy of crystallization in the Hoffman-Lauritzen kinetic model of crystallization at accounting for the entropy of orientation of the amorphous chains. The series expansion coefficients are calculated for systems of Gaussian chains in linear stress-orientation range. Oriented crystallization rate functions are determined basing on the ‘proportional expansion’ approach proposed by Ziabicki in the steady-state limit. Crystallization kinetics controlled by separate predetermined and sporadic primary nucleation is considered, as well as the kinetics involving both nucleation mechanisms potentially present in oriented systems. The involvement of sporadic nucleation in the transformation kinetics is predicted to increase with increasing amorphous orientation. Example computations illustrate the dependence of the calculated functions on temperature and amorphous orientation, as well as qualitative agreement of the calculations with experimental results.

  8. Nurses' hospital orientation and future research challenges: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokoski, J; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Miettinen, M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to describe the research on registered nurses' orientation processes in specialized hospital settings in order to illustrate directions for future research. The complex healthcare environment and the impact of nursing shortage and turnover make the hospital orientation process imperative. There is a growing recognition regarding research interests to meet the needs for evidence-based, effective and economically sound hospital orientation strategies. An integrative literature review was performed on publications from the period 2000 to 2013 included in the CINAHL and PubMed databases. English-language studies were included. Themes guiding the analysis were definition of the hospital orientation process, research topics, data collection and instruments and research evidence. Narrative synthesis was used. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. The conceptualization of orientation process reflected the complexity of the phenomenon. Less attention has been paid to designs to establish correlations or relationships between selected variables and hospital orientation process. The outcomes of hospital orientation programmes were limited primarily to retention and job satisfaction. The research evidence therefore cannot be evaluated as strong. The lack of an evidence-based approach makes it difficult to develop a comprehensive orientation process. Further research should explore interventions that will enhance the quality of hospital orientation practices to improve nurses' retention and job satisfaction. To provide a comprehensive hospital orientation process, hospital administrators have to put in place human resource development strategies along with practice implications and research efforts. Comprehensive hospital orientation benefits and outcomes should be visible to policy makers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  9. Orientation of KRb molecules in a switched electrostatic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yun-Xia; Xu Shu-Wu; Yang Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the orientation of the cold KRb molecules induced in a switched electrostatic field by numerically solving the full time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The results show that the periodic field-free molecular orientation can be realized for the KRb molecules by rapidly switching off the electrostatic field. Meanwhile, by varying the switching times of the electrostatic field, the adiabatic and nonadiabatic interactions of the molecules with the applied field can be realized. Moreover, the influences of the electrostatic field strength and the rotational temperature to the degree of the molecular orientation are studied. The investigations show that increasing the electrostatic field will increase the degree of the molecular orientation, both in the constant-field regime and in the field-free regime, while the increasing of the rotational temperature of the cold molecules will greatly decrease the degree of the molecular orientation. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Control of liquid crystal molecular orientation using ultrasound vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Satoki [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Koyama, Daisuke; Matsukawa, Mami [Wave Electronics Research Center, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Shimizu, Yuki; Emoto, Akira [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tataramiyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Nakamura, Kentaro [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-R2-26, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    We propose a technique to control the orientation of nematic liquid crystals using ultrasound and investigate the optical characteristics of the oriented samples. An ultrasonic liquid crystal cell with a thickness of 5–25 μm and two ultrasonic lead zirconate titanate transducers was fabricated. By exciting the ultrasonic transducers, the flexural vibration modes were generated on the cell. An acoustic radiation force to the liquid crystal layer was generated, changing the molecular orientation and thus the light transmission. By modulating the ultrasonic driving frequency and voltage, the spatial distribution of the molecular orientation of the liquid crystals could be controlled. The distribution of the transmitted light intensity depends on the thickness of the liquid crystal layer because the acoustic field in the liquid crystal layer is changed by the orientational film.

  11. Crystal orientation and sample preparation effects on sputtering and lattice damage in 100 keV self-irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, J.A.; Malmberg, P.R.; Reynolds, G.W.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Vincenz, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sputtering yields and angular distributions have been measured as functions of sample preparation techniques and incident ion-beam orientation with respect to the crystal axes for 100 keV Cu-ion beams on Cu crystals and polycrystalline samples. The angular distributions have structure requiring an nth order cosine with two Gaussians superimposed to fit the data; strong peaking is observed near the backscatter direction. The yield is dependent on the beam to crystal and beam to polycrystalline-rod axis orientation, on the grain size of the polycrystals and on sample-preparation techniques. Yield measurements vary by as much as a factor of 4. Lattice-damage differences, measured with alpha particle channeling, are much smaller and seem to be saturated by fluences of the order of 1x10 16 /cm 2 . (orig.)

  12. Microstructure of individual grains in cold-rolled aluminium from orientation inhomogeneities resolved by electron backscattering diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Wei; Ma, Weitao; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    orientation spread and its anisotropy; the dependence of both parameters on grain size and grain orientation is discussed. The preferred rotation axis in each grain is determined and shows a dominant orientation spreading around the transversal direction. Characteristic features of the deformation structure...... (as alternating orientation differences or orientation gradients) are resolved from sign-carrying disorientation angles defined with respect to the preferred rotation axis in each grain. Five components of the dislocation density tensor - corresponding to part of the geometrically necessary...

  13. El oriente de Chillida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Galante Rodero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Todo el arte es influyente porque todo arte nace del hombre. Esta pequeña reflexión quiere resaltar cómo el arte y el pensamiento oriental han sido más influyentes, no sólo en el ámbito estético, sino en la concepción espacial y del propio hecho creador, en el arte occidental de lo que a primera vista podemos apreciar. En el caso de Chillida es una influencia no intencionada, muy sutil y analizada desde dos perspectivas, la primera, a partir de sus contactos directos con Japón como Homenaje a Hokusai, exposiciones realizadas y premios concedidos en el país nipón y por otro lado, los contactos indirectos con Oriente como su biblioteca personal, sus colaboraciones editoriales con Heidegger y Valente y su encuentro con Mark Tobey en la Bienal de Venecia de 1958.All art is influential because all art is born of man. This short reflection wants to highlight how eastern art and Eastern thought have been most influential, not only in the aesthetic realm, in spatial conception and creative act, in Western art more than at first glance we can see. In the case of Chillida’s unintentional influence, very subtle and analyzed from two perspectives, first from direct contacts with Japan as Tribute to Hokusai, exhibitions and prizes awarded in the japanese country, and on the other hand, indirect contacts with the East as his personal library, his collaborations with Heidegger and Valente and his encounter with Mark Tobey at the Venice Biennale of 1958.

  14. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown......One of the most intriguing recent results in physics is the growing evidence that an unknown energy field and an unknown kind of matter are the major components of the Universe (70% and 30%, respectively; see e.g. Riess et al. 1998, Spergel et al. 2007). Understanding and estimating the precise...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies...

  15. Visual cells remember earlier applied target: plasticity of orientation selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Ghisovan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A canonical proposition states that, in mature brain, neurons responsive to sensory stimuli are tuned to specific properties installed shortly after birth. It is amply demonstrated that that neurons in adult visual cortex of cats are orientation-selective that is they respond with the highest firing rates to preferred oriented stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In anesthetized cats, prepared in a conventional fashion for single cell recordings, the present investigation shows that presenting a stimulus uninterruptedly at a non-preferred orientation for twelve minutes induces changes in orientation preference. Across all conditions orientation tuning curves were investigated using a trial by trial method. Contrary to what has been previously reported with shorter adaptation duration, twelve minutes of adaptation induces mostly attractive shifts, i.e. toward the adapter. After a recovery period allowing neurons to restore their original orientation tuning curves, we carried out a second adaptation which produced three major results: (1 more frequent attractive shifts, (2 an increase of their magnitude, and (3 an additional enhancement of responses at the new or acquired preferred orientation. Additionally, we also show that the direction of shifts depends on the duration of the adaptation: shorter adaptation in most cases produces repulsive shifts, whereas adaptation exceeding nine minutes results in attractive shifts, in the same unit. Consequently, shifts in preferred orientation depend on the duration of adaptation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The supplementary response improvements indicate that neurons in area 17 keep a memory trace of the previous stimulus properties, thereby upgrading cellular performance. It also highlights the dynamic nature of basic neuronal properties in adult cortex since repeated adaptations modified both the orientation tuning selectivity and the response strength to the preferred orientation. These

  16. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  17. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. An autoethnographic exploration of the use of goal oriented feedback to enhance brief clinical teaching encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Laura; Bourgeois-Law, Gisele; Ajjawi, Rola; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-03-01

    Supervision in the outpatient context is increasingly in the form of single day interactions between students and preceptors. This creates difficulties for effective feedback, which often depends on a strong relationship of trust between preceptor and student. Building on feedback theories focusing on the relational and dialogic aspects of feedback, this study explored the use of goal-oriented feedback in brief encounters with learners. This study used autoethnography to explore one preceptor's feedback interactions over an eight-month period both in the ambulatory setting and on the wards. Data included written narrative reflections on feedback interactions with twenty-three learners informed by discussions with colleagues and repeated reading of feedback literature. Thematic and narrative analyses of data were performed iteratively. Data analysis emphasized four recurrent themes. (1) Goal discussions were most effective when initiated early and integrated throughout the learning experience. (2) Both learner and preceptor goals were multiple and varied, and feedback needed to reflect this complexity. (3) Negotiation or co-construction of goals was important when considering the focus of feedback discussions in order to create safer, more effective interactions. (4) Goal oriented interactions offer potential benefits to the learner and preceptor. Goal oriented feedback promotes dialogue as it requires both preceptor and learner to acknowledge and negotiate learning goals throughout their interaction. In doing so, feedback becomes an explicit component of the preceptor-learner relationship. This enhances feedback interactions even in relatively brief encounters, and may begin an early educational alliance that can be elaborated with longer interactions.

  19. Effect of the substrate orientation on the formation of He-plates in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallet, M.; Barbot, J. F.; Declémy, A.; Beaufort, M. F. [Institut Pprime (UPR 3346), Department of Material Sciences, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, BP30179, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France); Reboh, S. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-21

    The effect of the crystalline orientation on the implantation-induced strain/stress and on the formation of He-plates was studied by combining high-resolution X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The highest strains are obtained in (001)-oriented implanted substrates regardless of the fluence and of the channeling effects. The anisotropic properties of the silicon that generate an anisotropic elastic response of the substrate were taken into account to explain these different values of strain. Upon specific thermal annealing, it is shown that the formation of He-plates occurs only in the (001) habit planes regardless of the orientation of the substrates, non-tilted and tilted (001)-, (110)-, and (111)-substrates. Moreover, the distribution of He-plates in the (001) variants was found to be strongly dependent on the angle of the habit plane with the surface and on the intensity of the implantation-induced strain/stress. The implantation-induced stress thus favors the formation of He-plates in specific planes (of low angle with the surface) forming different defect configurations. The nucleation and growth of He-plates are thus discussed with regard to the implantation-induced stress.

  20. Localization and orientation of heavy-atom cluster compounds in protein crystals using molecular replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Sven O; Kuester, Miriam; Streb, Carsten; Roth, Christian; Sträter, Norbert; Than, Manuel E

    2013-02-01

    Heavy-atom clusters (HA clusters) containing a large number of specifically arranged electron-dense scatterers are especially useful for experimental phase determination of large complex structures, weakly diffracting crystals or structures with large unit cells. Often, the determination of the exact orientation of the HA cluster and hence of the individual heavy-atom positions proves to be the critical step in successful phasing and subsequent structure solution. Here, it is demonstrated that molecular replacement (MR) with either anomalous or isomorphous differences is a useful strategy for the correct placement of HA cluster compounds. The polyoxometallate cluster hexasodium α-metatungstate (HMT) was applied in phasing the structure of death receptor 6. Even though the HA cluster is bound in alternate partially occupied orientations and is located at a special position, its correct localization and orientation could be determined at resolutions as low as 4.9 Å. The broad applicability of this approach was demonstrated for five different derivative crystals that included the compounds tantalum tetradecabromide and trisodium phosphotungstate in addition to HMT. The correct placement of the HA cluster depends on the length of the intramolecular vectors chosen for MR, such that both a larger cluster size and the optimal choice of the wavelength used for anomalous data collection strongly affect the outcome.