WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly nonlinear regime

  1. Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime

  2. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  3. Nonlinear Excitations in Strongly-Coupled Fermi-Dirac Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the conventional quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model in combination with the Sagdeev pseudopotential method to explore the effects of Thomas-Fermi nonuniform electron distribution, Coulomb interactions, electron exchange and ion correlation on the large-amplitude nonlinear soliton dynamics in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. It is found that in the presence of strong interactions significant differences in nonlinear wave dynamics of Fermi-Dirac plasmas in the two distinct regimes of no...

  4. Strongly nonlinear dynamics of electrolytes in large ac voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bazant, Martin Z.; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    to suppress the strongly nonlinear regime in the limit of concentrated electrolytes, ionic liquids, and molten salts. Beyond the model problem, our reduced equations for thin double layers, based on uniformly valid matched asymptotic expansions, provide a useful mathematical framework to describe additional...

  5. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....

  6. Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P Z G; Aranas, E B; Millen, J; Monteiro, T S; Barker, P F

    2016-10-21

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics and Strong Cavity Cooling of Levitated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Aranas, E. B.; Millen, J.; Monteiro, T. S.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Optomechanical systems explore and exploit the coupling between light and the mechanical motion of macroscopic matter. A nonlinear coupling offers rich new physics, in both quantum and classical regimes. We investigate a dynamic, as opposed to the usually studied static, nonlinear optomechanical system, comprising a nanosphere levitated in a hybrid electro-optical trap. The cavity offers readout of both linear-in-position and quadratic-in-position (nonlinear) light-matter coupling, while simultaneously cooling the nanosphere, for indefinite periods of time and in high vacuum. We observe the cooling dynamics via both linear and nonlinear coupling. As the background gas pressure was lowered, we observed a greater than 1000-fold reduction in temperature before temperatures fell below readout sensitivity in the present setup. This Letter opens the way to strongly coupled quantum dynamics between a cavity and a nanoparticle largely decoupled from its environment.

  10. Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method

  11. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  12. Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulansky, Mario

    2014-06-01

    Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.

  13. Controllable nonlinearity in a dual-coupling optomechanical system under a weak-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gui-Lei; Lü, Xin-You; Wan, Liang-Liang; Yin, Tai-Shuang; Bin, Qian; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Strong quantum nonlinearity gives rise to many interesting quantum effects and has wide applications in quantum physics. Here we investigate the quantum nonlinear effect of an optomechanical system (OMS) consisting of both linear and quadratic coupling. Interestingly, a controllable optomechanical nonlinearity is obtained by applying a driving laser into the cavity. This controllable optomechanical nonlinearity can be enhanced into a strong coupling regime, even if the system is initially in the weak-coupling regime. Moreover, the system dissipation can be suppressed effectively, which allows the appearance of phonon sideband and photon blockade effects in the weak-coupling regime. This work may inspire the exploration of a dual-coupling optomechanical system as well as its applications in modern quantum science.

  14. Simulation of weak and strong Langmuir collapse regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzievski, L.R.; Skoric, M.M.; Kono, M.; Sato, T.

    1998-01-01

    In order to check the validity of the self-similar solutions and the existence of weak and strong collapse regimes, direct two dimensional simulation of the time evolution of a Langmuir soliton instability is performed. Simulation is based on the Zakharov model of strong Langmuir turbulence in a weakly magnetized plasma accounting for the full ion dynamics. For parameters considered, agreement with self-similar dynamics of the weak collapse type is found with no evidence of the strong Langmuir collapse. (author)

  15. Ensemble-based Kalman Filters in Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoxia PU; Joshua HACKER

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of ensemble Kalman filters in data assimilation with the strongly nonlinear dynamics of the Lorenz-63 model, and in particular their use in predicting the regime transition that occurs when the model jumps from one basin of attraction to the other. Four configurations of the ensemble-based Kalman filtering data assimilation techniques, including the ensemble Kalman filter, ensemble adjustment Kalman filter, ensemble square root filter and ensemble transform Kalman filter, are evaluated with their ability in predicting the regime transition (also called phase transition) and also are compared in terms of their sensitivity to both observational and sampling errors. The sensitivity of each ensemble-based filter to the size of the ensemble is also examined.

  16. Defocusing regimes of nonlinear waves in media with negative dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Defocusing regimes of quasimonochromatic waves governed by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation with mixed-sign dispersion are investigated. For a power-law nonlinearity, we show that localized solutions to this equation defined at the so-called critical dimension cannot collapse in finite time...

  17. Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678

  18. The Cornwall-Norton model in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cornwall-Norton model is studied in the strong coupling regime. It is shown that the fermionic self-energy at large momenta behaves as Σ(p) ∼ (m 2 /p) ln (p/m). We verify that in the strong coupling phase the dynamically generated masses of gauge and scalar bosons are of the same order, and the essential features of the model remain intact. (author)

  19. Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10 2 . The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10 2 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10 2 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work

  20. Spectator Effects during Leptogenesis in the Strong Washout Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Garbrecht, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    By including spectator fields into the Boltzmann equations for Leptogenesis, we show that partially equilibrated spectator interactions can have a significant impact on the freeze-out value of the asymmetry in the strong washout regime. The final asymmetry is typically increased, since partially equilibrated spectators "hide" a part of the asymmetry from washout. We study examples with leptonic and non-leptonic spectator processes, assuming thermal initial conditions, and find up to 50% enhanced asymmetries compared to the limit of fully equilibrated spectators. Together with a comprehensive overview of the equilibration temperatures for various Standard Model processes, the numerical results indicate the ranges when the limiting cases of either fully equilibrated or negligible spectator fields are applicable and when they are not. Our findings also indicate an increased sensitivity to initial conditions and finite density corrections even in the strong washout regime.

  1. Coherent perfect absorption in a quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yang-hua; Gu, Wen-ju; Yang, Guoqing; Zhu, Yifu; Li, Gao-xiang

    2018-05-01

    Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is investigated in the quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which a single two-level atom couples to a single-mode cavity weakly driven by two identical laser fields. In the strong-coupling regime and due to the photon blockade effect, the weakly driven CQED system can be described as a quantum system with three polariton states. CPA is achieved at a critical input field strength when the frequency of the input fields matches the polariton transition frequency. In the quantum nonlinear regime, the incoherent dissipation processes such as atomic and photon decays place a lower bound for the purity of the intracavity quantum field. Our results show that under the CPA condition, the intracavity field always exhibits the quadrature squeezing property manifested by the quantum nonlinearity, and the outgoing photon flux displays the super-Poissonian distribution.

  2. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  3. Semi-analytical fluid study of the laser wake field excitation in the strong intensity regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanović, D., E-mail: djovanov@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Fedele, R., E-mail: renato.fedele@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Belić, M., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Texas A & M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); De Nicola, S., E-mail: sergio.denicola@spin.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S' Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma. The study has been performed in the ultrarelativistic regime of electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The calculations are applied to a laser wake field acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse.

  4. Dynamics of levitated nanospheres: towards the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, T S; Millen, J; Pender, G A T; Barker, P F; Marquardt, Florian; Chang, D

    2013-01-01

    The use of levitated nanospheres represents a new paradigm for the optomechanical cooling of a small mechanical oscillator, with the prospect of realizing quantum oscillators with unprecedentedly high quality factors. We investigate the dynamics of this system, especially in the so-called self-trapping regime, where one or more optical fields simultaneously trap and cool the mechanical oscillator. The determining characteristic of this regime is that both the mechanical frequency ω M and single-photon optomechanical coupling strength parameters g are a function of the optical field intensities, in contrast to usual set-ups where ω M and g are constant for the given system. We also measure the characteristic transverse and axial trapping frequencies of different sized silica nanospheres in a simple optical standing wave potential, for spheres of radii r = 20–500 nm, illustrating a protocol for loading single nanospheres into a standing wave optical trap that would be formed by an optical cavity. We use these data to confirm the dependence of the effective optomechanical coupling strength on sphere radius for levitated nanospheres in an optical cavity and discuss the prospects for reaching regimes of strong light–matter coupling. Theoretical semiclassical and quantum displacement noise spectra show that for larger nanospheres with r ∼> 100 nm a range of interesting and novel dynamical regimes can be accessed. These include simultaneous hybridization of the two optical modes with the mechanical modes and parameter regimes where the system is bistable. We show that here, in contrast to typical single-optical mode optomechanical systems, bistabilities are independent of intracavity intensity and can occur for very weak laser driving amplitudes. (paper)

  5. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  6. Electronic Maxwell demon in the coherent strong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Gernot; Cerrillo, Javier; Engelhardt, Georg; Strasberg, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    We consider an external feedback control loop implementing the action of a Maxwell demon. Applying control actions that are conditioned on measurement outcomes, the demon may transport electrons against a bias voltage and thereby effectively converts information into electric power. While the underlying model—a feedback-controlled quantum dot that is coupled to two electronic leads—is well explored in the limit of small tunnel couplings, we can address the strong-coupling regime with a fermionic reaction-coordinate mapping. This exact mapping transforms the setup into a serial triple quantum dot coupled to two leads. We find that a continuous projective measurement of the central dot occupation would lead to a complete suppression of electronic transport due to the quantum Zeno effect. In contrast, by using a microscopic detector model we can implement a weak measurement, which allows for closure of the control loop without transport blockade. Then, in the weak-coupling regime, the energy flows associated with the feedback loop are negligible, and dominantly the information gained in the measurement induces a bound for the generated electric power. In the strong coupling limit, the protocol may require more energy for operating the control loop than electric power produced, such that the whole device is no longer information dominated and can thus not be interpreted as a Maxwell demon.

  7. A theoretical model of strong and moderate El Niño regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ken; Karamperidou, Christina; Dewitte, Boris

    2018-02-01

    The existence of two regimes for El Niño (EN) events, moderate and strong, has been previously shown in the GFDL CM2.1 climate model and also suggested in observations. The two regimes have been proposed to originate from the nonlinearity in the Bjerknes feedback, associated with a threshold in sea surface temperature (T_c ) that needs to be exceeded for deep atmospheric convection to occur in the eastern Pacific. However, although the recent 2015-16 EN event provides a new data point consistent with the sparse strong EN regime, it is not enough to statistically reject the null hypothesis of a unimodal distribution based on observations alone. Nevertheless, we consider the possibility suggestive enough to explore it with a simple theoretical model based on the nonlinear Bjerknes feedback. In this study, we implemented this nonlinear mechanism in the recharge-discharge (RD) ENSO model and show that it is sufficient to produce the two EN regimes, i.e. a bimodal distribution in peak surface temperature (T) during EN events. The only modification introduced to the original RD model is that the net damping is suppressed when T exceeds T_c , resulting in a weak nonlinearity in the system. Due to the damping, the model is globally stable and it requires stochastic forcing to maintain the variability. The sustained low-frequency component of the stochastic forcing plays a key role for the onset of strong EN events (i.e. for T>T_c ), at least as important as the precursor positive heat content anomaly (h). High-frequency forcing helps some EN events to exceed T_c , increasing the number of strong events, but the rectification effect is small and the overall number of EN events is little affected by this forcing. Using the Fokker-Planck equation, we show how the bimodal probability distribution of EN events arises from the nonlinear Bjerknes feedback and also propose that the increase in the net feedback with increasing T is a necessary condition for bimodality in the RD

  8. Nonlinear growth of strongly unstable tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1993-11-01

    Rutherford's theory of the tearing instability is extended to cases where current nonlinearities are important, such as long wavelength modes in current slabs and the m = 1 instability in tokamaks with moderately large aspect-ratios. Of particular interest is the possibility that the associated magnetic islands, as a result of secondary instabilities, have a singular response to the Ohmic diffusion of the current. A family of islands is used to test this possibility; it is found that the response remains bounded

  9. Neural network based adaptive control for nonlinear dynamic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonghyun

    Adaptive control designs using neural networks (NNs) based on dynamic inversion are investigated for aerospace vehicles which are operated at highly nonlinear dynamic regimes. NNs play a key role as the principal element of adaptation to approximately cancel the effect of inversion error, which subsequently improves robustness to parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics in nonlinear regimes. An adaptive control scheme previously named 'composite model reference adaptive control' is further developed so that it can be applied to multi-input multi-output output feedback dynamic inversion. It can have adaptive elements in both the dynamic compensator (linear controller) part and/or in the conventional adaptive controller part, also utilizing state estimation information for NN adaptation. This methodology has more flexibility and thus hopefully greater potential than conventional adaptive designs for adaptive flight control in highly nonlinear flight regimes. The stability of the control system is proved through Lyapunov theorems, and validated with simulations. The control designs in this thesis also include the use of 'pseudo-control hedging' techniques which are introduced to prevent the NNs from attempting to adapt to various actuation nonlinearities such as actuator position and rate saturations. Control allocation is introduced for the case of redundant control effectors including thrust vectoring nozzles. A thorough comparison study of conventional and NN-based adaptive designs for a system under a limit cycle, wing-rock, is included in this research, and the NN-based adaptive control designs demonstrate their performances for two highly maneuverable aerial vehicles, NASA F-15 ACTIVE and FQM-117B unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), operated under various nonlinearities and uncertainties.

  10. Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas in the nonlinear regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2006-06-01

    A field theory approach to transport phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The thermodynamic field theory (TFT), previously developed for treating the generic thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, is applied to plasmas physics. Transport phenomena are treated here as the effect of the field linking the thermodynamic forces with their conjugate flows combined with statistical mechanics. In particular, the Classical and the Pfirsch-Schluter regimes are analyzed by solving the thermodynamic field equations of the TFT in the weak-field approximation. We found that, the TFT does not correct the expressions of the ionic heat fluxes evaluated by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes. On the other hand, the fluxes of matter and electronic energy (heat flow) is further enhanced in the nonlinear Classical and Pfirsch-Schluter regimes. These results seem to be in line with the experimental observations. The complete set of the electronic and ionic transport equations in the nonlinear Banana regime, is also reported. A paper showing the comparison between our theoretic results and the experimental observations in the JET machine is currently in preparation.

  11. Light-matter interaction in the strong coupling regime: configurations, conditions, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovzhenko, D S; Ryabchuk, S V; Rakovich, Yu P; Nabiev, I R

    2018-02-22

    Resonance interaction between a molecular transition and a confined electromagnetic field can reach the coupling regime where coherent exchange of energy between light and matter becomes reversible. In this case, two new hybrid states separated in energy are formed instead of independent eigenstates, which is known as Rabi splitting. This modification of the energy spectra of the system offers new possibilities for controlled impact on various fundamental properties of coupled matter (such as the rate of chemical reactions and the conductivity of organic semiconductors). To date, the strong coupling regime has been demonstrated in many configurations under different ambient conditions. However, there is still no comprehensive approach to determining parameters for achieving the strong coupling regime for a wide range of practical applications. In this review, a detailed analysis of various systems and corresponding conditions for reaching strong coupling is carried out and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the prospects for application, are considered. The review also summarizes recent experiments in which the strong coupling regime has led to new interesting results, such as the possibility of collective strong coupling between X-rays and matter excitation in a periodic array of Fe isotopes, which extends the applications of quantum optics; a strong amplification of the Raman scattering signal from a coupled system, which can be used in surface-enhanced and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy; and more efficient second-harmonic generation from the low polaritonic state, which is promising for nonlinear optics. The results reviewed demonstrate great potential for further practical applications of strong coupling in the fields of photonics (low-threshold lasers), quantum communications (switches), and biophysics (molecular fingerprinting).

  12. The laser proton acceleration in the strong charge separation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Fukumi, A.; Daido, H.; Li, Z.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Orimo, S.; Kado, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, M.; Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.; Nemoto, K.; Oishi, Y.; Nayuki, T.; Fujii, T.; Noda, A.; Iwashita, Y.; Shirai, T.; Nakamura, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the experimental results of proton acceleration as well as the simple one-dimensional model which explains our experimental data. The proton acceleration experiment is carried out with a TW short pulse laser irradiated on a tantalum thin-foil target (3 μm thickness) with an intensity of ∼3x10 18 Wcm -2 . Accelerated protons exhibit a typical energy spectrum with two quasi-Maxwellian components with a high energy cut-off. We can successfully explain the higher energy part as well as the cut off energy of the proton spectrum with the simple-one-dimensional model based on the strong charge separation regime, which is the extension of the model proposed originally by [M. Passoni et al., Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026411

  13. Mathematical structure of Rabi oscillations in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian by making use of some operators based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2), and study a mathematical structure of Rabi floppings of these models in the strong coupling regime. We show that Rabi frequencies are given by matrix elements of generalized coherent operators (Fujii K 2002 Preprint quant-ph/0202081) under the rotating-wave approximation. In the first half, we make a general review of coherent operators and generalized coherent ones based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2). In the latter half, we carry out a detailed examination of Frasca (Frasca M 2001 Preprint quant-ph/0111134) and generalize his method, and moreover present some related problems. We also apply our results to the construction of controlled unitary gates in quantum computation. Lastly, we make a brief comment on application to holonomic quantum computation

  14. Nonlinear Plasma Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation in Rutherford Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Yan, Xingting; Huang, Wenlong

    2017-10-01

    Recently a common analytic relation for both the locked mode and the nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime has been developed based on the steady-state solution to the coupled dynamic system of magnetic island evolution and torque balance equations. The analytic relation predicts the threshold and the island size for the full penetration of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP). It also rigorously proves a screening effect of the equilibrium toroidal flow. In this work, we test the theory by solving for the nonlinear plasma response to a single-helicity RMP of a circular-shaped limiter tokamak equilibrium with a constant toroidal flow, using the initial-value, full MHD simulation code NIMROD. Time evolution of the parallel flow or ``slip frequency'' profile and its asymptotic approach to steady state obtained from the NIMROD simulations qualitatively agree with the theory predictions. Further comparisons are carried out for the saturated island size, the threshold for full mode penetration, as well as the screening effects of equilibrium toroidal flow in order to understand the physics of nonlinear plasma response in the Rutherford regime. Supported by National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China Grants 2014GB124002 and 2015GB101004, the 100 Talent Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and U.S. Department of Energy Grants DE-FG02-86ER53218 and DE-FC02-08ER54975.

  15. Onset of the nonlinear regime in unified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P.P.; Beca, L.M.G.; Carvalho, J.P.M. de; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Copeland, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the onset of the nonlinear regime in the context of unified dark matter models involving a generalized Chaplygin gas. We show that the transition from dark-matter-like to dark-energy-like behavior will never be smooth. In some regions of space the transition will never take place while in others it may happen sooner or later than naively expected. As a result the linear theory used in previous studies may break down late in the matter dominated era even on large cosmological scales. We study the importance of this effect showing that its magnitude depends on the exact form of the equation of state in the low density regime. We expect that our results will be relevant for other unified dark matter scenarios, particularly those where the quartessence candidate is a perfect fluid

  16. Perturbation Solutions of the Quintic Duffing Equation with Strong Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pakdemirli

    Full Text Available The quintic Duffing equation with strong nonlinearities is considered. Perturbation solutions are constructed using two different techniques: The classical multiple scales method (MS and the newly developed multiple scales Lindstedt Poincare method (MSLP. The validity criteria for admissible solutions are derived. Both approximate solutions are contrasted with the numerical solutions. It is found that MSLP provides compatible solution with the numerical solution for strong nonlinearities whereas MS solution fail to produce physically acceptable solution for large perturbation parameters.

  17. Femtosecond nonlinear fiber optics in the ionization regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, P; Chang, W; Travers, J C; Nazarkin, A; Nold, J; Joly, N Y; Saleh, M F; Biancalana, F; Russell, P St J

    2011-11-11

    By using a gas-filled kagome-style photonic crystal fiber, nonlinear fiber optics is studied in the regime of optically induced ionization. The fiber offers low anomalous dispersion over a broad bandwidth and low loss. Sequences of blueshifted pulses are emitted when 65 fs, few-microjoule pulses, corresponding to high-order solitons, are launched into the fiber and undergo self-compression. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations which suggest that free-electron densities of ∼10(17) cm(-3) are achieved at peak intensities of 10(14) W/cm(2) over length scales of several centimeters.

  18. Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjaee, Javad T., E-mail: allahyari@physics.sharif.edu, E-mail: j.taghizadeh.f@ipm.ir [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBHs) in the radiation-dominated era for both linear and non-linear regimes, elaborating on the concept of an apparent horizon. Contrary to the expectation from vacuum models, we argue that in a cosmological setting a density fluctuation with a high density does not always collapse to a black hole. To this end, we first elaborate on the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric space times in the linear regime. Thereby, we introduce two gauges. This allows to introduce a well defined gauge-invariant quantity for the expansion of null geodesics. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime irrespective of the density of the background. Finally, we consider the formation of PBHs in non-linear regimes, adopting the spherical collapse picture. In this picture, over-densities are modeled by closed FRW models in the radiation-dominated era. The difference of our approach is that we start by finding an exact solution for a closed radiation-dominated universe. This yields exact results for turn-around time and radius. It is important that we take the initial conditions from the linear perturbation theory. Additionally, instead of using uniform Hubble gauge condition, both density and velocity perturbations are admitted in this approach. Thereby, the matching condition will impose an important constraint on the initial velocity perturbations δ {sup h} {sub 0} = −δ{sub 0}/2. This can be extended to higher orders. Using this constraint, we find that the apparent horizon of a PBH forms when δ > 3 at turn-around time. The corrections also appear from the third order. Moreover, a PBH forms when its apparent horizon is outside the sound horizon at the re-entry time. Applying this condition, we infer that the threshold value of the density perturbations at horizon re-entry should be larger than δ {sub th} > 0.7.

  19. Nonlinear charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, D; Tessarotto, M; Salimullah, M

    2006-01-01

    The charge reduction effect, produced by the nonlinear Debye screening of high-Z charges occurring in strongly coupled plasmas, is investigated. An analytic asymptotic expression is obtained for the charge reduction factor (f c ) which determines the Debye-Hueckel potential generated by a charged test particle. Its relevant parametric dependencies are analysed and shown to predict a strong charge reduction effect in strongly coupled plasmas

  20. Advanced data assimilation in strongly nonlinear dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.; Ghil, Michael; Gauthiez, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Advanced data assimilation methods are applied to simple but highly nonlinear problems. The dynamical systems studied here are the stochastically forced double well and the Lorenz model. In both systems, linear approximation of the dynamics about the critical points near which regime transitions occur is not always sufficient to track their occurrence or nonoccurrence. Straightforward application of the extended Kalman filter yields mixed results. The ability of the extended Kalman filter to track transitions of the double-well system from one stable critical point to the other depends on the frequency and accuracy of the observations relative to the mean-square amplitude of the stochastic forcing. The ability of the filter to track the chaotic trajectories of the Lorenz model is limited to short times, as is the ability of strong-constraint variational methods. Examples are given to illustrate the difficulties involved, and qualitative explanations for these difficulties are provided. Three generalizations of the extended Kalman filter are described. The first is based on inspection of the innovation sequence, that is, the successive differences between observations and forecasts; it works very well for the double-well problem. The second, an extension to fourth-order moments, yields excellent results for the Lorenz model but will be unwieldy when applied to models with high-dimensional state spaces. A third, more practical method--based on an empirical statistical model derived from a Monte Carlo simulation--is formulated, and shown to work very well. Weak-constraint methods can be made to perform satisfactorily in the context of these simple models, but such methods do not seem to generalize easily to practical models of the atmosphere and ocean. In particular, it is shown that the equations derived in the weak variational formulation are difficult to solve conveniently for large systems.

  1. Propagation of hypergeometric Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Bian, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have attracted lots of interest due to its potential application in image processing, optical trapping and optical communications, etc. In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigated the propagation properties of hypergeometric Gaussian (HyGG) beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. Based on the Snyder-Mitchell model, analytical expressions for propagation of the HyGG beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media were obtained. The influence of input power and optical parameters on the evolutions of the beam width and radius of curvature is illustrated, respectively. The results show that the beam width and radius of curvature of the HyGG beams remain invariant, like a soliton when the input power is equal to the critical power. Otherwise, it varies periodically like a breather, which is the result of competition between the beam diffraction and nonlinearity of the medium.

  2. Fixing extensions to general relativity in the nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuso, Juan; Ortiz, Néstor; Lehner, Luis

    2017-10-01

    The question of what gravitational theory could supersede General Relativity has been central in theoretical physics for decades. Many disparate alternatives have been proposed motivated by cosmology, quantum gravity and phenomenological angles, and have been subjected to tests derived from cosmological, solar system and pulsar observations typically restricted to linearized regimes. Gravitational waves from compact binaries provide new opportunities to probe these theories in the strongly gravitating/highly dynamical regimes. To this end however, a reliable understanding of the dynamics in such a regime is required. Unfortunately, most of these theories fail to define well posed initial value problems, which prevents at face value from meeting such challenge. In this work, we introduce a consistent program able to remedy this situation. This program is inspired in the approach to "fixing" viscous relativistic hydrodynamics introduced by Israel and Stewart in the late 70's. We illustrate how to implement this approach to control undesirable effects of higher order derivatives in gravity theories and argue how the modified system still captures the true dynamics of the putative underlying theories in 3 +1 dimensions. We sketch the implementation of this idea in a couple of effective theories of gravity, one in the context of Noncommutative Geometry, and one in the context of Chern-Simons modified General Relativity.

  3. Multidimensional Plasma Wake Excitation in the Non-linear Blowout Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J.; Silva, L.O.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma accelerators can sustain very high acceleration gradients. They are promising candidates for future generations of particle accelerators for sev- eral scientific, medical and technological applications. Current plasma based acceleration experiments operate in the relativistic regime, where the plasma response is strongly non-linear. We outline some of the key properties of wake- field excitation in these regimes. We outline a multidimensional theory for the excitation of plasma wakefields in connection with current experiments. We then use these results and provide design guidelines for the choice of laser and plasma parameters ensuring a stable laser wakefield accelerator that maximizes the quality of the accelerated electrons. We also mention some of the future challenges associated with this technology.

  4. Strong phase correlations of solitons of nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvak, A.G.; Mironov, V.A.; Protogenov, A.P.

    1994-06-01

    We discuss the possibility to suppress the collapse in the nonlinear 2+1 D Schroedinger equation by using the gauge theory of strong phase correlations. It is shown that invariance relative to q-deformed Hopf algebra with deformation parameter q being the fourth root of unity makes the values of the Chern-Simons term coefficient, k=2, and of the coupling constant, g=1/2, fixed; no collapsing solutions are present at those values. (author). 21 refs

  5. Giant X-ray nonlinearities in the kiloelectronvolt regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, E.; Khan, S.F.; Borisov, A.B.; Poopalasingam, S.; McCorkindale, J.C.; Boguta, J.; Zhao, J.; Ward, S.J.; Longworth, J.W.; Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL; Felder, A.E.; Illinois University, Chicago, IL; Rhodes, C.K.; Illinois University, Chicago, IL

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Copious Xe(M) (∼ 1 keV) and Xe(L) (∼ 4.5 keV) production induced by intense femtosecond 248 nm pulse excitation of Xe clusters is a well established phenomenon. Present studies of the characteristics of Xe(L) amplification in plasma channels have dramatically revealed the presence of very strong nonlinear dispersive and absorptive processes in the x-ray range that are illustrated in Figure 1. The dispersive nonlinearity is illustrated in panels (a) and (b) by the clear action of self-focusing. The corresponding absorptive nonlinearity is shown in panel (c); intense Xe(M) radiation at ∼ 1 keV produces Xe L-shell vacancies that generate corresponding Xe(L) emission, an observation requiring the absorption of a minimum of 5 ∼ 1 keV photons. Since the linear Kramers-Kroenig relation has a nonlinear extension, these two phenomena are in natural alliance. Fig. 1. Simultaneous single-pulse pinhole camera Xe(M) (∼ 1 keV) and Xe(L) (∼ 4.5 keV) images of x-ray production and propagation in a 248 nm driven channel in a Xe cluster medium produced with a 1.4 mm diameter circular nozzle. (a) Characteristic Xe(M) propagation illustrating both copious x-ray production and the self-focusing of the originally annular Xe(M) beam. (b) 3-D view of panel (a) illustrating the collapse of the annular configuration of the Xe(M) beam into a focused axial structure. The self-focusing action is developed in the Xe cluster medium in a region that is not directly excited by the 248 nm pulse. (c) Simultaneously recorded Xe(L) emission that spatially overlaps the image in panel (a). The use of a 7.5 μm thick Ti filter suppresses the Xe(M) signal by a factor of ∼ 10 6 ; hence, only the Xe(L) component is detected. This image demonstrates that sufficiently intense Xe(M) radiation can produce strong Xe(L) emission by a nonlinear coupling. Of particular significance is the Xe(L) production observed at the end of the channel with a maximum spatial

  6. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  7. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  8. Kinetic theory of nonlinear diffusion in a weakly disordered nonlinear Schrödinger chain in the regime of homogeneous chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basko, D M

    2014-02-01

    We study the discrete nonlinear Schröinger equation with weak disorder, focusing on the regime when the nonlinearity is, on the one hand, weak enough for the normal modes of the linear problem to remain well resolved but, on the other, strong enough for the dynamics of the normal mode amplitudes to be chaotic for almost all modes. We show that in this regime and in the limit of high temperature, the macroscopic density ρ satisfies the nonlinear diffusion equation with a density-dependent diffusion coefficient, D(ρ) = D(0)ρ(2). An explicit expression for D(0) is obtained in terms of the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the linear problem, which is then evaluated numerically. The role of the second conserved quantity (energy) in the transport is also quantitatively discussed.

  9. Strongly nonlinear theory of rapid solidification near absolute stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Katarzyna N.; Altieri, Anthony L.; Davis, Stephen H.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the morphological deformation of a solid-liquid interface of a binary melt under rapid solidification conditions near two absolute stability limits. The first of these involves the complete stabilization of the system to cellular instabilities as a result of large enough surface energy. We derive nonlinear evolution equations in several limits in this scenario and investigate the effect of interfacial disequilibrium on the nonlinear deformations that arise. In contrast to the morphological stability problem in equilibrium, in which only cellular instabilities appear and only one absolute stability boundary exists, in disequilibrium the system is prone to oscillatory instabilities and a second absolute stability boundary involving attachment kinetics arises. Large enough attachment kinetics stabilize the oscillatory instabilities. We derive a nonlinear evolution equation to describe the nonlinear development of the solid-liquid interface near this oscillatory absolute stability limit. We find that strong asymmetries develop with time. For uniform oscillations, the evolution equation for the interface reduces to the simple form f''+(βf')2+f =0 , where β is the disequilibrium parameter. Lastly, we investigate a distinguished limit near both absolute stability limits in which the system is prone to both cellular and oscillatory instabilities and derive a nonlinear evolution equation that captures the nonlinear deformations in this limit. Common to all these scenarios is the emergence of larger asymmetries in the resulting shapes of the solid-liquid interface with greater departures from equilibrium and larger morphological numbers. The disturbances additionally sharpen near the oscillatory absolute stability boundary, where the interface becomes deep-rooted. The oscillations are time-periodic only for small-enough initial amplitudes and their frequency depends on a single combination of physical parameters, including the

  10. Nonlinear properties of gated graphene in a strong electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisyan, A. A., E-mail: artakav@ysu.am; Djotyan, A. P., E-mail: adjotyan@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics (Armenia); Moulopoulos, K., E-mail: cos@ucy.ac.cy [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics (Cyprus)

    2017-03-15

    We develop a microscopic theory of a strong electromagnetic field interaction with gated bilayer graphene. Quantum kinetic equations for density matrix are obtained using a tight binding approach within second quantized Hamiltonian in an intense laser field. We show that adiabatically changing the gate potentials with time may produce (at resonant photon energy) a full inversion of the electron population with high density between valence and conduction bands. In the linear regime, excitonic absorption of an electromagnetic radiation in a graphene monolayer with opened energy gap is also studied.

  11. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis Using Strong Tracking Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of blind source separation (BSS) based on the nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) criterion. An adaptive strong tracking filter (STF) based algorithm was developed, which is immune to system model mismatches. Simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges quickly and has satisfactory steady-state accuracy. The Kalman filtering algorithm and the recursive leastsquares type algorithm are shown to be special cases of the STF algorithm. Since the forgetting factor is adaptively updated by adjustment of the Kalman gain, the STF scheme provides more powerful tracking capability than the Kalman filtering algorithm and recursive least-squares algorithm.

  12. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  13. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  14. Response of MDOF strongly nonlinear systems to fractional Gaussian noises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Mao-Lin; Zhu, Wei-Qiu, E-mail: wqzhu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics, State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Key Laboratory of Soft Machines and Smart Devices of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-08-15

    In the present paper, multi-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear systems are modeled as quasi-Hamiltonian systems and the stochastic averaging method for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (including quasi-non-integrable, completely integrable and non-resonant, completely integrable and resonant, partially integrable and non-resonant, and partially integrable and resonant Hamiltonian systems) driven by fractional Gaussian noise is introduced. The averaged fractional stochastic differential equations (SDEs) are derived. The simulation results for some examples show that the averaged SDEs can be used to predict the response of the original systems and the simulation time for the averaged SDEs is less than that for the original systems.

  15. Nonlinear phononics and structural control of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankowsky, Roman

    2016-01-20

    Mid-infrared light pulses can be used to resonantly excite infrared-active vibrational modes for the phase control of strongly correlated materials on subpicosecond timescales. As the energy is transferred directly into atomic motions, dissipation into the electronic system is reduced, allowing for the emergence of unusual low energy collective properties. Light-induced superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions and melting of magnetic order demonstrate the potential of this method. An understanding of the mechanism, by which these transitions are driven, is however missing. The aim of this work is to uncover this process by investigating the nonlinear lattice dynamics induced by the excitation and to elucidate their contribution to the modulation of collective properties of strongly correlated materials. The first signature of nonlinear lattice dynamics was reported in the observation of coherent phonon oscillations, resonant with the excitation of an infrared-active phonon mode in a manganite. This nonlinear phononic coupling can be described within a model, which predicts not only oscillatory coherent phonons dynamics but also directional atomic displacements along the coupled modes on average, which could cause the previously observed transitions. We verified this directional response and quantified the anharmonic coupling constant by tracing the atomic motions in a time-resolved hard X-ray diffraction experiment with sub-picometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. In a subsequent study, we investigated the role of nonlinear lattice dynamics in the emergence of superconductivity far above the equilibrium transition temperature, an intriguing effect found to follow lattice excitation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the anharmonic coupling constants with time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments, we identified a structural rearrangement, which appears and decays with the same temporal

  16. Nonlinear interaction of charged particles with strong laser pulses in a gaseous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Avetissian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged particles nonlinear dynamics in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave pulse of finite duration and certain form of the envelope, in the refractive medium with a constant and variable refraction indexes, is investigated by means of numerical integration of the classical relativistic equations of motion. The particle energy dependence on the pulse intensity manifests the nonlinear threshold phenomenon of a particle reflection and capture by actual laser pulses in dielectric-gaseous media that takes place for a plane electromagnetic wave in the induced Cherenkov process. Laser acceleration of the particles in the result of the reflection from the pulse envelope and in the capture regime with the variable refraction index along the pulse propagation direction is investigated.

  17. Coulomb Impurity Problem of Graphene in Strong Coupling Regime in Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Yang, S-R Eric

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the Coulomb impurity problem of graphene in strong coupling limit in the presence of magnetic fields. When the strength of the Coulomb potential is sufficiently strong the electron of the lowest energy boundstate of the n = 0 Landau level may fall to the center of the potential. To prevent this spurious effect the Coulomb potential must be regularized. The scaling function for the inverse probability density of this state at the center of the impurity potential is computed in the strong coupling regime. The dependence of the computed scaling function on the regularization parameter changes significantly as the strong coupling regime is approached.

  18. An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Maleknejad, Azadeh, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@cea.fr, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark energy both on the matter fields and on the biased tracers. For the specific case of clustering quintessence, we then perturbatively solve to cubic order the resulting non-linear equations and construct the one-loop power spectrum of the total density contrast.

  19. Preheating ablation effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Don, Wai-Sun; Li, Y. J.

    2010-01-01

    The two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) with and without thermal conduction is investigated by numerical simulation in the weakly nonlinear regime. A preheat model κ(T)=κ SH [1+f(T)] is introduced for the thermal conduction [W. H. Ye, W. Y. Zhang, and X. T. He, Phys. Rev. E 65, 057401 (2002)], where κ SH is the Spitzer-Haerm electron thermal conductivity coefficient and f(T) models the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablation front. The preheating ablation effects on the RTI are studied by comparing the RTI with and without thermal conduction with identical density profile relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is found that the ablation effects strongly influence the mode coupling process, especially with short perturbation wavelength. Overall, the ablation effects stabilize the RTI. First, the linear growth rate is reduced, especially for short perturbation wavelengths and a cutoff wavelength is observed in simulations. Second, the second harmonic generation is reduced for short perturbation wavelengths. Third, the third-order negative feedback to the fundamental mode is strengthened, which plays a stabilization role. Finally, on the contrary, the ablation effects increase the generation of the third harmonic when the perturbation wavelengths are long. Our simulation results indicate that, in the weakly nonlinear regime, the ablation effects are weakened as the perturbation wavelength is increased. Numerical results obtained are in general agreement with the recent weakly nonlinear theories as proposed in [J. Sanz, J. Ramirez, R. Ramis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195002 (2002); J. Garnier, P.-A. Raviart, C. Cherfils-Clerouin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185003 (2003)].

  20. Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqui; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions. Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz model as well as more realistic models of the means and atmosphere. A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter situations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members. The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to be quite puzzling in that results state estimates are worse than for their filter analogue. In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use the Lorenz model to test and compare the behavior of a variety of implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  1. Strongly nonlinear electronic transport in Cr-Si composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, A.T.; Vinzelberg, H.; Schumann, J.; Nakama, T.; Yagasaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    The phase formation, the resistivity and the thermopower of amorphous Cr 0.15 Si 0.85 , and nanocrystalline CrSi 2 -Si thin film composites have been studied. The films were produced by a magnetron sputtering of a composite target onto unheated substrates with subsequent crystallization of the film at high temperatures. As the film composite develops under the heat treatment from the initial amorphous state into the final polycrystalline material, two percolation thresholds were found. At first, the percolating cluster of nanocrystalline CrSi 2 is formed. However, this cluster is destroyed with further annealing due to crystallization and redistribution of Si. The composite films which are close to this insulating threshold reveal a strongly nonlinear conductivity. The conductivity increases with the current by two orders of magnitude

  2. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  3. The Behavior of Filters and Smoothers for Strongly Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqiu; Cohn, Stephen E.; Todling, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal filter in the presence of known Gaussian error statistics and linear dynamics. Filter extension to nonlinear dynamics is non trivial in the sense of appropriately representing high order moments of the statistics. Monte Carlo, ensemble-based, methods have been advocated as the methodology for representing high order moments without any questionable closure assumptions (e.g., Miller 1994). Investigation along these lines has been conducted for highly idealized dynamics such as the strongly nonlinear Lorenz (1963) model as well as more realistic models of the oceans (Evensen and van Leeuwen 1996) and atmosphere (Houtekamer and Mitchell 1998). A few relevant issues in this context are related to the necessary number of ensemble members to properly represent the error statistics and, the necessary modifications in the usual filter equations to allow for correct update of the ensemble members (Burgers 1998). The ensemble technique has also been applied to the problem of smoothing for which similar questions apply. Ensemble smoother examples, however, seem to quite puzzling in that results of state estimate are worse than for their filter analogue (Evensen 1997). In this study, we use concepts in probability theory to revisit the ensemble methodology for filtering and smoothing in data assimilation. We use Lorenz (1963) model to test and compare the behavior of a variety implementations of ensemble filters. We also implement ensemble smoothers that are able to perform better than their filter counterparts. A discussion of feasibility of these techniques to large data assimilation problems will be given at the time of the conference.

  4. Electrically tunable single-dot nanocavities in the weak and strong coupling regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, Arne; Hofbauer, Felix; Angele, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities [1] operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the dot-cavity spectral detuning...... of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 2g...... electrical readout of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system using photocurrent methods will be discussed. This work is financially supported by the DFG via SFB 631 and by the German Excellence Initiative via the “Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM)”....

  5. A Modified Lindstedt–Poincaré Method for a Strongly Nonlinear System with Quadratic and Cubic Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Chen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified Lindstedt–Poincaré method is presented for extending the range of the validity of perturbation expansion to strongly nonlinear oscillations of a system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Different parameter transformations are introduced to deal with equations with different nonlinear characteristics. All examples show that the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are very good.

  6. BGK-type models in strong reaction and kinetic chemical equilibrium regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, R; Bianchi, M Pandolfi; Soares, A J

    2005-01-01

    A BGK-type procedure is applied to multi-component gases undergoing chemical reactions of bimolecular type. The relaxation process towards local Maxwellians, depending on mass and numerical densities of each species as well as common velocity and temperature, is investigated in two different cases with respect to chemical regimes. These cases are related to the strong reaction regime characterized by slow reactions, and to the kinetic chemical equilibrium regime where fast reactions take place. The consistency properties of both models are stated in detail. The trend to equilibrium is numerically tested and comparisons for the two regimes are performed within the hydrogen-air and carbon-oxygen reaction mechanism. In the spatial homogeneous case, it is also shown that the thermodynamical equilibrium of the models recovers satisfactorily the asymptotic equilibrium solutions to the reactive Euler equations

  7. Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian

    2015-06-24

    Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.

  8. Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic disturbances in the equatorial F region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear oscillation regime of electromagnetic dicturbances within equatorial ionosphere F-region resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instability, gradient-drift instability and recombination processes is investigated on the basis of two-liquid quasihydrodynamics equations. It is shown, that at positive linear increment the oscillations are developing in regime with aggregation and are terminated by increment the effect of threshold destabilization, when under certain initial conditions underlgoes oscillation nonlinear swinging, resulting, as well, in bubble formation in contrast to small damping oscillations, is detected

  9. Photon and spin dependence of the resonance line shape in the strong coupling regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyashita, Seiji; Shirai, Tatsuhiko; Mori, Takashi; De Raedt, Hans; Bertaina, Sylvain; Chiorescu, Irinel

    2012-01-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a spin ensemble coupled to cavity photons. Recently, related experimental results have been reported, showing the existence of the strong coupling regime in such systems. We study the eigenenergy distribution of the multi-spin system (following the Tavis-Cummings

  10. Variational Boussinesq model for strongly nonlinear dispersive waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrence, C.; Adytia, D.; van Groesen, E.

    2018-01-01

    For wave tank, coastal and oceanic applications, a fully nonlinear Variational Boussinesq model with optimized dispersion is derived and a simple Finite Element implementation is described. Improving a previous weakly nonlinear version, high waves over flat and varying bottom are shown to be

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors in strong THz electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun

    In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear interactions of an intense terahertz (THz) field with semiconductors, in particular the technologically relevant materials silicon and silicon carbide. We reveal the time-resolved dynamics of the nonlinear processes by pump-probe experiments that involve...

  12. Study of the Higgs-Yukawa theory in the strong-Yukawa coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulava, John; Gerhold, Philipp; Nagy, Attila; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Hou, George W.S.; Smigielski, Brian; Jansen, Karl; Knippschild, Bastian; Univ. of Mainz; Lin, David C.J.; National Centre of Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu; Nagai, Kei-Ichi; Ogawa, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we present an ongoing lattice study of the Higgs-Yukawa model, in the regime of strong-Yukawa coupling, using overlap fermions. We investigated the phase structure in this regime by computing the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and by exploring the finite-size scaling behaviour of the susceptibility corresponding to the magnetisation. Our preliminary results indicate the existence of a second-order phase transition when the Yukawa coupling becomes large enough, at which the Higgs vacuum expectation value vanishes and the susceptibility diverges. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous dressed-state polarization in the strong driving regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Michael A; Miller, Anthony E; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2009-10-23

    We utilize high-bandwidth phase-quadrature homodyne measurement of the light transmitted through a Fabry-Perot cavity, driven strongly and on resonance, to detect excess phase noise induced by a single intracavity atom. We analyze the correlation properties and driving-strength dependence of the atom-induced phase noise to establish that it corresponds to the long-predicted phenomenon of spontaneous dressed-state polarization. Our experiment thus provides a demonstration of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong-driving regime in which one atom interacts strongly with a many-photon cavity field to produce novel quantum stochastic behavior.

  14. Strong convergence of modified Ishikawa iterations for nonlinear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    interval [0, 1]. The second iteration process is referred to as Ishikawa's iteration process [11] which is .... Let E be a smooth Banach space with dual E∗ ..... and applications, in: Theory and Applications of Nonlinear Operators of Accretive and.

  15. Linear and non-linear calculations of the hose instability in the ion-focused regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model is adopted to study the hose instability of an intense relativistic electron beam in a partially neutralized, low density ion channel (ion focused regime). Equations of motion for the beam and the channel are derived and linearized to obtain an approximate dispersion relation. The non-linear equations of motion are then solved numerically and the results compared to linearized data

  16. A study of the cavity polariton under strong excitation:dynamics and nonlinearities in II-VI micro-cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Markus

    2000-01-01

    This work contains an experimental study of the photoluminescence dynamics of cavity polaritons in strong coupling micro-cavities based on II-VI semiconductor compounds. The small exciton size and the strong exciton binding energy in these materials allowed us to study the strong coupling regime between photon and exciton up to high excitation densities, exploring the linear and non-linear emission regimes. Our main experimental techniques are picosecond time-resolved and angular photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the linear regime and for a negative photon-exciton detuning, we observe a suppression of the polariton relaxation by the emission of acoustic phonons leading to a non-equilibrium polariton distribution on the lower branch. This 'bottleneck' effect, which has already been described for polaritons in bulk semiconductors, results from the pronounced photon like character of the polaritons near k(parallel) = 0 in this configuration. At high excitation densities, non-linear relaxation processes, namely final state stimulation of the relaxation and polariton-polariton scattering, bypass this bottleneck giving rise to a very rapid relaxation down to the bottom of the band. We show that this dramatic change in the relaxation dynamics is finally responsible of the super-linear increase of the polariton emission from these states. (author) [fr

  17. Analog quantum simulation of the Rabi model in the ultra-strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumüller, Jochen; Marthaler, Michael; Schneider, Andre; Stehli, Alexander; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V

    2017-10-03

    The quantum Rabi model describes the fundamental mechanism of light-matter interaction. It consists of a two-level atom or qubit coupled to a quantized harmonic mode via a transversal interaction. In the weak coupling regime, it reduces to the well-known Jaynes-Cummings model by applying a rotating wave approximation. The rotating wave approximation breaks down in the ultra-strong coupling regime, where the effective coupling strength g is comparable to the energy ω of the bosonic mode, and remarkable features in the system dynamics are revealed. Here we demonstrate an analog quantum simulation of an effective quantum Rabi model in the ultra-strong coupling regime, achieving a relative coupling ratio of g/ω ~ 0.6. The quantum hardware of the simulator is a superconducting circuit embedded in a cQED setup. We observe fast and periodic quantum state collapses and revivals of the initial qubit state, being the most distinct signature of the synthesized model.An analog quantum simulation scheme has been explored with a quantum hardware based on a superconducting circuit. Here the authors investigate the time evolution of the quantum Rabi model at ultra-strong coupling conditions, which is synthesized by slowing down the system dynamics in an effective frame.

  18. Strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhaoting; Wang, Rong Hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Chung Uang [School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-08-15

    This article investigated the strongly nonlinear free vibration of four edges simply supported stiffened plates with geometric imperfections. The von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships are applied. The nonlinear vibration of stiffened plate is reduced to a one-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system by assuming mode shapes. The Multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) and Modified Lindstedt-Poincare method (MLP) are used to solve the governing equations of vibration. Numerical examples for stiffened plates with different initial geometric imperfections are presented in order to discuss the influences to the strongly nonlinear free vibration of the stiffened plate. The results showed that: the frequency ratio reduced as the initial geometric imperfections of plate increased, which showed that the increase of the initial geometric imperfections of plate can lead to the decrease of nonlinear effect; by comparing the results calculated by MSLP method, using MS method to study strongly nonlinear vibration can lead to serious mistakes.

  19. Nonlinear ion-mixing-mode particle transport in the dissipative trapped electron regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.S.; Terry, P.W.

    1993-09-01

    The nonlinear particle transport arising from the convection of nonadiabatic electron density by ion temperature gradient driven turbulence is examined for trapped electron collisionality regimes. The renormalized dissipative nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density response is derived and used to calculate the nonlinear particle flux along with an ansatz for the turbulently broadened frequency spectrum. In the lower temperature end of this regime, trapped electrons are collisional and all components of the quasilinear particle flux are outward (i.e., in the direction of the gradients). Nonlinear effects can alter the phase between the nonadiabatic trapped electron phase space density and the electrostatic potential, producing inward components in the particle flux. Specifically, both turbulent shifting of the peak of the frequency spectrum and nonlinear source terms in the trapped electron response can give rise to inward components. However, in the dissipative regime these terms are small and the trapped electron response remains dominantly laminar. When the trapped electrons are collisionless, there is a temperature threshold above which the electron temperature gradient driven component of the quasilinear particle flux changes sign and becomes inward. For finite amplitude turbulence, however, turbulent broadening of both the electron collisional resonance and the frequency spectrum removes tills threshold., and the temperature gradient driven component remains outward

  20. Hidden regularity for a strongly nonlinear wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, J.E.M.

    1988-08-01

    The nonlinear wave equation u''-Δu+f(u)=v in Q=Ωx]0,T[;u(0)=u 0 ,u'(0)=u 1 in Ω; u(x,t)=0 on Σ= Γx]0,T[ where f is a continuous function satisfying, lim |s| sup →+∞ f(s)/s>-∞, and Ω is a bounded domain of R n with smooth boundary Γ, is analysed. It is shown that there exist a solution for the presented nonlinear wave equation that satisfies the regularity condition: |∂u/∂ η|ε L 2 (Σ). Moreover, it is shown that there exist a constant C>0 such that, |∂u/∂ η|≤c{ E(0)+|v| 2 Q }. (author) [pt

  1. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of earthquake strong motion duration on nonlinear structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskouris, K.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of motion duration on nonlinear structural response of high-rise, moment resisting frames are studied by subjecting shear beam models of a 10- and a 5-story frame to a series of synthetic accelerograms, all matching the same NEWMARK/HALL design spectrum. Two different hysteretic laws are used for the story springs, and calculations are carried out for target ductility values of 2 and 4. Maximum ductilities reached and energy-based damage indicators (maximum seismically input energy, hysteretically dissipated energy) are evaluated and correlated with the motion characteristics. A reasonable extrapolative determination of structural response characteristics based on these indicators seems possible. (orig.)

  3. Current structure of strongly nonlinear interfacial solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semin, Sergey; Kurkina, Oxana; Kurkin, Andrey; Talipova, Tatiana; Pelinovsky, Efim; Churaev, Egor

    2015-04-01

    The characteristics of highly nonlinear solitary internal waves (solitons) in two-layer flow are computed within the fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with use of numerical model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITgcm). The verification and adaptation of the model is based on the data from laboratory experiments [Carr & Davies, 2006]. The present paper also compares the results of our calculations with the computations performed in the framework of the fully nonlinear Bergen Ocean Model [Thiem et al, 2011]. The comparison of the computed soliton parameters with the predictions of the weakly nonlinear theory based on the Gardner equation is given. The occurrence of reverse flow in the bottom layer directly behind the soliton is confirmed in numerical simulations. The trajectories of Lagrangian particles in the internal soliton on the surface, on the interface and near the bottom are computed. The results demonstrated completely different trajectories at different depths of the model area. Thus, in the surface layer is observed the largest displacement of Lagrangian particles, which can be more than two and a half times larger than the characteristic width of the soliton. Located at the initial moment along the middle pycnocline fluid particles move along the elongated vertical loop at a distance of not more than one third of the width of the solitary wave. In the bottom layer of the fluid moves in the opposite direction of propagation of the internal wave, but under the influence of the reverse flow, when the bulk of the velocity field of the soliton ceases to influence the trajectory, it moves in the opposite direction. The magnitude of displacement of fluid particles in the bottom layer is not more than the half-width of the solitary wave. 1. Carr, M., and Davies, P.A. The motion of an internal solitary wave of depression over a fixed bottom boundary in a shallow, two-layer fluid. Phys. Fluids, 2006, vol. 18, No. 1, 1 - 10. 2. Thiem, O., Carr

  4. Wave propagation in a strongly nonlinear locally resonant granular crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotnikov, K.; Starosvetsky, Y.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we study the wave propagation in a recently proposed acoustic structure, the locally resonant granular crystal. This structure is composed of a one-dimensional granular crystal of hollow spherical particles in contact, containing linear resonators. The relevant model is presented and examined through a combination of analytical approximations (based on ODE and nonlinear map analysis) and of numerical results. The generic dynamics of the system involves a degradation of the well-known traveling pulse of the standard Hertzian chain of elastic beads. Nevertheless, the present system is richer, in that as the primary pulse decays, secondary ones emerge and eventually interfere with it creating modulated wavetrains. Remarkably, upon suitable choices of parameters, this interference "distills" a weakly nonlocal solitary wave (a "nanopteron"). This motivates the consideration of such nonlinear structures through a separate Fourier space technique, whose results suggest the existence of such entities not only with a single-side tail, but also with periodic tails on both ends. These tails are found to oscillate with the intrinsic oscillation frequency of the out-of-phase motion between the outer hollow bead and its internal linear attachment.

  5. A non-linear theory of strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    A non-linear theory of mesons, nucleons and hyperons is proposed. The three independent fields of the usual symmetrical pseudo-scalar pion field are replaced by the three directions of a four-component field vector of constant length, conceived in an Euclidean four-dimensional isotopic spin space. This length provides the universal scaling factor, all other constants being dimensionless; the mass of the meson field is generated by a φ 4 term; this destroys the continuous rotation group in the iso-space, leaving a 'cubic' symmetry group. Classification of states by this group introduces quantum numbers corresponding to isotopic spin and to 'strangeness'; one consequences is that, at least in elementary interactions, charge is only conserved module 4. Furthermore, particle states have not a well-defined parity, but parity is effectively conserved for meson-nucleon interactions. A simplified model, using only two dimensions of space and iso-space, is considered further; the non-linear meson field has solutions with particle character, and an indication is given of the way in which the particle field variables might be introduced as collective co-ordinates describing the dynamics of these particular solutions of the meson field equations, suggesting a unified theory based on the meson field alone. (author). 7 refs

  6. Spectral transformations in the regime of pulse self-trapping in a nonlinear photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitsky, Denis V.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interaction of a femtosecond light pulse with a one-dimensional photonic crystal with relaxing cubic nonlinearity in the regime of self-trapping. By use of numerical simulations, it is shown that, under certain conditions, the spectra of reflected and transmitted light possess the properties of narrowband (quasimonochromatic) or wideband (continuumlike) radiation. It is remarkable that these spectral features appear due to a significant frequency shift and occur inside a photonic band gap of the structure under investigation.

  7. Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet K

    2016-01-01

    This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media.  The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...

  8. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs in strongly diffusive regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of systematic optical pump–terahertz probe experiments, we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in the regime of strong carrier diffusion. The terahertz frequency-resolved transient sheet conductivity spectra are perfectly described by the Drude...... model, directly yielding the electron scattering rates. A diffusion model is applied to determine the spatial extent of the photoexcited electron-hole gas at each moment after photoexcitation, yielding the time-dependent electron density, and hence the density-dependent electron scattering time. We find...

  9. Nonlinear Weibel Instability and Turbulence in Strong Collisionless Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Mikhail M.

    2008-01-01

    This research project was devoted to studies of collisionless shocks, their properties, microphysics and plasma physics of underlying phenomena, such as Weibel instability and generation of small-scale fields at shocks, particle acceleration and transport in the generated random fields, radiation mechanisms from these fields in application to astrophysical phenomena and laboratory experiments (e.g., laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions, the fast ignition and inertial confinement, etc.). Thus, this study is highly relevant to astrophysical sciences, the inertial confinement program and, in particular, the Fast Ignition concept, etc. It makes valuable contributions to the shock physics, nonlinear plasma theory, as well as to the basic plasma science, in general

  10. Interface width effect on the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Li, Y. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the interface width effects (i.e., the density gradient effects or the density transition layer effects) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in the weakly nonlinear (WN) regime are investigated by numerical simulation (NS). It is found that the interface width effects dramatically influence the linear growth rate in the linear growth regime and the mode coupling process in the WN growth regime. First, the interface width effects decrease the linear growth rate of the RTI, particularly for the short perturbation wavelengths. Second, the interface width effects suppress (reduce) the third-order feedback to the fundamental mode, which induces the nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) to exceed the classical prediction, 0.1λ. The wider the density transition layer is, the larger the NSA is. The NSA in our NS can reach a half of its perturbation wavelength. Finally, the interface width effects suppress the generation and the growth of the second and the third harmonics. The ability to suppress the harmonics' growth increases with the interface width but decreases with the perturbation wavelength. On the whole, in the WN regime, the interface width effects stabilize the RTI, except for an enhancement of the NSA, which is expected to improve the understanding of the formation mechanism for the astrophysical jets, and for the jetlike long spikes in the high energy density physics.

  11. Ishikawa iteration process for nonlinear Lipschitz strongly accretive mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1994-05-01

    Let E=L p , p≥2 and let T:E→ E be a Lipschitzian and strongly accretive mapping. Let S:E → E be defined by Sx=f-Tx+x. It is proved that under suitable conditions on the real sequences {α n } ∞ n=0 and {β n } ∞ n=0 , the iteration process, x 0 is an element of E, x n+1 =(1-α n ) x n +α n S[(1-β n ) x n +β n Sx n ], n≥0, converges strongly to the unique solution of Tx=f. A related result deals with the iterative approximation of fixed points for Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings in E. A consequence of our results gives an affirmative answer to a problem posed by one of the authors in 1990. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 151, 2 (1990) p. 460). (author). 36 refs

  12. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation on frequency conversion by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in the low-conversion regime. We derive the Green functions for this process using the time-domain collision method, for partial collisions, in which the four fields...... interact at the beginning or the end of the fiber, and complete collisions, in which the four fields interact at the midpoint of the fiber. If the Green function is separable, there is only one output Schmidt mode, which is free from temporal entanglement. We find that nonlinear phase modulation always...... chirps the input and output Schmidt modes and renders the Green function formally nonseparable. However, by pre-chirping the pumps, one can reduce the chirps of the Schmidt modes and enable approximate separability. Thus, even in the presence of nonlinear phase modulation, frequency conversion...

  13. Nonlinear hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for strong viscous fluids in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    El-Dib, Y O

    2003-01-01

    In the present work a weakly nonlinear stability for magnetic fluid is discussed. The research of an interface between two strong viscous homogeneous incompressible fluids through porous medium is investigated theoretically and graphically. The effect of the vertical magnetic field has been demonstrated in this study. The linear form of equation of motion is solved in the light of the nonlinear boundary conditions. The boundary value problem leads to construct nonlinear characteristic equation having complex coefficients in elevation function. The nonlinearity is kept to third-order expansion. The nonlinear characteristic equation leads to derive the well-known nonlinear Schroedinger equation. This equation having complex coefficients of the disturbance amplitude varies in both space and time. Stability criteria have been performed for nonlinear Chanderasekhar dispersion relation including the porous effects. Stability conditions are discussed through the assumption of equal kinematic viscosity. The calculati...

  14. Weak and Strong Order of Convergence of a Semidiscrete Scheme for the Stochastic Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouard, Anne de; Debussche, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    In this article we analyze the error of a semidiscrete scheme for the stochastic nonlinear Schrodinger equation with power nonlinearity. We consider supercritical or subcritical nonlinearity and the equation can be either focusing or defocusing. Allowing sufficient spatial regularity we prove that the numerical scheme has strong order 1/2 in general and order 1 if the noise is additive. Furthermore, we also prove that the weak order is always 1

  15. Iterative solution of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1991-10-01

    Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Suppose T:K→K is a strongly accretive map such that for each f is an element of K the equation Tx=f has a solution in K. It is proved that each of the two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to a solution of the equation Tx=f. Furthermore, our method shows that such a solution is necessarily unique. Explicit error estimates are given. Our results resolve in the affirmative two open problems (J. Math. Anal. Appl. Vol 151(2) (1990), p. 460) and generalize important known results. (author). 32 refs

  16. Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.

  17. Integrable parameter regimes and stationary states of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known Hacute enon endash Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. Laser light triggers increased Raman amplification in the regime of nonlinear Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Yahia, V.; Loisel, G.; Labaune, C.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS) has many unwanted effects in megajoule-scale inertially confined fusion (ICF) plasmas. Moreover, attempts to harness SRS to amplify short laser pulses through backward Raman amplification have achieved limited success. In high temperature fusion plasmas, SRS usually occurs in a kinetic regime where the nonlinear response of the Langmuir wave to the laser drive and its host of complicating factors make it difficult to predict the degree of amplification that can be achieved under given experimental conditions. Here we present experimental evidence of reduced Landau damping with increasing Langmuir wave amplitude and determine its effects on Raman amplification. The threshold for trapping effects to influence the amplification is shown to be very low. Above threshold, the complex SRS dynamics results in increased amplification factors, which partly explains previous ICF experiments. These insights could aid the development of more efficient backward Raman amplification schemes in this regime. (authors)

  19. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  20. Laser and Plasma Parameters for Laser Pulse Amplification by Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the Strong Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangolf, Thomas; Blecher, Marius; Bolanos, Simon; Lancia, Livia; Marques, Jean-Raphael; Cerchez, Mirela; Prasad, Rajendra; Aurand, Bastian; Loiseau, Pascal; Fuchs, Julien; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    In the ongoing quest for novel techniques to obtain ever higher laser powers, plasma amplification has drawn much attention, benefiting from the fact that a plasma can sustain much higher energy densities than a solid state amplifier. As a plasma process, Stimulated Brillouin Backscattering in the strong coupling regime (sc-SBS) can be used to transfer energy from one laser pulse (pump) to another (seed), by a nonlinear ion oscillation forced by the pump laser. Here, we report on experimental results on amplification by sc-SBS using the ARCTURUS Ti:Sapphire multi-beam laser system at the University of Duesseldorf, Germany. Counter-propagating in a supersonic Hydrogen gas jet target, an ultrashort seed pulse with a pulse duration between 30 and 160 fs and an energy between 1 and 12 mJ was amplified by a high-energy pump pulse (1.7 ps, 700 mJ). For some of the measurements, the gas was pre-ionized with a separate laser pulse (780 fs, 460 mJ). Preliminary analysis shows that the amplification was larger for the longer seed pulses, consistent with theoretical predictions.

  1. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati-fard, T; Vazifehshenas, T

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field. (paper)

  2. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany); Baldi, Marco, E-mail: casas@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: mail@marcobaldi.it, E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: vollmer@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, I-40127 Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  3. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β 2 , with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications

  4. On weakly singular and fully nonlinear travelling shallow capillary–gravity waves in the critical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-25

    In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.

  5. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.; Obayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment called MINIX was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objectives of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere such as the Ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no Ohmic heating effects were detected. 4 figures.

  6. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    A rocket-borne experiment called 'MINIX' was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction eXperiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objective of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere, such as the ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no ohmic heating effects were detected.

  7. Nonlinear interaction of strong microwave beam with the ionosphere MINIX rocket experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.; Obayashi, T.

    1986-01-01

    A rocket-borne experiment called MINIX was carried out to investigate the nonlinear interaction of a strong microwave energy beam with the ionosphere. The MINIX stands for Microwave-Ionosphere Nonlinear Interaction Experiment and was carried out on August 29, 1983. The objectives of the MINIX is to study possible impacts of the SPS microwave energy beam on the ionosphere such as the Ohmic heating and plasma wave excitation. The experiment showed that the microwave with f = 2.45 GHz nonlinearly excites various electrostatic plasma waves, though no Ohmic heating effects were detected. 4 figures

  8. Inducing Strong Non-Linearities in a Phonon Trapping Quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Coupled to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Goryachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A quartz Bulk Acoustic Wave resonator is designed to coherently trap phonons in such a way that they are well confined and immune to suspension losses so they exhibit extremely high acoustic Q-factors at low temperature, with Q × f products of order 10 18 Hz. In this work we couple such a resonator to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID amplifier and investigate effects in the strong signal regime. Both parallel and series connection topologies of the system are investigated. The study reveals significant non-Duffing response that is associated with the nonlinear characteristics of Josephson junctions. The nonlinearity provides quasi-periodic structure of the spectrum in both incident power and frequency. The result gives an insight into the open loop behaviour of a future Cryogenic Quartz Oscillator in the strong signal regime.

  9. Engineering light emission of two-dimensional materials in both the weak and strong coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Ballesteros, Guillem C.; Gerardot, Brian D.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have promising applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and quantum technologies. However, their intrinsically low light absorption limits their performance, and potential devices must be accurately engineered for optimal operation. Here, we apply a transfer matrix-based source-term method to optimize light absorption and emission in 2D materials and related devices in weak and strong coupling regimes. The implemented analytical model accurately accounts for experimental results reported for representative 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. The model has been extended to propose structures to optimize light emission by exciton recombination in MoS2 single layers, light extraction from arbitrarily oriented dipole monolayers, and single-photon emission in 2D materials. Also, it has been successfully applied to retrieve exciton-cavity interaction parameters from MoS2 microcavity experiments. The present model appears as a powerful and versatile tool for the design of new optoelectronic devices based on 2D semiconductors such as quantum light sources and polariton lasers.

  10. Lasing by driven atoms-cavity system in collective strong coupling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A

    2017-09-12

    The interaction of laser cooled atoms with resonant light is determined by the natural linewidth of the excited state. An optical cavity is another optically resonant system where the loss from the cavity determines the resonant optical response of the system. The near resonant combination of an optical Fabry-Pérot cavity with laser cooled and trapped atoms couples two distinct optical resonators via light and has great potential for precision measurements and the creation of versatile quantum optics systems. Here we show how driven magneto-optically trapped atoms in collective strong coupling regime with the cavity leads to lasing at a frequency red detuned from the atomic transition. Lasing is demonstrated experimentally by the observation of a lasing threshold accompanied by polarization and spatial mode purity, and line-narrowing in the outcoupled light. Spontaneous emission into the cavity mode by the driven atoms stimulates lasing action, which is capable of operating as a continuous wave laser in steady state, without a seed laser. The system is modeled theoretically, and qualitative agreement with experimentally observed lasing is seen. Our result opens up a range of new measurement possibilities with this system.

  11. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the I-mode high confinement regime and comparisons with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A. E., E-mail: whitea@mit.edu; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego (UCSD) San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Candy, J.; Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [York University, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.

  12. On the properties of two pulses propagating simultaneously in different dispersion regimes in a nonlinear planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    Properties of two pulses propagating simultaneously in different dispersion regimes, anomalous and normal, in a Kerr-type planar waveguide are studied. It is found that the presence of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime can cause termination of catastrophic self-focusing of the pulse propagating in anomalous regime. It is also shown that the coupling between pulses can lead to spatio-temporal splitting of the pulse propagating in anomalous dispersion regime, but it does not lead to catastrophic self-focusing of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime. For the limiting case when the dispersive term of the pulse propagating in normal dispersion regime can be neglected an indication (based on the variational estimation) to a possibility of a stable self-trapped propagation of both pulses is obtained. This stabilization is similar to the one which was found earlier in media with saturation-type nonlinearity. (author)

  13. Approximating the amplitude and form of limit cycles in the weakly nonlinear regime of Lienard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.L.; Lopez-Ruiz, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lienard equations, x+εf(x)x+x=0, with f(x) an even continuous function are considered. In the weak nonlinear regime (ε->0), the number and O(ε 0 ) approximation of the amplitude of limit cycles present in this type of systems, can be obtained by applying a methodology recently proposed by the authors [Lopez-Ruiz R, Lopez JL. Bifurcation curves of limit cycles in some Lienard systems. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 2000;10:971-80]. In the present work, that method is carried forward to higher orders in ε and is embedded in a general recursive algorithm capable to approximate the form of the limit cycles and to correct their amplitudes as an expansion in powers of ε. Several examples showing the application of this scheme are given

  14. Chimera regimes in a ring of oscillators with local nonlinear interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Igor A.; Zakharova, Anna; Vadivasova, Tatiana E.

    2017-03-01

    One of important problems concerning chimera states is the conditions of their existence and stability. Until now, it was assumed that chimeras could arise only in ensembles with nonlocal character of interactions. However, this assumption is not exactly right. In some special cases chimeras can be realized for local type of coupling [1-3]. We propose a simple model of ensemble with local coupling when chimeras are realized. This model is a ring of linear oscillators with the local nonlinear unidirectional interaction. Chimera structures in the ring are found using computer simulations for wide area of values of parameters. Diagram of the regimes on plane of control parameters is plotted and scenario of chimera destruction are studied when the parameters are changed.

  15. Numerical investigation of beam-driven PWFA in quasi-nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londrillo, P.; Gatti, C.; Ferrario, M.

    2014-01-01

    In beam-driven Plasma Based Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA), the quasi-nonlinear model has been designed to combine high efficient ‘blowout’ regimes, where cold and overdense driving electron beams form a totally rarefied plasma channel, with low charge beam distribution assuring the excited wakefield preserves relevant linear properties. This scheme can have applications in experimental facilities, like SPARC 150 MeV linac at LNF-INFN laboratories, where low-emittance, low-charge narrow electron beams can be produced to be injected on a preformed plasma channel. Here we present a preliminary numerical investigation of this configuration, using the fully 3D ALaDyn PIC code, as a preparatory work to design optimal conditions for the COMB experimental set-up. Specific numerical tools, having computational and diagnostic advantages in PWFA conditions and checks of the numerical outcomes with analytical results, are also presented and discussed

  16. Cosmological N-body simulations with a tree code - Fluctuations in the linear and nonlinear regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginohara, Tatsushi; Suto, Yasushi; Bouchet, F.R.; Hernquist, L.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational systems is studied numerically in a cosmological context using a hierarchical tree algorithm with fully periodic boundary conditions. The simulations employ 262,144 particles, which are initially distributed according to scale-free power spectra. The subsequent evolution is followed in both flat and open universes. With this large number of particles, the discretized system can accurately model the linear phase. It is shown that the dynamics in the nonlinear regime depends on both the spectral index n and the density parameter Omega. In Omega = 1 universes, the evolution of the two-point correlation function Xi agrees well with similarity solutions for Xi greater than about 100 but its slope is steeper in open models with the same n. 28 refs

  17. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  18. Sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter and its application in eye tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu-Tao, Zhang; Jia-Shu, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The unscented Kalman filter is a developed well-known method for nonlinear motion estimation and tracking. However, the standard unscented Kalman filter has the inherent drawbacks, such as numerical instability and much more time spent on calculation in practical applications. In this paper, we present a novel sampling strong tracking nonlinear unscented Kalman filter, aiming to overcome the difficulty in nonlinear eye tracking. In the above proposed filter, the simplified unscented transform sampling strategy with n + 2 sigma points leads to the computational efficiency, and suboptimal fading factor of strong tracking filtering is introduced to improve robustness and accuracy of eye tracking. Compared with the related unscented Kalman filter for eye tracking, the proposed filter has potential advantages in robustness, convergence speed, and tracking accuracy. The final experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  19. A novel strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter for nonlinear eye tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZuTao; ZHANG JiaShu

    2009-01-01

    Non-Intrusive methods for eye tracking are Important for many applications of vision-based human computer interaction. However, due to the high nonlinearity of eye motion, how to ensure the robust-ness of external interference and accuracy of eye tracking poses the primary obstacle to the integration of eye movements into today's interfaces. In this paper, we present a strong tracking finite-difference extended Kalman filter algorithm, aiming to overcome the difficulty In modeling nonlinear eye tracking. In filtering calculation, strong tracking factor is introduced to modify a priori covariance matrix and im-prove the accuracy of the filter. The filter uses finite-difference method to calculate partial derivatives of nonlinear functions for eye tracking. The latest experimental results show the validity of our method for eye tracking under realistic conditions.

  20. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...

  1. The focal boundary value problem for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Půža, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, January (2015), s. 17 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order nonlinear functional-differential equations * two-point right-focal boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.642, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13661-014-0277-1

  2. Phase mixing of transverse oscillations in the linear and nonlinear regimes for IFR relativistic electron beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokair, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    Phase mixing of transverse oscillations changes the nature of the ion hose instability from an absolute to a convective instability. The stronger the phase mixing, the faster an electron beam reaches equilibrium with the guiding ion channel. This is important for long distance propagation of relativistic electron beams where it is desired that transverse oscillations phase mix within a few betatron wavelengths of injection and subsequently an equilibrium is reached with no further beam emittance growth. In the linear regime phase mixing is well understood and results in asymptotic decay of transverse oscillations as 1/Z 2 for a Gaussian beam and channel system, Z being the axial distance measured in betatron wavelengths. In the nonlinear regime (which is likely mode of propagation for long pulse beams) results of the spread mass model indicate that phase mixing is considerably weaker than in the regime. In this paper we consider this problem of phase mixing in the nonlinear regime. Results of the spread mass model will be shown along with a simple analysis of phase mixing for multiple oscillator models. Particle simulations also indicate that phase mixing is weaker in nonlinear regime than in the linear regime. These results will also be shown. 3 refs., 4 figs

  3. Supercritical Nonlinear Vibration of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Subjected to a Strong External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vibration of a fluid-conveying pipe subjected to a transverse external harmonic excitation is investigated in the case with two-to-one internal resonance. The excitation amplitude is in the same magnitude of the transverse displacement. The fluid in the pipes flows in the speed larger than the critical speed so that the straight configuration becomes an unstable equilibrium and two curved configurations bifurcate as stable equilibriums. The motion measured from each of curved equilibrium configurations is governed by a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation with variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed to discretize the governing equation into a gyroscopic system consisting of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is applied to analyze approximately the gyroscopic system. A set of first-order ordinary differential equations governing the modulations of the amplitude and the phase are derived via the method. In the supercritical regime, the subharmonic, superharmonic, and combination resonances are examined in the presence of the 2 : 1 internal resonance. The steady-state responses and their stabilities are determined. The various jump phenomena in the amplitude-frequency response curves are demonstrated. The effects of the viscosity, the excitation amplitude, the nonlinearity, and the flow speed are observed. The analytical results are supported by the numerical integration.

  4. Magnetic field fluctuations analysis for the ion trap implementation of the quantum Rabi model in the deep strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Rabi model (QRM) in the deep strong coupling regime is theoretically analyzed in a trapped-ion set-up. Recognizably, the main hallmark of this regime is the emergence of collapses and revivals, whose faithful observation is hindered under realistic magnetic dephasing noise. Here, we discuss how to attain a faithful implementation of the QRM in the deep strong coupling regime which is robust against magnetic field fluctuations and at the same time provides a large tunability of the simulated parameters. This is achieved by combining standing wave laser configuration with continuous dynamical decoupling. In addition, we study the role that amplitude fluctuations play to correctly attain the QRM using the proposed method. In this manner, the present work further supports the suitability of continuous dynamical decoupling techniques in trapped-ion settings to faithfully realize different interacting dynamics.

  5. Optical Control of Mechanical Mode-Coupling within a MoS2 Resonator in the Strong-Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Hua; Kim, In Soo; Lauhon, Lincoln J

    2015-10-14

    Two-dimensional (2-D) materials including graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are an exciting platform for ultrasensitive force and displacement detection in which the strong light-matter coupling is exploited in the optical control of nanomechanical motion. Here we report the optical excitation and displacement detection of a ∼ 3 nm thick MoS2 resonator in the strong-coupling regime, which has not previously been achieved in 2-D materials. Mechanical mode frequencies can be tuned by more than 12% by optical heating, and they exhibit avoided crossings indicative of strong intermode coupling. When the membrane is optically excited at the frequency difference between vibrational modes, normal mode splitting is observed, and the intermode energy exchange rate exceeds the mode decay rate by a factor of 15. Finite element and analytical modeling quantifies the extent of mode softening necessary to control intermode energy exchange in the strong coupling regime.

  6. A nonlinear efficient layerwise finite element model for smart piezolaminated composites under strong applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapuria, S; Yaqoob Yasin, M

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we present an electromechanically coupled efficient layerwise finite element model for the static response of piezoelectric laminated composite and sandwich plates, considering the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric materials under strong electric field. The nonlinear model is developed consistently using a variational principle, considering a rotationally invariant second order nonlinear constitutive relationship, and full electromechanical coupling. In the piezoelectric layer, the electric potential is approximated to have a quadratic variation across the thickness, as observed from exact three dimensional solutions, and the equipotential condition of electroded piezoelectric surfaces is modeled using the novel concept of an electric node. The results predicted by the nonlinear model compare very well with the experimental data available in the literature. The effect of the piezoelectric nonlinearity on the static response and deflection/stress control is studied for piezoelectric bimorph as well as hybrid laminated plates with isotropic, angle-ply composite and sandwich substrates. For high electric fields, the difference between the nonlinear and linear predictions is large, and cannot be neglected. The error in the prediction of the smeared counterpart of the present theory with the same number of primary displacement unknowns is also examined. (paper)

  7. Nonlinear propagation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on nonlinear propagation of single-cycle THz pulses with peak electric fields reaching 300 kV/cm in n-type semiconductors at room temperature. Dramatic THz saturable absorption effects are observed in GaAs, GaP, and Ge, which are caused by the nonlinear electron transport in THz fields....... The semiconductor conductivity, and hence the THz absorption, is modulated due to the acceleration of carriers in strong THz fields, leading to an increase of the effective mass of the electron population, as the electrons are redistributed from the low-momentum, low-effective-mass states to the high-momentum, high...

  8. Existence regimes for the formation of nonlinear dissipative structures in inhomogeneous magnetoplasmas with non-Maxwellian electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, W.; Zahoor, Sara; Gul-e-Ali, Ahmad, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear dissipative structures are studied in one and two dimensions in nonuniform magnetized plasmas with non-Maxwellian electrons. The dissipation is incorporated in the system through ion-neutral collisions. Employing the drift approximation, nonlinear drift waves are derived in 1D, whereas coupled drift-ion acoustic waves are derived in 2D in the weak nonlinearity limit. It is found that the ratio of the diamagnetic drift velocity to the velocity of nonlinear structure determines the nature (compressive or rarefactive) of the shock structure. The upper and lower bounds for velocity of the nonlinear shock structures are also found. It is noticed that the existence regimes for the drift shock waves in one and two dimensions for Cairns distributed electrons are very distinct from those with kappa distributed electrons. Interestingly, it is found that both compressive and rarefactive shock structures could be obtained for the one dimensional drift waves with kappa distributed electrons.

  9. Existence regimes for the formation of nonlinear dissipative structures in inhomogeneous magnetoplasmas with non-Maxwellian electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, W. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zahoor, Sara [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gul-e-Ali [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, Ali, E-mail: aliahmad79@hotmail.com [National Centre for Physics, Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear dissipative structures are studied in one and two dimensions in nonuniform magnetized plasmas with non-Maxwellian electrons. The dissipation is incorporated in the system through ion-neutral collisions. Employing the drift approximation, nonlinear drift waves are derived in 1D, whereas coupled drift-ion acoustic waves are derived in 2D in the weak nonlinearity limit. It is found that the ratio of the diamagnetic drift velocity to the velocity of nonlinear structure determines the nature (compressive or rarefactive) of the shock structure. The upper and lower bounds for velocity of the nonlinear shock structures are also found. It is noticed that the existence regimes for the drift shock waves in one and two dimensions for Cairns distributed electrons are very distinct from those with kappa distributed electrons. Interestingly, it is found that both compressive and rarefactive shock structures could be obtained for the one dimensional drift waves with kappa distributed electrons.

  10. LINKING TESTS OF GRAVITY ON ALL SCALES: FROM THE STRONG-FIELD REGIME TO COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Tessa [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Skordis, Constantinos, E-mail: tessa.baker@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-20

    The current effort to test general relativity (GR) employs multiple disparate formalisms for different observables, obscuring the relations between laboratory, astrophysical, and cosmological constraints. To remedy this situation, we develop a parameter space for comparing tests of gravity on all scales in the universe. In particular, we present new methods for linking cosmological large-scale structure, the cosmic microwave background, and gravitational waves with classic PPN tests of gravity. Diagrams of this gravitational parameter space reveal a noticeable untested regime. The untested window, which separates small-scale systems from the troubled cosmological regime, could potentially hide the onset of corrections to GR.

  11. A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear stochastic vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Gen; Li, ZePeng

    2016-01-01

    A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators under white noise excitations with strongly nonlinearity was proposed. Considering the existing approach dealing with strongly nonlinear SDOFs derived by Zhu and Huang [14, 15] is quite time consuming in calculating the drift coefficient and diffusion coefficients and the expressions of them are considerable long, the so-called He's energy balance method was applied to overcome the minor defect of the Zhu and Huang's method. The modified method can offer more concise approximate expressions of the drift and diffusion coefficients without weakening the accuracy of predicting the responses of the systems too much by giving an averaged frequency beforehand. Three examples, a cubic and quadratic nonlinearity coexisting oscillator, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator under external white noise excitations and an externally excited Duffing–Rayleigh oscillator, were given to illustrate the approach we proposed. The three examples were excited by the Gaussian white noise and the Gaussian colored noise separately. The stationary responses of probability density of amplitudes and energy, together with joint probability density of displacement and velocity are studied to verify the presented approach. The reliability of the systems were also investigated to offer further support. Digital simulations were carried out and the output of that are coincide with the theoretical approximations well.

  12. The breakdown of the weakly-nonlinear regime for kinetic instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Orozco, David; Berk, Herbert; Wang, Ge

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of marginally-unstable waves that interact resonantly with populations of energetic particles is governed by a well-known cubic integro-differential equation for the mode amplitude. One of the outcomes predicted by the equation is the so-called ``explosive'' regime, where the amplitude grows indefinitely, eventually taking the equation outside of its domain of validity. Beyond this point, only full Vlasov simulations will accurately describe the evolution of the mode amplitude. In this work, we study the breakdown of the cubic equation in detail. We find that, while the cubic equation is still valid, the distribution function of the energetic particles locally flattens or ``folds'' in phase space. This feature is unexpected in view of the assumptions of the theory that are given in. We also derive fifth-order terms in the wave equation, which not only give us a more accurate description of the marginally-unstable modes, but they also allow us to predict the breakdown of the cubic equation. Our findings allow us to better understand the transition between weakly-nonlinear modes and the long-term chirping modes that ultimately emerge.

  13. Gravitational wave emission from a bounded source: A treatment in the full nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveiral, H.P. de; Damiao Soares, I.

    2004-03-01

    The dynamics of a bounded gravitational collapsing configuration emitting gravitational waves is studied. The exterior spacetime is described by Robinson-Trautman geometries and have the Schwarzschild black hole as its final gravitational configuration, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The full nonlinear regime is examined by using the Galerkin method that allows us to reduce the equations governing the dynamics to a finite-dimensional dynamical system, after a proper truncation procedure. Gravitational wave emission patterns from given initial configurations are exhibited for several phases of the collapse and the mass-loss ratio that characterizes the amount of mass extracted by the gravitational wave emission is evaluated. We obtain that the smaller initial mass M init of the configuration, the more rapidly the Schwarzschild solution is attained and a larger fraction of M init is lost in the process of gravitational wave emission. Within all our numerical experiments, the distribution of the mass fraction extracted by gravitational wave emission is shown to satisfy the distribution law of nonextensive statistics and this result is independent of the initial configurations considered. (author)

  14. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  15. Seasonality of fire weather strongly influences fire regimes in South Florida savanna-grassland landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Platt

    Full Text Available Fire seasonality, an important characteristic of fire regimes, commonly is delineated using seasons based on single weather variables (rainfall or temperature. We used nonparametric cluster analyses of a 17-year (1993-2009 data set of weather variables that influence likelihoods and spread of fires (relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture to explore seasonality of fire in pine savanna-grassland landscapes at the Avon Park Air Force Range in southern Florida. A four-variable, three-season model explained more variation within fire weather variables than models with more seasons. The three-season model also delineated intra-annual timing of fire more accurately than a conventional rainfall-based two-season model. Two seasons coincided roughly with dry and wet seasons based on rainfall. The third season, which we labeled the fire season, occurred between dry and wet seasons and was characterized by fire-promoting conditions present annually: drought, intense solar radiation, low humidity, and warm air temperatures. Fine fuels consisting of variable combinations of pyrogenic pine needles, abundant C4 grasses, and flammable shrubs, coupled with low soil moisture, and lightning ignitions early in the fire season facilitate natural landscape-scale wildfires that burn uplands and across wetlands. We related our three season model to fires with different ignition sources (lightning, military missions, and prescribed fires over a 13-year period with fire records (1997-2009. Largest wildfires originate from lightning and military ignitions that occur within the early fire season substantially prior to the peak of lightning strikes in the wet season. Prescribed ignitions, in contrast, largely occur outside the fire season. Our delineation of a pronounced fire season provides insight into the extent to which different human-derived fire regimes mimic lightning fire regimes. Delineation of a fire season associated with

  16. Seasonality of Fire Weather Strongly Influences Fire Regimes in South Florida Savanna-Grassland Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, William J.; Orzell, Steve L.; Slocum, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Fire seasonality, an important characteristic of fire regimes, commonly is delineated using seasons based on single weather variables (rainfall or temperature). We used nonparametric cluster analyses of a 17-year (1993–2009) data set of weather variables that influence likelihoods and spread of fires (relative humidity, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, soil moisture) to explore seasonality of fire in pine savanna-grassland landscapes at the Avon Park Air Force Range in southern Florida. A four-variable, three-season model explained more variation within fire weather variables than models with more seasons. The three-season model also delineated intra-annual timing of fire more accurately than a conventional rainfall-based two-season model. Two seasons coincided roughly with dry and wet seasons based on rainfall. The third season, which we labeled the fire season, occurred between dry and wet seasons and was characterized by fire-promoting conditions present annually: drought, intense solar radiation, low humidity, and warm air temperatures. Fine fuels consisting of variable combinations of pyrogenic pine needles, abundant C4 grasses, and flammable shrubs, coupled with low soil moisture, and lightning ignitions early in the fire season facilitate natural landscape-scale wildfires that burn uplands and across wetlands. We related our three season model to fires with different ignition sources (lightning, military missions, and prescribed fires) over a 13-year period with fire records (1997–2009). Largest wildfires originate from lightning and military ignitions that occur within the early fire season substantially prior to the peak of lightning strikes in the wet season. Prescribed ignitions, in contrast, largely occur outside the fire season. Our delineation of a pronounced fire season provides insight into the extent to which different human-derived fire regimes mimic lightning fire regimes. Delineation of a fire season associated with timing of

  17. Non-linear regime shifts in Holocene Asian monsoon variability: potential impacts on cultural change and migratory patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2015-05-01

    The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.

  18. HIGH-PRECISION PREDICTIONS FOR THE ACOUSTIC SCALE IN THE NONLINEAR REGIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Eckel, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Mehta, Kushal; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Phillip; Xu Xiaoying; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Takahashi, Ryuichi; White, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We measure shifts of the acoustic scale due to nonlinear growth and redshift distortions to a high precision using a very large volume of high-force-resolution simulations. We compare results from various sets of simulations that differ in their force, volume, and mass resolution. We find a consistency within 1.5σ for shift values from different simulations and derive shift α(z) - 1 = (0.300 ± 0.015) %[D(z)/D(0)] 2 using our fiducial set. We find a strong correlation with a non-unity slope between shifts in real space and in redshift space and a weak correlation between the initial redshift and low redshift. Density-field reconstruction not only removes the mean shifts and reduces errors on the mean, but also tightens the correlations. After reconstruction, we recover a slope of near unity for the correlation between the real and redshift space and restore a strong correlation between the initial and the low redshifts. We derive propagators and mode-coupling terms from our N-body simulations and compare with the Zel'dovich approximation and the shifts measured from the χ 2 fitting, respectively. We interpret the propagator and the mode-coupling term of a nonlinear density field in the context of an average and a dispersion of its complex Fourier coefficients relative to those of the linear density field; from these two terms, we derive a signal-to-noise ratio of the acoustic peak measurement. We attempt to improve our reconstruction method by implementing 2LPT and iterative operations, but we obtain little improvement. The Fisher matrix estimates of uncertainty in the acoustic scale is tested using 5000 h -3 Gpc 3 of cosmological Particle-Mesh simulations from Takahashi et al. At an expected sample variance level of 1%, the agreement between the Fisher matrix estimates based on Seo and Eisenstein and the N-body results is better than 10%.

  19. The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes under the action of an imposed temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B, E-mail: cesima@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)

    2016-12-15

    The influence of an interfacial heat release on nonlinear convective regimes, developed under the action of an imposed temperature gradient in the 47v2 silicone oil–water system, has been studied. Two types of boundary conditions—periodic boundary conditions and rigid heat-insulated lateral walls—have been considered. Transitions between the flows with different spatial structures have been investigated. It is shown that the presence of an interfacial heat release can change the sequence of bifurcations and can lead to the appearance of new oscillatory regimes. The period-three phase trajectory has been found. (paper)

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of trions under strong optical excitation in monolayer MoSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jialiang; Yan, Tengfei; Niu, Binghui; Li, Ying; Zhang, Xinhui

    2018-02-05

    By employing ultrafast transient reflection measurements based on two-color pump-probe spectroscopy, the population and valley polarization dynamics of trions in monolayer MoSe 2 were investigated at relatively high excitation densities under near-resonant excitation. Both the nonlinear dynamic photobleaching of the trion resonance and the redshift of the exciton resonance were found to be responsible for the excitation-energy- and density-dependent transient reflection change as a result of many-body interactions. Furthermore, from the polarization-resolved measurements, it was revealed that the initial fast population and polarization decay process upon strong photoexcitation observed for trions was determined by trion formation, transient phase-space filling and the short valley lifetime of excitons. The results provide a basic understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of population and valley depolarization of trions, as well as exciton-trion correlation in atomically thin MoSe 2 and other transition metal dichalcogenide materials.

  1. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  2. Modeling of Nonlinear Propagation in Multi-layer Biological Tissues for Strong Focused Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting-Bo, Fan; Zhen-Bo, Liu; Zhe, Zhang; Dong, Zhang; Xiu-Fen, Gong

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nonlinear propagation in multi-layered tissues for strong focused ultrasound is proposed. In this model, the spheroidal beam equation (SBE) is utilized to describe the nonlinear sound propagation in each layer tissue, and generalized oblique incidence theory is used to deal with the sound transmission between two layer tissues. Computer simulation is performed on a fat-muscle-liver tissue model under the irradiation of a 1 MHz focused transducer with a large aperture angle of 35°. The results demonstrate that the tissue layer would change the amplitude of sound pressure at the focal region and cause the increase of side petals. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  3. Nonlinear Site Response Validation Studies Using KIK-net Strong Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimaki, D.; Shi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake simulations are nowadays producing realistic ground motion time-series in the range of engineering design applications. Of particular significance to engineers are simulations of near-field motions and large magnitude events, for which observations are scarce. With the engineering community slowly adopting the use of simulated ground motions, site response models need to be re-evaluated in terms of their capabilities and limitations to 'translate' the simulated time-series from rock surface output to structural analyses input. In this talk, we evaluate three one-dimensional site response models: linear viscoelastic, equivalent linear and nonlinear. We evaluate the performance of the models by comparing predictions to observations at 30 downhole stations of the Japanese network KIK-Net that have recorded several strong events, including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Velocity profiles are used as the only input to all models, while additional parameters such as quality factor, density and nonlinear dynamic soil properties are estimated from empirical correlations. We quantify the differences of ground surface predictions and observations in terms of both seismological and engineering intensity measures, including bias ratios of peak ground response and visual comparisons of elastic spectra, and inelastic to elastic deformation ratio for multiple ductility ratios. We observe that PGV/Vs,30 — as measure of strain— is a better predictor of site nonlinearity than PGA, and that incremental nonlinear analyses are necessary to produce reliable estimates of high-frequency ground motion components at soft sites. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on the parameterization of nonlinear amplification factors in GMPEs, and on the extensive use of equivalent linear analyses in probabilistic seismic hazard procedures.

  4. Strong coupling strategy for fluid-structure interaction problems in supersonic regime via fixed point iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storti, Mario A.; Nigro, Norberto M.; Paz, Rodrigo R.; Dalcín, Lisandro D.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper some results on the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel iteration when solving fluid/structure interaction problems with strong coupling via fixed point iteration are presented. The flow-induced vibration of a flat plate aligned with the flow direction at supersonic Mach number is studied. The precision of different predictor schemes and the influence of the partitioned strong coupling on stability is discussed.

  5. Silver Nanoshell Plasmonically Controlled Emission of Semiconductor Quantum Dots in the Strong Coupling Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren

    2016-04-26

    Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.

  6. Study of nonlinear optical absorption properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molli, Muralikrishna; Bhat Kademane, Abhijit; Pradhan, Prabin; Sai Muthukumar, V. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Department of Physics, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanoparticles were synthesized through solution combustion technique. The as-synthesized samples were further characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDAX, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies showed the size of the nanoparticles to be ∝200 nm. Open-aperture z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical absorption behavior of the synthesized samples using a 100-fs laser pulses at 800 nm from a regeneratively amplified Ti: sapphire laser. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption was found to be a three-photon absorption process which was explained using the density of states of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} obtained using density functional theory. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity-dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered for optical-power-limiting applications. (orig.)

  7. Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M

    2003-03-01

    The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.

  8. Blow-Up Analysis for a Quasilinear Degenerate Parabolic Equation with Strongly Nonlinear Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the blow-up properties of the positive solution of the Cauchy problem for a quasilinear degenerate parabolic equation with strongly nonlinear source ut=div(|∇um|p−2∇ul+uq,  (x,t∈RN×(0,T, where N≥1, p>2 , and m, l,  q>1, and give a secondary critical exponent on the decay asymptotic behavior of an initial value at infinity for the existence and nonexistence of global solutions of the Cauchy problem. Moreover, under some suitable conditions we prove single-point blow-up for a large class of radial decreasing solutions.

  9. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective mechanical stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2008-01-01

    the method of direct separation of motions with results of a modified multiple scales ap-proach, valid also for strong nonlinearity, the stiffening ef-fect is predicted for a generic 1-dof system, and results are tested against numerical simulation and ((it is planned)) laboratory experiments.......High-frequency excitation (HFE) can be used to change the effective stiffness of an elastic structure, and related quanti-ties such as resonance frequencies, wave speed, buckling loads, and equilibrium states. There are basically two ways to do this: By using parametrical HFE (with or without non...

  10. Metallization of a Rashba wire by a superconducting layer in the strong-proximity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2018-04-01

    Semiconducting quantum wires defined within two-dimensional electron gases and strongly coupled to thin superconducting layers have been extensively explored in recent experiments as promising platforms to host Majorana bound states. We study numerically such a geometry, consisting of a quasi-one-dimensional wire coupled to a disordered three-dimensional superconducting layer. We find that, in the strong-coupling limit of a sizable proximity-induced superconducting gap, all transverse subbands of the wire are significantly shifted in energy relative to the chemical potential of the wire. For the lowest subband, this band shift is comparable in magnitude to the spacing between quantized levels that arises due to the finite thickness of the superconductor (which typically is ˜500 meV for a 10-nm-thick layer of aluminum); in higher subbands, the band shift is much larger. Additionally, we show that the width of the system, which is usually much larger than the thickness, and moderate disorder within the superconductor have almost no impact on the induced gap or band shift. We provide a detailed discussion of the ramifications of our results, arguing that a huge band shift and significant renormalization of semiconducting material parameters in the strong-coupling limit make it challenging to realize a topological phase in such a setup, as the strong coupling to the superconductor essentially metallizes the semiconductor. This metallization of the semiconductor can be tested experimentally through the measurement of the band shift.

  11. What occurs in the fragile-to-strong liquid transition regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Yuanzheng; Hu, L.N.

    The slow dynamics of glass-forming liquids is a complex subject of the condensed matter science. But the fragile-to-strong transition, which was observed not long ago [Ito, et al, Nature 1999], makes this subject even more complex since it is extremely challenging to directly probe the structural...

  12. Experimental study of linear and nonlinear regimes of density-driven instabilities induced by CO2 dissolution in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outeda, R.; D'Onofrio, A.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.

    2014-01-01

    Density driven instabilities produced by CO 2 (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO 2 pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO 2 pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm −1 ) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO 2 pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator

  13. Photoinduced Electron Transfer in the Strong Coupling Regime: Waveguide-Plasmon Polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Cadusch, Jasper; Chakraborty, Debadi; Smith, Trevor A; Roberts, Ann; Sader, John E; Davis, Timothy J; Gómez, Daniel E

    2016-04-13

    Reversible exchange of photons between a material and an optical cavity can lead to the formation of hybrid light-matter states where material properties such as the work function [ Hutchison et al. Adv. Mater. 2013 , 25 , 2481 - 2485 ], chemical reactivity [ Hutchison et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012 , 51 , 1592 - 1596 ], ultrafast energy relaxation [ Salomon et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009 , 48 , 8748 - 8751 ; Gomez et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013 , 117 , 4340 - 4346 ], and electrical conductivity [ Orgiu et al. Nat. Mater. 2015 , 14 , 1123 - 1129 ] of matter differ significantly to those of the same material in the absence of strong interactions with the electromagnetic fields. Here we show that strong light-matter coupling between confined photons on a semiconductor waveguide and localized plasmon resonances on metal nanowires modifies the efficiency of the photoinduced charge-transfer rate of plasmonic derived (hot) electrons into accepting states in the semiconductor material. Ultrafast spectroscopy measurements reveal a strong correlation between the amplitude of the transient signals, attributed to electrons residing in the semiconductor and the hybridization of waveguide and plasmon excitations.

  14. Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.

  15. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  16. Analytical solutions by squeezing to the anisotropic Rabi model in the nonperturbative deep-strong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You

    2017-12-01

    An unexplored nonperturbative deep strong coupling (npDSC) achieved in superconducting circuits has been studied in the anisotropic Rabi model by the generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation. Energy levels are evaluated analytically from the reformulated Hamiltonian and agree well with numerical ones in a wide range of coupling strength. Such improvement ascribes to deformation effects in the displaced-squeezed state presented by the squeezed momentum variance, which are omitted in previous displaced states. The atom population dynamics confirms the validity of our approach for the npDSC strength. Our approach offers the possibility to explore interesting phenomena analytically in the npDSC regime in qubit-oscillator experiments.

  17. Experiment of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a strongly non linear regime on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casner, A.; Masse, L.; Liberatore, S.; Delorme, B.; Jacquet, L.; Loiseau, P.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Martinez, D.; Remington, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    As the control of the development of Rayleigh-Taylor-type hydrodynamic instabilities is crucial to achieve efficient implosions on the Laser Megajoule, and as the complexity of these instabilities requires an experimental validation of theoretical models and of the associated numerical simulations, the authors briefly present a proposition of experiments aimed at studying the strongly non linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This should allow a regime of competition between bubbles to be achieved for the first time in direct attack. They evoke the first experiment performed in March 2013

  18. Strong-pinning regimes by spherical inclusions in anisotropic type-II superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willa, R.; Koshelev, A. E.; Sadovskyy, I. A.; Glatz, A.

    2017-11-27

    The current-carrying capacity of type-II superconductors is decisively determined by how well material defect structures can immobilize vortex lines. In order to gain deeper insights into intrinsic pinning mechanisms, we have explored the case of vortex trapping by randomly distributed spherical inclusions using large-scale simulations of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. We find that for a small density of particles having diameters of two coherence lengths, the vortex lattice preserves its structure and the critical current jc decays with the magnetic field following a power-law B-a with a ~ 0:66, which is consistent with predictions of strong pinning theory. For higher density of particles and/or larger inclusions, the lattice becomes progressively more disordered and the exponent smoothly decreases down to a ~ 0:3. At high magnetic fields, all inclusions capture a vortex and the critical current decays faster than B-1 as would be expected by theory. In the case of larger inclusions with diameter of four coherence length, the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current is strongly affected by the ability of inclusions to capture multiple vortex lines. We found that at small densities, the fraction of inclusions trapping two vortex lines rapidly grows within narrow field range leading to a shallow peak in jc(B)-dependence within this range. With increasing inclusion density, this peak transforms into a plateau, which then smooths out. Using the insights gained from simulations, we determine the limits of applicability of strong pinning theory and provide different routes to describe vortex pinning beyond those bounds.

  19. Fermionic reaction coordinates and their application to an autonomous Maxwell demon in the strong-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasberg, Philipp; Schaller, Gernot; Schmidt, Thomas L.; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-05-01

    We establish a theoretical method which goes beyond the weak-coupling and Markovian approximations while remaining intuitive, using a quantum master equation in a larger Hilbert space. The method is applicable to all impurity Hamiltonians tunnel coupled to one (or multiple) baths of free fermions. The accuracy of the method is in principle not limited by the system-bath coupling strength, but rather by the shape of the spectral density and it is especially suited to study situations far away from the wide-band limit. In analogy to the bosonic case, we call it the fermionic reaction coordinate mapping. As an application, we consider a thermoelectric device made of two Coulomb-coupled quantum dots. We pay particular attention to the regime where this device operates as an autonomous Maxwell demon shoveling electrons against the voltage bias thanks to information. Contrary to previous studies, we do not rely on a Markovian weak-coupling description. Our numerical findings reveal that in the regime of strong coupling and non-Markovianity, the Maxwell demon is often doomed to disappear except in a narrow parameter regime of small power output.

  20. Indications of a ΔI=1/2 rule in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, I.G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors attempt to understand the ΔI = 1/2 pattern of the nonleptonic weak decays of the kaons. The calculation scheme employed is the Strong Coupling Expansion of lattice QCD. Kogut-Susskind fermions are used in the Hamiltonian formalism. They describe in detail the methods used to expedite this calculation, all of which was done by computer algebra. The final result is very encouraging. Even though an exact interpretation is clouded by the presence of irrelevant operators, and questions of lattice artifacts, a signal of the /d//I = 1/2 rule appears to be observable. With an appropriate choice of the one free parameter, enhancements greater than those observed experimentally can be obtained. The authors point out a number of surprising results which turn up in the course of the calculation

  1. A cavity-Cooper pair transistor scheme for investigating quantum optomechanics in the ultra-strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimberg, A J; Blencowe, M P; Armour, A D; Nation, P D

    2014-01-01

    We propose a scheme involving a Cooper pair transistor (CPT) embedded in a superconducting microwave cavity, where the CPT serves as a charge tunable quantum inductor to facilitate ultra-strong coupling between photons in the cavity and a nano- to meso-scale mechanical resonator. The mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to the CPT, such that mechanical displacements of the resonator cause a shift in the CPT inductance and hence the cavity's resonant frequency. The amplification provided by the CPT is sufficient for the zero point motion of the mechanical resonator alone to cause a significant change in the cavity resonance. Conversely, a single photon in the cavity causes a shift in the mechanical resonator position on the order of its zero point motion. As a result, the cavity-Cooper pair transistor coupled to a mechanical resonator will be able to access a regime in which single photons can affect single phonons and vice versa. Realizing this ultra-strong coupling regime will facilitate the creation of non-classical states of the mechanical resonator, as well as the means to accurately characterize such states by measuring the cavity photon field. (paper)

  2. Flow over an obstruction with the generation of nonlinear waves on the free surface: Limiting regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maklakov, D.V.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical-analytic method of calculating a subcritical flow over an obstruction is proposed. This method is based on the identification of the asymptotics of the behavior of a wave train in unknown functions. The method makes it possible to calculate both steep and long waves. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for the problem of flow over a vortex. The concept of the limiting flow regime as a regime with the maximum value of the perturbation parameter for which steady flow still persists is introduced. Various types of the limiting regimes obtained in the calculations are analyzed

  3. Nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong tightly focused ultrashort laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vais, O. E.; Bochkarev, S. G., E-mail: bochkar@sci.lebedev.ru; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The problem of nonlinear Thomson scattering of a relativistically strong linearly polarized ultrashort laser pulse tightly focused into a spot with a diameter of D{sub F} ≳ λ (where λ is the laser wavelength) is solved. The energy, spectral, and angular distributions of radiation generated due to Thomson scattering from test electrons located in the focal region are found. The characteristics of scattered radiation are studied as functions of the tightness of laser focusing and the initial position of test particles relative to the center of the focal region for a given laser pulse energy. It is demonstrated that the ultratight focusing is not optimal for obtaining the brightest and hardest source of secondary electromagnetic radiation. The hardest and shortest radiation pulse is generated when the beam waist diameter is ≃10λ.

  4. Fatigue damage evaluation of austenitic stainless steel using nonlinear ultrasonic waves in low cycle regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen, E-mail: fzxuan@ecust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pressurized System and Safety, School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-05-28

    The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.

  5. Emulating galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing into the deeply nonlinear regime: methodology, information, and forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wibking, Benjamin D.; Salcedo, Andrés N.; Weinberg, David H.; Garrison, Lehman H.; Ferrer, Douglas; Tinker, Jeremy; Eisenstein, Daniel; Metchnik, Marc; Pinto, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The combination of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) with galaxy clustering is one of the most promising routes to determining the amplitude of matter clustering at low redshifts. We show that extending clustering+GGL analyses from the linear regime down to $\\sim 0.5 \\, h^{-1}$ Mpc scales increases their constraining power considerably, even after marginalizing over a flexible model of non-linear galaxy bias. Using a grid of cosmological N-body simulations, we construct a Taylor-expansion emulator ...

  6. Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. III. Nonlinear Regime and Plasma Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume

    2018-03-01

    The multi-fluid modeling of high-frequency waves in partially ionized plasmas has shown that the behavior of magnetohydrodynamic waves in the linear regime is heavily influenced by the collisional interaction between the different species that form the plasma. Here, we go beyond linear theory and study large-amplitude waves in partially ionized plasmas using a nonlinear multi-fluid code. It is known that in fully ionized plasmas, nonlinear Alfvén waves generate density and pressure perturbations. Those nonlinear effects are more pronounced for standing oscillations than for propagating waves. By means of numerical simulations and analytical approximations, we examine how the collisional interaction between ions and neutrals affects the nonlinear evolution. The friction due to collisions dissipates a fraction of the wave energy, which is transformed into heat and consequently raises the temperature of the plasma. As an application, we investigate frictional heating in a plasma with physical conditions akin to those in a quiescent solar prominence.

  7. Propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams in fractional Schrödinger equation: from linear to nonlinear regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifu; Li, Chuxin; Zhong, Haizhe; Xu, Changwen; Lei, Dajun; Li, Ying; Fan, Dianyuan

    2016-06-27

    We have investigated the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian optical beams in fractional Schrödinger equation. We have identified the difference between the propagation dynamics of super-Gaussian beams and that of Gaussian beams. We show that, the linear propagation dynamics of the super-Gaussian beams with order m > 1 undergo an initial compression phase before they split into two sub-beams. The sub-beams with saddle shape separate each other and their interval increases linearly with propagation distance. In the nonlinear regime, the super-Gaussian beams evolve to become a single soliton, breathing soliton or soliton pair depending on the order of super-Gaussian beams, nonlinearity, as well as the Lévy index. In two dimensions, the linear evolution of super-Gaussian beams is similar to that for one dimension case, but the initial compression of the input super-Gaussian beams and the diffraction of the splitting beams are much stronger than that for one dimension case. While the nonlinear propagation of the super-Gaussian beams becomes much more unstable compared with that for the case of one dimension. Our results show the nonlinear effects can be tuned by varying the Lévy index in the fractional Schrödinger equation for a fixed input power.

  8. Understanding of flux-limited behaviors of heat transport in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yangyu, E-mail: yangyuhguo@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jou, David, E-mail: david.jou@uab.es [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Wang, Moran, E-mail: mrwang@tsinghua.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Engineering Mechanics and CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The classical Fourier's law of heat transport breaks down in highly nonequilibrium situations as in nanoscale heat transport, where nonlinear effects become important. The present work is aimed at exploring the flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models in terms of their theoretical foundations. Different saturation heat fluxes are obtained, whereas the same qualitative variation trend of heat flux versus exerted temperature gradient is got in diverse nonlinear models. The phonon hydrodynamic model is proposed to act as a standard to evaluate other heat flux limiters because of its more rigorous physical foundation. A deeper knowledge is thus achieved about the phenomenological generalized heat transport models. The present work provides deeper understanding and accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit. - Highlights: • Exploring flux-limited behaviors based on a categorization of existing nonlinear heat transport models. • Proposing phonon hydrodynamic model as a standard to evaluate heat flux limiters. • Providing accurate modeling of nonlocal and nonlinear heat transport beyond the diffusive limit.

  9. Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.

  10. Numerical study of bandwidth effect on stimulated Raman backscattering in nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. Y.; Xiao, C. Z.; Zou, D. B.; Li, X. Z.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Zhuo, H. B.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear behaviors of stimulated Raman scattering driven by finite bandwidth pumps are studied by one dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The broad spectral feature of plasma waves and backscattered light reveals the different coupling and growth mechanisms, which lead to the suppression effect before the deep nonlinear stage. It causes nonperiodic plasma wave packets and reduces packet and etching velocities. Based on the negative frequency shift and electron energy distribution, the long-time evolution of instability can be divided into two stages by the relaxation time. It is a critical time after which the alleviation effects of nonlinear frequency shift and hot electrons are replaced by enhancement. Thus, the broadband pump suppresses instability at early time. However, it aggravates in the deep nonlinear stage by lifting the saturation level due to the coupling of the incident pump with each frequency shifted plasma wave. Our simulation results show that the nonlinear effects are valid in a bandwidth range from 2.25% to 3.0%, and the physics are similar within a nearby parameter space.

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements of three-dimensional modulations in a nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Sadot, O.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of the nonlinear evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is essential in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The nonlinear RT growth of three-dimensional (3-D) broadband nonuniformities was measured near saturation levels using x-ray radiography in planar foils accelerated by laser light. The initial 3-D target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and subsequently amplified by the RT instability. The measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in excellent agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [S. Haan, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. These spectra and growth velocities are insensitive to initial conditions. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions, in agreement with the Alon-Oron-Shvarts theoretical predictions [D. Oron et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883 (2001)

  12. NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Self-reflection effect in semiconductors in a two-pulse regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhi, P. I.; Nad'kin, L. Yu

    2004-12-01

    Peculiarities of reflection at the end face of a semi-infinite semiconductor in a two-pulse regime are studied. The reflection functions behave in a complex and ambiguous manner governed by the amplitudes of the fields of incident pulses. The possibility of a complete bleaching of the medium for the field in the M-band is predicted.

  13. Probing different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction with semiconductor quantum dots and few cavity photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargart, F.; Roy-Choudhury, K.; John, T.; Portalupi, S. L.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Hughes, S.; Michler, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we present an extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of different regimes of strong field light-matter interaction for cavity-driven quantum dot (QD) cavity systems. The electric field enhancement inside a high-Q micropillar cavity facilitates exceptionally strong interaction with few cavity photons, enabling the simultaneous investigation for a wide range of QD-laser detuning. In case of a resonant drive, the formation of dressed states and a Mollow triplet sideband splitting of up to 45 μeV is measured for a mean cavity photon number ≤slant 1. In the asymptotic limit of the linear AC Stark effect we systematically investigate the power and detuning dependence of more than 400 QDs. Some QD-cavity systems exhibit an unexpected anomalous Stark shift, which can be explained by an extended dressed 4-level QD model. We provide a detailed analysis of the QD-cavity systems properties enabling this novel effect. The experimental results are successfully reproduced using a polaron master equation approach for the QD-cavity system, which includes the driving laser field, exciton-cavity and exciton-phonon interactions.

  14. Nonlinear effects and conversion efficiency of free electron laser in compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioki; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear evolutions of free electron laser are analyzed by using quasi-linear theory. By the analysis, the energy conversion rates and the spectral width of the emitted radiations are calculated self-consistently. Moreover, it is found that the energy conversion rate is remarkably improved, when a RF field is applied to reaccelerate electron beam. (author)

  15. Non-linear dynamical classification of short time series of the rössler system in high noise regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscsek, Claudia; Weyhenmeyer, Jonathan; Hernandez, Manuel E; Poizner, Howard; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis with delay differential equations (DDEs) reveals non-linear properties of the underlying dynamical system and can serve as a non-linear time-domain classification tool. Here global DDE models were used to analyze short segments of simulated time series from a known dynamical system, the Rössler system, in high noise regimes. In a companion paper, we apply the DDE model developed here to classify short segments of encephalographic (EEG) data recorded from patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy subjects. Nine simulated subjects in each of two distinct classes were generated by varying the bifurcation parameter b and keeping the other two parameters (a and c) of the Rössler system fixed. All choices of b were in the chaotic parameter range. We diluted the simulated data using white noise ranging from 10 to -30 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Structure selection was supervised by selecting the number of terms, delays, and order of non-linearity of the model DDE model that best linearly separated the two classes of data. The distances d from the linear dividing hyperplane was then used to assess the classification performance by computing the area A' under the ROC curve. The selected model was tested on untrained data using repeated random sub-sampling validation. DDEs were able to accurately distinguish the two dynamical conditions, and moreover, to quantify the changes in the dynamics. There was a significant correlation between the dynamical bifurcation parameter b of the simulated data and the classification parameter d from our analysis. This correlation still held for new simulated subjects with new dynamical parameters selected from each of the two dynamical regimes. Furthermore, the correlation was robust to added noise, being significant even when the noise was greater than the signal. We conclude that DDE models may be used as a generalizable and reliable classification tool for even small segments of noisy data.

  16. A nonlinear equation for ionic diffusion in a strong binary electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the one-dimensional electro-diffusion of ions in a strong binary electrolyte is considered. The mathematical description, known as the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) system, consists of a diffusion equation for each species augmented by transport owing to a self-consistent electrostatic field determined by the Poisson equation. This description is also relevant to other important problems in physics, such as electron and hole diffusion across semiconductor junctions and the diffusion of ions in plasmas. If concentrations do not vary appreciably over distances of the order of the Debye length, the Poisson equation can be replaced by the condition of local charge neutrality first introduced by Planck. It can then be shown that both species diffuse at the same rate with a common diffusivity that is intermediate between that of the slow and fast species (ambipolar diffusion). Here, we derive a more general theory by exploiting the ratio of the Debye length to a characteristic length scale as a small asymptotic parameter. It is shown that the concentration of either species may be described by a nonlinear partial differential equation that provides a better approximation than the classical linear equation for ambipolar diffusion, but reduces to it in the appropriate limit. PMID:21818176

  17. Strong Tracking Filter for Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Delayed Measurements and Correlated Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.

  18. Strong coupling between coherent gratings due to nonlinear spatial frequency mixing in Bi12SiO20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Buchhave, P.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between multiple coherent photorefractive gratings in Bi12SiO20 are investigated. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear mixing, or cross talk, is strongly influenced by the intensity ration kappa between the two object beams. The diffraction efficiency of a specific grating...... may be increased or strongly decreased depending on kappa. In the limit of a weak reference beam intensity compared to the sum of the object beam intencities, we derive an analytical expression for the cross talk valid for all kappa. Furthermore, we find the value of kappa yielding zero cross talk. We...

  19. Transition from weak to strong measurements by nonlinear quantum feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Wu Rebing; Li Chunwen; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2010-01-01

    We find that feedback control may induce 'pseudo'-nonlinear dynamics in a damped harmonic oscillator, whose centroid trajectory in the phase space behaves like a classical nonlinear system. Thus, similar to nonlinear amplifiers (e.g., rf-driven Josephson junctions), feedback control on the harmonic oscillator can induce nonlinear bifurcation, which can be used to amplify small signals and further to measure quantum states of qubits. Using the cavity QED and the circuit QED systems as examples, we show how to apply our method to measuring the states of two-level atoms and superconducting charge qubits.

  20. Nonequilibrium and Nonlinear Dynamics in Geomaterials I : The Low Strain Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualini, Donatella; Heitmann, Katrin; TenCate, James A.; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Johnson, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Members of a wide class of geomaterials are known to display complex and fascinating nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamical behaviors over a wide range of bulk strains, down to surprisingly low values, e.g., 10^{-7}. In this paper we investigate two sandstones, Berea and Fontainebleau, and characterize their behavior under the influence of very small external forces via carefully controlled resonant bar experiments. By reducing environmental effects due to temperature and humidity variations,...

  1. Nonlinear response of the quantum Hall system to a strong electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetissian, H.K.; Mkrtchian, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    We study nonlinear response of a quantum Hall system in semiconductor-hetero-structures via third harmonic generation process and nonlinear Faraday effect. We demonstrate that Faraday rotation angle and third harmonic radiation intensity have a characteristic Hall plateaus feature. These nonlinear effects remain robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third harmonic signal and Faraday rotation angle, which are within the experimental feasibility. - Highlights: • Nonlinear optical response of a quantum Hall system has specific plateaus feature. • This effect remains robust against the significant broadening of Landau levels. • It can be observed via the third harmonic signal and the nonlinear Faraday effect.

  2. Explicit and exact solutions for a generalized long-short wave resonance equations with strong nonlinear term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the evolution equations with strong nonlinear term describing the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave are studied. Firstly, based on the qualitative theory and bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems, all of the explicit and exact solutions of solitary waves are obtained by qualitative seeking the homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits for a class of Lienard equations. Then the singular travelling wave solutions, periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle functions type are also obtained on the basis of the relationships between the hyperbolic functions and that between the hyperbolic functions with the triangle functions. The varieties of structure of exact solutions of the generalized long-short wave equation with strong nonlinear term are illustrated. The methods presented here also suitable for obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in multidimensions

  3. Footprints of electron correlation in strong-field double ionization of Kr close to the sequential-ionization regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Wang, Chuncheng; Yuan, Zongqiang; Ye, Difa; Ma, Pan; Hu, Wenhui; Luo, Sizuo; Fu, Libin; Ding, Dajun

    2017-09-01

    By combining kinematically complete measurements and a semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation we study the correlated-electron dynamics in the strong-field double ionization of Kr. Interestingly, we find that, as we step into the sequential-ionization regime, there are still signatures of correlation in the two-electron joint momentum spectrum and, more intriguingly, the scaling law of the high-energy tail is completely different from early predictions on the low-Z atom (He). These experimental observations are well reproduced by our generalized semiclassical model adapting a Green-Sellin-Zachor potential. It is revealed that the competition between the screening effect of inner-shell electrons and the Coulomb focusing of nuclei leads to a non-inverse-square central force, which twists the returned electron trajectory at the vicinity of the parent core and thus significantly increases the probability of hard recollisions between two electrons. Our results might have promising applications ranging from accurately retrieving atomic structures to simulating celestial phenomena in the laboratory.

  4. Probing the ionization wave packet and recollision dynamics with an elliptically polarized strong laser field in the nondipole regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J.; Willenberg, B.; Daněk, J.; Mayer, B. W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L.; Klaiber, M.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Keitel, C. H.; Keller, U.

    2018-01-01

    We explore ionization and rescattering in strong mid-infrared laser fields in the nondipole regime over the full range of polarization ellipticity. In three-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions (3D PMDs) measured with velocity map imaging spectroscopy, we observe the appearance of a sharp ridge structure along the major polarization axis. Within a certain range of ellipticity, the electrons in this ridge are clearly separated from the two lobes that commonly appear in the PMD with elliptically polarized laser fields. In contrast to the well-known lobes of direct electrons, the sharp ridge is created by Coulomb focusing of the softly recolliding electrons. These ridge electrons are directly related to a counterintuitive shift of the PMD peak opposite to the laser beam propagation direction when the dipole approximation breaks down. The ellipticity-dependent 3D PMDs give access to different ionization and recollision dynamics with appropriate filters in the momentum space. For example, we can extract information about the spread of the initial wave packet and the Coulomb momentum transfer of the rescattering electrons.

  5. Integration of the BBGKY equations for the development of strongly nonlinear clustering in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.; Peebles, P.J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of density correlations in an expanding universe can be described by the BBGKY equations. This approach has been the subject of several previous studies, but always under the assumption of small-amplitude fluctuations, where the hierarchy of equations has a natural truncation. Reslts of these studies cannot be compared to the present universe because the galaxy two-point correlation function xi (r) is much greater than unity at r9 or approx. =1h -1 Mpc, and the three-point function zeta is on the order of xi (r) 2 . In this strongly nonlinear situation the hierarchy is dominated by terms ignored in the linear analysis. Our method of truncating the hierarchy is based on the empirical result that zeta can be represented to good accuracy as a simple function of xi. We solve the equations via the velocity-moment method, and we truncate the resulting velocity-moment hierarchy for the two-point function by assuming that the distribution in the relative velocity of particle pairs has zero skewness about the mean. The second equation in this velocity-moment hierarchy is our main equation for xi. It involves the three-point spatial correlation function zeta, which we write as a function of xi following the empirical result. The third equation involves the first velocity moment of the three-point position and velocity correlation function. We model this term in a way consistent with our model for zeta and with a constraint equation that expresses conservation of triplets.The equations admit a similarity transformation if (1) the effects of the discreteness of particles can be ignored, (2) the initial spectrum of density perturbations assumes a power law shape, and (3) the universe is described by an Einstein-de Sitter model (Ωapprox. =1). The numerical results presented here are based on this similarity solution

  6. Linear and nonlinear rheology of dense emulsions across the glass and the jamming regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffold, F; Cardinaux, F; Mason, T G

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the linear and nonlinear rheology of concentrated microscale emulsions, amorphous disordered solids composed of repulsive and deformable soft colloidal spheres. Based on recent results from simulation and theory, we derive quantitative predictions for the dependences of the elastic shear modulus and the yield stress on the droplet volume fraction. The remarkable agreement with experiments we observe supports the scenario that the repulsive glass and the jammed state can be clearly identified in the rheology of soft spheres at finite temperature while crossing continuously from a liquid to a highly compressed yet disordered solid. (fast track communication)

  7. Nonlinear energy transfer and current sheet development in localized Alfvén wavepacket collisions in the strong turbulence limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.

  8. A detailed examination of the LWFA in the Self-Guided Nonlinear Blowout Regime for 15-100 Joule Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Asher; Tableman, Adam; Yu, Peicheng; An, Weiming; Tsung, Frank; Mori, Warren; Lu, Wei; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    We examine scaling laws for LWFA in the regime nonlinear, self-guided regime in detail using the quasi-3D version of the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS. We find that the scaling laws continue to work well when we fix the normalized laser amplitude while reducing plasma density. It is further found that the energy gain for fixed laser energy can be improved by shortening the pulse length until self-guiding almost no longer occurs and that the energy gain can be optimized by using lasers with asymmetric longitudinal profiles. We find that when optimized, a 15 J laser may yield particle energies as high as 5.3 GeV without the need of any external guiding. Detailed studies for optimizing energy gains from 30 J and 100 J lasers will also presented which indicate that energies in excess of 10 GeV can be possible in the near term without the need for external guiding. This work is supported by the NSF and DOE.

  9. Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Kawata, S.

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption

  10. Nonlinear drift tearing mode. Strong mode of excitation and stabilization mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonlinear theory of magnetic disturbance development in collisionless configurations with magnetic field shear is considered. The instability evolution is investigated with account for the dynamics of ions and potential electric fields which determine the mode stabilization. It has been found that the drift tearing mode possesses metastable properties: in a nonlinear mode even the growth of linearly stable disturbances of the finite amplitude is possible

  11. Strongly nonlinear nonhomogeneous elliptic unilateral problems with L^1 data and no sign conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhoussine Azroul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions to unilateral problems involving nonlinear operators of the form: $$ Au+H(x,u,abla u=f $$ where $A$ is a Leray Lions operator from $W_0^{1,p(x}(Omega$ into its dual $W^{-1,p'(x}(Omega$ and $H(x,s,xi$ is the nonlinear term satisfying some growth condition but no sign condition. The right hand side $f$ belong to $L^1(Omega$.

  12. Experimental study of transmission of a pulsed focused beam through a skull phantom in nonlinear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsysar, S. A., E-mail: sergey@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Svet, V. D. [Andreyev Acoustics Institute, 4, Shvernik Street, Moscow 117036 (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, O. A. [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity.

  13. Finding structure in the dark: Coupled dark energy, weak lensing, and the mildly nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vinicius; González, Mariana Carrillo; Krause, Elisabeth; Trodden, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We reexamine interactions between the dark sectors of cosmology, with a focus on robust constraints that can be obtained using only mildly nonlinear scales. While it is well known that couplings between dark matter and dark energy can be constrained to the percent level when including the full range of scales probed by future optical surveys, calibrating matter power spectrum emulators to all possible choices of potentials and couplings requires many computationally expensive n-body simulations. Here we show that lensing and clustering of galaxies in combination with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are capable of probing the dark sector coupling to the few percent level for a given class of models, using only linear and quasilinear Fourier modes. These scales can, in principle, be described by semianalytical techniques such as the effective field theory of large-scale structure.

  14. Experimental study of transmission of a pulsed focused beam through a skull phantom in nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsysar, S. A.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V.; Svet, V. D.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity

  15. Probing the interatomic potential of solids with strong-field nonlinear phononics

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hoegen, A.; Mankowsky, R.; Fechner, M.; Först, M.; Cavalleri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Nonlinear optical techniques at visible frequencies have long been applied to condensed matter spectroscopy. However, because many important excitations of solids are found at low energies, much can be gained from the extension of nonlinear optics to mid-infrared and terahertz frequencies. For example, the nonlinear excitation of lattice vibrations has enabled the dynamic control of material functions. So far it has only been possible to exploit second-order phonon nonlinearities at terahertz field strengths near one million volts per centimetre. Here we achieve an order-of-magnitude increase in field strength and explore higher-order phonon nonlinearities. We excite up to five harmonics of the A1 (transverse optical) phonon mode in the ferroelectric material lithium niobate. By using ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses to drive the atoms far from their equilibrium positions, and measuring the large-amplitude atomic trajectories, we can sample the interatomic potential of lithium niobate, providing a benchmark for ab initio calculations for the material. Tomography of the energy surface by high-order nonlinear phononics could benefit many aspects of materials research, including the study of classical and quantum phase transitions.

  16. Infrared reduction, an efficient method to control the non-linear optical property of graphene oxide in femtosecond regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Maiti, R.; Saha, S.; Das, A. C.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. B. N.; Datta, P. K.

    2016-04-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been prepared by modified Hummers method and it has been reduced using an IR bulb (800-2000 nm). Both as grown GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectra shows well documented Dband and G-band for both the samples while blue shift of G-band confirms chemical functionalization of graphene with different oxygen functional group. The XPS result shows that the as-prepared GO contains 52% of sp2 hybridized carbon due to the C=C bonds and 33% of carbon atoms due to the C-O bonds. As for RGO, increment of the atomic % of the sp2 hybridized carbon atom to 83% and rapid decrease in atomic % of C=O bonds confirm an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. UV-Visible absorption spectrum also confirms increment of conjugation with increased reduction. Non-linear optical properties of both GO and RGO are measured using single beam open aperture Z-Scan technique in femtosecond regime. Intensity dependent nonlinear phenomena are observed. Depending upon the intensity, both saturable absorption and two photon absorption contribute to the non-linearity of both the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (~ 127 GW/cm2) while two photon absorption become prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm2 to 302 GW/cm2). We have calculated the two-photon absorption co-efficient and saturation intensity for both the samples. The value of two photon absorption co-efficient (for GO~ 0.0022-0.0037 cm/GW and for RGO~ 0.0128-0.0143 cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (for GO~57 GW/cm2 and for RGO~ 194GW/cm2) is increased with reduction. Increase in two photon absorption coefficient with increasing intensity can also suggest that there may be multi-photon absorption is taking place.

  17. Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in the Linear and Non-linear Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic fields are generated in plasmas by the Biermann-battery, or thermoelectric, source driven by non-collinear temperature and density gradients. The ablation front in laser-irradiated targets is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth that produces gradients capable of generating magnetic fields. Measurements of these RT-induced magnetic fields in planar foils have been made using a combination of x-ray and monoenergetic-proton radiography techniques. At a perturbation wavelength of 120 μm, proton radiographs indicate an increase of the magnetic-field strength from ˜1 to ˜10 Tesla during the linear growth phase. A characteristic change in field structure was observed later in time for irradiated foils of different initial surface perturbations. Proton radiographs show a regular cellular configuration initiated at the same time during the drive, independent of the initial foil conditions. This non-linear behavior has been experimentally investigated and the source of these characteristic features will be discussed.

  18. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal

    2015-04-10

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search for high order strong stability time-stepping methods with large allowable strong stability coefficient has been an active area of research over the last two decades. This research has shown that explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods exist only up to fourth order. However, if we restrict ourselves to solving only linear autonomous problems, the order conditions simplify and this order barrier is lifted: explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods of any linear order exist. These methods reduce to second order when applied to nonlinear problems. In the current work we aim to find explicit SSP Runge-Kutta methods with large allowable time-step, that feature high linear order and simultaneously have the optimal fourth order nonlinear order. These methods have strong stability coefficients that approach those of the linear methods as the number of stages and the linear order is increased. This work shows that when a high linear order method is desired, it may still be worthwhile to use methods with higher nonlinear order.

  19. Application of a modified rational harmonic balance method for a class of strongly nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Gimeno, E.; Alvarez, M.L.; Mendez, D.I.; Hernandez, A.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical approximate technique for conservative nonlinear oscillators is proposed. This method is a modification of the rational harmonic balance method in which analytical approximate solutions have rational form. This approach gives us the frequency of the motion as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. We find that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been demonstrated and discussed. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and its excellent accuracy for the whole range of oscillation amplitude values and the results reveal that this technique is very effective and convenient for solving conservative truly nonlinear oscillatory systems with complex nonlinearities

  20. Strong nonlinearity-induced correlations for counterpropagating photons scattering on a two-level emitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; McCutcheon, Dara; Mørk, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could be quanti......We analytically treat the scattering of two counterpropagating photons on a two-level emitter embedded in an optical waveguide. We find that the nonlinearity of the emitter can give rise to significant pulse-dependent directional correlations in the scattered photonic state, which could...

  1. Numerical Analysis of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems using He's Max-Min Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babazadeh, H; Domairry, G; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear functions are crucial points and terms in engineering problems. Actual and physical problems can be solved by solving and processing such functions. Thus, most scientists and engineers focus on solving these equations. This paper presents a novel method called the max-min method...

  2. Utilizing strongly absorbing materials for low-loss surface-wave nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Nicolai B.; Franz, Philipp; Heckmann, Jan; Pufahl, Karsten; Woggon, Ulrike

    2018-04-01

    Optical media endowed with large nonlinear susceptibilities are highly prized for their employment in frequency conversion and the generation of nonclassical states of light. Although the presence of an optical resonance can greatly increase the nonlinear response (e.g., in epsilon-near-zero materials), the non-negligible increase in linear absorption often precludes the application of such materials in nonlinear optics. Absorbing materials prepared as thin films, however, can support a low-loss surface wave: the long-range surface exciton polariton (LRSEP). Its propagation lifetime increases with greater intrinsic absorption and reduced film thickness, provided that the film is embedded in a transparent medium (symmetric cladding). We explore LRSEP propagation in a molybdenum film by way of a prism-coupling configuration. Our observations show that excitation of the LRSEP mode leads to a dramatic increase in the yield of second-harmonic generation. This implies that the LRSEP mode is an effective vehicle for utilizing the nonlinear response of absorbing materials.

  3. Picard iterations for nonlinear Lipschitz strong pseudo-contractions in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Suppose E is a real uniformly smooth Banach space and K is a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E, T:K → K is a Lipschitz pseudo-contraction. It is proved that the Picard iterates of a suitably defined operator converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Furthermore, this result also holds for the slightly larger class of Lipschitz strong hemi-contractions. Related results deal with strong convergence of the Picard iterates to the unique solution of operator equations involving Lipschitz strongly accretive maps. Apart from establishing strong convergence, our theorems give existence, uniqueness and convergence-rate which is at least as fast as a geometric progression. (author). 51 refs

  4. Application of modified homotopy perturbation method and amplitude frequency formulation to strongly nonlinear oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd ghasem enayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two powerful analytical methods known as modified homotopy perturbation method and Amplitude Frequency Formulation called respectively MHPM and AFF, are introduced to derive approximate solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations appear in mechanical applications. These methods convert a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The obtained solutions are compared with numerical fourth order runge-kutta method to show the applicability and accuracy of both MHPM and AFF in solving this sample problem. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that MHPM and AFF are powerful mathematical tools and they can be applied to linear and nonlinear problems.

  5. Shock compression of strongly correlated oxides: A liquid-regime equation of state for cerium(IV) oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Root, Seth; Lane, J. Matthew D.; Shulenburger, Luke; Carpenter, John H.; Sjostrom, Travis; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Vogler, Tracy J.

    2018-03-01

    The shock Hugoniot for full-density and porous CeO2 was investigated in the liquid regime using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations with Erpenbeck's approach based on the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions. The phase space was sampled by carrying out NVT simulations for isotherms between 6000 and 100 000 K and densities ranging from ρ =2.5 to 20 g /cm3 . The impact of on-site Coulomb interaction corrections +U on the equation of state (EOS) obtained from AIMD simulations was assessed by direct comparison with results from standard density functional theory simulations. Classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations were also performed to model atomic-scale shock compression of larger porous CeO2 models. Results from AIMD and CMD compression simulations compare favorably with Z-machine shock data to 525 GPa and gas-gun data to 109 GPa for porous CeO2 samples. Using results from AIMD simulations, an accurate liquid-regime Mie-Grüneisen EOS was built for CeO2. In addition, a revised multiphase SESAME-type EOS was constrained using AIMD results and experimental data generated in this work. This study demonstrates the necessity of acquiring data in the porous regime to increase the reliability of existing analytical EOS models.

  6. Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels. We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample particle-in-cell (PIC simulation of a 30   fs, 200 TW laser interacting with a 0.75 cm long plasma with density 1.5×10^{18}  cm^{-3} to produce an ultrashort (10 fs monoenergetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3 nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications, we propose a parameter space, which is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1884126] in that it involves lower plasma densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.

  7. The nonlocal boundary value problems for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    -, č. 35 (2015), s. 23-50 ISSN 1126-8042 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order functional differential equations * Dirichlet boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ijpam.uniud.it/online_issue/201535/03-Mukhigulashvili.pdf

  8. Experimental study of linear and nonlinear regimes of density-driven instabilities induced by CO{sub 2} dissolution in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outeda, R.; D' Onofrio, A. [Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional General Sarmiento, J. M. Gutiérrez 1150, B1613GSX, Los Polvorines, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-03-15

    Density driven instabilities produced by CO{sub 2} (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO{sub 2} pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm{sup −1}) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator.

  9. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  10. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi [Graduate Student, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Kanazawa, Chikara [Undergraduate, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 63-8522 (Japan); Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo, E-mail: maeno@faculty.chiba-u.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University 1-33 Yayoi, Inage, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  11. Strongly increasing solutions of cyclic systems of second order differential equations with power-type nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jaroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider \\(n\\-dimensional cyclic systems of second order differential equations \\[(p_i(t|x_{i}'|^{\\alpha_i -1}x_{i}'' = q_{i}(t|x_{i+1}|^{\\beta_i-1}x_{i+1},\\] \\[\\quad i = 1,\\ldots,n, \\quad (x_{n+1} = x_1 \\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] under the assumption that the positive constants \\(\\alpha_i\\ and \\(\\beta_i\\ satisfy \\(\\alpha_1{\\ldots}\\alpha_n \\gt \\beta_1{\\ldots}\\beta_n\\ and \\(p_i(t\\ and \\(q_i(t\\ are regularly varying functions, and analyze positive strongly increasing solutions of system (\\(\\ast\\ in the framework of regular variation. We show that the situation for the existence of regularly varying solutions of positive indices for (\\(\\ast\\ can be characterized completely, and moreover that the asymptotic behavior of such solutions is governed by the unique formula describing their order of growth precisely. We give examples demonstrating that the main results for (\\(\\ast\\ can be applied to some classes of partial differential equations with radial symmetry to acquire accurate information about the existence and the asymptotic behavior of their radial positive strongly increasing solutions.

  12. Nonlinear CARS measurement of nitrogen vibrational and rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity strong shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Takashi; Endo, Youichi; Kanazawa, Chikara; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The hypervelocity strong shock waves are generated, when the space vehicles reenter the atmosphere from space. Behind the shock wave radiative and non-equilibrium flow is generated in front of the surface of the space vehicle. Many studies have been reported to investigate the phenomena for the aerospace exploit and reentry. The research information and data on the high temperature flows have been available to the rational heatproof design of the space vehicles. Recent development of measurement techniques with laser systems and photo-electronics now enables us to investigate the hypervelocity phenomena with greatly advanced accuracy. In this research strong shock waves are generated in low-density gas to simulate the reentry range gas flow with a free-piston double-diaphragm shock tube, and CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) measurement method is applied to the hypervelocity flows behind the shock waves, where spectral signals of high space/time resolution are acquired. The CARS system consists of YAG and dye lasers, a spectroscope, and a CCD camera system. We obtain the CARS signal spectrum data by this special time-resolving experiment, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 are determined by fitting between the experimental spectroscopic profile data and theoretically estimated spectroscopic data.

  13. Nonlinear physics of plasmas. Spatiotemporal structures in strong turbulence. Lecture notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, Milos M.

    2008-05-01

    This material has been prepared and partly delivered in a series of lectures given at NIFS to Doctor course students of the SOKENDAI (Graduate University of Advanced Studies, Japan) in academic 2007/08 year. Special gratitude is due to colleagues for fruitful collaboration: Profs. K. Mima, Lj. Hadzievski, S. Ishiguro, A. Maluckov, M. Rajkovic and Dr Li Baiwen and Dr Lj. Nikolic, in particular, and to Prof. Mitsuo Kono for motivating the work on this text. I wish to pay unique tribute to close friends and longtime collaborators, Prof. Dik ter Haar and Prof. Moma Jovanovic who are no longer with us. This report contains Chapter 1 (Strong Langmur Turbulence), Chapter 2 (Wave Collapse in Plasmas), Chapter 3 (Spatiotemporal Complexity in Plasmas), Chapter 4 (Relativistic Plasma Interactions) and Chapter 5 (Ponderomotive Potential and Magnetization). (J.P.N.)

  14. The method of varying amplitudes for solving (non)linear problems involving strong parametric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    Parametrically excited systems appear in many fields of science and technology, intrinsically or imposed purposefully; e.g. spatially periodic structures represent an important class of such systems [4]. When the parametric excitation can be considered weak, classical asymptotic methods like...... the method of averaging [2] or multiple scales [6] can be applied. However, with many practically important applications this simplification is inadequate, e.g. with spatially periodic structures it restricts the possibility to affect their effective dynamic properties by a structural parameter modulation...... of considerable magnitude. Approximate methods based on Floquet theory [4] for analyzing problems involving parametric excitation, e.g. the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [3,4], can be employed also in cases of strong excitation; however, with Floquet theory being applicable only for linear...

  15. Delayed electron emission in strong-field driven tunnelling from a metallic nanotip in the multi-electron regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287

  16. Analytical solutions by squeezing to the anisotropic Rabi model in the nonperturbative deep-strong coupling regime

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You

    2017-01-01

    A novel, unexplored nonperturbative deep-strong coupling (npDSC) achieved in superconducting circuits has been studied in the anisotropic Rabi model by the generalized squeezing rotating-wave approximation (GSRWA). Energy levels are evaluated analytically from the reformulated Hamiltonian and agree well with numerical ones under a wide range of coupling strength. Such improvement ascribes to deformation effects in the displaced-squeezed state presented by the squeezed momentum variance, which...

  17. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  18. A free-surface hydrodynamic model for density-stratified flow in the weakly to strongly non-hydrostatic regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Colin Y.; Evans, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    A non-hydrostatic density-stratified hydrodynamic model with a free surface has been developed from the vorticity equations rather than the usual momentum equations. This approach has enabled the model to be obtained in two different forms, weakly non-hydrostatic and fully non-hydrostatic, with the computationally efficient weakly non-hydrostatic form applicable to motions having horizontal scales greater than the local water depth. The hydrodynamic model in both its weakly and fully non-hydrostatic forms is validated numerically using exact nonlinear non-hydrostatic solutions given by the Dubriel-Jacotin-Long equation for periodic internal gravity waves, internal solitary waves, and flow over a ridge. The numerical code is developed based on a semi-Lagrangian scheme and higher order finite-difference spatial differentiation and interpolation. To demonstrate the applicability of the model to coastal ocean situations, the problem of tidal generation of internal solitary waves at a shelf-break is considered. Simulations carried out with the model obtain the evolution of solitary wave generation and propagation consistent with past results. Moreover, the weakly non-hydrostatic simulation is shown to compare favorably with the fully non-hydrostatic simulation. The capability of the present model to simulate efficiently relatively large scale non-hydrostatic motions suggests that the weakly non-hydrostatic form of the model may be suitable for application in a large-area domain while the computationally intensive fully non-hydrostatic form of the model may be used in an embedded sub-domain where higher resolution is needed

  19. Inversion of Qubit Energy Levels in Qubit-Oscillator Circuits in the Deep-Strong-Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ao, Z.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Aoki, T.; Koshino, K.; Semba, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to L C oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model.

  20. Nonlinear undulator tapering in conventional SASE regime at baseline electron beam parameters as a way to optimize the radiation characteristics of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate that the output radiation characteristics of the European XFEL sources at nominal operation point can be easily made significantly better than what is currently reported in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics. In fact, the output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators at a nominal operating point of 5 kA peak current, without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. In order to illustrate this point, we analyze the case of an electron bunch with nominal parameters. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that nonlinear undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime, without modification to the baseline design. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. In order to increase our confidence in simulation results, we cross-checked outcomes by reproducing simulations in the deep nonlinear SASE regime with tapered undulator using the code ALICE.

  1. Realization and optical characterisation of micro-cavities in strong coupling regime using self-assembled multi-quantum wells structure of 2D perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanty, Gaetan

    2011-01-01

    The research work which is reported in this manuscript focuses on 2D perovskites and their use to obtain micro-cavities working in the strong coupling regime. Perovskite structure forms a multi-quantum wells in which the excitonic states have a high oscillator strength and a large binding energy (a few 100 MeV) due to quantum and dielectric confinement effects. A first axis of this work was to collect information on the excitonic properties of these materials. On a particular perovskite (PEPI), we performed photoluminescence and pump-probe measurements, which seem to suggest the existence, under high excitation density, a process of Auger recombination of excitons. A second research axis was to put in cavity thin layers of some perovskites. With PEPI and PEPC perovskites, we have shown that the realization of micro-cavities with a quality factor of the order of ten is sufficient to obtain at room temperature, the strong coupling regime in absorption and emission with Rabi splitting up to 220 MeV. A bottleneck effect has been clearly demonstrated for the PEPI microcavity. We have also shown that perovskites could be associated with inorganic semiconductors in 'hybrid' micro-cavities. According Agranovich et al., these micro-cavities could present polariton lasing with lower quality factors. To this end, the ZnO/MFMPB association seems particularly promising. (author)

  2. Accretion disc dynamo activity in local simulations spanning weak-to-strong net vertical magnetic flux regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-03-01

    Strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes have attractive features that may explain enigmatic aspects of X-ray binary behaviour. The structure and evolution of these discs are governed by a dynamo-like mechanism, which channels part of the accretion power liberated by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) into an ordered toroidal magnetic field. To study dynamo activity, we performed three-dimensional, stratified, isothermal, ideal magnetohydrodynamic shearing box simulations. The strength of the self-sustained toroidal magnetic field depends on the net vertical magnetic flux, which we vary across almost the entire range over which the MRI is linearly unstable. We quantify disc structure and dynamo properties as a function of the initial ratio of mid-plane gas pressure to vertical magnetic field pressure, β _0^mid = p_gas / p_B. For 10^5 ≥ β _0^mid ≥ 10 the effective α-viscosity parameter scales as a power law. Dynamo activity persists up to and including β _0^mid = 10^2, at which point the entire vertical column of the disc is magnetic pressure dominated. Still stronger fields result in a highly inhomogeneous disc structure, with large density fluctuations. We show that the turbulent steady state βmid in our simulations is well matched by the analytic model of Begelman et al. describing the creation and buoyant escape of toroidal field, while the vertical structure of the disc can be broadly reproduced using this model. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for observed properties of X-ray binaries.

  3. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  4. A strongly coupled open system with a non-linear bath: fluctuation-dissipation and Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chitrak

    2018-03-01

    The study of Langevin dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) for a generic probe system (represented by a mass M ), bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, has been a standard paradigm for the microscopic theory of stochastic processes for several decades. The question that we probe in this paper is, how robust the structure of the classical FDR is, when one replaces the harmonic bath by an anharmonic one in the limit of strong system-bath coupling? Such a picture carries the signature of the probe system in the zeroth order through a nonlocal time kernel. We observe that the two-time noise correlations hold a rich structure from which the usual FDR emerges only in the leading order of perturbation. Beyond this order, multiple time scales and nontrivial dependence on the temperature starts to manifest. These new aspects conspire to break the time-translational invariance of the noise-correlations. Several other interesting features show up and we discuss them methodically through rigorous calculations order-by-order in perturbation. This formalistic derivation along with a specific example of non-linearity can be easily applied to a huge range of processes and statistical observables that fall under the purview of a system-reservoir theory.

  5. A fast linearized conservative finite element method for the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gu, Xian-Ming; Huang, Chengming; Fei, Mingfa; Zhang, Guoyu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a fast linearized conservative finite element method is studied for solving the strongly coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations. We prove that the scheme preserves both the mass and energy, which are defined by virtue of some recursion relationships. Using the Sobolev inequalities and then employing the mathematical induction, the discrete scheme is proved to be unconditionally convergent in the sense of L2-norm and H α / 2-norm, which means that there are no any constraints on the grid ratios. Then, the prior bound of the discrete solution in L2-norm and L∞-norm are also obtained. Moreover, we propose an iterative algorithm, by which the coefficient matrix is independent of the time level, and thus it leads to Toeplitz-like linear systems that can be efficiently solved by Krylov subspace solvers with circulant preconditioners. This method can reduce the memory requirement of the proposed linearized finite element scheme from O (M2) to O (M) and the computational complexity from O (M3) to O (Mlog ⁡ M) in each iterative step, where M is the number of grid nodes. Finally, numerical results are carried out to verify the correction of the theoretical analysis, simulate the collision of two solitary waves, and show the utility of the fast numerical solution techniques.

  6. Time evolution of scattering states and velocity increase due to nonlinear processes in the quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, J.; Duport, C.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first numerical results (with realistic parameter values) for the time evolution of a scattered Landau function in a model system. They give a striking illustration for the Hall velocity increase beyond the classical value of the conduction electrons in the quantum Hall regime. This phenomenon, which is crucial for the integer quantum Hall effect, is caused by a special kind of nonclassical particle dynamics induced by disorder and cannot be described by linear response theory

  7. Enhancing the nonlinear thermoelectric response of a correlated quantum dot in the Kondo regime by asymmetrical coupling to the leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Daroca, Diego; Roura-Bas, Pablo; Aligia, Armando A.

    2018-04-01

    We study the low-temperature properties of the differential response of the current to a temperature gradient at finite voltage in a single-level quantum dot including electron-electron interaction, nonsymmetric couplings to the leads, and nonlinear effects. The calculated response is significantly enhanced in setups with large asymmetries between the tunnel couplings. In the investigated range of voltages and temperatures with corresponding energies up to several times the Kondo energy scale, the maximum response is enhanced nearly an order of magnitude with respect to symmetric coupling to the leads.

  8. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures.

  9. Nonlinear excitation of electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic strong microwave: computer simulation analysis of the MINIX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Triggered by the experimental results of the MINIX, a computer simulation study was initiated on the nonlinear excitation of electrostatic electron cyclotron waves by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave such as the transmitted microwave in the MINIX. The model used assumes that both of the excited waves and exciting (pumping) electromagnetic wave as well as the idler electromagnetic wave propagate in the direction perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The simulation code used for this study was the one-and-two-half dimensional electromagnetic particle code named KEMPO. The simulation result shows the high power electromagnetic wave produces both the backscattered electromagnetic wave and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves as a result of nonlinear parametric instability. Detailed nonlinear microphysics related to the wave excitation is discussed in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave couplings and associated ponderomotive force produced by the high power electromagnetic waves. 2 references, 4 figures

  10. Field dependent transition to the non-linear regime in magnetic hyperthermia experiments: Comparison between maghemite, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Verde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR. Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated

  11. A non-linear theory for the bubble regime of plasma wake fields in tailored plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a first full analytical bubble and blow-out model for a radially inhomogeneous plasma in a quasi-static approximation. For both cases we calculate the accelerating and the focusing fields. In our model we also assume a thin electron layer that surrounds the wake field and calculate the field configuration within. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. From a previous study of hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime we know that pancake-like laser pulses lead to highest electron energies [Pukhov et al, PRL 113, 245003 (2014)]. As it was shown, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths by varying the plasma density profile inside a deep channel. Now we show why the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel become defocussing.

  12. Relationship Between the Parameters of the Linear and Nonlinear Wave Generation Stages in a Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser in the Backward-Wave Oscillator Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhov, A. G.

    2017-03-01

    By using numerical simulations we generalize certain relationships between the parameters of quasimonochromatic whistler-mode waves generated at the linear and nonlinear stages of the cyclotron instability in the backward-wave oscillator regime. One of these relationships is between the wave amplitude at the nonlinear stage and the linear growth rate of the cyclotron instability. It was obtained analytically by V.Yu.Trakhtengerts (1984) for a uniform medium under the assumption of constant frequency and amplitude of the generated wave. We show that a similar relationship also holds for the signals generated in a nonuniform magnetic field and having a discrete structure in the form of short wave packets (elements) with fast frequency drift inside each element. We also generalize the formula for the linear growth rate of absolute cyclotron instability in a nonuniform medium and analyze the relationship between the frequency drift rate in the discrete elements and the wave amplitude. These relationships are important for analyzing the links between the parameters of chorus emissions in the Earth's and planetary magnetospheres and the characteristics of the energetic charged particles generating these signals.

  13. Self-consistent modelling of electrochemical strain microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Nonlinear and dynamic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenyk, O. V.; Silibin, M. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2015-08-01

    The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.

  14. Self-consistent modelling of electrochemical strain microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Nonlinear and dynamic regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varenyk, O. V.; Morozovska, A. N., E-mail: sergei2@ornl.gov, E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 46, pr. Nauky, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Silibin, M. V. [National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET,” 124498 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kiselev, D. A. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS,” 119049 Moscow, Leninskiy pr. 4 (Russian Federation); Eliseev, E. A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science, NAS of Ukraine, Krjijanovskogo 3, 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kalinin, S. V., E-mail: sergei2@ornl.gov, E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com [The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.

  15. X-ray detected magnetic resonance of YIG thin films in the nonlinear regime of spin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulon, J., E-mail: goulon@esrf.f [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Rogalev, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Goujon, G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Brouder, Ch. [Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, UMR-CNRS 7590, Universite Paris VI-VII, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yaresko, A. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ben Youssef, J.; Indenbom, M.V. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS FRE 2697, UFR Sciences et Techniques, F-29328 Brest Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    We discuss the information content of element/edge resolved X-ray detected magnetic resonance (XDMR) experiments carried out on yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films. Starting with a phenomenological approach, it is shown that the photoionisation of deep atomic core levels by circularly polarized X-rays can be used to probe the precession dynamics of spin or orbital magnetization components in empty final states of proper symmetry. Crude estimates of the opening angle of the uniform precession mode were tentatively deduced from the ratio of the XDMR and XMCD absorption cross-sections either at the iron or yttrium absorbing sites. The implications of the most recent experimental results collected at the ESRF are analyzed, keeping in mind that: (i) the Fe K-edge XDMR signal is largely dominated by the precession of orbital magnetization components at the tetrahedral iron sites; (ii) the Y L-edges XDMR signal essentially describes the precession of induced spin magnetization involving the 4d states of yttrium. In the magnetostatic regime, we produce clear experimental evidence of collective excitations of orbital magnetization waves, especially under high pumping power. Several coupling mechanisms could explain our observations, starting with pseudo-dipolar interactions in ferromagnetic systems. In ferrimagnetic systems in which orbital degeneracy and orbital ordering make the excitation of orbitons possible, one may envisage additional modes of excitation or relaxation of orbital magnetization waves. This interpretation looks fully consistent with the results of band structure calculations carried out recently on YIG with fully relativistic LMTO-LSDA methods.

  16. Decentralized identification of nonlinear structure under strong ground motion using the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dongwang; Li, Hui; Ma, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Complete structure identification of complicate nonlinear system using extend Kalman filter (EKF) or unscented Kalman filter (UKF) may have the problems of divergence, huge computation and low estimation precision due to the large dimension of the extended state space for the system. In this article, a decentralized identification method of hysteretic system based on the joint EKF and UKF is proposed. The complete structure is divided into linear substructures and nonlinear substructures. The substructures are identified from the top to the bottom. For the linear substructure, EKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness and damping coefficients of the substructures, using the limited absolute accelerations and the identified interface force above the substructure. Similarly, for the nonlinear substructure, UKF is used to identify the extended space including the displacements, velocities, stiffness, damping coefficients and control parameters for the hysteretic Bouc-Wen model and the force at the interface of substructures. Finally a 10-story shear-type structure with multiple inter-story hysteresis is used for numerical simulation and is identified using the decentralized approach, and the identified results are compared with those using only EKF or UKF for the complete structure identification. The results show that the decentralized approach has the advantage of more stability, relative less computation and higher estimation precision.

  17. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Strong reflection of a series of pulses from a four-wave mirror with thermal nonlinearity under parametric feedback conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, M. S.; Bel'dyugin, Igor'M.; Zolotarev, M. V.; Kruzhilin, Yu I.; Krymskiĭ, M. I.; Oshkin, S. P.; Starkov, G. S.; Umnov, A. F.; Kharchenko, M. A.

    1989-04-01

    A four-wave mirror exhibiting a thermal nonlinearity was used in a study of the interaction of concurrent waves under parametric feedback conditions in the presence of a nonreciprocal element. Strong reflection of a series of pulses of ~ 300 ns duration from a neodymium glass laser was demonstrated: the maximum reflection coefficient was in excess of 30. An analysis was made of the quality of the radiation reflected from this four-mirror parametric feedback system. A considerable reduction was observed in the steady-state threshold for the operation of this mirror with a thermal nonlinearity when the angles of convergence of the interacting beams were small compared with the case of head-on collision of the waves.

  18. Optimal explicit strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta methods with high linear order and optimal nonlinear order

    KAUST Repository

    Gottlieb, Sigal; Grant, Zachary; Higgs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    High order spatial discretizations with monotonicity properties are often desirable for the solution of hyperbolic PDEs. These methods can advantageously be coupled with high order strong stability preserving time discretizations. The search

  19. Retrieval of high-order susceptibilities of nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Yu; Qiu Jin-Peng; Chen Hua; Mo Jiong-Jiong; Yu Fa-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Active metamaterials embedded with nonlinear elements are able to exhibit strong nonlinearity in microwave regime. However, existing S -parameter based parameter retrieval approaches developed for linear metamaterials do not apply in nonlinear cases. In this paper, a retrieval algorithm of high-order susceptibilities for nonlinear metamaterials is derived. Experimental demonstration shows that, by measuring the power level of each harmonic while sweeping the incident power, high-order susceptibilities of a thin-layer nonlinear metamaterial can be effectively retrieved. The proposedapproach can be widely used in the research of active metamaterials. (paper)

  20. Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100  a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength...

  1. Electron dynamics in metals and semiconductors in strong THz fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductors and metals respond to strong electric fields in a highly nonlinear fashion. Using single-cycle THz field transients it is possible to investigate this response in regimes not accessible by transport-based measurements. Extremely high fields can be applied without material damage...

  2. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán [Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cutri, Roc M., E-mail: rszabo@konkoly.hu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  3. Regimes of the magnetized Rayleigh endash Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and massless fluid electrons are used to investigate the linear and nonlinear behavior of the magnetized Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in slab geometry with the plasma subject to a constant gravity. Three regimes are found, which are determined by the magnitude of the complex frequency ω=ω r +iγ. For |ω| i (Ω i = ion gyrofrequency), one finds the typical behavior of the usual fluid regime, namely the development of open-quote open-quote mushroom-head close-quote close-quote spikes and bubbles in the density and a strongly convoluted boundary between the plasma and magnetic field, where the initial gradient is not relaxed much. A second regime, where |ω|∼0.1Ω i , is characterized by the importance of the Hall term. Linearly, the developing flute modes are more finger-like and tilted along the interface; nonlinearly, clump-like structures form, leading to a significant broadening of the interface. The third regime is characterized by unmagnetized ion behavior, with |ω|∼Ω i . Density clumps, rather than flutes, form in the linear stage, while nonlinearly, longer-wavelength modes that resemble those in fluid regime dominate. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of short-wavelength modes is observed in each regime. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. General strongly nonlinear variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, A.H.; Ansari, Q.H.

    1990-07-01

    In this paper we develop iterative algorithms for finding approximate solutions for new classes of variational and quasi-variational inequalities which include, as special case, some known results in this field. It is shown that the solutions of the iterative schemes converge to the exact solutions. (author). 15 refs

  5. Strongly nonlinear parabolic variational inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, F E; Brézis, H

    1980-02-01

    An existence and uniqueness result is established for a general class of variational inequalities for parabolic partial differential equations of the form partial differentialu/ partial differentialt + A(u) + g(u) = f with g nondecreasing but satisfying no growth condition. The proof is based upon a type of compactness result for solutions of variational inequalities that should find a variety of other applications.

  6. Nonlinear effects in modulated quantum optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tai-Shuang; Lü, Xin-You; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Mei; Li, Sha; Wu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear quantum regime is crucial for implementing interesting quantum effects, which have wide applications in modern quantum science. Here we propose an effective method to reach the nonlinear quantum regime in a modulated optomechanical system (OMS), which is originally in the weak-coupling regime. The mechanical spring constant and optomechanical interaction are modulated periodically. This leads to the result that the resonant optomechanical interaction can be effectively enhanced into the single-photon strong-coupling regime by the modulation-induced mechanical parametric amplification. Moreover, the amplified phonon noise can be suppressed completely by introducing a squeezed vacuum reservoir, which ultimately leads to the realization of photon blockade in a weakly coupled OMS. The reached nonlinear quantum regime also allows us to engineer the nonclassical states (e.g., Schrödinger cat states) of the cavity field, which are robust against the phonon noise. This work offers an alternative approach to enhance the quantum nonlinearity of an OMS, which should expand the applications of cavity optomechanics in the quantum realm.

  7. Transient dynamics of a quantum-dot: From Kondo regime to mixed valence and to empty orbital regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, YongXi; Li, ZhenHua; Wei, JianHua; Nie, YiHang; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    Based on the hierarchical equations of motion approach, we study the time-dependent transport properties of a strongly correlated quantum dot system in the Kondo regime (KR), mixed valence regime (MVR), and empty orbital regime (EOR). We find that the transient current in KR shows the strongest nonlinear response and the most distinct oscillation behaviors. Both behaviors become weaker in MVR and diminish in EOR. To understand the physical insight, we examine also the corresponding dot occupancies and the spectral functions, with their dependence on the Coulomb interaction, temperature, and applied step bias voltage. The above nonlinear and oscillation behaviors could be understood as the interplay between dynamical Kondo resonance and single electron resonant-tunneling.

  8. Spectral contents of electron waves under strong Langmuir turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Maria Virginia; Dallaqua, Renato Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Prado, Fabio do [Centro Universitario UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Karfidov, Dmitry Mikhailovich [General Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    Experimental results of electron plasma waves excited in a beam plasma system are presented. Based on our experimental results we determine the transition from the quasi-linear to non-linear regime. We present the space evolution of the electron beam distribution function for both regimes. The spectrum of the electron plasma wave in the non-linear regime shows a component with frequency larger than the plasma frequency besides the plasma frequency itself. We show that the higher frequency component is strongly affected by Landau damping, indicating a dissipation region. The measured experimental power spectrum of this wave shows a dependence on wave number k given by W{sub k} {proportional_to} k{sup -7/2} as theoretically predicted. (author)

  9. Entanglement Dynamics of Linear and Nonlinear Interaction of Two Two-Level Atoms with a Quantized Phase-Damped Field in the Dispersive Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M. K.; Daneshmand, R.; Rustaee, N.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we study the linear and nonlinear (intensity-dependent) interactions of two two-level atoms with a single-mode quantized field far from resonance, while the phase-damping effect is also taken into account. To find the analytical solution of the atom-field state vector corresponding to the considered model, after deducing the effective Hamiltonian we evaluate the time-dependent elements of the density operator using the master equation approach and superoperator method. Consequently, we are able to study the influences of the special nonlinearity function f (n) = √ {n}, the intensity of the initial coherent state field and the phase-damping parameter on the degree of entanglement of the whole system as well as the field and atom. It is shown that in the presence of damping, by passing time, the amount of entanglement of each subsystem with the rest of system, asymptotically reaches to its stationary and maximum value. Also, the nonlinear interaction does not have any effect on the entanglement of one of the atoms with the rest of system, but it changes the amplitude and time period of entanglement oscillations of the field and the other atom. Moreover, this may cause that, the degree of entanglement which may be low (high) at some moments of time becomes high (low) by entering the intensity-dependent function in the atom-field coupling.

  10. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kh'yuitt, G.

    1980-01-01

    An introduction into the problem of two-phase flows is presented. Flow regimes arizing in two-phase flows are described, and classification of these regimes is given. Structures of vertical and horizontal two-phase flows and a method of their identification using regime maps are considered. The limits of this method application are discussed. The flooding phenomena and phenomena of direction change (flow reversal) of the flow and interrelation of these phenomena as well as transitions from slug regime to churn one and from churn one to annular one in vertical flows are described. Problems of phase transitions and equilibrium are discussed. Flow regimes in tubes where evaporating liquid is running, are described [ru

  11. Flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Internal boundaries in multiphase flow greatly complicate fluid-dynamic and heat-transfer descriptions. Different flow regimes or topological configurations can have radically dissimilar interfacial and wall mass, momentum, and energy exchanges. To model the flow dynamics properly requires estimates of these rates. In this paper the common flow regimes for gas-liquid systems are defined and the techniques used to estimate the extent of a particular regime are described. Also, the current computer-code procedures are delineated and introduce a potentially better method is introduced

  12. Stochastic dynamical models for ecological regime shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Carstensen, Jacob; Madsen, Henrik

    the physical and biological knowledge of the system, and nonlinearities introduced here can generate regime shifts or enhance the probability of regime shifts in the case of stochastic models, typically characterized by a threshold value for the known driver. A simple model for light competition between...... definition and stability of regimes become less subtle. Ecological regime shifts and their modeling must be viewed in a probabilistic manner, particularly if such model results are to be used in ecosystem management....

  13. On the dynamics of Airy beams in nonlinear media with nonlinear losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jiménez, Carlos; Nóbrega, K Z; Porras, Miguel A

    2015-04-06

    We investigate on the nonlinear dynamics of Airy beams in a regime where nonlinear losses due to multi-photon absorption are significant. We identify the nonlinear Airy beam (NAB) that preserves the amplitude of the inward Hänkel component as an attractor of the dynamics. This attractor governs also the dynamics of finite-power (apodized) Airy beams, irrespective of the location of the entrance plane in the medium with respect to the Airy waist plane. A soft (linear) input long before the waist, however, strongly speeds up NAB formation and its persistence as a quasi-stationary beam in comparison to an abrupt input at the Airy waist plane, and promotes the formation of a new type of highly dissipative, fully nonlinear Airy beam not described so far.

  14. Regime change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?

  15. Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in; Joy, Ashwin [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time τ{sub m} [0 < τ{sub m} < 10]. For the system size considered, using a linear stability analysis, similar to Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0), it is found that for Reynolds number beyond a critical R, say R{sub c}, the Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable. Importantly, it is found that R{sub c} is strongly reduced for increasing values of τ{sub m}. A critical τ{sub m}{sup c} is found above which Kolmogorov flow is unconditionally unstable and becomes independent of Reynolds number. For R < R{sub c}, the neutral stability regime found in Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0) is now found to be a damped regime in viscoelastic fluids, thus changing the fundamental nature of transition of Kolmogorov flow as function of Reynolds number R. A new parallelized nonlinear pseudo spectral code has been developed and is benchmarked against eigen values for Kolmogorov flow obtained from linear analysis. Nonlinear states obtained from the pseudo spectral code exhibit cyclicity and pattern formation in vorticity and viscoelastic oscillations in energy.

  16. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analayzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-05-01

    Qubits are excellent probes of their environment. When operating in the linear regime, they can be used as linear spectrum analyzers of the noise processes surrounding them. These methods fail for strong non-Gaussian noise where the qubit response is no longer linear. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for strongly coupled environments. Our non-perturbative analytic model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We developed a noise characterization scheme adapted to this non-linearity. We then applied it using a single trapped 88Sr+ ion as the a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. With this method, we attained a ten fold improvement over the standard Fourier limit. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs. Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013), Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: National Institute of Standards and Tehcnology, Boulder, CO.

  17. Nonlinear switching dynamics in a photonic-crystal nanocavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel; Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of nonlinear switching dynamics in an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. Usually, the regime of relatively small cavity perturbations is explored, where the signal transmitted through the cavity follows the temporal variation of the cavity resonance. When the cavity is perturbed by strong pulses, we observe several nonlinear effects, i.e., saturation of the switching contrast, broadening of the switching window, and even initial reduction of the transmission. The effects are analyzed by comparison with nonlinear coupled mode theory and explained in terms of large dynamical variations of the cavity resonance in combination with nonlinear losses. The results provide insight into the nonlinear optical processes that govern the dynamics of nanocavities and are important for applications in optical signal processing, where one wants to optimize the switching contrast.

  18. Nonlinear switching dynamics in a photonic-crystal nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of nonlinear switching dynamics in an InP photonic crystal nanocavity. Usually, the regime of relatively small cavity perturbations is explored, where the signal transmitted through the cavity follows the temporal variation of the cavity resonance. When...... of large dynamical variations of the cavity resonance in combination with nonlinear losses. The results provide insight into the nonlinear optical processes that govern the dynamics of nanocavities and are important for applications in optical signal processing, where one wants to optimize the switching...... the cavity is perturbed by strong pulses, we observe several nonlinear effects, i.e., saturation of the switching contrast, broadening of the switching window, and even initial reduction of the transmission. The effects are analyzed by comparison with nonlinear coupled mode theory and explained in terms...

  19. Rogue wave train generation in a metamaterial induced by cubic-quintic nonlinearities and second-order dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essama, Bedel Giscard Onana; Atangana, Jacques; Frederick, Biya Motto; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Eddeqaqi, Noureddine Cherkaoui; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave that propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. Second-order dispersion and cubic-quintic nonlinearities are taken into account. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for absorption regime. The collective coordinates technique is used to characterize the light pulse intensity profile at some frequency ranges. Five frequency ranges have been pointed out. The perfect combination of second-order dispersion and cubic nonlinearity leads to a robust soliton at each frequency range for negative index regime. The soliton peak power progressively decreases for absorption regime. Further, this peak power also decreases with frequency. We show that absorption regime can induce rogue wave trains generation at a specific frequency range. However, this rogue wave trains generation is maintained when the quintic nonlinearity comes into play for negative index regime and amplified for absorption regime at a specific frequency range. It clearly appears that rogue wave behavior strongly depends on the frequency and the regime considered. Furthermore, the stability conditions of the electromagnetic wave have also been discussed at frequency ranges considered for both negative index and absorption regimes.

  20. Homogenized description and retrieval method of nonlinear metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Larouche, Stéphane; Smith, David R.

    2018-03-01

    A patterned, plasmonic metasurface can strongly scatter incident light, functioning as an extremely low-profile lens, filter, reflector or other optical device. When the metasurface is patterned uniformly, its linear optical properties can be expressed using effective surface electric and magnetic polarizabilities obtained through a homogenization procedure. The homogenized description of a nonlinear metasurface, however, presents challenges both because of the inherent anisotropy of the medium as well as the much larger set of potential wave interactions available, making it challenging to assign effective nonlinear parameters to the otherwise inhomogeneous layer of metamaterial elements. Here we show that a homogenization procedure can be developed to describe nonlinear metasurfaces, which derive their nonlinear response from the enhanced local fields arising within the structured plasmonic elements. With the proposed homogenization procedure, we are able to assign effective nonlinear surface polarization densities to a nonlinear metasurface, and link these densities to the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities and averaged macroscopic pumping fields across the metasurface. These effective nonlinear surface polarization densities are further linked to macroscopic nonlinear fields through the generalized sheet transition conditions (GSTCs). By inverting the GSTCs, the effective nonlinear surface susceptibilities of the metasurfaces can be solved for, leading to a generalized retrieval method for nonlinear metasurfaces. The application of the homogenization procedure and the GSTCs are demonstrated by retrieving the nonlinear susceptibilities of a SiO2 nonlinear slab. As an example, we investigate a nonlinear metasurface which presents nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in near infrared regime. The method is expected to apply to any patterned metasurface whose thickness is much smaller than the wavelengths of operation, with inclusions of arbitrary geometry

  1. Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss phase-locking phenomena at low-level of quanta for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR) in strong quantum regime. Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space and analyse formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime.

  2. Competition Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Icaza Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the competition regime works of various authors, published under the auspices of the University of the Hemispheres and the Corporation for Studies and Publications. Analyzes the structure, the general concepts, case law taken for development. Includes comments on the usefulness of this work for the study of competition law and the contribution to the lawyers who want to practice in this branch of economic law.

  3. Optical rogue waves generation in a nonlinear metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onana Essama, Bedel Giscard; Atangana, Jacques; Biya-Motto, Frederick; Mokhtari, Bouchra; Cherkaoui Eddeqaqi, Noureddine; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the behavior of electromagnetic wave which propagates in a metamaterial for negative index regime. The optical pulse propagation is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with cubic-quintic nonlinearities, second- and third-order dispersion effects. The behavior obtained for negative index regime is compared to that observed for positive index regime. The characterization of electromagnetic wave uses some pulse parameters obtained analytically and called collective coordinates such as amplitude, temporal position, width, chirp, frequency shift and phase. Six frequency ranges have been pointed out where a numerical evolution of collective coordinates and their stability are studied under a typical example to verify our analysis. It appears that a robust soliton due to a perfect compensation process between second-order dispersion and cubic-nonlinearity is presented at each frequency range for both negative and positive index regimes. Thereafter, the stability of the soliton pulse and physical conditions leading to optical rogue waves generation are discussed at each frequency range for both regimes, when third-order dispersion and quintic-nonlinearity come into play. We have demonstrated that collective coordinates give much useful information on external and internal behavior of rogue events. Firstly, we determine at what distance begins the internal excitation leading to rogue waves. Secondly, what kind of internal modification and how it modifies the system in order to build-up rogue events. These results lead to a best comprehension of the mechanism of rogue waves generation. So, it clearly appears that the rogue wave behavior strongly depends on nonlinearity strength of distortion, frequency and regime considered.

  4. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  5. Transition from weak wave turbulence regime to solitonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Roumaissa; Mordant, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The Weak Turbulence Theory (WTT) is a statistical theory describing the interaction of a large ensemble of random waves characterized by very different length scales. For both weak non-linearity and weak dispersion a different regime is predicted where solitons propagate while keeping their shape unchanged. The question under investigation here is which regime between weak turbulence or soliton gas does the system choose ? We report an experimental investigation of wave turbulence at the surface of finite depth water in the gravity-capillary range. We tune the wave dispersion and the level of nonlinearity by modifying the depth of water and the forcing respectively. We use space-time resolved profilometry to reconstruct the deformed surface of water. When decreasing the water depth, we observe a drastic transition between weak turbulence at the weakest forcing and a solitonic regime at stronger forcing. We characterize the transition between both states by studying their Fourier Spectra. We also study the efficiency of energy transfer in the weak turbulence regime. We report a loss of efficiency of angular transfer as the dispersion of the wave is reduced until the system bifurcates into the solitonic regime. This project has recieved funding from the European Research Council (ERC, Grant Agreement No. 647018-WATU).

  6. Breatherlike excitations in discrete lattices with noise and nonlinear damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the stability of highly localized, ''breatherlike,'' excitations in discrete nonlinear lattices under the influence of thermal fluctuations. The particular model considered is the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation in the regime of high nonlinearity, where temperature effects...

  7. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hongyao [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Xiao, Haibo, E-mail: xiaohb@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Ding, Lei [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Li, Bo [Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2015-02-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ{sub cut-off} ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM) and high thermal stability (T{sub d} = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10{sup 3}GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties.

  8. A bistriphenylamine-substituted spirobifluorene derivative exhibiting excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off and strong two-photon induced blue fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Hongyao; Xiao, Haibo; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Chun; Ren, Aiming; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A spirobifluorene-bridged donor/donor chromophore, 2,7-bis-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phen-1-yl)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (SPF-TP), was found to combine excellent transparency in the near UV–visible region (λ cut-off  ≤ 420 nm), large two-photon absorption cross-section (4.5 × 10 3 GM) and high thermal stability (T d  = 501 °C). In comparison to the reported two-photon absorption molecules, SPF-TP represents the best thermal stability so far described in the literature. The main electronic factors explaining the high two-photon absorption activities of SPF-TP were analyzed by theoretical calculations. Cyclic voltammograms were employed to explore the causes of the excellent transparency of SPF-TP. It was found that the spiroconjugation effect is responsible for the excellent nonlinearity/transparency/thermal stability trade-off in SPF-TP. In addition, SPF-TP is also a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material with high fluorescence quantum yield (Φ = 0.90, in THF). - Highlights: • We report a molecule exhibiting excellent transparency. • The two-photon absorption cross-section is as large as 4.5 × 10 3 GM. • The molecule exhibits excellent thermal stability. • The molecule is a good two-photon induced blue fluorescent material. • The spiroconjugation effect explains the excellent properties

  9. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  10. Gyrotropic Zener tunneling and nonlinear IV curves in the zero-energy Landau level of graphene in a strong magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Antti; Kumar, Manohar; Hakonen, Pertti; Sonin, Edouard

    2018-01-12

    We have investigated tunneling current through a suspended graphene Corbino disk in high magnetic fields at the Dirac point, i.e. at filling factor ν = 0. At the onset of the dielectric breakdown the current through the disk grows exponentially before ohmic behaviour, but in a manner distinct from thermal activation. We find that Zener tunneling between Landau sublevels dominates, facilitated by tilting of the source-drain bias potential. According to our analytic modelling, the Zener tunneling is strongly affected by the gyrotropic force (Lorentz force) due to the high magnetic field.

  11. Extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in a geometrically nonlinear lattice oscillating in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Smirnov, Valeri; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    We study the in-plane damped oscillations of a finite lattice of particles coupled by linear springs under distributed harmonic excitation. Strong nonlinearity in this system is generated by geometric effects due to the in-plane stretching of the coupling spring elements. The lattice has a finite number of nonlinear transverse standing waves (termed nonlinear normal modes - NNMs), and an equal number of axial linear modes which are nonlinearly coupled to the transverse ones. Nonlinear interactions between the transverse and axial modes under harmonic excitation give rise to unexpected and extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in the lattice. In particular, we directly excite a transverse NNM by harmonic forcing (causing simulataneous indirect excitation of a corresponding axial linear mode due to nonlinear coupling), and identify three energy transfer mechanisms in the lattice. First, we detect the stable response of the directly excited transverse NNM (despite its instability in the absence of forcing), with simultaneous stability of the indirectly excited axial linear mode. Second, by changing the system and forcing parameters we report extreme nonlinear "energy explosions," whereby, after an initial regime of stability, the directly excited transverse NNM loses stability, leading to abrupt excitation of all transverse and axial modes of the lattice, at all possible wave numbers. This strong instability is triggered by the parametric instability of an indirectly excited axial mode which builds energy until the explosion. This is proved through theoretical analysis. Finally, in other parameter ranges we report intermittent, intense energy transfers from the directly excited transverse NNM to a small set of transverse NNMs with smaller wavelengths, and from the indirectly excited axial mode to a small set of axial modes, but with larger wavelengths. These intermittent energy transfers resemble energy cascades occurring in turbulent flows. Our results show that

  12. Nonlinear magnetic electron tripolar vortices in streaming plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranjes, J; Marić, G; Shukla, P K

    2000-06-01

    Magnetic electron modes in nonuniform magnetized and unmagnetized streaming plasmas, with characteristic frequencies between the ion and electron plasma frequencies and at spatial scales of the order of the collisionless skin depth, are studied. Two coupled equations, for the perturbed (in the case of magnetized plasma) or self-generated (for the unmagnetized plasma case) magnetic field, and the temperature, are solved in the strongly nonlinear regime and stationary traveling solutions in the form of tripolar vortices are found.

  13. Cumulants of heat transfer across nonlinear quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Baowen; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    We consider thermal conduction across a general nonlinear phononic junction. Based on two-time observation protocol and the nonequilibrium Green's function method, heat transfer in steady-state regimes is studied, and practical formulas for the calculation of the cumulant generating function are obtained. As an application, the general formalism is used to study anharmonic effects on fluctuation of steady-state heat transfer across a single-site junction with a quartic nonlinear on-site pinning potential. An explicit nonlinear modification to the cumulant generating function exact up to the first order is given, in which the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry is found still valid. Numerically a self-consistent procedure is introduced, which works well for strong nonlinearity.

  14. Nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating embedded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, N.; Picó, R. [Instituto de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de zonas Costeras, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, València (Spain); Romero-García, V. [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, LAUM UMR CNRS 6613, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Garcia-Raffi, L. M. [Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 València (Spain); Staliunas, K. [ICREA, Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom, 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-16

    We report the nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating immersed in water. In the linear regime, the system presents high focal gain (32 dB), with a narrow beam-width and intense side lobes as it is common in focusing by Fresnel-like lenses. Activating the nonlinearity of the host medium by using high amplitude incident waves, the focusing properties of the lens dramatically change. Theoretical predictions show that the focal gain of the system extraordinary increases in the strongly nonlinear regime (Mach number of 6.1 × 10{sup −4}). Particularly, the harmonic generation is locally activated at the focal spot, and the second harmonic beam is characterized by strongly reduced side-lobes and an excellent beam profile as experiments show in agreement with theory. The results can motivate applications in medical therapy or second harmonic imaging.

  15. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  16. Intensity dependent waiting time for strong electron trapping events in speckle stimulated raman scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daughton, W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yin, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The onset of Stimulated Raman scatter from an intense laser speckle is the simplest experimentally realizable laser-plasma-interaction environment. Despite this data and recent 3D particle simulations, the controlling mechanism at the onset of backscatter in the kinetic regime when strong electron trapping in the daughter Langmuir wave is a dominant nonlinearity is not understood. This paper explores the consequences of assuming that onset is controlled by large thermal fluctuations. A super exponential dependence of mean reflectivity on speckle intensity in the onset regime is predicted.

  17. Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning...... switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components....

  18. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  19. Quantitative theory of driven nonlinear brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J A; Robinson, P A

    2012-09-01

    Strong periodic stimuli such as bright flashing lights evoke nonlinear responses in the brain and interact nonlinearly with ongoing cortical activity, but the underlying mechanisms for these phenomena are poorly understood at present. The dominant features of these experimentally observed dynamics are reproduced by the dynamics of a quantitative neural field model subject to periodic drive. Model power spectra over a range of drive frequencies show agreement with multiple features of experimental measurements, exhibiting nonlinear effects including entrainment over a range of frequencies around the natural alpha frequency f(α), subharmonic entrainment near 2f(α), and harmonic generation. Further analysis of the driven dynamics as a function of the drive parameters reveals rich nonlinear dynamics that is predicted to be observable in future experiments at high drive amplitude, including period doubling, bistable phase-locking, hysteresis, wave mixing, and chaos indicated by positive Lyapunov exponents. Moreover, photosensitive seizures are predicted for physiologically realistic model parameters yielding bistability between healthy and seizure dynamics. These results demonstrate the applicability of neural field models to the new regime of periodically driven nonlinear dynamics, enabling interpretation of experimental data in terms of specific generating mechanisms and providing new tests of the theory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Circuit electromechanics with single photon strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Zheng-Yuan, E-mail: zyxue@scnu.edu.cn; Yang, Li-Na [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Jian, E-mail: jianzhou8627@163.com [Department of Electronic Communication Engineering, Anhui Xinhua University, Hefei 230088 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, and School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-07-13

    In circuit electromechanics, the coupling strength is usually very small. Here, replacing the capacitor in circuit electromechanics by a superconducting flux qubit, we show that the coupling among the qubit and the two resonators can induce effective electromechanical coupling which can attain the strong coupling regime at the single photon level with feasible experimental parameters. We use dispersive couplings among two resonators and the qubit while the qubit is also driven by an external classical field. These couplings form a three-wave mixing configuration among the three elements where the qubit degree of freedom can be adiabatically eliminated, and thus results in the enhanced coupling between the two resonators. Therefore, our work constitutes the first step towards studying quantum nonlinear effect in circuit electromechanics.

  1. Features of tuned mass damper behavior under strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Uzdin, Alexander; Fedorova, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Plastic deformations, cracks and destruction of structure members appear in the constructions under strong earthquakes. Therefore constructions are characterized by a nonlinear deformation diagram. Two types of construction non-linearity are considered in the paper. The first type of nonlinearity is elastoplastic one. In this case, plastic deformations occur in the structural elements, and when the element is unloaded, its properties restores. Among such diagrams are the Prandtl diagram, the Prandtl diagram with hardening, the Ramberg-Osgood diagram and others. For systems with such nonlinearity there is an amplitude-frequency characteristic and resonance oscillation frequencies. In this case one can pick up the most dangerous accelerograms for the construction. The second type of nonlinearity is nonlinearity with degrading rigidity and dependence of behavior on the general loading history. The Kirikov-Amankulov model is one of such ones. Its behavior depends on the maximum displacement in the stress history. Such systems do not have gain frequency characteristic and resonance frequency. The period of oscillation of such system is increasing during the system loading, and the system eigen frequency decreases to zero at the time of collapse. In the cases under consideration, when investigating the system with MD behavior, the authors proposed new efficiency criteria. These include the work of plastic deformation forces for the first type of nonlinearity, which determines the possibility of progressive collapse or low cycle fatigue of the structure members. The period of system oscillations and the time to collapse of the structural support members are the criterion for systems with degrading rigidity. In the case of non-linear system behavior, the efficiency of MD application decreases, because the fundamental structure period is reduced because of structure damages and the MD will be rebound from the blanking regime. However, the MD using can significantly reduce

  2. THREE-POINT PHASE CORRELATIONS: A NEW MEASURE OF NONLINEAR LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Bonvin, Camille [Kavli Institute for Cosmology Cambridge and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Obreschkow, Danail [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-10

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the nonlinear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F{sub 2}, which governs the nonlinear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a 1σ agreement for separations r ≳ 30 h{sup −1} Mpc. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the nonlinear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly nonlinear regime, where we find a 1σ agreement with the simulations for r ≳ 2 h{sup −1} Mpc. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the bias, in the regime where the bias is local and linear. Furthermore, the variance of the line correlation is independent of the Gaussian variance on the modulus of the density field. This suggests that the line correlation can probe more precisely the nonlinear regime of gravity, with less contamination from the power spectrum variance.

  3. Critical slowing down associated with regime shifts in the US housing market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, James Peng Lung; Cheong, Siew Siew Ann

    2014-02-01

    Complex systems are described by a large number of variables with strong and nonlinear interactions. Such systems frequently undergo regime shifts. Combining insights from bifurcation theory in nonlinear dynamics and the theory of critical transitions in statistical physics, we know that critical slowing down and critical fluctuations occur close to such regime shifts. In this paper, we show how universal precursors expected from such critical transitions can be used to forecast regime shifts in the US housing market. In the housing permit, volume of homes sold and percentage of homes sold for gain data, we detected strong early warning signals associated with a sequence of coupled regime shifts, starting from a Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and ending with the Subprime Crisis in 2007-2008. Weaker signals of critical slowing down were also detected in the US housing market data during the 1997-1998 Asian Financial Crisis and the 2000-2001 Technology Bubble Crisis. Backed by various macroeconomic data, we propose a scenario whereby hot money flowing back into the US during the Asian Financial Crisis fueled the Technology Bubble. When the Technology Bubble collapsed in 2000-2001, the hot money then flowed into the US housing market, triggering the Subprime Mortgage Loans transition in 2003-2004 and an ensuing sequence of transitions. We showed how this sequence of couple transitions unfolded in space and in time over the whole of US.

  4. Dynamics of a linear system coupled to a chain of light nonlinear oscillators analyzed through a continuous approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemagne, S.; Ture Savadkoohi, A.; Lamarque, C.-H.

    2018-07-01

    The continuous approximation is used in this work to describe the dynamics of a nonlinear chain of light oscillators coupled to a linear main system. A general methodology is applied to an example where the chain has local nonlinear restoring forces. The slow invariant manifold is detected at fast time scale. At slow time scale, equilibrium and singular points are sought around this manifold in order to predict periodic regimes and strongly modulated responses of the system. Analytical predictions are in good accordance with numerical results and represent a potent tool for designing nonlinear chains for passive control purposes.

  5. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  6. Discrete and mesoscopic regimes of finite-size wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'vov, V. S.; Nazarenko, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bounding volume results in discreteness of eigenmodes in wave systems. This leads to a depletion or complete loss of wave resonances (three-wave, four-wave, etc.), which has a strong effect on wave turbulence (WT) i.e., on the statistical behavior of broadband sets of weakly nonlinear waves. This paper describes three different regimes of WT realizable for different levels of the wave excitations: discrete, mesoscopic and kinetic WT. Discrete WT comprises chaotic dynamics of interacting wave 'clusters' consisting of discrete (often finite) number of connected resonant wave triads (or quarters). Kinetic WT refers to the infinite-box theory, described by well-known wave-kinetic equations. Mesoscopic WT is a regime in which either the discrete and the kinetic evolutions alternate or when none of these two types is purely realized. We argue that in mesoscopic systems the wave spectrum experiences a sandpile behavior. Importantly, the mesoscopic regime is realized for a broad range of wave amplitudes which typically spans over several orders on magnitude, and not just for a particular intermediate level.

  7. Effects of intermode nonlinearity and intramode nonlinearity on modulation instability in randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Hua; Xu, Hui; Sun, Ting Ting; Pei, Shi Xin; Ren, Hai Dong

    2018-05-01

    We analyze in detail the effects of the intermode nonlinearity (IEMN) and intramode nonlinearity (IRMN) on modulation instability (MI) in randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers (RB-TMFs). In the anomalous dispersion regime, the MI gain enhances significantly as the IEMN and IRMN coefficients increases. In the normal dispersion regime, MI can be generated without the differential mode group delay (DMGD) effect, as long as the IEMN coefficient between two distinct modes is above a critical value, or the IRMN coefficient inside a mode is below a critical value. This critical IEMN (IRMN) coefficient depends strongly on the given IRMN (IEMN) coefficient and DMGD for a given nonlinear RB-TMF structure, and is independent on the input total power, the power ratio distribution and the group velocity dispersion (GVD) ratio between the two modes. On the other hand, in contrast to the MI band arising from the pure effect of DMGD in the normal dispersion regime, where MI vanishes after a critical total power, the generated MI band under the combined effects of IEMN and IRMN without DMGD exists for any total power and enhances with the total power. The MI analysis is verified numerically by launching perturbed continuous waves (CWs) with wave propagation method.

  8. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  9. Temporal mode selectivity by frequency conversion in second-order nonlinear optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal waveforms to encode different channels. We model the process using coupled-mode equations appropriate for wave mixing in a uniform second-order nonlinear optical medium pumped by a strong laser pulse. We find Green functions describing the process...... in this optimal regime. We also find an operating regime in which high-efficiency frequency conversion without temporal-shape selectivity can be achieved while preserving the shapes of a wide class of input pulses. The results are applicable to both classical and quantum frequency conversion....

  10. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The optical fiber based supercontinuum source has recently become a significant scientific and commercial success, with applications ranging from frequency comb production to advanced medical imaging. This one-of-a-kind book explains the theory of fiber supercontinuum broadening, describes......, provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  11. Microresonators for Nonlinear Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Zachary

    In this thesis I study in detail the quantum dynamics of several nonlinear optical processes in microresonator systems. A Heisenberg-picture input-output formalism is developed from first principles that includes the effects of scattering losses and independent quality factors and coupling ratios for different resonances. The task of calculating the device output is then reduced to solving a set of driven, damped, ordinary differential equations for the resonator mode operators alone. This theoretical framework is used to study photon pair generation via spontaneous four-wave mixing in the weakly pumped regime, on which the effects of scattering losses are appraised. A more strongly driven regime is studied for continuous wave pumps, demonstrating when self- and cross-phase modulation and multi-photon pair generation become important, and their effects on the spectral and power scaling properties of the system are examined; A detuning strategy is presented that compensates for some of these effects. The results of the weak-pump regime are applied to study microresonator-based heralded single photon sources. The impact of scattering losses is studied, revealing that typical systems suffer from low heralding efficiency due to these losses. A technique to improve heralding efficiency is presented through over-coupling the resonator-channel system, and a resultant trade-off between heralding rate and heralding efficiency is uncovered. Limitations to the spectral purity of the heralded single photon output for conventional microresonator systems are also analysed, and a more sophisticated coupling scheme presented to overcome the upper bound for spectral purity of 93% that exists in typical systems, permitting the generation of single photons with spectral purity arbitrarily close to 100% without spectral filtering or sophisticated phase-matching techniques. The theory of quantum frequency conversion in microresonators using four-wave mixing is then developed in detail

  12. Nonlinear gyrokinetic equations for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in general plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, E.A.; Chen, L.

    1981-10-01

    A nonlinear gyrokinetic formalism for low-frequency (less than the cyclotron frequency) microscopic electromagnetic perturbations in general magnetic field configurations is developed. The nonlinear equations thus derived are valid in the strong-turbulence regime and contain effects due to finite Larmor radius, plasma inhomogeneities, and magentic field geometries. The specific case of axisymmetric tokamaks is then considered, and a model nonlinear equation is derived for electrostatic drift waves. Also, applying the formalism to the shear Alfven wave heating sceme, it is found that nonlinear ion Landau damping of kinetic shear-Alfven waves is modified, both qualitatively and quantitatively, by the diamagnetic drift effects. In particular, wave energy is found to cascade in wavenumber instead of frequency

  13. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design

    CERN Document Server

    Rega, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics has been enjoying a vast development for nearly four decades resulting in a range of well established theory, with the potential to significantly enhance performance, effectiveness, reliability and safety of physical systems as well as offering novel technologies and designs. By critically appraising the state-of-the-art, it is now time to develop design criteria and technology for new generation products/processes operating on principles of nonlinear interaction and in the nonlinear regime, leading to more effective, sensitive, accurate, and durable methods than what is currently available. This new approach is expected to radically influence the design, control and exploitation paradigms, in a magnitude of contexts. With a strong emphasis on experimentally calibrated and validated models, contributions by top-level international experts will foster future directions for the development of engineering technologies and design using robust nonlinear dynamics modelling and analysis.  

  14. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  15. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  16. Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.

  17. Relic dark energy from the trans-Planckian regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini, Laura; Bastero-Gil, Mar; Kanti, Panagiota

    2001-01-01

    As yet, there is no underlying fundamental theory for the trans-Planckian regime. There is a need to address the issue of how the observables in our present Universe are affected by processes that may have occurred at super-Planckian energies (referred to as the trans-Planckian regime). Specifically, we focus on the impact the trans-Planckian regime has on two observables: namely, dark energy and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum. We model the trans-Planckian regime by introducing a 1-parameter family of smooth non-linear dispersion relations which modify the frequencies at very short distances. A particular feature of the family of dispersion functions chosen is the production of ultralow frequencies at very high momenta k (for k>M P ). We name the range of the ultralow energy modes (of very short distances) that have frequencies equal to or less than the current Hubble rate H 0 as the tail modes. These modes are still frozen today due to the expansion of the Universe. We calculate their energy today and show that the tail provides a strong candidate for the dark energy of the Universe. During inflation, their energy is about 122 to 123 orders of magnitude smaller than the total energy, for any random value of the free parameter in the family of dispersion relations. For this family of dispersions, we present the exact solutions and show that the CMBR spectrum is that of a (nearly) blackbody, and that the adiabatic vacuum is the only choice for the initial conditions

  18. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  19. Weak and strong regime of a discharge in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podliasky, I.

    1957-06-01

    After having briefly recalled the content of a previous note in which he determined the electrodynamic action of the axial component of current density in a cylindrical tube of ionised gas submitted to an axial electric field, the author addresses the case of a column containing only electrons and in which Coulombian action prevails and, which, instead of being in contraction, will be in a status of axifugal expansion. He shows that the presence of a certain number of positive ions is absolutely necessary to provoke a pinch by partial compensation of Coulombian actions

  20. Spin dynamics in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, X.; Liu, X.-J.; Sinova, Jairo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2011), 035318/1-035318/9 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : semiconductor quntum- wells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.84.035318

  1. Tree-level correlations in the strong field regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, François

    2017-09-01

    We consider the correlation function of an arbitrary number of local observables in quantum field theory, in situations where the field amplitude is large. Using a quasi-classical approximation (valid for a highly occupied initial mixed state, or for a coherent initial state if the classical dynamics has instabilities), we show that at tree level these correlations are dominated by fluctuations at the initial time. We obtain a general expression of the correlation functions in terms of the classical solution of the field equation of motion and its derivatives with respect to its initial conditions, that can be arranged graphically as the sum of labeled trees where the nodes are the individual observables, and the links are pairs of derivatives acting on them. For 3-point (and higher) correlation functions, there are additional tree-level terms beyond the quasi-classical approximation, generated by fluctuations in the bulk.

  2. Nonlinear parity readout with a microwave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Robust high-fidelity parity measurement is an important operation in many applications of quantum computing. In this work we show how in a circuit QED architecture, one can measure parity in a single shot at very high contrast by taking advantage of the nonlinear behavior of a strongly driven microwave cavity coupled to one or multiple qubits. We work in a nonlinear dispersive regime treated in an exact dispersive transformation. We show that appropriate tuning of experimental parameters leads to very high contrast in the cavity and therefore to a high-efficiency parity readout with a microwave photon counter or another amplitude detector. These tuning conditions are based on nonlinearity and are hence more robust than previously described linear tuning schemes. In the first part of the paper we show in detail how to achieve this for two-qubit parity measurements and extend this to N qubits in the second part of the paper. We also study the quantum nondemolition character of the protocol.

  3. Transient thermal effect, nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption properties of graphene oxide sheets in dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chun; Ma, Qiang; Chen, Xu-Dong; Tian, Jian-Guo; Xu, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yong-Sheng

    2013-03-25

    The nonlinear refraction (NLR) properties of graphene oxide (GO) in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) was studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes by Z-scan technique. Results show that the dispersion of GO in DMF exhibits negative NLR properties in nanosecond time regime, which is mainly attributed to transient thermal effect in the dispersion. The dispersion also exhibits negative NLR in picosecond and femtosecond time regimes, which are arising from sp(2)- hybridized carbon domains and sp(3)- hybridized matrix in GO sheets. To illustrate the relations between NLR and nonlinear absorption (NLA), NLA properties of the dispersion were also studied in nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond time regimes.

  4. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  5. Nonlinear dynamics between linear and impact limits

    CERN Document Server

    Pilipchuk, Valery N; Wriggers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book examines nonlinear dynamic analyses based on the existence of strongly nonlinear but simple counterparts to the linear models and tools. Discusses possible application to periodic elastic structures with non-smooth or discontinuous characteristics.

  6. Tokamak m = 1 magnetohydrodynamic calculations in toroidal geometry using a full set of nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, L.A.; Carreras, B.A.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The linear stability and nonlinear evolution of the resistive m = 1 mode in tokamaks is studied using a full set of resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in toroidal geometry. The modification of the linear and nonlinear properties of the mode by a combination of strong toroidal effects and low resistivity is the focus of this work. Linearly there is a transition from resistive kink to resistive tearing behavior as the aspect ratio and resistivity are reduced, and there is a corresponding modification of the nonlinear behavior, including a slowing of the island growth and development of a Rutherford regime, as the tearing regime is approached. In order to study the sensitivity of the stability and evolution to assumptions concerning the equation of state, two sets of full nonlinear resistive MHD equations (a pressure convection set and an incompressible set) are used. Both sets give more stable nonlinear behavior as the aspect ratio is reduced. The pressure convection set shows a transition from a Kadomtsev reconnection at large aspect ratio to a saturation at small aspect ratio. The incompressible set yields Kadomtsev reconnection for all aspect ratios, but with a significant lengthening of the reconnection time and development of a Rutherford regime at an aspect ratio approaching the transition from a resistive kink mode to a tearing mode. The pressure convection set gives an incomplete reconnection similar to that sometimes seen experimentally. The pressure convection set is, however, strictly justified only at high beta

  7. Hall effect in hopping regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-01-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  8. Hall effect in hopping regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-02-15

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.

  9. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  10. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  11. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  12. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  13. Generalized dispersive wave emission in nonlinear fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, K E; Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Murdoch, S G

    2013-01-15

    We show that the emission of dispersive waves in nonlinear fiber optics is not limited to soliton-like pulses propagating in the anomalous dispersion regime. We demonstrate, both numerically and experimentally, that pulses propagating in the normal dispersion regime can excite resonant dispersive radiation across the zero-dispersion wavelength into the anomalous regime.

  14. Strong lensing of a regular black hole with an electrodynamics source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Tuhina; Rahaman, Farook; Molla, Sabiruddin; Bhadra, Jhumpa; Shah, Hasrat Hussain

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we have investigated the gravitational lensing phenomenon in the strong field regime for a regular, charged, static black holes with non-linear electrodynamics source. We have obtained the angle of deflection and compared it to a Schwarzschild black hole and Reissner Nordström black hole with similar properties. We have also done a graphical study of the relativistic image positions and magnifications. We hope that this method may be useful in the detection of non-luminous bodies like this current black hole.

  15. Radiation-reaction effects in the quantum regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitz, Norman

    2014-01-01

    In this work the influence of radiation reaction on the interaction of an electron bunch with a strong laser field is studied including nonlinear and quantum effects. This venture is motivated by two technological developments: On the one hand, the tremendous increase in available laser intensities and, on the other hand, the significant advancements in electron acceleration technology. Considering a regime where radiation reaction effects are caused by the incoherent emission of several photons, a kinetic approach is developed to describe the dynamics of electrons and photons via distribution functions. Whereas classical electrodynamics, employing the Landau-Lifshitz equation, predicts a narrowing of the energy distribution of the electron beam, the analysis in this work reveals the opposite effect in case that quantum effects become significant. The spreading of the electrons' energy distribution is shown to be caused by the intrinsic stochastic nature of photon emission. In order to explain quantitatively the discrepancy between classical and quantum radiation reaction, the final electron distribution as computed in our quantum treatment is demonstrated to depend on the laser's envelope shape and its duration at a given total laser fluence. On the contrary, the classical analysis does not exhibit such a dependency. Finally, the kinetic approach is extended to allow for the inclusion of pair creation by photons emitted during the scattering. This facilitates a conclusive investigation of the nonlinear coupled dynamics of all particles involved in the interaction, i.e., electrons in the initial bunch, photons and electron-positron pairs produced during the scattering.

  16. Pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the kinetic magnetorotational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Kunz, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence. Our goal is to better understand how the saturation of the MRI in a low-collisionality plasma might differ from that in the collisional regime. We focus on two key effects: (i) the direct impact of self-induced pressure-anisotropy nonlinearities on the evolution of an MRI mode, and (ii) the influence of pressure anisotropy on the `parasitic instabilities' that are suspected to cause the mode to break up into turbulence. Our main conclusions are: (i) The mirror instability regulates the pressure anisotropy in such a way that the linear MRI in a collisionless plasma is an approximate nonlinear solution once the mode amplitude becomes larger than the background field (just as in magnetohyrodynamics). This implies that differences between the collisionless and collisional MRI become unimportant at large amplitudes. (ii) The break up of large-amplitude MRI modes into turbulence via parasitic instabilities is similar in collisionless and collisional plasmas. Together, these conclusions suggest that the route to magnetorotational turbulence in a collisionless plasma may well be similar to that in a collisional plasma, as suggested by recent kinetic simulations. As a supplement to these findings, we offer guidance for the design of future kinetic simulations of magnetorotational turbulence.

  17. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  18. Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)

  19. Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, Nora

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.

  20. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  1. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  2. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  3. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  4. Destruction of Anderson localization by nonlinearity in kicked rotator at different effective dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L

    2014-01-01

    We study numerically the frequency modulated kicked nonlinear rotator with effective dimension d=1,2,3,4. We follow the time evolution of the model up to 10 9 kicks and determine the exponent α of subdiffusive spreading which changes from 0.35 to 0.5 when the dimension changes from d = 1 to 4. All results are obtained in a regime of relatively strong Anderson localization well below the Anderson transition point existing for d = 3, 4. We explain that this variation of the exponent is different from the usual d− dimensional Anderson models with local nonlinearity where α drops with increasing d. We also argue that the renormalization arguments proposed by Cherroret N et al (arXiv:1401.1038) are not valid for this model and the Anderson model with local nonlinearity in d = 3. (paper)

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics of Nanomechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Subramanian; Gulak, Yuiry; Sundaram, Bala; Benaroya, Haym

    2007-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer great promise for many applications including motion and mass sensing. Recent experimental results suggest the importance of nonlinear effects in NEMS, an issue which has not been addressed fully in theory. We report on a nonlinear extension of a recent analytical model by Armour et al [1] for the dynamics of a single-electron transistor (SET) coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. We consider the nonlinear resonator motion in both (a) the Duffing and (b) nonlinear pendulum regimes. The corresponding master equations are derived and solved numerically and we consider moment approximations as well. In the Duffing case with hardening stiffness, we observe that the resonator is damped by the SET at a significantly higher rate. In the cases of softening stiffness and the pendulum, there exist regimes where the SET adds energy to the resonator. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a single model displaying both negative and positive resonator damping in different dynamical regimes. The implications of the results for SET sensitivity as well as for, as yet unexplained, experimental results will be discussed. 1. Armour et al. Phys.Rev.B (69) 125313 (2004).

  6. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  7. Extreme Nonlinear Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wegener, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Following the birth of the laser in 1960, the field of "nonlinear optics" rapidly emerged. Today, laser intensities and pulse durations are readily available, for which the concepts and approximations of traditional nonlinear optics no longer apply. In this regime of "extreme nonlinear optics," a large variety of novel and unusual effects arise, for example frequency doubling in inversion symmetric materials or high-harmonic generation in gases, which can lead to attosecond electromagnetic pulses or pulse trains. Other examples of "extreme nonlinear optics" cover diverse areas such as solid-state physics, atomic physics, relativistic free electrons in a vacuum and even the vacuum itself. This book starts with an introduction to the field based primarily on extensions of two famous textbook examples, namely the Lorentz oscillator model and the Drude model. Here the level of sophistication should be accessible to any undergraduate physics student. Many graphical illustrations and examples are given. The followi...

  8. Optimal conditions for the generation of the third harmonic of focused radiation in a self-interaction regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, I A; Usmanov, T

    1998-01-01

    A method developed for the analysis of the interaction of wave beams in a self-interaction regime is used to determine the changes in the optimal conditions for third-harmonic generation with changes in the degree of focusing of the fundamental-frequency radiation in isotropic media. Conditions under which a redistribution of the intensities and phases of the interacting wave beams reduces the efficiency of third-harmonic generation are identified. It is shown that, under strong focusing conditions, there may be additional extrema in the dependence of the intensity of the harmonic on the density of the medium. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  10. 'CANDLE' burnup regime after LWR regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Akito

    2008-01-01

    CANDLE (Constant Axial shape of Neutron flux, nuclide densities and power shape During Life of Energy producing reactor) burnup strategy can derive many merits. From safety point of view, the change of excess reactivity along burnup is theoretically zero, and the core characteristics, such as power feedback coefficients and power peaking factor, are not changed along burnup. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replacing fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission without the conventional reprocessing and enrichment. If the LWR produced energy of X Joules, the CANDLE reactor can produce about 50X Joules from the depleted uranium left at the enrichment facility for the LWR fuel. If we can say LWRs have produced energy sufficient for full 20 years, we can produce the energy for 1000 years by using the CANDLE reactors with depleted uranium. We need not mine any uranium ore, and do not need reprocessing facility. The burnup of spent fuel becomes 10 times. Therefore, the spent fuel amount per produced energy is also reduced to one-tenth. The details of the scenario of CANDLE burnup regime after LWR regime will be presented at the symposium. (author)

  11. Nonlinear optics quantum computing with circuit QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prabin; Hafezi, Mohammad; Taylor, J M

    2013-02-08

    One approach to quantum information processing is to use photons as quantum bits and rely on linear optical elements for most operations. However, some optical nonlinearity is necessary to enable universal quantum computing. Here, we suggest a circuit-QED approach to nonlinear optics quantum computing in the microwave regime, including a deterministic two-photon phase gate. Our specific example uses a hybrid quantum system comprising a LC resonator coupled to a superconducting flux qubit to implement a nonlinear coupling. Compared to the self-Kerr nonlinearity, we find that our approach has improved tolerance to noise in the qubit while maintaining fast operation.

  12. Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.

  13. Nonlinear approaches in engineering applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2013-01-01

    Provides updated principles and applications of the nonlinear approaches in solving engineering and physics problems Demonstrates how nonlinear approaches may open avenues to better, safer, cheaper systems with less energy consumption Has a strong emphasis on the application, physical meaning, and methodologies of nonlinear approaches in different engineering and science problems

  14. Nonlinearity management in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevrekidis, P G; Pelinovsky, D E; Stefanov, A

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, we revisit nonlinearity management of the time-periodic nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the related averaging procedure. By means of rigorous estimates, we show that the averaged nonlinear Schroedinger equation does not blow up in the higher dimensional case so long as the corresponding solution remains smooth. In particular, we show that the H 1 norm remains bounded, in contrast with the usual blow-up mechanism for the focusing Schroedinger equation. This conclusion agrees with earlier works in the case of strong nonlinearity management but contradicts those in the case of weak nonlinearity management. The apparent discrepancy is explained by the divergence of the averaging procedure in the limit of weak nonlinearity management

  15. Collapse of nonlinear Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion of sufficiently intensive Langmuir waves is determined by intrinsic (electron) nonlinearity. During Langmuir collapse the wave energy density required for the appearance of electron nonlinearity is attained, generally speaking, prior to the development of dissipative processes. Up to now, the effect of electron nonlinearity on the collapse dynamics and spectrum of strong Langmuir turbulence ( which may be very appreciable ) has not been studied extensively because of the difficulty of describing nonlinear Langmuir waves. In the present paper the positive determinacy of the electron nonlinear hamiltonian is proven, the increment of modulation instability of a nonlinear Langmuir wave cluster localized in a cavity is calculated, and the universal law of their collapse is found

  16. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  17. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems developmen....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304...

  18. Arctic circulation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L

    2015-10-13

    Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. THE INFLUENCED FLOW REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavril PANDI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenced flow regimes. The presence and activities ofhumanity influences the uniform environmental system, and in this context, therivers water resources. In concordance with this, the natural runoff regime suffersbigger and deeper changes. The nature of these changes depending on the type anddegree of water uses. The multitude of the use cause different types of influence,whit different quantitative aspects. In the same time, the influences havequalitative connotations, too, regarding to the modifications of the yearly watervolume runoff. So the natural runoff regime is modified. After analyzing thedistribution laws of the monthly runoff, there have been differenced four types ofinfluenced runoff regimes. In the excess type the influenced runoff is bigger thanthe natural, continuously in the whole year. The deficient type is characterized byinverse rapports like the first type, in the whole year. In the sinusoidal type, theinfluenced runoff is smaller than the natural in the period when the water isretained in the lake reservoirs, and in the depletion period the situation inverts. Atthe irregular type the ratio between influenced and natural runoff is changeable ina random meaner monthly. The recognition of the influenced regime and the gradeof influence are necessary in the evaluation and analysis of the usable hydrologicalriver resources, in the flood defence activities, in the complex scheme of thehydrographic basins, in the environment design and so on.

  20. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  1. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  3. Nonlinear temporal modulation of pulsar radioemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.

    1984-01-01

    A nonlinear theory is discussed for self-modulation of pulsar radio pulses. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived for strong electromagnetic waves propagating in an electron-positron plasma. The nonlinearities arising from wave intensity induced relativistic particle mass variation may excite the modulational instability of circularly and linearly polarized pulsar radiation. The resulting wave envelopes can take the form of periodic wave trains or solitons. These nonlinear stationary wave forms may account for the formation of pulsar microstructures. (Author) [pt

  4. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  5. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  6. Three-point phase correlations: A new measure of non-linear large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenhulme, Richard; Obreschkow, Danail

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytical expression for a novel large-scale structure observable: the line correlation function. The line correlation function, which is constructed from the three-point correlation function of the phase of the density field, is a robust statistical measure allowing the extraction of information in the non-linear and non-Gaussian regime. We show that, in perturbation theory, the line correlation is sensitive to the coupling kernel F_2, which governs the non-linear gravitational evolution of the density field. We compare our analytical expression with results from numerical simulations and find a very good agreement for separations r>20 Mpc/h. Fitting formulae for the power spectrum and the non-linear coupling kernel at small scales allow us to extend our prediction into the strongly non-linear regime. We discuss the advantages of the line correlation relative to standard statistical measures like the bispectrum. Unlike the latter, the line correlation is independent of the linear bias. Furtherm...

  7. On the physical contributions to the third-order nonlinear optical response in plasmonic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Hernández, Roberto Carlos; Gleason-Villagran, Roberto; Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis; Crespo-Sosa, Alejandro; Cheang-Wong, Juan Carlos; López-Suárez, Alejandra; Oliver, Alicia; Reyes-Esqueda, Jorge Alejandro; Torres-Torres, Carlos; Rangel-Rojo, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Au and Ag isotropic and anisotropic nanocomposites were prepared using the ion implantation technique. Their optical properties were studied at several wavelengths in the optical range 300–800 nm, across their plasmon resonances. The linear regime was characterized by measuring the absorption spectrum and the third-order nonlinear regime by means of the Z-scan technique using a tunable picosecond pulsed laser system (26 ps). Open-aperture Z-scan traces show a superposition of different optical nonlinear absorption (NLA) processes in the whole range studied. We associate these phenomena with the excitation of inter- and intra-band electronic transitions, which contribute with a positive sign to NLA, and to the formation of hot-electrons, which contribute with opposite sign to NLA. Closed-aperture traces for measuring nonlinear refraction (NLR) show different signs for Au and Ag samples, and a change of sign in Au is found when purely inter-band transitions are excited. In this work, for the appropriate wavelength, it is worth remarking on the free-electron response to the exciting light and its strong contribution to the nonlinear optical properties for low (intra-band) and high (hot-electrons) irradiances. (paper)

  8. Statistical approach of weakly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.; Masse, L.

    2005-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of ablation and thermal transport. The nonlinear effects for a single-mode disturbance are computed, included the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. Mode coupling in the spectrum of a multimode disturbance is thoroughly analyzed by a statistical approach. The exponential growth of the linear regime is shown to be reduced by the nonlinear mode coupling. The saturation amplitude is around 0.1λ for long wavelengths, but higher for short instable wavelengths in the ablative regime

  9. Cargo liability regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...

  10. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  11. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  13. International Food Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Malov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The review article reveals the content of the concept of Food Regime, which is little-known in the Russian academic reference. The author monitored and codified the semantic dynamic of the terminological unit from its original interpretations to modern formulations based on the retrospective analysis. The rehabilitation of the academic merits of D. Puchala and R. Hopkins — authors who used the concept Food Regime for a few years before its universally recognized origin and official scientific debut, was accomplished with help of historical and comparative methods. The author implemented the method of ascension from the abstract to the concrete to demonstrating the classification of Food Regimes compiled on the basis of geopolitical interests in the sphere of international production, consumption, and distribution of foodstuffs. The characteristic features of historically formed Food Regime were described in the chronological order, as well as modern tendencies possessing reformist potential were identified. In particular, it has been established that the idea of Food Sovereignty (which is an alternative to the modern Corporate Food Regime is the subject for acute academic disputes. The discussion between P. McMichael P. and H. Bernstein devoted to the “peasant question” — mobilization frame of the Food Sovereignty strategy was analyzed using the secondary data processing method. Due to the critical analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to follow the principles of the Food Sovereignty strategy to prevent the catastrophic prospects associated with ecosystem degradation, accelerated erosion of soils, the complete disappearance of biodiversity and corporate autoc racy successfully. The author is convinced that the idea of Food Sovereignty can ward off energetic liberalization of nature, intensive privatization of life and rapid monetization of unconditioned human reflexes.

  14. Controller Design of Complex System Based on Nonlinear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new idea of controller design for complex systems. The nonlinearity index method was first developed for error propagation of nonlinear system. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of the system model. The algorithm of nonlinearity index according to engineering application is first proposed in this paper. Applying this method on nonlinear systems is an effective way to measure the nonlinear strength of dynamics model over the full flight envelope. The nonlinearity indices access the boundary between the strong and the weak nonlinearities of system model. According to the different nonlinear strength of dynamical model, the control system is designed. The simulation time of dynamical complex system is selected by the maximum value of dynamic nonlinearity indices. Take a missile as example; dynamical system and control characteristic of missile are simulated. The simulation results show that the method is correct and appropriate.

  15. Insight into the effect of screw dislocations and oxygen vacancy defects on the optical nonlinear refraction response in chemically grown ZnO/Al2O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Saroj, Rajendra K.; Dar, Tanveer A.; Baraskar, Priyanka; Sen, Pratima; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2017-11-01

    We report the effect of screw dislocations and oxygen vacancy defects on the optical nonlinear refraction response of ZnO films grown on a sapphire substrate at various oxygen flow rates using the chemical vapor deposition technique. The nonlinear refraction response was investigated in the off-resonant regime using a CW He-Ne laser source to examine the role of the intermediate bandgap states. It has been observed that the structural defects strongly influence the optical nonlinearity in the off-resonant regime. Nonlinearity has been found to improve as the oxygen flow rate is lowered from 2 sccm to 0.3 sccm. From photoluminescence studies, we observe that the enhanced defect density of the electronic defect levels due to the increased concentration of structural defects (with the decrease in the oxygen flow rate) is responsible for this improved optical nonlinearity along with the thermal effect. This suggests that defect engineering is an effective way to tailor the nonlinearity of ZnO films and their utility for optoelectronic device applications.

  16. A multidimensional theory for electron trapping by a plasma wake generated in the bubble regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, I; Nerush, E; Pukhov, A; Seredov, V

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory for electron self-injection in nonlinear, multidimensional plasma waves excited by a short laser pulse in the bubble regime or by a short electron beam in the blowout regime. In these regimes, which are typical for electron acceleration in the last impressive experiments, the laser radiation pressure or the electron beam charge pushes out plasma electrons from some region, forming a plasma cavity or a bubble with a huge ion charge. The plasma electrons can be trapped in the bubble and accelerated by the plasma wakefields up to a very high energy. We derive the condition of the electron trapping in the bubble. The developed theory predicts the trapping cross section in terms of the bubble radius and the bubble velocity. It is found that the dynamic bubble deformations observed in the three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations influence the trapping process significantly. The bubble elongation reduces the gamma-factor of the bubble, thereby strongly enhancing self-injection. The obtained analytical results are in good agreement with the 3D PIC simulations.

  17. Tearing mode growth in a regime of weak magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyopoulos, S.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    The nonlinear growth for the m/n ≥ 2 resistive tearing mode is studied in case when the rational surface q(r 0 ) = m/n falls in a regime of weak magnetic shear, q'(r 0 ) ≅ 0. The island width is determined self-consistently from the nonlinear, zero-helicity component of the perturbed magnetic flux that provides the local shear. It is found that the magnetic perturbation keeps growing exponentially in the nonlinear regime on a hybrid resistive-Alfvenic time scale, while the island width and the vorticity grow on a much slower time scale. Accordingly, much faster release of magnetic energy results for modes growing near minima of hollow q profiles

  18. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  19. Floating Exchange Rate Regime

    OpenAIRE

    Quader, Syed Manzur

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many developing countries having a history of high inflation, unfavorable balance of payment situation and a high level of foreign currencies denominated debt, have switched or are in the process of switching to a more flexible exchange rate regime. Therefore, the stability of the exchange rate and the dynamics of its volatility are more crucial than before to prevent financial crises and macroeconomic disturbances. This paper is designed to find out the reasons behind Bangla...

  20. Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

    2013-01-04

    We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern.

  1. Cosmological leverage from the matter power spectrum in the presence of baryon and nonlinear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, Jannis; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the use of higher wavenumbers (smaller scales) in the galaxy clustering power spectrum influences cosmological constraints. We take into account uncertainties from nonlinear density fluctuations, (scale dependent) galaxy bias, and baryonic effects. Allowing for substantially model independent uncertainties through separate fit parameters in each wavenumber bin that also allow for the redshift evolution, we quantify strong gains in dark energy and neutrino mass leverage with increasing maximum wavenumber, despite marginalizing over numerous (up to 125) extra fit parameters. The leverage is due to not only an increased number of modes but, more significantly, breaking of degeneracies beyond the linear regime

  2. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  3. An improved particle population balance equation in the continuum-slip regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Mingliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved moment model is proposed to solve the population balance equation for Brownian coagulation in the continuum-slip regime, and it reduces to a known one in open literature when the non-linear terms in the slip correction factor are ignored. The present model shows same asymptotic behavior as that in the continuum regime.

  4. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, E. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hammett, G. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Dorland, W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ~ κ-1.5 or κ-2.0, depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows.

  5. Effects of Plasma Shaping on Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.A. Belli, G.W. Hammett and W. Dorland

    2008-01-01

    The effects of flux surface shape on the gyrokinetic stability and transport of tokamak plasmas are studied using the GS2 code [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995); W. Dorland, F. Jenko, M. Kotschenreuther, and B.N. Rogers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)]. Studies of the scaling of nonlinear turbulence with shaping parameters are performed using analytic equilibria based on interpolations of representative shapes of the Joint European Torus (JET) [P.H. Rebut and B.E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)]. High shaping is found to be a stabilizing influence on both the linear ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) instability and the nonlinear ITG turbulence. For the parameter regime studied here, a scaling of the heat flux with elongation of χ ∼ κ -1.5 or κ -2.0 , depending on the triangularity, is observed at fixed average temperature gradient. While this is not as strong as empirical elongation scalings, it is also found that high shaping results in a larger Dimits upshift of the nonlinear critical temperature gradient due to an enhancement of the Rosenbluth-Hinton residual zonal flows

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  7. REGIME SWITCHING DETERMINANTS OF SOVEREIGN CDS SPREADS: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umurcan Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is assessed the main determinants of sovereign CDS spreads in Turkey from January 2006 to December 2015. Before delving into the nonlinear Markov regime-switching model estimation, a conventional one-state linear model is estimated answering to what extent the sovereign credit risk is affected in between global and country-specific market variables and by credit ratings announcement changes. In broad strokes, the regime-switching analysis reveals that among domestic variables, it is the foreign exchange rate that affects the sovereign credit risk more in more volatile periods and among global variables, the indicators standing for global volatility risk premiums and international liquidity primarily influence the changes in the sovereign CDS spread in turbulent regimes whereas proxies for global risk free rate are significant more in tranquil regimes.

  8. Nonlinear branch-point dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Denberg, Martin

    2006-01-01

    /mol, respectively. The pom-pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and by elongational rheometry in the nonlinear regime. For asymmetric star...

  9. Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.

  10. Stabilizing strongly correlated photon fluids with non-Markovian reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreuilly, José; Biella, Alberto; Storme, Florent; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Ciuti, Cristiano; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a frequency-dependent incoherent pump scheme with a square-shaped spectrum as a way to study strongly correlated photons in arrays of coupled nonlinear resonators. This scheme can be implemented via a reservoir of population-inverted two-level emitters with a broad distribution of transition frequencies. Our proposal is predicted to stabilize a nonequilibrium steady state sharing important features with a zero-temperature equilibrium state with a tunable chemical potential. We confirm the efficiency of our proposal for the Bose-Hubbard model by computing numerically the steady state for finite system sizes: first, we predict the occurrence of a sequence of incompressible Mott-insulator-like states with arbitrary integer densities presenting strong robustness against tunneling and losses. Secondly, for stronger tunneling amplitudes or noninteger densities, the system enters a coherent regime analogous to the superfluid state. In addition to an overall agreement with the zero-temperature equilibrium state, exotic nonequilibrium processes leading to a finite entropy generation are pointed out in specific regions of parameter space. The equilibrium ground state is shown to be recovered by adding frequency-dependent losses. The promise of this improved scheme in view of quantum simulation of the zero-temperature many-body physics is highlighted.

  11. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  12. Nonlinear harmonic generation and proposed experimental verification in SASE FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, H P; Milton, S V

    2000-01-01

    Recently, a 3D, polychromatic, nonlinear simulation code was developed to study the growth of nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs). The simulation was applied to the parameters for each stage of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) SASE FEL, intended for operation in the visible, UV, and short UV wavelength regimes, respectively, to study the presence of nonlinear harmonic generation. Significant nonlinear harmonic growth is seen. Here, a discussion of the code development, the APS SASE FEL, the simulations and results, and, finally, the proposed experimental procedure for verification of such nonlinear harmonic generation at the APS SASE FEL will be given.

  13. Coupling of tt̄ and γγ with a strongly interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Rafael L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the coupling of an external γγ or tt̄ state to a strongly interacting EWSBS satisfying unitarity. We exploit perturbation theory for those coupling of the external state, whereas the EWSBS is taken as strongly interacting. We use a modified version of the IAM unitarization procedure to model such a strongly interacting regime. The matrix elements VLVL → VLVL, VLVL ↔ hh, hh → hh, VLVL ↔ {γγ, tt̄}, hh ↔ {γγ, tt̄} are all computed to NLO in perturbation theory with the Nonlinear Effective Field Theory of the EWSBS, within the Equivalence Theorem. This allows us to describe resonances of the electroweak sector that may be found at the LHC and their effect on other channels such as γγ or tt̄ where they may be discovered.

  14. Journal Afrika Statistika ISSN 0852-0305 Nonlinear wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mator; Nonparametric regression; Strong mixing condition. ... In this paper we consider the right censorship model and we introduce a new nonlinear ... provide excellent selective review article on nonlinear wavelet methods in nonparametric.

  15. Near resonant and nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities of colloidal InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, X.; He, T. C.; Gao, Y.; Demir, H. V.; Sun, X. W.; Sun, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of high-quality colloidal InP/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) using Z-scan technique with femtosecond pulses. The two-photon absorption cross-sections as high as 6.2 × 103 GM are observed at 800 nm (non-resonant regime) in InP/ZnS QDs with diameter of 2.8 nm, which is even larger than those of CdSe, CdS, and CdTe QDs at similar sizes. Furthermore, both of the 2.2 nm and 2.8 nm-sized InP/ZnS QDs exhibit strong saturable absorption in near resonant regime, which is attributed to large exciton Bohr radius in this material. These results strongly suggest the promising potential of InP/ZnS QDs for widespread applications, especially in two-photon excited bio-imaging and saturable absorbing.

  16. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Liguria and is limited in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to study almost all the species that characterize the Mediterranean region. This work shows that the fire regime in Mediterranean area is strongly related with vegetation patterns, is almost totally independent by the cause of ignition, and only partially dependent by fire extinguishing actions.

  17. Entangled plasmon generation in nonlinear spaser system under the action of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubin, M. Yu.; Shesterikov, A. V.; Karpov, S. N.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper theoretically investigates features of quantum dynamics for localized plasmons in three-particle or four-particle spaser systems consisting of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. In the framework of the mean field approximation, the conditions for the observation of stable stationary regimes for single-particle plasmons in spaser systems are revealed, and realization of these regimes is discussed. The strong dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent nanoparticles for the four-particle spaser system is investigated. We show that this interaction can lead to the decreasing of the autocorrelation function values for plasmons. The generation of entangled plasmons in a three-particle spaser system with nonlinear plasmon-exciton interaction is predicted. The use of an external magnetic field is proposed for control of the cross correlations between plasmons in the three-particle spaser system.

  18. Nonlinear effects in the damping of third-sound pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We show that nonlinearities in the equations of motion for a third-sound pulse in a thick superfluid film lead to the production of short-wavelength solitons. The soliton damping arises from viscous stresses in the film, rather than from coupling to thermal currents in the vapor and the substrate as in the hydrodynamic regime. These solitons are more strongly damped than a long-wavelength third-sound wave and lead to a larger attenuation of the pulse. We show that this mechanism can account for the discrepancy between attenuation calculated theoretically for the long-wavelength limit and the experimentally observed attenuation of low-amplitude third-sound pulses

  19. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  20. Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.

  1. Doping dependent nonlinear Hall effect in SmFeAsO1-xFx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, Scott C; Kemper, J B; Stegen, Z; Boebinger, G S; McDonald, R D; Balakirev, F F; Kohama, Y; Migliori, A; Chen, H; Liu, R H; Chen, X H

    2009-01-01

    We report the Hall resistivity, ρ xy , of polycrystalline SmFeAsO 1-x F x for four different fluorine concentrations from the onset of superconductivity through the collapse of the structural phase transition. For the two more highly doped samples, ρ xy is linear in magnetic field up to 50 T with only weak temperature dependence, reminiscent of a simple Fermi liquid. For the lightly doped samples with x xy (H) being both nonlinear in magnetic field and strongly temperature-dependent even though the Hall angle is small. The onset temperature for this nonlinear regime is in the vicinity of the structural phase (SPT)/magnetic ordering (MO) transitions. The temperature dependence of the Hall resistivity is consistent with a thermal activation of carriers across an energy gap. The evolution of the energy gap with doping is reported. (fast track communication)

  2. Semiclassical soliton ensembles for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamvissis, Spyridon; Miller, Peter D

    2003-01-01

    This book represents the first asymptotic analysis, via completely integrable techniques, of the initial value problem for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the semiclassical asymptotic regime. This problem is a key model in nonlinear optical physics and has increasingly important applications in the telecommunications industry. The authors exploit complete integrability to establish pointwise asymptotics for this problem's solution in the semiclassical regime and explicit integration for the underlying nonlinear, elliptic, partial differential equations suspected of governing

  3. Initial evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.

    1988-06-01

    The evolution of nonlinear magnetic islands is computed in the kinetic collisionality regime called the semicollisional regime, which is appropriate to present fusion confinement devices. Realistic effects are included, such as the presence of small external field errors, radial electric fields, and omega. When present simultaneously, these effects can greatly change the stability of small amplitude nonlinear islands. Islands with Δ' > O can sometimes be prevented from growing to macroscopic size; it is also possible to produce moderate mode-number nonlinear instabilities in the plasma edge. Furthermore, island growth can be prevented by application of external fields with suitably chosen amplitude and frequency

  4. Nonlinearity induced synchronization enhancement in mechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, David A.; Lopez, Omar; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Antonio, Dario; Arroyo, Sebastian I.; Zanette, Damian H.

    2018-05-08

    An autonomous oscillator synchronizes to an external harmonic force only when the forcing frequency lies within a certain interval, known as the synchronization range, around the oscillator's natural frequency. Under ordinary conditions, the width of the synchronization range decreases when the oscillation amplitude grows, which constrains synchronized motion of micro- and nano-mechanical resonators to narrow frequency and amplitude bounds. The present invention shows that nonlinearity in the oscillator can be exploited to manifest a regime where the synchronization range increases with an increasing oscillation amplitude. The present invention shows that nonlinearities in specific configurations of oscillator systems, as described herein, are the key determinants of the effect. The present invention presents a new configuration and operation regime that enhances the synchronization of micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators by capitalizing on their intrinsic nonlinear dynamics.

  5. Selection Criteria in Regime Switching Conditional Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chuffart

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A large number of nonlinear conditional heteroskedastic models have been proposed in the literature. Model selection is crucial to any statistical data analysis. In this article, we investigate whether the most commonly used selection criteria lead to choice of the right specification in a regime switching framework. We focus on two types of models: the Logistic Smooth Transition GARCH and the Markov-Switching GARCH models. Simulation experiments reveal that information criteria and loss functions can lead to misspecification ; BIC sometimes indicates the wrong regime switching framework. Depending on the Data Generating Process used in the experiments, great care is needed when choosing a criterion.

  6. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  7. Topology optimization of nonlinear optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation and an incremen......This paper considers the design of nonlinear photonic devices. The nonlinearity stems from a nonlinear material model with a permittivity that depends on the local time-averaged intensity of the electric field. A finite element model is developed for time-harmonic wave propagation...... limiter. Here, air, a linear and a nonlinear material are distributed so that the wave transmission displays a strong sensitivity to the amplitude of the incoming wave....

  8. Nonlinear optical interactions in silicon waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuyken B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The strong nonlinear response of silicon photonic nanowire waveguides allows for the integration of nonlinear optical functions on a chip. However, the detrimental nonlinear optical absorption in silicon at telecom wavelengths limits the efficiency of many such experiments. In this review, several approaches are proposed and demonstrated to overcome this fundamental issue. By using the proposed methods, we demonstrate amongst others supercontinuum generation, frequency comb generation, a parametric optical amplifier, and a parametric optical oscillator.

  9. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  10. Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.

    1982-06-01

    Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt

  11. Nonlinearities in modified gravity cosmology: Signatures of modified gravity in the nonlinear matter power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Weiguang; Zhang Pengjie; Yang Xiaohu

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of cosmological information on dark energy and gravity is encoded in the nonlinear regime. Precision cosmology thus requires precision modeling of nonlinearities in general dark energy and modified gravity models. We modify the Gadget-2 code and run a series of N-body simulations on modified gravity cosmology to study the nonlinearities. The modified gravity model that we investigate in the present paper is characterized by a single parameter ζ, which determines the enhancement of particle acceleration with respect to general relativity (GR), given the identical mass distribution (ζ=1 in GR). The first nonlinear statistics we investigate is the nonlinear matter power spectrum at k < or approx. 3h/Mpc, which is the relevant range for robust weak lensing power spectrum modeling at l < or approx. 2000. In this study, we focus on the relative difference in the nonlinear power spectra at corresponding redshifts where different gravity models have the same linear power spectra. This particular statistics highlights the imprint of modified gravity in the nonlinear regime and the importance of including the nonlinear regime in testing GR. By design, it is less susceptible to the sample variance and numerical artifacts. We adopt a mass assignment method based on wavelet to improve the power spectrum measurement. We run a series of tests to determine the suitable simulation specifications (particle number, box size, and initial redshift). We find that, the nonlinear power spectra can differ by ∼30% for 10% deviation from GR (|ζ-1|=0.1) where the rms density fluctuations reach 10. This large difference, on one hand, shows the richness of information on gravity in the corresponding scales, and on the other hand, invalidates simple extrapolations of some existing fitting formulae to modified gravity cosmology.

  12. Methods of stability analysis in nonlinear mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.D.; Gabella, W.; Ecklund, K.

    1989-01-01

    We review our recent work on methods to study stability in nonlinear mechanics, especially for the problems of particle accelerators, and compare our ideals to those of other authors. We emphasize methods that (1) show promise as practical design tools, (2) are effective when the nonlinearity is large, and (3) have a strong theoretical basis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the

  14. Optimization of CW Fiber Lasers With Strong Nonlinear Cavity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, O. V.; Efremov, S. A.; Yarutkina, I. A.; Skidin, A. S.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    In present work the equation for the saturated gain is derived from one-level gain equations describing the energy evolution inside the laser cavity. It is shown how to derive the parameters of the mathematical model from the experimental results. The numerically-estimated energy and spectrum of the signal are in good agreement with the experiment. Also, the optimization of the output energy is performed for a given set of model parameters.

  15. Nonlinear neutrino-photon interactions inside strong laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As different neutrino mass eigenstates exist, only the lightest neutrino is absolutely stable. However, due to the small phase space and the GIM suppression mechanism the radiative neutrino lifetime is much larger than the age of the universe. Interestingly, the photon-emission probability by a neutrino is drastically increased in the presence of an external background field. Therefore, it is natural to ask the question whether this so-called ''electromagnetic catalysis'' could be studied in an laboratory experiment using existing and upcoming laser facilities. To shed light on this question, we derive the vector-axialvector coupling tensor in the presence of an arbitrary plane-wave background field, which is needed for the calculation of the radiative neutrino decay. Furthermore, we study the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly associated with this object in detail.

  16. On a parabolic strongly nonlinear problem on manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Marinho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will prove the existence uniqueness and asymptotic behavior of weak solutions for the system (* involving the pseudo Laplacian operator and the condition $\\displaystyle\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial t} + \\sum_{i=1}^n \\big|\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial x_i}\\big|^{p-2}\\frac{\\partial u}{\\partial x_i}\

  17. Impurity solitons with quadratic nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Torres, Juan P-; Torner, Lluis

    1998-01-01

    We fmd families of solitary waves mediated by parametric mixing in quadratic nonlinear media that are localized at point-defect impurities. Solitons localized at attractive impurities are found to be dynamically stable. It is shown that localization at the impurity modifies strongly the soliton...

  18. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  19. Experiment on dust acoustic solitons in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boruah, Abhijit; Sharma, Sumita Kumari; Bailung, Heremba

    2015-01-01

    Dusty plasma, which contains nanometer to micrometer sized dust particles along with electrons and ions, supports a low frequency wave called Dust Acoustic wave, analogous to ion acoustic wave in normal plasma. Due to high charge and low temperature of the dust particles, dusty plasma can easily transform into a strongly coupled state when the Coulomb interaction potential energy exceeds the dust kinetic energy. Dust acoustic perturbations are excited in such strongly coupled dusty plasma by applying a short negative pulse (100 ms) of amplitude 5 - 20 V to an exciter. The perturbation steepens due to nonlinear effect and forms a solitary structure by balancing dispersion present in the medium. For specific discharge conditions, excitation amplitude above a critical value, the perturbation is found to evolve into a number of solitons. The experimental results on the excitation of multiple dust acoustic solitons in the strongly coupled regime are presented in this work. The experiment is carried out in radio frequency discharged plasma produced in a glass chamber at a pressure 0.01 - 0.1 mbar. Few layers of dust particles (∼ 5 μm in diameter) are levitated above a grounded electrode inside the chamber. Wave evolution is observed with the help of green laser sheet and recorded in a high resolution camera at high frame rate. The high amplitude soliton propagates ahead followed by smaller amplitude solitons with lower velocity. The separation between the solitons increases as time passes by. The characteristics of the observed dust acoustic solitons such as amplitude-velocity and amplitude- Mach number relationship are compared with the solutions of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. (author)

  20. Effects of toroidal coupling on the non-linear evolution of tearing modes and on the stochastisation of the magnetic field topology in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The resistive MHD equations have been handled in toroidal geometry following the tokamak ordering, in order to obtain a simplified set of non-linear equations. This system of equations is compact, closed, consistent and exact to the first two orders in the expansion in the inverse aspect ratio. Studies of the non-linear evolution of tearing modes in the real geometry of tokamak discharges are now in progress, and quite significant results have been obtained from the numerical code REVE of Fontenay based on our above model. From the analytical results, strong linear coupling between neighbouring modes is expected as is demonstrated by the numerical results in the linear, and non-linear regimes. Moreover, coupling exhibits a stochastic structure of the magnetic field lines, the threshold of which is seen to be easily computed by a simple analytical criterion. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  2. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-15

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  3. Kondo and mixed-valence regimes in multilevel quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the ground state of a multilevel quantum dot on the coupling to an external fermionic system and on the interactions in the dot. As the coupling to the external system increases, the rearrangement of the effective energy levels in the dot signals the transition from the Kondo regime to a mixed-valence (MV) regime. The MV regime in a two-level dot is characterized by an intrinsic mixing of the levels in the dot, resulting in nonperturbative subtunneling and supertunneling phenomena that strongly influence the Kondo effect

  4. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  5. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  6. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  7. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  8. Nonlinear absorption dynamics using field-induced surface hopping: zinc porphyrin in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhr, Merle I S; Petersen, Jens; Wohlgemuth, Matthias; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta; Mitrić, Roland

    2013-05-10

    We wish to present the application of our field-induced surface-hopping (FISH) method to simulate nonlinear absorption dynamics induced by strong nonresonant laser fields. We provide a systematic comparison of the FISH approach with exact quantum dynamics simulations on a multistate model system and demonstrate that FISH allows for accurate simulations of nonlinear excitation processes including multiphoton electronic transitions. In particular, two different approaches for simulating two-photon transitions are compared. The first approach is essentially exact and involves the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in an extended manifold of excited states, while in the second one only transiently populated nonessential states are replaced by an effective quadratic coupling term, and dynamics is performed in a considerably smaller manifold of states. We illustrate the applicability of our method to complex molecular systems by simulating the linear and nonlinear laser-driven dynamics in zinc (Zn) porphyrin in the gas phase and in water. For this purpose, the FISH approach is connected with the quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical approach (QM/MM) which is generally applicable to large classes of complex systems. Our findings that multiphoton absorption and dynamics increase the population of higher excited states of Zn porphyrin in the nonlinear regime, in particular in solution, provides a means for manipulating excited-state properties, such as transient absorption dynamics and electronic relaxation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nonlinear periodic wavetrains in thin liquid films falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issokolo, Remi J. Noumana; Dikandé, Alain M.

    2018-05-01

    A thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate spreads into fingering ripples that can display a complex dynamics ranging from continuous waves, nonlinear spatially localized periodic wave patterns (i.e., rivulet structures) to modulated nonlinear wavetrain structures. Some of these structures have been observed experimentally; however, conditions under which they form are still not well understood. In this work, we examine profiles of nonlinear wave patterns formed by a thin liquid film falling on a uniformly heated horizontal plate. For this purpose, the Benney model is considered assuming a uniform temperature distribution along the film propagation on the horizontal surface. It is shown that for strong surface tension but a relatively small Biot number, spatially localized periodic-wave structures can be analytically obtained by solving the governing equation under appropriate conditions. In the regime of weak nonlinearity, a multiple-scale expansion combined with the reductive perturbation method leads to a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation: the solutions of which are modulated periodic pulse trains which amplitude and width and period are expressed in terms of characteristic parameters of the model.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranov, V.

    1998-08-01

    Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics by Dieter Biskamp is a thorough introduction to the physics of the most impressive non-linear phenomena that occur in conducting magnetoplasmas. The basic systems, in which non-trivial dynamic processes are observed, accompanied by changes of geometry of the magnetic field and the effects of energy transformation (magnetic energy into kinetic energy or the opposite effect in magnetic dynamos), are the plasma magnetic confinement systems for nuclear fusion and space plasmas, mainly the solar plasma. A significant number of the examples of the dynamic processes considered are taken from laboratory plasmas, for which an experimental check of the theory is possible. Therefore, though the book is intended for researchers and students interested in both laboratory, including nuclear fusion, and astrophysical plasmas, it is most probably closer to the first category of reader. In the Introduction the author notes that unlike the hydrodynamics of non-conducting fluids, where the phenomena caused by rapid fluid motions are the most interesting, for plasmas in a strong magnetic field the quasi-static configurations inside which the local dynamic processes occur are often the most important. Therefore, the reader will also find in this book rather traditional material on the theory of plasma equilibrium and stability in magnetic fields. In addition, it is notable that, as opposed to a linear theory, the non-linear theory, as a rule, cannot give quite definite explanations or predictions of phenomena, and consequently there are in the book many results obtained by consideration of numerical models with the use of supercomputers. The treatment of non-linear dynamics is preceded by Chapters 2 to 4, in which the basics of MHD theory are presented with an emphasis on the role of integral invariants of the magnetic helicity type, a derivation of the reduced MHD equations is given, together with examples of the exact solutions of the equilibrium

  11. Microscopic investigations of the terahertz and the extreme nonlinear optical response of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golde, Daniel

    2010-06-22

    In the major part of this Thesis, we discuss the linear THz response of semiconductor nanostructures based on a microscopic theory. Here, two different problems are investigated: intersubband transitions in optically excited quantum wells and the THz plasma response of two-dimensional systems. In the latter case, we analyze the response of correlated electron and electron-hole plasmas. Extracting the plasma frequency from the linear response, we find significant deviations from the commonly accepted two-dimensional plasma frequency. Besides analyzing the pure plasma response, we also consider an intermediate regime where the response of the electron-hole plasma consists of a mixture of plasma contributions and excitonic transitions. A quantitative experiment-theory comparison provides novel insights into the behavior of the system at the transition from one regime to the other. The discussion of the intersubband transitions mainly focuses on the coherent superposition of the responses from true THz transitions and the ponderomotively accelerated carriers. We present a simple method to directly identify ponderomotive effects in the linear THz response. Apart from that, the excitonic contributions to intersubband transitions are investigated. The last part of the present Thesis deals with a completely different regime. Here, the extreme nonlinear optical response of low-dimensional semiconductor structures is discussed. Formally, extreme nonlinear optics describes the regime of light-matter interaction where the exciting field is strong enough such that the Rabi frequency is comparable to or larger than the characteristic transition frequency of the investigated system. Here, the Rabi frequency is given by the product of the electrical field strength and the dipole-matrix element of the respective transition. Theoretical investigations have predicted a large number of novel nonlinear effects arising for such strong excitations. Some of them have been observed in

  12. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  13. Dispersive regime of the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Guanyu; Koch, Jens; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Photon-based strongly correlated lattice models like the Jaynes–Cummings and Rabi lattices differ from their more conventional relatives like the Bose–Hubbard model by the presence of an additional tunable parameter: the frequency detuning between the pseudo-spin degree of freedom and the harmonic mode frequency on each site. Whenever this detuning is large compared to relevant coupling strengths, the system is said to be in the dispersive regime. The physics of this regime is well-understood at the level of a single Jaynes–Cummings or Rabi site. Here, we extend the theoretical description of the dispersive regime to lattices with many sites, for both strong and ultra-strong coupling. We discuss the nature and spatial range of the resulting qubit–qubit and photon–photon coupling, demonstrate the emergence of photon-pairing and squeezing and illustrate our results by exact diagonalization of the Rabi dimer. (paper)

  14. Frontiers of plasma physics. III. The implications of nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the first two articles of this series, Bardwell reviewed the experimental evidence that points to an inherent nonlinear quality in plasmas. Evidence from strongly turbulent plasmas, where the energy in the plasma's collective motions is comparable to the energy in random motion, leads to the speculation that high energy-density plasmas can provide insight into previously inaccessible regimes of physical behavior. Both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas show a marked tendency to generate self-ordered, large-scale structures; islands of self-generated magnetic field, circulation cells, vortices, and filaments are among the most remarkable of these. These self-ordered phenomena, Bardwell reports, challenge in a fundamental way the conceptual tools of physics as they are presently understood. In part two of this series, Bardwell draws on the connection between linearity and entropy, a topic also examined in Levitt's companion piece in the September 1976 FEF Newsletter, to conclude that these difficulties in plasma physics stem from the invalid extension of contemporary physics, which is basically linear, to high-energy density regimes of a plasma; contemporary physics in these cases is inapplicable. Readers without a background in mathematics should not be deterred by the mathematical formalism in the last section of the article; the text can be understood without a detailed mastery of the mathematical formulae

  15. Nonlinear optical response of some Graphene oxide and Graphene fluoride derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liaros Nikolaos; Orfanos Ioannis; Papadakis Ioannis; Couris Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of two graphene derivatives, graphene oxide and graphene fluoride, are investigated by means of the Z-scan technique employing 35 ps and 4 ns, visible (532 nm) laser excitation. Both derivatives were found to exhibit significant third-order nonlinear optical response at both excitation regimes, with the nonlinear absorption being relatively stronger and concealing the presence of nonlinear refraction under ns excitation, while ps excita...

  16. Nonlinear transport behavior of low dimensional electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingqiao

    The nonlinear behavior of low-dimensional electron systems attracts a great deal of attention for its fundamental interest as well as for potentially important applications in nanoelectronics. In response to microwave radiation and dc bias, strongly nonlinear electron transport that gives rise to unusual electron states has been reported in two-dimensional systems of electrons in high magnetic fields. There has also been great interest in the nonlinear response of quantum ballistic constrictions, where the effects of quantum interference, spatial dispersion and electron-electron interactions play crucial roles. In this thesis, experimental results of the research of low dimensional electron gas systems are presented. The first nonlinear phenomena were observed in samples of highly mobile two dimensional electrons in GaAs heavily doped quantum wells at different magnitudes of DC and AC (10 KHz to 20 GHz) excitations. We found that in the DC excitation regime the differential resistance oscillates with the DC current and external magnetic field, similar behavior was observed earlier in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures [C.L. Yang et al. ]. At external AC excitations the resistance is found to be also oscillating as a function of the magnetic field. However the form of the oscillations is considerably different from the DC case. We show that at frequencies below 100 KHz the difference is a result of a specific average of the DC differential resistance during the period of the external AC excitations. Secondly, in similar samples, strong suppression of the resistance by the electric field is observed in magnetic fields at which the Landau quantization of electron motion occurs. The phenomenon survives at high temperatures at which the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations are absent. The scale of the electric fields essential for the effect, is found to be proportional to temperature in the low temperature limit. We suggest that the strong reduction of the longitudinal resistance

  17. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  18. Formation and propagation of sand dunes: A nonlinear treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, I.A.; Hamza, E.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-06-01

    The nonlinear evolutionary equations previously derived for a plane with a rigid lid are here generalized to the free surface model. It is shown that similar equations are obtainable but the coefficients are strongly dependent on the Froude number, F, of the flow. (F is defined as U/(gd) 1/2 , where U is the basic uniform flow, g the gravitational acceleration and d the mean depth of the layer.) When F vanishes, the evolutionary equations reduce to those derived previously for the rigid lid model. The equations possess a dunetrain solution. The stability of this solution is analyzed and found to depend crucially on F. It is found, however, that for all values of F a dunetrain can develop into a solitary dune. The above results apply only when the phase shift δ, originally introduced for the instability of the linear problem, vanishes. For other admissible values of δ, the analysis showed that the neutral solution of the linear theory prevails in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  19. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  20. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  1. Quantum Information Processing using Nonlinear Optical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling

    This PhD thesis treats applications of nonlinear optical effects for quantum information processing. The two main applications are four-wave mixing in the form of Bragg scattering (BS) for quantum-state-preserving frequency conversion, and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in second-order nonlinear......-chirping the pumps. In the high-conversion regime without the effects of NPM, exact Green functions for BS are derived. In this limit, separability is possible for conversion efficiencies up to 60 %. However, the system still allows for selective frequency conversion as well as re-shaping of the output. One way...

  2. Numerical study of fractional nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Christian

    2014-10-08

    Using a Fourier spectral method, we provide a detailed numerical investigation of dispersive Schrödinger-type equations involving a fractional Laplacian in an one-dimensional case. By an appropriate choice of the dispersive exponent, both mass and energy sub- and supercritical regimes can be identified. This allows us to study the possibility of finite time blow-up versus global existence, the nature of the blow-up, the stability and instability of nonlinear ground states and the long-time dynamics of solutions. The latter is also studied in a semiclassical setting. Moreover, we numerically construct ground state solutions of the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  3. Nonlinear Magnus-induced dynamics and Shapiro spikes for ac and dc driven skyrmions on periodic quasi-one-dimensional substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J. Olson

    We numerically examine skyrmions interacting with a periodic quasi-one-dimensional substrate. When we drive the skyrmions perpendicular to the substrate periodicity direction, a rich variety of nonlinear Magnus-induced effects arise, in contrast to an overdamped system that shows only a linear velocity-force curve for this geometry. The skyrmion velocity-force curve is strongly nonlinear and we observe a Magnus-induced speed-up effect when the pinning causes the Magnus velocity response to align with the dissipative response. At higher applied drives these components decouple, resulting in strong negative differential conductivity. For skyrmions under combined ac and dc driving, we find a new class of phase locking phenomena in which the velocity-force curves contain a series of what we call Shapiro spikes, distinct from the Shapiro steps observed in overdamped systems. There are also regimes in which the skyrmion moves in the direction opposite to the applied dc drive to give negative mobility.

  4. Current US nuclear liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, O.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions

  5. Totalitäre Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    "The development of the term and the analytical concept of totalitarianism have gone through several stages since the 1920s. However, even in its most sophisticated form, the version seen in Friedrich/ Brzezinski, the concept exhibits substantial systematic classification problems and analytical weaknesses. This article attempts to frame the type of totalitarian regime within a general typology of political regimes. Special attention is dedicated to the problem of distinguishing autocra...

  6. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  7. Nonlinear elasticity in resonance experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Snieder, Roel

    2018-04-01

    Resonant bar experiments have revealed that dynamic deformation induces nonlinearity in rocks. These experiments produce resonance curves that represent the response amplitude as a function of the driving frequency. We propose a model to reproduce the resonance curves with observed features that include (a) the log-time recovery of the resonant frequency after the deformation ends (slow dynamics), (b) the asymmetry in the direction of the driving frequency, (c) the difference between resonance curves with the driving frequency that is swept upward and downward, and (d) the presence of a "cliff" segment to the left of the resonant peak under the condition of strong nonlinearity. The model is based on a feedback cycle where the effect of softening (nonlinearity) feeds back to the deformation. This model provides a unified interpretation of both the nonlinearity and slow dynamics in resonance experiments. We further show that the asymmetry of the resonance curve is caused by the softening, which is documented by the decrease of the resonant frequency during the deformation; the cliff segment of the resonance curve is linked to a bifurcation that involves a steep change of the response amplitude when the driving frequency is changed. With weak nonlinearity, the difference between the upward- and downward-sweeping curves depends on slow dynamics; a sufficiently slow frequency sweep eliminates this up-down difference. With strong nonlinearity, the up-down difference results from both the slow dynamics and bifurcation; however, the presence of the bifurcation maintains the respective part of the up-down difference, regardless of the sweep rate.

  8. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: metelski@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: vfkvvfkv@gmail.com [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: bychenk@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  9. Electron dynamics with radiation and nonlinear wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jowett, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    The physics of electron motion in storage rings is described by supplementing the Hamiltonian equations of motion with fluctuating radiation reaction forces to describe the effects of synchrotron radiation. This leads to a description of radiation damping and quantum diffusion in single-particle phase-space by means of Fokker-Planck equations. For practical purposes, most storage rings remain in the regime of linear damping and diffusion; this is discussed in some detail with examples, concentrating on longitudinal phase space. However special devices such as nonlinear wigglers may permit the new generation of very large rings to go beyond this into regimes of nonlinear damping. It is shown how a special combined-function wiggler can be used to modify the energy distribution and current profile of electron bunches

  10. Regime shifts in mean-variance efficient frontiers: some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Guidolin; Federica Ria

    2010-01-01

    Regime switching models have been assuming a central role in financial applications because of their well-known ability to capture the presence of rich non-linear patterns in the joint distribution of asset returns. This paper examines how the presence of regimes in means, variances, and correlations of asset returns translates into explicit dynamics of the Markowitz mean-variance frontier. In particular, the paper shows both theoretically and through an application to international equity po...

  11. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of helical magnetorotational instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatsashvili, G.; Stefani, F.; Guseva, A.; Avila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one of the fundamental processes in astrophysics, driving angular momentum transport and mass accretion in a wide variety of cosmic objects. Despite much theoretical/numerical and experimental efforts over the last decades, its saturation mechanism and amplitude, which sets the angular momentum transport rate, remains not well understood, especially in the limit of high resistivity, or small magnetic Prandtl numbers typical to interiors (dead zones) of protoplanetary disks, liquid cores of planets and liquid metals in laboratory. Using direct numerical simulations, in this paper we investigate the nonlinear development and saturation properties of the helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI)—a relative of the standard MRI—in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at very low magnetic Prandtl number (correspondingly at low magnetic Reynolds number) relevant to liquid metals. For simplicity, the ratio of azimuthal field to axial field is kept fixed. From the linear theory of HMRI, it is known that the Elsasser number, or interaction parameter determines its growth rate and plays a special role in the dynamics. We show that this parameter is also important in the nonlinear problem. By increasing its value, a sudden transition from weakly nonlinear, where the system is slightly above the linear stability threshold, to strongly nonlinear, or turbulent regime occurs. We calculate the azimuthal and axial energy spectra corresponding to these two regimes and show that they differ qualitatively. Remarkably, the nonlinear state remains in all cases nearly axisymmetric suggesting that this HMRI-driven turbulence is quasi two-dimensional in nature. Although the contribution of non-axisymmetric modes increases moderately with the Elsasser number, their total energy remains much smaller than that of the axisymmetric ones.

  13. Nonlinear effects in collective absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenoyama, Takeshi; Mima, Kunioki; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1981-01-01

    The collective absorption of high intensity laser radiation is analyzed numerically. Density profile modification due to the ponderomotive force associating laser radiation and the excited electron plasma waves is self-consistently taken into account, and the intensity dependences of the absorption efficiency are obtained. In the high intensity regime, the absorption efficiency is found to be strongly enhanced in the plasma without flow, but reduced with supersonic flow. (author)

  14. Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Garcia, P. D.; Ek, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanoscale optical devices for classical and quantum photonics is affected by unavoidable fabrication imperfections that often impose performance limitations. However, disorder may also enable new functionalities, for example in random lasers, where lasing relies on random...... multiple scattering. The applicability of random lasers has been limited due to multidirectional emission, lack of tunability, and strong mode competition with chaotic fluctuations due to a weak mode confinement. The regime of Anderson localization of light has been proposed for obtaining stable multimode...... random lasing, and initial work concerned macroscopic one-dimensional layered media. Here, we demonstrate on-chip random nanolasers where the cavity feedback is provided by the intrinsic disorder. The strong confinement achieved by Anderson localization reduces the spatial overlap between lasing modes...

  15. Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke

    2007-01-01

    Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......, and that it can saturate at a level significantly higher than intermittent turbulent dynamos, namely at energy equipartition, for high values of the magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers. The equipartition solution however does not remain time-independent during the simulation but exhibits a much more intricate...

  16. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms

  17. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth

  18. Effects of delayed nonlinear response on wave packet dynamics in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.

  19. Strong correlation effects on surfaces of topological insulators via holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunseok; Song, Geunho; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the effects of strong correlation on the surface state of a topological insulator (TI). We argue that electrons in the regime of crossover from weak antilocalization to weak localization are strongly correlated, and calculate the magnetotransport coefficients of TIs using the gauge-gravity principle. Then, we examine the magnetoconductivity (MC) formula and find excellent agreement with the data of chrome-doped Bi2Te3 in the crossover regime. We also find that the cusplike peak in MC at low doping is absent, which is natural since quasiparticles disappear due to the strong correlation.

  20. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  1. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  2. A phenomenological constitutive model for the nonlinear viscoelastic responses of biodegradable polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a constitutive framework for biodegradable polymers that accounts for nonlinear viscous behavior under regimes with large deformation. The generalized Maxwell model is used to represent the degraded viscoelastic response of a polymer

  3. Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesekin, A. N., E-mail: sesekin@list.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya, Ekaterinburg, 620990 (Russian Federation); Nepp, A. N., E-mail: anepp@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, 19 S. Mira, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.

  4. Impulse position control algorithms for nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesekin, A. N.; Nepp, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the formalization and description of impulse-sliding regime in nonlinear dynamical systems that arise in the application of impulse position controls of a special kind. The concept of trajectory impulse-sliding regime formalized as some limiting network element Euler polygons generated by a discrete approximation of the impulse position control This paper differs from the previously published papers in that it uses a definition of solutions of systems with impulse controls, it based on the closure of the set of smooth solutions in the space of functions of bounded variation. The need for the study of such regimes is the fact that they often arise when parry disturbances acting on technical or economic control system.

  5. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  6. Phenomenological modeling of nonlinear holograms based on metallic geometric metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Li, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-10-31

    Benefiting from efficient local phase and amplitude control at the subwavelength scale, metasurfaces offer a new platform for computer generated holography with high spatial resolution. Three-dimensional and high efficient holograms have been realized by metasurfaces constituted by subwavelength meta-atoms with spatially varying geometries or orientations. Metasurfaces have been recently extended to the nonlinear optical regime to generate holographic images in harmonic generation waves. Thus far, there has been no vector field simulation of nonlinear metasurface holograms because of the tremendous computational challenge in numerically calculating the collective nonlinear responses of the large number of different subwavelength meta-atoms in a hologram. Here, we propose a general phenomenological method to model nonlinear metasurface holograms based on the assumption that every meta-atom could be described by a localized nonlinear polarizability tensor. Applied to geometric nonlinear metasurfaces, we numerically model the holographic images formed by the second-harmonic waves of different spins. We show that, in contrast to the metasurface holograms operating in the linear optical regime, the wavelength of incident fundamental light should be slightly detuned from the fundamental resonant wavelength to optimize the efficiency and quality of nonlinear holographic images. The proposed modeling provides a general method to simulate nonlinear optical devices based on metallic metasurfaces.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics of a coherent polariton-biexciton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trung Dan; Vo Tinh

    1994-08-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a coherent interacting polariton-biexciton system in optically excited semiconductors is investigated. We consider the case when two macroscopically coherent modes - a lower branch polariton and a biexciton existing simultaneously in a direct-gap semiconductor. The conditions for exhibiting optical bistability in stationary regime are obtained. Numerical simulation for the nonlinear dynamics equations of the system is also carried out. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs

  8. Probing nonlinear electrodynamics in slowly rotating spacetimes through neutrino astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, Gaetano; Pereira, Jonas P.

    2017-01-01

    Huge electromagnetic fields are known to be present during the late stages of the dynamics of supernovae. Thus, when dealing with electrodynamics in this context, the possibility may arise to probe nonlinear theories (generalizations of the Maxwellian electromagnetism). We firstly solve Einstein field equations minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) nonlinear Lagrangian of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime $a\\ll M$ (black hole's mass), up to first order in $a/M$. We...

  9. Strong quasi-particle tunneling study in the paired quantum Hall states

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Daijiro

    2001-01-01

    The quasi-particle tunneling phenomena in the paired fractional quantum Hall states are studied. A single point-contact system is first considered. Because of relevancy of the quasi-particle tunneling term, the strong tunneling regime should be investigated. Using the instanton method it is shown that the strong quasi-particle tunneling regime is described as the weak electron tunneling regime effectively. Expanding to the network model the paired quantum Hall liquid to insulator transition i...

  10. Nonlinear optical control of Josephson coupling in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casandruc, Eliza

    2017-03-15

    In High-T{sub C} cuprates superconducting Cu-O planes alternate with insulating layers along the crystallographic c-axis, making the materials equivalent to Josephson junctions connected in series. The most intriguing consequence is that the out-of-plane superconducting transport occurs via Cooper pairs tunneling across the insulating layers and can be predicted by the Josephson tunneling equations. Nonlinear interaction between light fields and the superconducting carriers serves as a powerful dynamical probe of cuprates, while offering opportunities for controlling them in an analogous fashion to other stimuli such as pressure and magnetic fields. The main goal of this thesis work is to use intense transient light fields to control the interlayer superconducting transport on ultrafast time scales. This was achieved by tuning the wavelength of such light pulses to completely different ranges, in order to either directly excite Josephson Plasma Waves in the nonlinear regime, or efficiently melt the competing charge and spin order phase, which in certain cuprates quenches the Josephson tunneling at equilibrium. In a first study, I have utilized strong field terahertz transients with frequencies tuned to the Josephson plasma resonance (JPR) to coherently control the c-axis superconducting transport. The Josephson relations have a cubic nonlinearity which is exploited to achieve two related, albeit slightly different, phenomena. Depending on the driving pulse, solitonic breathers were excited with narrow-band multi-cycle pulses in La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}CuO{sub 4} while broad-band half-cycle pulses were employed to achieve a parametric amplification of Josephson Plasma Waves in La{sub 1.905}Ba{sub 0.095}CuO{sub 4}. These experiments are supported by extensive modeling, showing exceptional agreement. A comprehensive study illustrates the strong enhancement of the nonlinear effects near the JPR frequency. Then, I turned to investigate the competition between

  11. Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.

  12. JT-60U high performance regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, S.

    1999-01-01

    High performance regimes of JT-60U plasmas are presented with an emphasis upon the results from the use of a semi-closed pumped divertor with W-shaped geometry. Plasma performance in transient and quasi steady states has been significantly improved in reversed shear and high- βp regimes. The reversed shear regime elevated an equivalent Q DT eq transiently up to 1.25 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)=8.6x10 20 m-3·s·keV) in a reactor-relevant thermonuclear dominant regime. Long sustainment of enhanced confinement with internal transport barriers (ITBs) with a fully non-inductive current drive in a reversed shear discharge was successfully demonstrated with LH wave injection. Performance sustainment has been extended in the high- bp regime with a high triangularity achieving a long sustainment of plasma conditions equivalent to Q DT eq ∼0.16 (n D (0)τ E T i (0)∼1.4x10 20 m -3 ·s·keV) for ∼4.5 s with a large non-inductive current drive fraction of 60-70% of the plasma current. Thermal and particle transport analyses show significant reduction of thermal and particle diffusivities around ITB resulting in a strong Er shear in the ITB region. The W-shaped divertor is effective for He ash exhaust demonstrating steady exhaust capability of τ He */τ E ∼3-10 in support of ITER. Suppression of neutral back flow and chemical sputtering effect have been observed while MARFE onset density is rather decreased. Negative-ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) experiments have created a clear H-mode transition. Enhanced ionization cross- section due to multi-step ionization processes was confirmed as theoretically predicted. A current density profile driven by N-NBI is measured in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. N-NBI induced TAE modes characterized as persistent and bursting oscillations have been observed from a low hot beta of h >∼0.1-0.2% without a significant loss of fast ions. (author)

  13. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  14. The natural sediment regime in rivers: broadening the foundation for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rathburn, Sara L.; Walters, David M.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Water and sediment inputs are fundamental drivers of river ecosystems, but river management tends to emphasize flow regime at the expense of sediment regime. In an effort to frame a more inclusive paradigm for river management, we discuss sediment inputs, transport, and storage within river systems; interactions among water, sediment, and valley context; and the need to broaden the natural flow regime concept. Explicitly incorporating sediment is challenging, because sediment is supplied, transported, and stored by nonlinear and episodic processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales than water and because sediment regimes have been highly altered by humans. Nevertheless, managing for a desired balance between sediment supply and transport capacity is not only tractable, given current geomorphic process knowledge, but also essential because of the importance of sediment regimes to aquatic and riparian ecosystems, the physical template of which depends on sediment-driven river structure and function.

  15. On the regimes of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, S.; Theofanous, T.G.; Yuen, W.W. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    The conditions of the MAGICO-2000 experiment are extended to more broadly investigate the regimes of premixing, and the corresponding internal structures of mixing zones. With the help of the data and numerical simulations using the computer code PM-ALPHA, we can distinguish extremes of behavior dominated by inertia and thermal effects - we name these the inertia and thermal regimes, respectively. This is an important distinction that should guide future experiments aimed at code verification in this area. Interesting intermediate behaviors are also delineated and discussed. (author)

  16. Image processing with a cellular nonlinear network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfu, S.

    2005-01-01

    A cellular nonlinear network (CNN) based on uncoupled nonlinear oscillators is proposed for image processing purposes. It is shown theoretically and numerically that the contrast of an image loaded at the nodes of the CNN is strongly enhanced, even if this one is initially weak. An image inversion can be also obtained without reconfiguration of the network whereas a gray levels extraction can be performed with an additional threshold filtering. Lastly, an electronic implementation of this CNN is presented

  17. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  18. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  19. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Stabilization of Plasma Microturbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, G. G.; Pueschel, M. J.; Terry, P. W.

    2018-04-01

    The physical causes for the strong stabilizing effect of finite plasma β on ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence, which far exceeds quasilinear estimates, are identified from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The primary contribution stems from a resonance of frequencies in the dominant nonlinear interaction between the unstable mode, the stable mode, and zonal flows, which maximizes the triplet correlation time and therefore the energy transfer efficiency. A modification to mixing-length transport estimates is constructed, which reproduces nonlinear heat fluxes throughout the examined β range.

  20. Nonlinearities in reservoir engineering: Enhancing quantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangming; Hu, Qingping; Li, Lingchao; Huang, Chen; Rao, Shi

    2017-12-01

    There are two decisive factors for quantum correlations in reservoir engineering, but they are strongly reversely dependent on the atom-field nonlinearities. One is the squeezing parameter for the Bogoliubov modes-mediated collective interactions, while the other is the dissipative rates for the engineered collective dissipations. Exemplifying two-level atomic ensembles, we show that the moderate nonlinearities can compromise these two factors and thus enhance remarkably two-mode squeezing and entanglement of different spin atomic ensembles or different optical fields. This suggests that the moderate nonlinearities of the two-level systems are more advantageous for applications in quantum networks associated with reservoir engineering.

  1. Experimental verification of transient nonlinear acoustical holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yun; Cannata, Jonathan; Wang, Tianren

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on nonlinear transient acoustical holography. The validity and effectiveness of a recently proposed nonlinear transient acoustical holography algorithm is evaluated in the presence of noise. The acoustic field measured on a post-focal plane of a high-intensity focused transducer is backward projected to reconstruct the pressure distributions on the focal and a pre-focal plane, which are shown to be in good agreement with the measurement. In contrast, the conventional linear holography produces erroneous results in this case where the nonlinearity involved is strong. Forward acoustic field projection was also carried out to further verify the algorithm.

  2. Interaction of Strong Turbulence With Free Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Robert A.

    Spray from a nozzle, spilling breakers, and “rooster tails” from speeding boats are all examples of a turbulent flow with a free surface. In many cases like these, the free surface is difficult to discern as the volume of air in the fluid can exceed that of the water.In traditional studies, the free surface is simply defined as a continuous surface separating the fluid from air. The pressure at the surface is assumed to be atmospheric pressure and the fluid comprising the surface moves with the surface. While these conditions are sufficient for non-turbulent flows, such as nonbreaking water waves, and lead to the (albeit non-linear) dynamic and kinematic free surface boundary conditions that serve to provide sufficient conditions to determine the surface, they are not valid descriptions for a bubbly free surface in a highly turbulent regime, such as the roller in front of a spilling breaker or the propeller wash behind a ship.

  3. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I; Garejev, N; Majus, D; Tamošauskas, G; A Dubietis; Jukna, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space–time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45–2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse. (paper)

  4. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I.; Garejev, N.; Majus, D.; Jukna, V.; Tamošauskas, G.; Dubietis, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space-time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45-2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse.

  5. The determination of capital controls: Which role do exchange rate regimes play?

    OpenAIRE

    von Hagen, Jürgen; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of exchange rate regime choices in the determination of capital controls in transition economies. We first use a simultaneous equations model to allow direct interactions between decisions on capital controls and on exchange rate regimes. We find that exchange rate regime choices strongly influence the imposition or removal of capital controls, but the feed-back effect is weak. We further estimate a single equation model for capital controls with exchange rate...

  6. International regime formation: Ozone depletion and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busmann, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    Two theoretical perspectives, neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, dominate in international relations. An assessment is made of whether these perspectives provide compelling explanations of why a regime with specific targets and timetables was formed for ozone depletion, while a regime with such specificity was not formed for global climate change. In so doing, the assumptions underlying neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism are examined. A preliminary assessment is offered of the policymaking and institutional bargaining process. Patterns of interstate behavior are evolving toward broader forms of cooperation, at least with regard to global environmental issues, although this process is both slow and cautious. State coalitions on specific issues are not yet powerful enough to create a strong community of states in which states are willing to devolve power to international institutions. It is shown that regime analysis is a useful analytic framework, but it should not be mistaken for theory. Regime analysis provides an organizational framework offering a set of questions regarding the principles and norms that govern cooperation and conflict in an issue area, and whether forces independent of states exist which affect the scope of state behavior. An examination of both neorealism and neoliberal institutionalism, embodied by four approaches to regime formation, demonstrates that neither has sufficient scope to account for contextual dynamics in either the ozone depletion or global climate change regime formation processes. 261 refs

  7. Do family policy regimes matter for children's well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engster, Daniel; Stensöta, Helena Olofsdotter

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have studied the impact of different welfare state regimes, and particularly family policy regimes, on gender equality. Very little research has been conducted, however, on the association between different family policy regimes and children's well-being. This article explores how the different family policy regimes of twenty OECD countries relate to children's well-being in the areas of child poverty, child mortality, and educational attainment and achievement. We focus specifically on three family policies: family cash and tax benefits, paid parenting leaves, and public child care support. Using panel data for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005, we test the association between these policies and child well-being while holding constant for a number of structural and policy variables. Our analysis shows that the dual-earner regimes, combining high levels of support for paid parenting leaves and public child care, are strongly associated with low levels of child poverty and child mortality. We find little long-term effect of family policies on educational achievement, but a significant positive correlation between high family policy support and higher educational attainment. We conclude that family policies have a significant impact on improving children's well-being, and that dual-earner regimes represent the best practice for promoting children's health and development.

  8. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  9. Multifractal regime transition in a modified minority game model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepaldi, Antonio F.; Rodrigues Neto, Camilo; Ferreira, Fernando F.; Francisco, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The search for more realistic modeling of financial time series reveals several stylized facts of real markets. In this work we focus on the multifractal properties found in price and index signals. Although the usual minority game (MG) models do not exhibit multifractality, we study here one of its variants that does. We show that the nonsynchronous MG models in the nonergodic phase is multifractal and in this sense, together with other stylized facts, constitute a better modeling tool. Using the structure function (SF) approach we detected the stationary and the scaling range of the time series generated by the MG model and, from the linear (non-linear) behavior of the SF we identified the fractal (multifractal) regimes. Finally, using the wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) technique we obtained its multifractal spectrum width for different dynamical regimes.

  10. Fluid flows of mixed regimes in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Emine; Hoang, Luan; Ibragimov, Akif; Kieu, Thinh

    2017-02-01

    In porous media, there are three known regimes of fluid flows, namely, pre-Darcy, Darcy, and post-Darcy. Because of their different natures, these are usually treated separately in the literature. To study complex flows when all three regimes may be present in different portions of a same domain, we use a single equation of motion to unify them. Several scenarios and models are then considered for slightly compressible fluids. A nonlinear parabolic equation for the pressure is derived, which is degenerate when the pressure gradient is either small or large. We estimate the pressure and its gradient for all time in terms of initial and boundary data. We also obtain their particular bounds for large time which depend on the asymptotic behavior of the boundary data but not on the initial one. Moreover, the continuous dependence of the solutions on initial and boundary data and the structural stability for the equation are established.

  11. Envisioning, quantifying, and managing thermal regimes on river networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, E. Ashley; Beechie, Timothy J.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Fullerton, Aimee H.

    2017-01-01

    Water temperatures fluctuate in time and space, creating diverse thermal regimes on river networks. Temporal variability in these thermal landscapes has important biological and ecological consequences because of nonlinearities in physiological reactions; spatial diversity in thermal landscapes provides aquatic organisms with options to maximize growth and survival. However, human activities and climate change threaten to alter the dynamics of riverine thermal regimes. New data and tools can identify particular facets of the thermal landscape that describe ecological and management concerns and that are linked to human actions. The emerging complexity of thermal landscapes demands innovations in communication, opens the door to exciting research opportunities on the human impacts to and biological consequences of thermal variability, suggests improvements in monitoring programs to better capture empirical patterns, provides a framework for suites of actions to restore and protect the natural processes that drive thermal complexity, and indicates opportunities for better managing thermal landscapes.

  12. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering high-order nonlinear dissipation for quantum superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhada, S. O.; Grimm, A.; Touzard, S.; Shankar, S.; Minev, Z. K.; Vool, U.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    Engineering nonlinear driven-dissipative processes is essential for quantum control. In the case of a harmonic oscillator, nonlinear dissipation can stabilize a decoherence-free manifold, leading to protected quantum information encoding. One possible approach to implement such nonlinear interactions is to combine the nonlinearities provided by Josephson circuits with parametric pump drives. However, it is usually hard to achieve strong nonlinearities while avoiding undesired couplings. Here we propose a scheme to engineer a four-photon drive and dissipation in a harmonic oscillator by cascading experimentally demonstrated two-photon processes. We also report experimental progress towards realization of such a scheme. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.

  14. Land degradation and property regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Beaumont; Robert T. Walker

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between property regimes and land degradation outcomes, in the context of peasant agriculture. We consider explicitly whether private property provides for superior soil resource conservation, as compared to common property and open access. To assess this we implement optimization algorithms on a supercomputer to address resource...

  15. Regime identification in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L; Sips, A C C; Kardaun, O; Spreitler, F; Suttrop, W

    2004-01-01

    The ability to recognize the transition from the L-mode to the H-mode or from the H-mode to the improved H-mode reliably from a conveniently small number of measurements in real time is of increasing importance for machine control. Discriminant analysis has been applied to regime identification of plasma discharges in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. An observation consists of a set of plasma parameters averaged over a time slice in a discharge. The data set consists of all observations over different discharges and time slices. Discriminant analysis yields coefficients allowing the classification of a new observation. The results of a frequentist and a formal Bayesian approach to discriminant analysis are compared. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 1.3% for predicting the L-mode and the H-mode confinement regime was achieved. With five plasma variables, a failure rate of 5.3% for predicting the H-mode and the improved H-mode confinement regime was achieved. The coefficients derived by discriminant analysis have been applied subsequently to discharges to illustrate the operation of regime identification in a real time control system

  16. Monetary regimes in open economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpos, A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a two-country open economy framework for the analysis of strategic interactions among monetary authorities and wage bargaining institutions. From this perspective, the thesis investigates the economic consequences of replacing flexible and fixed exchange rate regimes with a

  17. Quantitative comparison of electron temperature fluctuations to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].

  18. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  19. Inverse chaos synchronization in linearly and nonlinearly coupled systems with multiple time-delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahverdiev, E.M.; Hashimov, R.H.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimova, L.H.; Huseynova, E.M.; Shore, K.A.

    2005-04-01

    We report on inverse chaos synchronization between two unidirectionally linearly and nonlinearly coupled chaotic systems with multiple time-delays and find the existence and stability conditions for different synchronization regimes. We also study the effect of parameter mismatches on synchonization regimes. The method is tested on the famous Ikeda model. Numerical simulations fully support the analytical approach. (author)

  20. Champagne experiences various rhythmical bubbling regimes in a flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger-Belair, Gérard; Tufaile, Alberto; Jeandet, Philippe; Sartorelli, José-Carlos

    2006-09-20

    Bubble trains are seen rising gracefully from a few points on the glass wall (called nucleation sites) whenever champagne is poured into a glass. As time passes during the gas-discharging process, the careful observation of some given bubble columns reveals that the interbubble distance may change suddenly, thus revealing different rhythmical bubbling regimes. Here, it is reported that the transitions between the different bubbling regimes of some nucleation sites during gas discharging is a process which may be ruled by a strong interaction between tiny gas pockets trapped inside the nucleation site and/or also by an interaction between the tiny bubbles just blown from the nucleation site.

  1. Regime switches in the risk-return trade-off

    OpenAIRE

    Marcellino, Massimiliano; Ghysels, Eric; Guerin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the risk-return trade-off. We use a MIDAS model for the conditional variance and allow for possible switches in the risk-return relation through a Markov-switching specification. We find strong evidence for regime changes in the risk-return relation. This finding is robust to a large range of specifications. In the first regime characterized by low ex-post returns and high volatility, the risk-return relation is reversed, whereas the intuitive positive ...

  2. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  3. Anti-Weak Localization Measurements in the Ballistic Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilaka, Dilhani; Dedigama, Aruna; Murphy, Sheena; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Goel, Niti; Mishima, Tetsuya; Santos, Michael; Mullen, Kieran

    2007-03-01

    Anti-weak localization dominates at low fields in systems in which spin-orbit coupling is strong. The experimental results are well described by theory [1] in low mobility systems in which the magnetic length (lB) is greater than the mean free path; however high mobility systems with strong spin-orbit interactions, such the InSb based two dimensional systems (2DESs) examined here, are not in this diffusive regime. A recently developed theory [2] addresses both the diffusive and ballistic regimes taking into account both the backscattered and non-backscattered contributions to the conductivity. We will discuss the agreement of the new theory to measurements of InSb 2DESs prepared with both strong Dresselhaus and Rashba effects. [1] S.V. Iordanskii, Yu B. Lyanda-Geller, and G.E. Pikus, JETP Lett. 60, 206 (1994). [2] L.E. Golub, Phys. Rev. B. 71, 235310 (2005).

  4. Stable boundary-layer regimes at dome C, Antarctica : observation and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, E.; van de Wiel, B.J.H.; van Hooijdonk, I.G.S.; Genthon, C.; van der Linden, S.J.A.; van Hooft, J.A.; Baas, P.; Maurel, W.; Traullé, O.; Casasanta, G.

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of meteorological measurements along a 45 m tower at Dome C on the high East Antarctic Plateau revealed two distinct stable boundary layer (SBL) regimes at this location. The first regime is characterized by strong winds and continuous turbulence. It results in full vertical coupling

  5. Determination of the onset nonlinearity hydrodynamic characteristics at two-phase flow in parallel vertical channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.; Spasojevic, D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents results of the experimental and theoretical analyses of linear and nonlinear characteristics of adiabatic two-phase water-air flow in vertical parallel channels. Regime character changes and linear to nonlinear dynamic characteristics transfer conditions were defined. (author)

  6. Performance emulation and parameter estimation for nonlinear fibre-optic links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Fibre-optic communication systems, especially when operating in the nonlinear regime, generally do not perform exactly as theory would predict. A number of methods for data-based evaluation of nonlinear fibre-optic link parameters, both for accurate performance emulation and optimization...

  7. Polynomially decaying transmission for the nonlinear schrodinger equation in a random medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillard, P.; Sovillard, B.

    1986-01-01

    This is the first study of one the transmission problems associate to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a random potential. We show that for almost every realization of the medium the rate of transmission vanishes when increasing the size of the medium; however, whereas it decays exponentially in the linear regime, it decays polynomially in the nonlinear one

  8. Dynamics of electron wave packet in a disordered chain with delayed nonlinear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongjun; Xiong Shijie

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of one electron wave packet in a linear chain with random on-site energies and a nonadiabatic electron-phonon interaction which is described by a delayed cubic nonlinear term in the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that in the regime where the wave packet is delocalized in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, the wave packet becomes localized when the disorder is added and the localization is enhanced by increasing the disorder. In the regime where the self-trapping phenomenon occurs in the case with only the delayed nonlinearity, by adding the disorder the general dynamical features of the wave packet do not change if the nonlinearity parameter is small, but the dynamics shows the subdiffusive behavior if the nonlinearity parameter is large. The numerical results demonstrate complicated wave packet dynamics of systems with both the disorder and nonlinearity.

  9. Numerical study of propagation properties of surface plasmon polaritons in nonlinear media

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Ghulam Saber, Md.; Alsunaidi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present a time-domain algorithm for simulating nonlinear propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in chalcogenide glass. Due to the high non-linearity property and strong dispersion and confinement chalcogenide glasses are widely known

  10. Sulfur passivation of semi-insulating GaAs: Transition from Coulomb blockade to weak localization regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: Bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Chaikina, E. I. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Division de Fisica Aplicada (Mexico); Danilovskii, E. Yu.; Gets, D. S.; Klyachkin, L. E.; L’vova, T. V.; Malyarenko, A. M. [Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The sulfur passivation of the semi-insulating GaAs bulk (SI GaAs) grown in an excess phase of arsenic is used to observe the transition from the Coulomb blockade to the weak localization regime at room temperature. The I–V characteristics of the SI GaAs device reveal nonlinear behavior that appears to be evidence of the Coulomb blockade process as well as the Coulomb oscillations. The sulfur passivation of the SI GaAs device surface results in enormous transformation of the I–V characteristics that demonstrate the strong increase of the resistance and Coulomb blockade regime is replaced by the electron tunneling processes. The results obtained are analyzed within frameworks of disordering SI GaAs surface that is caused by inhomogeneous distribution of the donor and acceptor anti-site defects which affects the conditions of quantum- mechanical tunneling. Weak localization processes caused by the preservation of the Fermi level pinning are demonstrated by measuring the negative magnetoresistance in weak magnetic fields at room temperature. Finally, the studies of the magnetoresistance at higher magnetic fields reveal the h/2e Aharonov–Altshuler–Spivak oscillations with the complicated behavior due to possible statistical mismatch of the interference paths in the presence of different microdefects.

  11. A Nonlinear Modal Aeroelastic Solver for FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Benjamin D.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.; Scott, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    A nonlinear structural solver has been implemented internally within the NASA FUN3D computational fluid dynamics code, allowing for some new aeroelastic capabilities. Using a modal representation of the structure, a set of differential or differential-algebraic equations are derived for general thin structures with geometric nonlinearities. ODEPACK and LAPACK routines are linked with FUN3D, and the nonlinear equations are solved at each CFD time step. The existing predictor-corrector method is retained, whereby the structural solution is updated after mesh deformation. The nonlinear solver is validated using a test case for a flexible aeroshell at transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow conditions. Agreement with linear theory is seen for the static aeroelastic solutions at relatively low dynamic pressures, but structural nonlinearities limit deformation amplitudes at high dynamic pressures. No flutter was found at any of the tested trajectory points, though LCO may be possible in the transonic regime.

  12. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Nonlinear optical studies in semiconductor-doped glasses (SDGs) are per- formed under femtosecond laser pulse excitation. Z-scan experiments with 800 nm wave- length pulses are used to excite SDG samples in the resonance and non-resonance regimes. Schott colour glass filter OG 515 shows stronger ...

  15. Double shock dynamics induced by the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities

    KAUST Repository

    Crosta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    We show that the saturation of defocusing nonlinearities leads to qualitative changes in the onset of wave breaking, determining double shock formation whose regularization occurs in terms of antidark solitons. In a given material, the crossover between different regimes can be controlled by changing the input intensity. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

  16. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on to the

  17. Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman

    2011-09-27

    In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on

  18. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  19. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.