WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly increasing function

  1. Strong increase of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.; Janssen, S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of installed solar panels in 2011 has increased again. 40 megawatt of new panels have been installed. This increase is twice as high as the year before. The production of solar power increased to 90 million kWh in 2011 as a result of this expansion. However, the share of solar power in total energy use is still very limited. [nl

  2. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  3. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  4. Competition increases in the face of strong regional ties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoetgen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The current fuel market exhibits a large surplus production capacity and is strongly influenced by regional ties, with imports of fabricated fuel serving to supplement domestic production or to keep domestic vendors competitive. In the future, the market is set to become increasingly competitive, especially in Europe and the United States. (author)

  5. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.'s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports

  6. Strong genetic overlap between executive functions and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E; Mann, Frank D; Briley, Daniel A; Church, Jessica A; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2016-09-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7 to 15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Strong Genetic Overlap Between Executive Functions and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Laura E.; Mann, Frank D.; Briley, Daniel A.; Church, Jessica A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that control, monitor, and coordinate more basic cognitive processes. EFs play instrumental roles in models of complex reasoning, learning, and decision-making, and individual differences in EFs have been consistently linked with individual differences in intelligence. By middle childhood, genetic factors account for a moderate proportion of the variance in intelligence, and these effects increase in magnitude through adolescence. Genetic influences on EFs are very high, even in middle childhood, but the extent to which these genetic influences overlap with those on intelligence is unclear. We examined genetic and environmental overlap between EFs and intelligence in a racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of 811 twins ages 7-15 years (M = 10.91, SD = 1.74) from the Texas Twin Project. A general EF factor representing variance common to inhibition, switching, working memory, and updating domains accounted for substantial proportions of variance in intelligence, primarily via a genetic pathway. General EF continued to have a strong, genetically-mediated association with intelligence even after controlling for processing speed. Residual variation in general intelligence was influenced only by shared and nonshared environmental factors, and there remained no genetic variance in general intelligence that was unique of EF. Genetic variance independent of EF did remain, however, in a more specific perceptual reasoning ability. These results provide evidence that genetic influences on general intelligence are highly overlapping with those on EF. PMID:27359131

  8. Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-10-01

    We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.

  9. Strong semiclassical approximation of Wigner functions for the Hartree dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Athanassoulis, Agissilaos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the Wigner equation corresponding to a nonlinear Schrödinger evolution of the Hartree type in the semiclassical limit h → 0. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial data and the interaction potential, we show that the Wigner function is close in L 2 to its weak limit, the solution of the corresponding Vlasov equation. The strong approximation allows the construction of semiclassical operator-valued observables, approximating their quantum counterparts in Hilbert-Schmidt topology. The proof makes use of a pointwise-positivity manipulation, which seems necessary in working with the L 2 norm and the precise form of the nonlinearity. We employ the Husimi function as a pivot between the classical probability density and the Wigner function, which - as it is well known - is not pointwise positive in general.

  10. Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2017-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.

  11. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  12. Strongly increasing solutions of cyclic systems of second order differential equations with power-type nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jaroš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider \\(n\\-dimensional cyclic systems of second order differential equations \\[(p_i(t|x_{i}'|^{\\alpha_i -1}x_{i}'' = q_{i}(t|x_{i+1}|^{\\beta_i-1}x_{i+1},\\] \\[\\quad i = 1,\\ldots,n, \\quad (x_{n+1} = x_1 \\tag{\\(\\ast\\}\\] under the assumption that the positive constants \\(\\alpha_i\\ and \\(\\beta_i\\ satisfy \\(\\alpha_1{\\ldots}\\alpha_n \\gt \\beta_1{\\ldots}\\beta_n\\ and \\(p_i(t\\ and \\(q_i(t\\ are regularly varying functions, and analyze positive strongly increasing solutions of system (\\(\\ast\\ in the framework of regular variation. We show that the situation for the existence of regularly varying solutions of positive indices for (\\(\\ast\\ can be characterized completely, and moreover that the asymptotic behavior of such solutions is governed by the unique formula describing their order of growth precisely. We give examples demonstrating that the main results for (\\(\\ast\\ can be applied to some classes of partial differential equations with radial symmetry to acquire accurate information about the existence and the asymptotic behavior of their radial positive strongly increasing solutions.

  13. QCD Green's Functions and Phases of Strongly-Interacting Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer B.J.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting a brief summary of functional approaches to QCD at vanishing temperatures and densities the application of QCD Green's functions at non-vanishing temperature and vanishing density is discussed. It is pointed out in which way the infrared behavior of the gluon propagator reflects the (de-confinement transition. Numerical results for the quark propagator are given thereby verifying the relation between (de--confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (restoration. Last but not least some results of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the color-superconducting phase at large densities are shown.

  14. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Experimental evidence for strong stabilizing forces at high functional diversity of aquatic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Francesco; Giometto, Andrea; Seymour, Mathew; Rinaldo, Andrea; Altermatt, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Unveiling the mechanisms that promote coexistence in biological communities is a fundamental problem in ecology. Stable coexistence of many species is commonly observed in natural communities. Most of these natural communities, however, are composed of species from multiple trophic and functional groups, while theory and experiments on coexistence have been focusing on functionally similar species. Here, we investigated how functional diversity affects the stability of species coexistence and productivity in multispecies communities by characterizing experimentally all pairwise species interactions in a pool of 11 species of eukaryotes (10 protists and one rotifer) belonging to three different functional groups. Species within the same functional group showed stronger competitive interactions compared to among-functional group interactions. This often led to competitive exclusion between species that had higher functional relatedness, but only at low levels of species richness. Communities with higher functional diversity resulted in increased species coexistence and community biomass production. Our experimental findings and the results of a stochastic model tailored to the experimental interaction matrix suggest the emergence of strong stabilizing forces when species from different functional groups interact in a homogeneous environment. By combining theoretical analysis with experiments we could also disentangle the relationship between species richness and functional diversity, showing that functional diversity per se is a crucial driver of productivity and stability in multispecies community.

  17. Functional Analysis of Chromosome 18 in Pancreatic Cancer: Strong Evidence for New Tumour Suppressor Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu P. Lefter

    2004-04-01

    Conclusion: These data represent strong functional evidence that chromosome 18q encodes strong tumour and metastasis suppressor activity that is able to switch human pancreatic cancer cells to a dormant phenotype.

  18. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  19. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  20. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  1. Eat Smart, Live Strong intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James C; Cates, Sheryl C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Kosa, Katherine M; Santiago Rivera, Olga J; Contreras, Dawn A; Long, Valerie A; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a four-session interactive nutrition education program-Eat Smart, Live Strong (ESLS)-on the consumption of fruit and vegetables by low-income older adults. A pre-post quasi-experimental design study was conducted with a longitudinal sample of 614 low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants and those eligible for SNAP, aged 60 to 80 years, in 17 intervention and 16 comparison senior centers in Michigan. The study compared participants' self-reports of their consumption of fruit and vegetables using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist. ESLS increased participants' average daily consumption of fruit by 0.2 cups (P income older adults eat more fruit and vegetables.

  2. Stability of excess demand functions with respect to a strong version of Wald's axiom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, P.T.; Binh, V.T.T.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a strong version of Wald's Axiom of excess demand functions Z : P is part of R >0 n → R n is introduced, namely 'there exists σ > 0 such that p,q is part of P,q T Z(p) - δ ≥ 0, vertical bar δ vertical bar T Z(p) + δ > 0''. We show that Z satisfies the strong version of Wald's Axiom iff -Z is a s-quasimonotone function. Consequently, an excess demand function Z satisfies the strong version of Wald's Axiom iff -Z is stable with respect to the pseudomonotonicity (i.e., there exists ε > 0 such that -Z + a fulfills the pseudomonotonicity for all a is part of R n satisfying parallel a parallel < ε). Some properties on the measure of the strong version of Wald's Axiom of excess demand functions are presented. (author)

  3. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains’ electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  4. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer; Alsop, Richard J; Schmalzl, Karin; Epand, Richard M; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-09-29

    NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains' electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  5. An exponentially increasing spectral form factor K(τ) for a class of strongly chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Sieber, M.

    1992-11-01

    The spectral form factor K(τ) plays a crucial role in the understanding of the statistical properties of quantal energy spectra of strongly chaotic systems in terms of periodic orbits. It allows the computation of those statistics that are bilinear in the spectral density d(E) like the spectral rigidity Δ 3 (L) and the number variance Σ 2 (L). Since Berry's work on the spectral rigidity in terms of periodic orbits, it is generally assumed that the periodic-orbit expression for the spectral form factor universally obeys KCτ) = 1 for τ ≥ 1. Here we show that for a wide class of strongly chaotic systems, including all billiards with Neumann boundary conditions, the semiclassical spectral form factor K(τ) behaves asymptotically as K(τ ∝ e et where c > 0 depends only on the energy E at which the static is considered. (orig.)

  6. Density functional theory for strongly-interacting electrons: Perspectives for Physics and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori Giorgi, P.; Seidl, M.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the accuracy and thus broadening the applicability of electronic density functional theory (DFT) is crucial to many research areas, from material science, to theoretical chemistry, biophysics and biochemistry. In the last three years, the mathematical structure of the strong-interaction

  7. The focal boundary value problem for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Půža, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, January (2015), s. 17 ISSN 1687-2770 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order nonlinear functional-differential equations * two-point right-focal boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.642, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13661-014-0277-1

  8. The nonlocal boundary value problems for strongly singular higher-order nonlinear functional-differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

    -, č. 35 (2015), s. 23-50 ISSN 1126-8042 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : higher order functional differential equations * Dirichlet boundary value problem * strong singularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ijpam.uniud.it/online_issue/201535/03-Mukhigulashvili.pdf

  9. A pure shift experiment with increased sensitivity and superior performance for strongly coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Julian; Kaltschnee, Lukas; Thiele, Christina M.

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the persisting need for enhanced resolution in solution state NMR spectra, pure shift techniques such as Zangger-Sterk decoupling have recently attracted widespread interest. These techniques for homonuclear decoupling offer enhanced resolution in one- and multidimensional proton detected experiments by simplifying multiplet structures. In this work, a modification to the popular Zangger-Sterk technique PEPSIE (Perfect Echo Pure Shift Improved Experiment) is presented, which decouples pairs of spins even if they share the same volume element. This in turn can drastically improve the sensitivity, as compared to classical Zangger-Sterk decoupling, as larger volume elements can be used to collect the detected signal. Most interestingly, even in the presence of moderate strong coupling, the PEPSIE experiment produces clean and widely artifact free spectra. In order to better understand this - to us initially - surprising behaviour we performed analyses using numerical simulations and derived an (approximate) analytical solution from density matrix formalism. We show that this experiment is particularly suitable to study samples with strong signal clustering, a situation which can render classic Zangger-Sterk decoupling inefficient.

  10. <strong>Self-consistent many-body perturbation theory in range-separated density-functional theorystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromager, Emmanuel; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard

    2008-01-01

    In many cases, density-functional theory (DFT) with current standard approximate functionals offers a relatively accurate and computationally cheap description of the short-range dynamic electron correlation effects. However, in general, standard DFT does not treat the dispersion interaction......-consistency problem" and provide computable orbital-based expressions for any order of perturbation, a general one-electron reduced-density-matrix-based formalism is proposed. Two applications of our general formalism are presented: The derivation of a hybrid second-order Møller-Plesset-DFT model and the formulation...

  11. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-01

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  12. Density functional theory and dynamical mean-field theory. A way to model strongly correlated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backes, Steffen

    2017-04-15

    The study of the electronic properties of correlated systems is a very diverse field and has lead to valuable insight into the physics of real materials. In these systems, the decisive factor that governs the physical properties is the ratio between the electronic kinetic energy, which promotes delocalization over the lattice, and the Coulomb interaction, which instead favours localized electronic states. Due to this competition, correlated electronic systems can show unique and interesting properties like the Metal-Insulator transition, diverse phase diagrams, strong temperature dependence and in general a high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. A theoretical description of these systems is not an easy task, since perturbative approaches that do not preserve the competition between the kinetic and interaction terms can only be applied in special limiting cases. One of the most famous approaches to obtain the electronic properties of a real material is the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method. It allows one to obtain the ground state density of the system under investigation by mapping onto an effective non-interacting system that has to be found self-consistently. While being an exact theory, in practical implementations certain approximations have to be made to the exchange-correlation potential. The local density approximation (LDA), which approximates the exchange-correlation contribution to the total energy by that of a homogeneous electron gas with the corresponding density, has proven quite successful in many cases. Though, this approximation in general leads to an underestimation of electronic correlations and is not able to describe a metal-insulator transition due to electronic localization in the presence of strong Coulomb interaction. A different approach to the interacting electronic problem is the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), which is non-perturbative in the kinetic and interaction term but neglects all non

  13. Fermionic Statistics in the Strongly Correlated Limit of Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Exact pieces of information on the adiabatic connection integrand, Wλ[ρ], which allows evaluation of the exchange-correlation energy of Kohn–Sham density functional theory, can be extracted from the leading terms in the strong coupling limit (λ → ∞, where λ is the strength of the electron–electron interaction). In this work, we first compare the theoretical prediction for the two leading terms in the strong coupling limit with data obtained via numerical implementation of the exact Levy functional in the simple case of two electrons confined in one dimension, confirming the asymptotic exactness of these two terms. We then carry out a first study on the incorporation of the Fermionic statistics at large coupling λ, both numerical and theoretical, confirming that spin effects enter at orders ∼e–√λ. PMID:29111724

  14. Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijlman, F T A; Rigter, S M; Hoek, J; Goldschmidt, H M J; Niesink, R J M

    2005-06-01

    The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons. Samples of cannabis preparations from randomly selected coffee shops were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC-FID) for THC, CBD and CBN. In 2004, the average THC level of Dutch home-grown marijuana (Nederwiet) (20.4% THC) was significantly higher than that of imported marijuana (7.0% THC). Hashish derived from Dutch marijuana (Nederhasj) contained 39.3% THC in 2004, compared with 18.2% THC in imported hashish. The average THC percentage of Dutch marijuana, Dutch hashish and imported hashish was significantly higher than in previous years. It nearly doubled over 5 years. During this period, the THC percentage in imported marijuana remained unchanged. A higher price had to be paid for cannabis with higher levels of THC. Whether the increase in THC levels causes increased health risks for users can only be concluded when more data are available on adjusted patterns of use, abuse liability, bioavailability and levels of THC in the brain.

  15. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory: A New Way To Treat Strongly Correlated Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G; Li Manni, Giovanni; Carlson, Rebecca K; Hoyer, Chad E; Bao, Junwei Lucas

    2017-01-17

    The electronic energy of a system provides the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy for internuclear motion and thus determines molecular structure and spectra, bond energies, conformational energies, reaction barrier heights, and vibrational frequencies. The development of more efficient and more accurate ways to calculate the electronic energy of systems with inherently multiconfigurational electronic structure is essential for many applications, including transition metal and actinide chemistry, systems with partially broken bonds, many transition states, and most electronically excited states. Inherently multiconfigurational systems are called strongly correlated systems or multireference systems, where the latter name refers to the need for using more than one ("multiple") configuration state function to provide a good zero-order reference wave function. This Account describes multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which was developed as a way to combine the advantages of wave function theory (WFT) and density functional theory (DFT) to provide a better treatment of strongly correlated systems. First we review background material: the widely used Kohn-Sham DFT (which uses only a single Slater determinant as reference wave function), multiconfiguration WFT methods that treat inherently multiconfigurational systems based on an active space, and previous attempts to combine multiconfiguration WFT with DFT. Then we review the formulation of MC-PDFT. It is a generalization of Kohn-Sham DFT in that the electron kinetic energy and classical electrostatic energy are calculated from a reference wave function, while the rest of the energy is obtained from a density functional. However, there are two main differences with respent to Kohn-Sham DFT: (i) The reference wave function is multiconfigurational rather than being a single Slater determinant. (ii) The density functional is a function of the total density and the on-top pair density rather than

  16. Increased rate of acceleration on Pine Island Glacier strongly coupled to changes in gravitational driving stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. T. Scott

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, has been undergoing several related changes for at least two decades; these include acceleration, thinning and grounding line retreat. During the first major ground-based study between 2006 and 2008, GPS receivers were used to monitor ice flow from 55 km to 171 km inland, along the central flowline. At four sites both acceleration and thinning rates over the last two years exceeded rates observed at any other time over the last two decades. At the downstream site acceleration was 6.4% over 2007 and thinning was 3.5±0.5 ma−1. Acceleration and thinning have spread rapidly inland with the acceleration 171 km inland at 4.1% over 2007, greater than any measured annual flow increase along the whole glacier prior to 2006. Increases in surface slope, and hence gravitational driving stress, correlate well with the acceleration and no sustained change in longitudinal stress gradient is needed to explain the force balance. There is no indication that the glacier is approaching a new steady state.

  17. Norwegian concern over strongly increased Russian oil transport along the Norwegian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The transport of oil from the northern parts of Russia along the coast of Norway will multiply in a few years. An analysis has shown that the risk of a shipwreck followed by pollution will then increase dramatically. The coastal population of North Norway has begun to demand that measures be taken, and they are backed by the military authorities, who say the preparedness must be considerably improved. Massive oil spills are not the only danger. Spills of ballast water from ships have introduced foreign species that disrupts the local eco systems. A number of bilateral agreements exist between Norway and Russia on prevention and notification of accidents, cooperative rescue work and environmental work. These agreements do not fully satisfy the need for notification and warning, however

  18. Circulating Betatrophin Is Strongly Increased in Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Kosi Trebotic

    Full Text Available Betatrophin has recently been introduced as a novel hormone and promotor of beta cell proliferation and improved glucose tolerance in mouse models of insulin resistance. In obese and diabetic humans altered levels were reported and a role in pathophysiology of metabolic diseases was therefore hypothesized. However its release and regulation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, as well as its associations with markers of obesity, glucose and lipid metabolism during pregnancy still remain unclear.Circulating betatrophin was quantified in 21 women with GDM and 19 pregnant body mass index-matched women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT as well as 10 healthy age-matched non-pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally we performed radioimmunassay (RIA to confirm the results.Betatrophin concentrations measured by ELISA were significantly higher in GDM than in NGT (29.3±4.4 ng/ml vs. 18.1±8.7 ng/ml, p<0.001 which was confirmed by RIA. Betatrophin did not correlate with BMI or insulin resistance but showed a weak association with leptin levels in pregnancy and negative relationship with fasting C-peptide levels in all women. Moreover it correlated significantly with lipid parameters including triglycerides and total cholesterol in pregnancy, as well as estrogen, progesteron and birth weight.Circulating betatrophin concentrations are dramatically increased in pregnancy and are significantly higher in GDM versus pregnant NGT. In the light of the previously reported role in lipid metabolism, betatrophin may represent a novel endocrine regulator of lipid alterations in pregnancy. However additional studies are needed to elucidate whether hormonal factors, such as estrogen, control the production of betatrophin and if targeting betatrophin could hold promise in the fight against metabolic disease.

  19. Strong crustal seismic anisotropy in the Kalahari Craton based on Receiver Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Hans; Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Artemieva, Irina

    2015-01-01

    anisotropy in the crust of the Kalahari craton, which is 30-40% of the total anisotropy as measured by SKS splitting. Our analysis is based on calculation of receiver functions for the data from the SASE experiment which shows strong splitting between the SV and SH components. The direction of the fast axes...... is uniform within tectonic units and parallel to orogenic strike in the Limpopo and Cape fold belts. It is further parallel to the strike of major dyke swarms which indicates that a large part of the observed anisotropy is controlled by lithosphere fabrics and macroscopic effects. The directions of the fast...... axes for the crustal anisotropy are parallel to the general directions determined from SKS splitting, although the directions from our analysis of receiver functions is more homogeneous than for SKS splitting. This analysis indicates parallel fast axes in the crust and in the mantle, which suggests...

  20. Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Zavala, Miguel A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Lloret, Francisco; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Wirth, Christian; Greenwood, Sarah; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kattge, Jens; Dahlgren, Jonas; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21st century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types. We quantified changes in functional composition from the 1980s to the 2000s across Europe by two dimensions of functional trait variation: the first dimension was mainly related to changes in leaf mass per area and wood density (partially related to the trait differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms), and the second dimension was related to changes in maximum tree height. Our results indicate that climate change and mean climatic effects strongly interacted with forest development and it was not possible to completely disentangle their effects. Where recent climate change was not too extreme, the patterns of functional change generally followed the expected patterns under secondary succession (e.g. towards late-successional short-statured hardwoods in Mediterranean forests and taller gymnosperms in boreal forests) and latitudinal gradients (e.g. larger proportion of gymnosperm-like strategies at low water availability in forests formerly dominated by broad-leaved deciduous species). Recent climate change generally favoured the dominance of angiosperm-like related traits under increased temperature and intense droughts. Our results show functional composition changes over relatively short time scales in European forests. These changes are largely determined by tree mortality, which should be further

  1. Hydroxytyrosol increases norepinephrine transporter function in pheochromocytoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzon-Toro, Berta [Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine ' Lopez-Neyra' , Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 18100 Granada (Spain); Geerlings, Arjan [Puleva Biotech, 18004 Granada (Spain); Hilfiker, Sabine [Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine ' Lopez-Neyra' , Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 18100 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: sabine.hilfiker@ipb.csic.es

    2008-10-15

    Introduction: The norepinephrine transporter is responsible for the intracellular uptake of {sup 131}I- iodometaiodobenzylguanidine ({sup 131}I-MIBG), which is used for the diagnostic localization and treatment of pheochromocytomas as well as other tumors such as neuroblastomas and carcinoids. This agent is variably delivered into tumor cells by the norepinephrine transporter, but few studies have shown treatments that work to increase norepinephrine transporter activity. The objective of the present study was to test the possible beneficial effects of hydroxytyrosol in enhancing norepinephrine transporter function, which may have implications for its combined use with {sup 131}I-MIBG in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas. Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were labeled with [{sup 3}H]-norepinephrine in the presence or absence of different concentrations of hydroxytyrosol, a naturally occurring compound with strong antioxidant properties, followed by measurements of uptake and release of radiolabeled norepinephrine. Results: Hydroxytyrosol pronouncedly increased norepinephrine transporter activity, with the rapid onset excluding effects on norepinephrine transporter expression levels. Concomitant with increased norepinephrine transporter activity, hydroxytyrosol caused a decrease of both spontaneous and evoked norepinephrine release, indicating that it affects pre-existing plasma membrane-associated norepinephrine transporter, rather than the incorporation of novel norepinephrine transporter molecules into the plasma membrane. Conclusion: Hydroxytyrosol potently enhances norepinephrine transporter activity in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, suggesting that combinatorial therapy employing hydroxytyrosol may improve the effectiveness of {sup 131}I-MIBG as a diagnosis and treatment modality.

  2. On the evolution of the density probability density function in strongly self-gravitating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girichidis, Philipp; Konstandin, Lukas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Whitworth, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of the probability density function (PDF) of the mass density is formulated and solved for systems in free-fall using a simple approximate function for the collapse of a sphere. We demonstrate that a pressure-free collapse results in a power-law tail on the high-density side of the PDF. The slope quickly asymptotes to the functional form P V (ρ)∝ρ –1.54 for the (volume-weighted) PDF and P M (ρ)∝ρ –0.54 for the corresponding mass-weighted distribution. From the simple approximation of the PDF we derive analytic descriptions for mass accretion, finding that dynamically quiet systems with narrow density PDFs lead to retarded star formation and low star formation rates (SFRs). Conversely, strong turbulent motions that broaden the PDF accelerate the collapse causing a bursting mode of star formation. Finally, we compare our theoretical work with observations. The measured SFRs are consistent with our model during the early phases of the collapse. Comparison of observed column density PDFs with those derived from our model suggests that observed star-forming cores are roughly in free-fall.

  3. On function classes related pertaining to strong approximation of double Fourier series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baituyakova, Zhuldyz

    2015-09-01

    The investigation of embedding of function classes began a long time ago. After Alexits [1], Leindler [2], and Gogoladze[3] investigated estimates of strong approximation by Fourier series in 1965, G. Freud[4] raised the corresponding saturation problem in 1969. The list of the authors dealing with embedding problems partly is also very long. It suffices to mention some names: V. G. Krotov, W. Lenski, S. M. Mazhar, J. Nemeth, E. M. Nikisin, K. I. Oskolkov, G. Sunouchi, J. Szabados, R. Taberski and V. Totik. Study on this topic has since been carried on over a decade, but it seems that most of the results obtained are limited to the case of one dimension. In this paper, embedding results are considered which arise in the strong approximation by double Fourier series. We prove theorem on the interrelation between the classes Wr1,r2HS,M ω and H(λ, p, r1, r2, ω(δ1, δ2)), in the one-dimensional case proved by L. Leindler.

  4. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  5. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  6. Increasing competitiveness with intercompany integration of logistics and marketing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers of different scientific disciplines, such as management strategies, organizational theories and marketing, have in the past explored relations of mutual influences and the importance of cooperation between different functions in a company. The increased focus on the logistics function has potential to increase competitiveness. This is especially true for globally aimed production companies. In any company, logistics functions cooperate with various related functions such as production, marketing, procurement, engineering or developing new products as well as with financial functions. Each of the aforementioned connections or cooperation among logistics and its complementary functions can have a decisive effect on the company's competitiveness. Using a survey, we determined which activities in the surveyed companies are performed by the logistical function together with the marketing function and which activities they suggest should be performed together but are currently not, meaning they are co-dependent. Since interfunctional integration between logistics and marketing increases the success of a company, we also examined the connection between the current joint performance of activities and the suggested joint performance of activities among the before mentioned sectors, connected to the effectiveness of the company. To examine the mentioned connections among the logistical and marketing functions, Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM were performed.

  7. Increasing competitiveness with intercompany integration of logistics and marketing functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research of different scientific disciplines, such as management strategies, organizational theories and marketing, has in the past explored relations of mutual influences and the importance of cooperation of different functions in a company. The increased focus towards the logistics function has potential to increase competitiveness. This is especially true for globally focused production companies. In any company, logistics functions cooperate with various related functions such as production, marketing, procurement, engineering or developing new products as well as with financial functions. Each of the aforementioned connections or cooperation among logistics and its complemen-tary functions can have a decisive effect on the company's competitiveness. Using a survey, we determined which activities in the surveyed companies are performed by the logistical function together with the marketing function and which activities they suggest should be per-formed together but are currently not, meaning they are co-dependent. Since interfunctional integration between logistics and marketing increases the success of a company, we also examined the connection of the current joint performance of activities and the suggested joint performance of activities among the before mentioned sectors, connected to the success of the company. To examine these connections among the logistical and marketing functions, Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM were performed.

  8. Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

    1996-04-11

    We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

  9. Comparative studies of density-functional approximations for light atoms in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Zhang, Liang; Trickey, S. B.

    2014-08-01

    For a wide range of magnetic fields, 0≤B≤2000 a.u., we present a systematic comparative study of the performance of different types of density-functional approximations in light atoms (2≤Z≤6). Local, generalized-gradient approximation (GGA; semilocal), and meta-GGA ground-state exchange-correlation (xc) functionals are compared on an equal footing with exact-exchange, Hartree-Fock (HF), and current-density-functional-theory (CDFT) approximations. Comparison also is made with published quantum Monte Carlo data. Though all approximations give qualitatively reasonable results, the exchange energies from local and GGA functionals are too negative for large B. Results from the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof ground-state GGA and Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) ground-state meta-GGA functionals are very close. Because of confinement, self-interaction error in such functionals is more severe at large B than at B =0, hence self-interaction correction is crucial. Exact exchange combined with the TPSS correlation functional results in a self-interaction-free (xc) functional, from which we obtain atomic energies of comparable accuracy to those from correlated wave-function methods. Specifically for the B and C atoms, we provide beyond-HF energies in a wide range of B fields. Fully self-consistent CDFT calculations were done with the Vignale-Rasolt-Geldart (VRG) functional in conjunction with the PW92 xc functional. Current effects turn out to be small, and the vorticity variable in the VRG functional diverges in some low-density regions. This part of the study suggests that nonlocal, self-interaction-free functionals may be better than local approximations as a starting point for CDFT functional construction and that some basic variable other than the vorticity could be helpful in making CDFT calculations practical.

  10. Music reduces pain and increases functional mobility in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Wilson, Andrew D; Vase, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The pain in Fibromyalgia (FM) is difficult to treat and functional mobility seems to be an important comorbidity in these patients that could evolve into a disability. In this study we wanted to investigate the analgesic effects of music in FM pain. Twenty-two FM patients were passively exposed...... to (1) self-chosen, relaxing, pleasant music, and to (2) a control auditory condition (pink noise). They rated pain and performed the “timed-up & go task (TUG)” to measure functional mobility after each auditory condition. Listening to relaxing, pleasant, self-chosen music reduced pain and increased...... functional mobility significantly in our FM patients. The music-induced analgesia was significantly correlated with the TUG scores; thereby suggesting that the reduction in pain unpleasantness increased functional mobility. Notably, this mobility improvement was obtained with music played prior to the motor...

  11. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  12. Thermal spectral functions of strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Pavel; Starinets, Andrei

    2006-04-07

    We use the gauge-gravity duality conjecture to compute spectral functions of the stress-energy tensor in finite-temperature N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the limit of large N(c) and large 't Hooft coupling. The spectral functions exhibit peaks characteristic of hydrodynamic modes at small frequency, and oscillations at intermediate frequency. The nonperturbative spectral functions differ qualitatively from those obtained in perturbation theory. The results may prove useful for lattice studies of transport processes in thermal gauge theories.

  13. Combination of 24-Hour and 7-Day Relative Neurological Improvement Strongly Predicts 90-Day Functional Outcome of Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jie; Wang, Huaiming; Tu, Mingyi; Zi, Wenjie; Hao, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Liu, Wenhua; Wan, Yue; Geng, Yu; Lin, Min; Jin, Ping; Xiong, Yunyun; Xu, Gelin; Yin, Qin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-01-03

    Early judgment of long-term prognosis is the key to making medical decisions in acute anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) after endovascular treatment (EVT). We aimed to investigate the relationship between the combination of 24-hour and 7-day relative neurological improvement (RNI) and 90-day functional outcome. We selected the target population from a multicenter ischemic stroke registry. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at baseline, 24 hours, and 7 days were collected. RNI was calculated by the following equation: (baseline NIHSS - 24-hour/7-day NIHSS)/baseline NIHSS × 100%. A modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days was defined as a favorable outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RNI and 90-day outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the predictive power and cutoff point of RNI for functional outcome. A total of 568 patients were enrolled. Both 24-hour and 7-day RNI were independent predictors of 90-day outcome. The best cutoff points of 24-hour and 7-day RNI were 28% and 42%, respectively. Compared with those with 24-hour RNI of less than 28% and 7-day RNI of less than 42%, patients with 24-hour RNI of 28% or greater and 7-day RNI of 42% or greater had a 39.595-fold (95% confidence interval 22.388-70.026) increased probability of achieving 90-day favorable outcome. The combination of 24-hour and 7-day RNI very strongly predicts 90-day functional outcome in patients with acute anterior circulation LVOS who received EVT, and it can be used as an early accurate surrogate of long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional diversity increases ecological stability in a grazed grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Lauren M; Stein, Claudia; Suding, Katharine N

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the factors governing ecological stability in variable environments is a central focus of ecology. Functional diversity can stabilize ecosystem function over time if one group of species compensates for an environmentally driven decline in another. Although intuitively appealing, evidence for this pattern is mixed. We hypothesized that diverse functional responses to rainfall will increase the stability of vegetation cover and biomass across rainfall conditions, but that this effect depends on land-use legacies that maintain functional diversity. We experimentally manipulated grazing in a California grassland to create land-use legacies of low and moderate grazing, across which we implemented rainout shelters and irrigation to create dry and wet conditions over 3 years. We found that the stability of the vegetation cover was greatly elevated and the stability of the biomass was slightly elevated across rainfall conditions in areas with histories of moderate grazing. Initial functional diversity-both in the seed bank and aboveground-was also greater in areas that had been moderately grazed. Rainfall conditions in conjunction with this grazing legacy led to different functional diversity patterns over time. Wet conditions led to rapid declines in functional diversity and a convergence on resource-acquisitive traits. In contrast, consecutively dry conditions maintained but did not increase functional diversity over time. As a result, grazing practices and environmental conditions that decrease functional diversity may be associated with lasting effects on the response of ecosystem functions to drought. Our results demonstrate that theorized relationships between diversity and stability are applicable and important in the context of working grazed landscapes.

  15. Single particle Green's functions calculation of the electrical conductivity of strong correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    A calculation of the electrical conductivity for Hubbard materials is presented which is valid when U/t >> 1 (U being the Coulomb repulsion and t the nearest neighbor hopping energy) for arbitrary electron concentration and temperature. The derivation emploies the single particle Green's functions with real and imaginary times instead of the usual two-particle real time Green's function. The result is compared with the experimental data available for some organic charge transfer salts [pt

  16. On the Worst-Case Complexity of the Gradient Method with Exact Line Search for Smooth Strongly Convex Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  17. On the worst-case complexity of the gradient method with exact line search for smooth strongly convex functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, Francois; Taylor, Adrien

    2017-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex

  18. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Dalton, Benjamin A; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  19. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. I. Sinusoidally driven shear and sinusoidally driven inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskiy, Kirill S.; Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Todd, B. D.

    2015-06-01

    We present theoretical expressions for the density, strain rate, and shear pressure profiles in strongly inhomogeneous fluids undergoing steady shear flow with periodic boundary conditions. The expressions that we obtain take the form of truncated functional expansions. In these functional expansions, the independent variables are the spatially sinusoidal longitudinal and transverse forces that we apply in nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations. The longitudinal force produces strong density inhomogeneity, and the transverse force produces sinusoidal shear. The functional expansions define new material properties, the response functions, which characterize the system's nonlocal response to the longitudinal force and the transverse force. We find that the sinusoidal longitudinal force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of density inhomogeneity, also modulates the strain rate and shear pressure profiles. Likewise, we find that the sinusoidal transverse force, which is mainly responsible for the generation of sinusoidal shear flow, can also modify the density. These cross couplings between density inhomogeneity and shear flow are also characterized by nonlocal response functions. We conduct nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations to calculate all of the response functions needed to describe the response of the system for weak shear flow in the presence of strong density inhomogeneity up to the third order in the functional expansion. The response functions are then substituted directly into the truncated functional expansions and used to predict the density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles. The results are compared to the directly evaluated profiles from molecular-dynamics simulations, and we find that the predicted profiles from the truncated functional expansions are in excellent agreement with the directly computed density, velocity, and shear pressure profiles.

  20. Allocating structure to function: the strong links between neuroplasticity and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A central question in brain evolution is how species-typical behaviors, and the neural function-structure mappings supporting them, can be acquired and inherited. Advocates of brain modularity, in its different incarnations across scientific subfields, argue that natural selection must target domain-dedicated, separately modifiable neural subsystems, resulting in genetically-specified functional modules. In such modular systems, specification of neuron number and functional connectivity are necessarily linked. Mounting evidence, however, from allometric, developmental, comparative, systems-physiological, neuroimaging and neurological studies suggests that brain elements are used and reused in multiple functional systems. This variable allocation can be seen in short-term neuromodulation, in neuroplasticity over the lifespan and in response to damage. We argue that the same processes are evident in brain evolution. Natural selection must preserve behavioral functions that may co-locate in variable amounts with other functions. In genetics, the uses and problems of pleiotropy, the re-use of genes in multiple networks have been much discussed, but this issue has been sidestepped in neural systems by the invocation of modules. Here we highlight the interaction between evolutionary and developmental mechanisms to produce distributed and overlapping functional architectures in the brain. These adaptive mechanisms must be robust to perturbations that might disrupt critical information processing and action selection, but must also recognize useful new sources of information arising from internal genetic or environmental variability, when those appear. These contrasting properties of robustness and evolvability have been discussed for the basic organization of body plan and fundamental cell physiology. Here we extend them to the evolution and development, evo-devo, of brain structure.

  1. Renormalization group functions of the φ4 theory in the strong coupling limit: Analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous attempts of reconstructing the Gell-Mann-Low function β(g) of the φ 4 theory by summing perturbation series give the asymptotic behavior β(g) = β ∞ g in the limit g → ∞, where α = 1 for the space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. It can be hypothesized that the asymptotic behavior is β(g) ∼ g for all d values. The consideration of the zero-dimensional case supports this hypothesis and reveals the mechanism of its appearance: it is associated with vanishing of one of the functional integrals. The generalization of the analysis confirms the asymptotic behavior β(g) ∼ g in the general d-dimensional case. The asymptotic behaviors of other renormalization group functions are constant. The connection with the zero-charge problem and triviality of the φ 4 theory is discussed

  2. Hybrid exchange-correlation energy functionals for strongly correlated electrons. Applications to transition-metal monoxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tran, F.; Blaha, P.; Schwarz, K.; Novák, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 15 (2006), 155108/1-155108/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010214 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00293 - SCOOTMO Grant - others:Austrian Science Fondation(AT) AURORA project SFB011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : density functional theory * hybrid functional * transition metal monoxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  3. Increasing fisheries management options with a flexible cost function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Horwood, J.

    1998-01-01

    of fishing effort towards the agreed long-term target, a decrease in short-term yields, and an increase in long-term yields. When the weight attached to (iii) is non-zero, the optimization of the cost function provides a non-oscillatory, convergent, and near-linear control. When the weight attached to (iii......This study proposes a dynamic control of fisheries by fishing effort, calculated so as to optimize a novel cost function, over a long period of management, based upon an example of the exploitation of the Celtic Sea cod. This cost function is a flexible weighed compromise between: (i) minimizing...... the variability in fishing effort; (ii) minimizing the variability in yields; (iii) achieving an agreed fishing effort target; and (iv) achieving an agreed yield target. Increasing the weight on the criteria (ii) and (iii), and decreasing the weight on the criteria (i) and (iv), results in a more rapid movement...

  4. Increase in stability of cellulase immobilized on functionalized magnetic nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Qiu, Jianhui; Feng, Huixia; Zang, Limin; Sakai, Eiichi

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized magnetic nanospheres were prepared by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with three different amino-silanes: 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-triethoxysilane (AEAPTES), 3-(2-aminoethylamino propyl)-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMES) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Then three functionalized magnetic nanospheres were used as supports for immobilization of cellulase. The three functionalized magnetic nanospheres with core–shell morphologies exhibited higher capacity for cellulase immobilization than unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres. The increasing of surface charge of functionalized magnetic nanospheres leads to an enhancement of the capacity of cellulase immobilization. Particularly, AEAPTMES with methoxy groups was favored to be hydrolyzed and grafted on unfunctionalized magnetic nanospheres than the others. AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres with the highest zeta potential (29 mV) exhibited 87% activity recovery and the maximum amount of immobilized cellulase was 112 mg/g support at concentration of initial cellulase of 8 mg/mL. Immobilized cellulase on AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than other immobilized cellulases and free cellulase. In particular, it can be used in about 40 °C, demonstrating the potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase. - Highlights: • Three Amino-silane modified magnetic nanospheres were prepared. • Cellulase immobilized AEAPTMES functionalized magnetic nanospheres had higher temperature stability and broader pH stability than free cellulase. • The potential of biofuel production using this immobilized cellulase

  5. Impulse oscillometry at preschool age is a strong predictor of lung function by flow-volume spirometry in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauhkonen, Eero; Riikonen, Riikka; Törmänen, Sari; Koponen, Petri; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Helminen, Merja; Toikka, Jyri; Korppi, Matti

    2018-05-01

    The transition from early childhood wheezing to persistent asthma is linked to lung function impairment over time. Little is known how the methods used to study lung function at different ages correlate longitudinally. Sixty-four children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis before 6 months of age were prospectively studied with impulse oscillometry (IOS) at the mean age of 6.3 years and these preschool IOS results were compared with flow-volume spirometry (FVS) measurements at mean age of 11.4 years. The baseline respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5) showed a modest statistically significant correlation with all baseline FVS parameters except FVC. The post-bronchodilator (post-BD) Rrs5 showed a modest statistically significant correlation with post-BD FEV 1 and FEV 1 /FVC. The bronchodilator-induced decrease in Rrs5 showed a modest statistically significant correlation with the percent increase in FEV 1 . Baseline and post-BD respiratory reactance at 5 Hz (Xrs5) showed a modest statistically significant correlation with baseline and post-BD FVS parameters except post-BD FEV 1 /FVC, respectively, and post-BD Xrs5 showed a strong correlation with post-BD FVC (ρ = 0.61) and post-BD FEV 1 (ρ = 0.59). In adjusted linear regression, preschool Xrs5 remained as a statistically significant independent predictor of FVS parameters in adolescence; the one-unit decrease in the Z-score of preschool post-BD Xrs5 predicted 9.6% lower post-BD FEV 1 , 9.3% lower post-BD FVC, and 9.7% lower post-BD MEF 50 when expressed as %-predicted parameters. Persistent post-BD small airway impairment in children with a history of bronchiolitis detected with IOS at preschool age predicted FVS results measured in early adolescence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The hTAF II 68-TEC fusion protein functions as a strong transcriptional activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sol; Lee, Hye Jin; Jun, Hee Jung; Kim, Jungho

    2008-06-01

    Human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is caused by a chromosomal translocation that involves TEC (translocated in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma), and either EWS (Ewing's sarcoma) or hTAF(II)68 (human TATA-binding protein-associated factor II 68), which generates EWS-TEC or hTAF(II)68-TEC fusion proteins, respectively. Although there has been a great deal of progress in characterizing EWS-TEC, there is relatively little known about the biological function of hTAF(II)68-TEC. We have examined the functional consequences of the fusion of the amino terminal domain (NTD) of hTAF(II)68 to TEC in EMC. The chimeric gene encodes a nuclear protein that binds DNA with the same sequence specificity as parental TEC. Nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC was dependent on the DNA binding domain, and we identified a cluster of basic amino acids in the DNA binding domain, KRRR, that specifically mediate the nuclear localization of hTAF(II)68-TEC. The transactivation activity of hTAF(II)68-TEC was higher than TEC towards a known target promoter that contained several TEC binding sites. Finally, deletion analysis of hTAF(II)68-TEC indicated that the hTAF(II)68 NTD, and the AF1 and AF2 domains of hTAF(II)68-TEC are necessary for full transactivation potential. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(9;17) translocation may be due to the hTAF(II)68-TEC chimeric protein and that fusion of the hTAF(II)68 NTD to the TEC protein produces a gain of function chimeric product. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Angle-dependent strong-field molecular ionization rates with tuned range-separated time-dependent density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Adonay; Abanador, Paul; Mauger, François; Gaarde, Mette; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2016-09-07

    Strong-field ionization and the resulting electronic dynamics are important for a range of processes such as high harmonic generation, photodamage, charge resonance enhanced ionization, and ionization-triggered charge migration. Modeling ionization dynamics in molecular systems from first-principles can be challenging due to the large spatial extent of the wavefunction which stresses the accuracy of basis sets, and the intense fields which require non-perturbative time-dependent electronic structure methods. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent density functional theory approach which uses a Gaussian-type orbital (GTO) basis set to capture strong-field ionization rates and dynamics in atoms and small molecules. This involves propagating the electronic density matrix in time with a time-dependent laser potential and a spatial non-Hermitian complex absorbing potential which is projected onto an atom-centered basis set to remove ionized charge from the simulation. For the density functional theory (DFT) functional we use a tuned range-separated functional LC-PBE*, which has the correct asymptotic 1/r form of the potential and a reduced delocalization error compared to traditional DFT functionals. Ionization rates are computed for hydrogen, molecular nitrogen, and iodoacetylene under various field frequencies, intensities, and polarizations (angle-dependent ionization), and the results are shown to quantitatively agree with time-dependent Schrödinger equation and strong-field approximation calculations. This tuned DFT with GTO method opens the door to predictive all-electron time-dependent density functional theory simulations of ionization and ionization-triggered dynamics in molecular systems using tuned range-separated hybrid functionals.

  8. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  9. Determination of the Bjorken Sum and Strong Coupling from Polarized Structure Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We present a NLO perturbative analysis of all available data on the polarized structure function g_1(x,Q^2) with the aim of making a quantitative test of the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, of measuring \\alpha_s, and of deriving helicity fractions. We take particular care over the small x extrapolation, since it is now known that Regge behaviour is unreliable at perturbative scales. For fixed \\alpha_s we find that if all the most recent data are included g_A=1.18\\pm0.09, confirming the Bjorken sum rule at the 8% level. We further show that the value of \\alpha_s is now reasonably well constrained by scaling violations in the structure function data, despite the fact that it cannot yet be reliably fixed by the value of the Bjorken sum: our final result is \\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.120+0.010-0.008. We also confirm earlier indications of a sizeable positive gluon polarization in the nucleon.

  10. Ambiguities in strong absorptionlike S functions and in the corresponding potentials for heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, C.; Fiedeldey, H.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    A semiclassical (WKB) method within fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to analyze the differential cross section from the elastic scattering of 1449 MeV 12 C ions off of 208 Pb and of 1503 MeV 16 O ions off of 12 C. Excellent, statistically significant, fits to the 12 C- 208 Pb experimental data have been found using a McIntyre form for the scattering function but with diverse sets of parameter values. There are corresponding diverse interaction potentials. To fit the 16 O- 12 C data, a Regge pole term was needed to supplement the McIntyre form. Inversion of those scattering functions resulted in interaction potentials that vary noticeably within the sensitive radial regions. In addition, conventional optical model potentials have been obtained with which direct solution of the Schroedinger equations result in similar excellent fits to the data. It is shown that these large ambiguities in the potentials are due, in the main, to the limited angular range of the cross-section data and although the corresponding cross-section shapes beyond the measured scattering angle range for the 12 C- 208 Pb collision vary over many orders of magnitude, it is unlikely that experiments can be made sensitive enough to select from among them because those cross sections are so small

  11. Ambiguities in strong absorption S-functions and corresponding potentials for heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, C.; Fiedeldey, H.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    A semiclassical (WKB) method within fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross section from the elastic scattering of 1449 MeV 12 C ions off of 208 Pb. Excellent, statistically significant, fits to the experimental data have been found using a McIntyre form for the scattering function but with diverse sets of parameter values. Inversion of those scattering functions resulted in interaction potentials for this system that are also quite diverse. In addition, conventional optical model potentials have been obtained with which direct solution of the Schroedinger equations result in similar excellent fits to the data. It is shown that these large ambiguities in the potentials are due, in the main, to the limited angular range of the cross-section data and although the corresponding cross-section shapes beyond the measured scattering angle range vary over many orders of magnitude, it is unlikely that experiments can be made sensitive enough to select from among them because those cross sections are so small. 23 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Increased osteoblast adhesion on nanoparticulate crystalline hydroxyapatite functionalized with KRSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael; Balasundaram, Ganesan; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    The present in vitro study created nanometer crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) and amorphous calcium phosphate for novel orthopedic applications. Specifically, nano-crystalline HA and amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles were synthesized by a wet chemical process followed by hydrothermal treatment for 2 hours at 200 degrees C and 70 degrees C, respectively. Resulting particles were then pressed into compacts. For the preparation of control conventional HA particles (or those currently used in orthopedics with micron diameters), the aforementioned calcium phosphate particles were pressed into compacts and sintered at 1100 degrees C for 2 hours. All calcium phosphate-based particles were fully characterized. Results showed that although there was an initial weight gain for all the compacts studied in this experiment, higher eventual degradation rates up to 3 weeks were observed for nano-amorphous calcium phosphate compared with nano-crystalline HA which was higher than conventional HA. Peptide functionalization (with the cell adhesive peptide lysine-arginine-serine-arginine [KRSR] and the non-cell-adhesive peptide lysine-serine-arginine-arginine [KSRR]) was accomplished by means of a three-step reaction procedure: silanization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), cross-linking with N-succinimidyl-3-maleimido propionate (SMP), and finally peptide immobilization. The peptide functionalization was fully characterized. Results demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cell) adhesion on non-functionalized and functionalized nano-crystalline HA compacts compared with nano amorphous calcium phosphate compacts; both increased osteoblast adhesion compared with conventional HA. To further exemplify the novel properties of nano crystalline HA, results also showed similar osteoblast adhesion between non-functionalized nano crystalline HA and KRSR functionalized conventional HA. Thus, results provided evidence that nanocrystalline HA should be further studied for

  13. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  14. Increasing the octane number of gasoline using functionalized carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kish, Sara Safari; Rashidi, Alimorad; Aghabozorg, Hamid Reza; Moradi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The octane number is one of the characteristics of spark-ignition fuels such as gasoline. Octane number of fuels can be improved by addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), TBF (tertiary butyl formate) and TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) as well as their blends with gasoline that reduce the cost impact of fuels. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are as useful additives for increasing the octane number. Functionalized carbon nanotubes containing amide groups have a high reactivity and can react with many chemicals. These compounds can be solubilized in gasoline to increase the octane number. In this study, using octadecylamine and dodecylamine, CNTs were amidated and the amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes were added to gasoline. Research octane number analysis showed that these additives increase octane number of the desired samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal gravimetry analyses (TGA) were used for characterization of the prepared functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  15. On the worst-case complexity of the gradient method with exact line search for smooth strongly convex functions

    OpenAIRE

    de Klerk, Etienne; Glineur, François; Taylor, Adrien B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the gradient (or steepest) descent method with exact line search applied to a strongly convex function with Lipschitz continuous gradient. We establish the exact worst-case rate of convergence of this scheme, and show that this worst-case behavior is exhibited by a certain convex quadratic function. We also give the tight worst-case complexity bound for a noisy variant of gradient descent method, where exact line-search is performed in a search direction that differs from negative...

  16. Increased fibroblast functionality on CNN2-loaded titania nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HB

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hongbo Wei*, Shuyi Wu*, Zhihong Feng, Wei Zhou, Yan Dong, Guofeng Wu, Shizhu Bai, Yimin Zhao Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Infection and epithelial downgrowth are major problems associated with maxillofacial percutaneous implants. These complications are mainly due to the improper closure of the implant–skin interface. Therefore, designing a percutaneous implant that better promotes the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites is highly desirable. Additionally, the fibroblast has been proven to play an important role in the formation of biologic seals. In this study, titania nanotubes were filled with 11.2 kDa C-terminal CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor fragment, which could exert full CCN2 activity to increase the biological functionality of fibroblasts. This drug delivery system was fabricated on a titanium implant surface. CCN2 was loaded into anodized titania nanotubes using a simplified lyophilization method and the loading efficiency was approximately 80%. Then, the release kinetics of CCN2 from these nanotubes was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes on fibroblast functionality was examined. The results revealed increased fibroblast adhesion at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, increased fibroblast viability over the course of 5 days, as well as enhanced actin cytoskeleton organization on CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes surfaces compared to uncoated, unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study demonstrate that CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes have the ability to increase fibroblast functionality and should be further studied as a method of promoting the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites.Keywords: anodization, titania nanotubes, adhesion, connective

  17. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-02

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  18. EFFECTS OF BRAIN AGE TO INCREASE COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achdiat Agoes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among the elderly cognitive impairment is the biggest cause of the inability to perform normal daily activities, and also the most common reasons that lead to dependence on others to take care of their self. The concept of cognitive (from Latin cognosere, to know or to recognize refers to the ability to process information, applying knowledge, and change the trend. cognitive function of the elderly can be optimized through a variety of ways, one of that way is the brain training game (Brain Age. The game was created specifically to train the cognitive function of elderly. Objective. We determine the effect of brain training game (Brain Age to the improvement of cognitive function in the elderly in Malang. Methods. The design study is Quasi-experimental pretest-posttest approach, the treatment and control groups, and the sampling is done with purposive sampling to obtain the 20 respondents. Data collection instrument in this study are in general cognitive tests by using a measuring instrument MMSE. Results. Mann-Whitney test showed p value 0.000 <α 0.05. Conclusion. The conclusion from this study is that there is the effect of therapy brain training game (Brain Age on increasing cognitive function of elderly in Malang.

  19. Generalized-active-space pair-density functional theory: an efficient method to study large, strongly correlated, conjugated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Predicting ground- and excited-state properties of open-shell organic molecules by electronic structure theory can be challenging because an accurate treatment has to correctly describe both static and dynamic electron correlation. Strongly correlated systems, i.e. , systems with near-degeneracy correlation effects, are particularly troublesome. Multiconfigurational wave function methods based on an active space are adequate in principle, but it is impractical to capture most of the dynamic correlation in these methods for systems characterized by many active electrons. We recently developed a new method called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), that combines the advantages of wave function theory and density functional theory to provide a more practical treatment of strongly correlated systems. Here we present calculations of the singlet-triplet gaps in oligoacenes ranging from naphthalene to dodecacene. Calculations were performed for unprecedently large orbitally optimized active spaces of 50 electrons in 50 orbitals, and we test a range of active spaces and active space partitions, including four kinds of frontier orbital partitions. We show that MC-PDFT can predict the singlet-triplet splittings for oligoacenes consistent with the best available and much more expensive methods, and indeed MC-PDFT may constitute the benchmark against which those other models should be compared, given the absence of experimental data.

  20. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered...... that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm...... hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  1. Investigating short-range magnetism in strongly correlated materials via magnetic pair distribution function analysis and ab initio theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Benjamin; Page, Katharine; Brunelli, Michela; Staunton, Julie; Billinge, Simon

    Short-range magnetic correlations are known to exist in a variety of strongly correlated electron systems, but our understanding of the role they play is challenged by the difficulty of experimentally probing such correlations. Magnetic pair distribution function (mPDF) analysis is a newly developed neutron total scattering method that can reveal short-range magnetic correlations directly in real space, and may therefore help ameliorate this difficulty. We present temperature-dependent mPDF measurements of the short-range magnetic correlations in the paramagnetic phase of antiferromagnetic MnO, an archetypal strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. We observe significant correlations on a ~1 nm length scale that differ substantially from the low-temperature long-range-ordered spin arrangement. With no free parameters, ab initio calculations using the self-interaction-corrected local spin density approximation of density functional theory quantitatively reproduce the magnetic correlations to a high degree of accuracy. These results yield valuable insight into the magnetic exchange in MnO and showcase the utility of the mPDF technique for studying magnetic properties of strongly correlated electron systems.

  2. Communication: The description of strong correlation within self-consistent Green's function second-order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jordan J.; Zgid, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    We report an implementation of self-consistent Green's function many-body theory within a second-order approximation (GF2) for application with molecular systems. This is done by iterative solution of the Dyson equation expressed in matrix form in an atomic orbital basis, where the Green's function and self-energy are built on the imaginary frequency and imaginary time domain, respectively, and fast Fourier transform is used to efficiently transform these quantities as needed. We apply this method to several archetypical examples of strong correlation, such as a H 32 finite lattice that displays a highly multireference electronic ground state even at equilibrium lattice spacing. In all cases, GF2 gives a physically meaningful description of the metal to insulator transition in these systems, without resorting to spin-symmetry breaking. Our results show that self-consistent Green's function many-body theory offers a viable route to describing strong correlations while remaining within a computationally tractable single-particle formalism

  3. High free testosterone index increases lung function in adult males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing age and decreased testosterone concentrations in males influence muscle strength and muscle mass, particularly in skeletal muscle. There have been few studies on decreased lung function resulting from reduced mass and strength of respiratory muscles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of an association between free testosterone index (FTI and lung function in males aged between 40 and 80 years. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 167 males aged between 40 and 80 years in Cilandak subdistrict, South Jakarta. Total serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA using Roche Elecsys Reagent Kit Cat 11776061 and Elecsys 2010 reagent (Cobas e601, respectively FTI was calculated using the formula free testosterone/SHBG x 100%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (VEP1 was assessed by means of an AS 500 spirometer. Results Mean age of the subjects was 53.32 ± 8.26 years, mean total serum testosterone concentration was 532.59 ± 206.92 ng/dL, mean SHBG concentration 41.26 ± 21.14 nmol/L, mean FTI 48.22 ± 14.34 %, and mean VEP1 was 1.63 ± 0.54 L. There was a significant association between both SHBG and FTI on the one hand and VEP1 on the other, with Pearson correlation coefficients of -0.199 (p=0.010 and 0.271 (p=0.000, respectively. Linear multiple regression analysis indicated that FTI was the most influential variable on lung function (VEP1, higher FTI values indicating higher VEP1 (â=0.008: p=0.004. Conclusion In males aged 40-80 years, higher FTI values indicate better lung function as determined by means of VEP1.

  4. <strong>An Hfq-like protein in archaea: structural and functional characterization of the Sm protein from Methanococcus jannaschiistrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Andreas, Bøggild; Nielsen, Gorm

    The Sm and Sm-like proteins are conserved in all three domains of life and has emerged as important players in many RNA-processing events. Their proposed role is to mediate RNA-RNA and/or RNA-protein interactions. In marked contrast to eukaryotes, bacteria appear to harbour only a single distinct......-helix the overall diameter of the archaeal Hfq is significantly smaller than its bacterial counterparts. Functional analysis reveals that E. coli and M. jannaschii Hfqs display very similar biochemical and biological properties. It thus appears that the archaeal and bacterial Hfq proteins are largely functionally...

  5. Increased expression of CD133 and reduced dystroglycan expression are strong predictors of poor outcome in colon cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coco Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression levels of CD133, a cancer stem cell marker, and of the α-subunit of the dystroglycan (α-DG complex, have been previously reported to be altered in colorectal cancers. Methods Expression levels of CD133 and α-DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a series of colon cancers and their prognostic significance was evaluated. Results Scattered cells positive for CD133 were rarely detected at the bases of the crypts in normal colonic mucosa while in cancer cells the median percentage of positive cells was 5% (range 0–80. A significant correlation was observed with pT parameter and tumor stage but not with tumor grade and N status. Recurrence and death from disease were significantly more frequent in CD133-high expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor groups for both disease-free (p = 0.002 and overall (p = 0.008 survival. Expression of α-DG was reduced in a significant fraction of tumors but low α-DG staining did not correlate with any of the classical clinical-pathological parameters. Recurrence and death from the disease were significantly more frequent in α-DG-low expressing tumors and Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant separation between high vs low expressor tumors for both disease-free (p = 0.02 and overall (p = 0.02 survival. Increased expression of CD133, but not loss of α-DG, confirmed to be an independent prognostic parameters at a multivariate analysis associated with an increased risk of recurrence (RR = 2.4; p = 0.002 and death (RR = 2.3; p = 0.003. Conclusions Loss of α-DG and increased CD133 expression are frequent events in human colon cancer and evaluation of CD133 expression could help to identify high-risk colon cancer patients.

  6. Dramatic Increases of Soil Microbial Functional Gene Diversity at the Treeline Ecotone of Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Congcong; Shi, Yu; Ni, Yingying; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The elevational and latitudinal diversity patterns of microbial taxa have attracted great attention in the past decade. Recently, the distribution of functional attributes has been in the spotlight. Here, we report a study profiling soil microbial communities along an elevation gradient (500-2200 m) on Changbai Mountain. Using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 5.0), we found that microbial functional gene richness exhibited a dramatic increase at the treeline ecotone, but the bacterial taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing did not exhibit such a similar trend. However, the β-diversity (compositional dissimilarity among sites) pattern for both bacterial taxa and functional genes was similar, showing significant elevational distance-decay patterns which presented increased dissimilarity with elevation. The bacterial taxonomic diversity/structure was strongly influenced by soil pH, while the functional gene diversity/structure was significantly correlated with soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC). This finding highlights that soil DOC may be a good predictor in determining the elevational distribution of microbial functional genes. The finding of significant shifts in functional gene diversity at the treeline ecotone could also provide valuable information for predicting the responses of microbial functions to climate change.

  7. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaiel, Afrah A.K.; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M.; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J.; Herrera, Antonio J.; Venero, José L.; Pablos, Rocío M. de

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease. - Highlights: • Metformin treatment decreases microglial activation in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease. • Metformin treatment increases the neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease, both in vivo and vitro. • Metformin treatment could be a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  8. Enhanced dispersion stability and mobility of carboxyl-functionalized carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions through strong hydrogen bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yeon Kyoung; He, Xu; Gitsis, Emmanouil; Kuo, Yu-Ying; Kim, Nayoung; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion of carbon nanotubes has been heavily studied due to its importance for their technical applications, toxic effects, and environmental impacts. Common electrolytes, such as sodium chloride and potassium chloride, promote agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. On the contrary, we discovered that acetic electrolytes enhanced the dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl functional group through the strong hydrogen bond, which was confirmed by UV–Vis spectrometry, dispersion observations and aerosolization-quantification method. When concentrations of acetate electrolytes such as ammonium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 NH 4 ) and sodium acetate (CH 3 CO 2 Na) were lower than 0.03 mol per liter, MWCNT suspensions showed better dispersion and had higher mobility in porous media. The effects by the acetic environment are also applicable to other nanoparticles with the carboxyl functional group, which was demonstrated with polystyrene latex particles as an example

  9. Aminosilane-Functionalized Cellulosic Polymer for Increased Carbon Dioxide Sorption

    KAUST Repository

    Pacheco, Diana M.

    2012-01-11

    Improvement in the efficiency of CO 2 separation from flue gases is a high-priority research area to reduce the total energy cost of carbon capture and sequestration technologies in coal-fired power plants. Efficient CO 2 removal from flue gases by adsorption systems requires the design of novel sorbents capable of capturing, concentrating, and recovering CO 2 on a cost-effective basis. This paper describes the preparation of an aminosilane-functionalized cellulosic polymer sorbent with enhanced CO 2 sorption capacity and promising performance for use in postcombustion carbon capture via rapid temperature-swing adsorption systems. The introduction of aminosilane functionalities onto the backbone of cellulose acetate was achieved by the anhydrous grafting of N-(2-aminoethyl)-3- aminoisobutyldimethylmethoxysilane. The dry sorption capacity of the modified cellulosic polymer reached 27 cc (STP) CO 2/cc sorbent (1.01 mmol/g sorbent) at 1 atm and 39 cc (STP) CO 2/cc sorbent (1.46 mmol/g sorbent) at 5 atm and 308 K. The amine loading achieved was 5.18 mmol amine(nitrogen)/g sorbent. Exposure to water vapor after the first dry sorption cycle increased the dry sorption capacity of the sorbent by 12% at 1 atm, suggesting its potential for rapid cyclic adsorption processes under humid feed conditions. The CO 2 sorbent was characterized in terms of chemical composition, density changes, molecular structure, thermal stability, and surface morphology. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. Does cognitive function increase over time in the healthy elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne de Rotrou

    Full Text Available In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart.A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008-2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ≥ 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level.Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ≥ 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ≥ 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically.This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

  11. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar Shara

    Full Text Available Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS. Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989-1991, 2 (1993-1995, and 3 (1998-1999 was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results.

  12. Current-density functional theory study of the H2 molecule evolving under a strong ultrashort magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Hash(0xb7f6e60)

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen molecule in a strong ultrashort magnetic field is investigated through a current-density functional theory (CDFT) and quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based approach employing current-density dependent vector exchange-correlation potential and energy density functional derived with a vorticity variable. The numerical computations through the CDFT based approach are performed for the H2 molecule, starting initially from its field-free ground state, in a parallel internuclear axis and magnetic field-axis configuration with the internuclear separation R ranging from 0.1 a.u. to 14.0 a.u., and the strength of the time-dependent (TD) magnetic field varying between 0-1011 G over a few femtoseconds. The numerical results are compared with that obtained using an approach based on the current-density independent approximation under similar computational constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The current-density based approach yields exchange- and correlation energy as well as electronic charge-density of the H2 molecule drastically different from that obtained using current-independent approach, in particular, at TD magnetic field-strengths >109 G during a typical time-period of the field when the magnetic-field had attained maximum applied field-strength and is switched to a decreasing ramp function. This nonadiabatic behavior of the TD electronic charge-density is traced to the TD vorticity-dependent vector exchange-correlation potential of the CDFT based approach. The interesting electron dynamics of the H2 molecule in strong TD magnetic field is further elucidated by treating electronic charge-density as an `electron-fluid'. The present work also reveals interesting real-time dynamics on the attosecond time-scale in the electronic charge-density distribution of the hydrogen molecule.

  13. Nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Accessing the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated fermionic lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix

    2016-07-05

    The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is extended to the nonequilibrium case and applied to the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated lattice-fermions. Exploiting the basic structure of the well established equilibrium theory the entire formalism is reformulated in the language of Keldysh-Matsubara Green's functions. To this end, a functional of general nonequilibrium self-energies is constructed which is stationary at the physical point where it moreover yields the physical grand potential of the initial thermal state. Nonperturbative approximations to the full self-energy can be constructed by reducing the original lattice problem to smaller reference systems and varying the functional on the space of the respective trial self-energies, which are parametrized by the reference system's one-particle parameters. Approximations constructed in this way can be shown to respect the macroscopic conservation laws related to the underlying symmetries of the original lattice model. Assuming thermal equilibrium, the original SFT is recovered from the extended formalism. However, in the general case, the nonequilibrium variational principle comprises functional derivatives off the physical parameter space. These can be carried out analytically to derive inherently causal conditional equations for the optimal physical parameters of the reference system and a computationally realizable propagation scheme is set up. As a benchmark for the numerical implementation the variational cluster approach is applied to the dynamics of a dimerized Hubbard model after fast ramps of its hopping parameters. Finally, the time-evolution of a homogeneous Hubbard model after sudden quenches and ramps of the interaction parameter is studied by means of a dynamical impurity approximation with a single bath site. Sharply separated by a critical interaction at which fast relaxation to a thermal final state is observed, two differing response regimes can be distinguished, where the

  14. Distributed stimulation increases force elicited with functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmire, Alie J.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Doane, Cynthia J.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source. Approach. We compared the maximum isometric forces that could be evoked in the anterior deltoid of anesthetized monkeys using one or two intramuscular electrodes. We also evaluated whether temporally interleaved stimulation between two electrodes might reduce fatigue during prolonged activity compared to synchronized stimulation through two electrodes. Main results. We found that dual electrode stimulation consistently produced greater force (~50% greater on average) than maximal stimulation with single electrodes. No differences, however, were found in the fatigue responses using interleaved versus synchronized stimulation. Significance. It seems reasonable to consider using multi-electrode stimulation to augment the force-generating capacity of muscles and thereby increase the utility of FES systems.

  15. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  16. He 2++ molecular ion in a strong time-dependent magnetic field: a current-density functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas

    2011-08-01

    The He 2++ molecular ion exposed to a strong ultrashort time-dependent (TD) magnetic field of the order of 10(9) G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) and current-density functional theory (CDFT) based approach using vector exchange-correlation (XC) potential and energy density functional that depend not only on the electronic charge-density but also on the current density. The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed in a parallel internuclear-axis and magnetic field-axis configuration at the field-free equilibrium internuclear separation R = 1.3 au with the field-strength varying between 0 and 10(11) G. The TD behavior of the exchange- and correlation energy of the He 2++ is analyzed and compared with that obtained using a [B-TD-QFD-density functional theory (DFT)] approach based on the conventional TD-DFT under similar computational constraints but using only scalar XC potential and energy density functional dependent on the electronic charge-density alone. The CDFT based approach yields TD exchange- and correlation energy and TD electronic charge-density significantly different from that obtained using the conventional TD-DFT based approach, particularly, at typical magnetic field strengths and during a typical time period of the TD field. This peculiar behavior of the CDFT-based approach is traced to the TD current-density dependent vector XC potential, which can induce nonadiabatic effects causing retardation of the oscillating electronic charge density. Such dissipative electron dynamics of the He 2++ molecular ion is elucidated by treating electronic charge density as an electron-"fluid" in the terminology of QFD. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Increased hippocampal-prefrontal functional connectivity in insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerssen, Jeanne; Wassing, Rick; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Stoffers, Diederick; Lakbila-Kamal, Oti; Perrier, Joy; Bruijel, Jessica; Foster-Dingley, Jessica C; Aghajani, Moji; van Someren, Eus J W

    2018-01-01

    Insomnia Disorder (ID) is the second-most common mental disorder and has a far-reaching impact on daytime functioning. A meta-analysis indicates that, of all cognitive domains, declarative memory involving the hippocampus is most affected in insomnia. Hippocampal functioning has consistently been

  18. Strong correlation between the 6-minute walk test and accelerometry functional outcomes in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Zoe E; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew J; Walker, Karen Z; Truby, Helen

    2015-03-01

    Accelerometry provides information on habitual physical capability that may be of value in the assessment of function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This preliminary investigation describes the relationship between community ambulation measured by the StepWatch activity monitor and the current standard of functional assessment, the 6-minute walk test, in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 13). All participants completed a 6-minute walk test and wore the StepWatch™ monitor for 5 consecutive days. Both the 6-minute walk test and StepWatch accelerometry identified a decreased capacity for ambulation in boys with Duchenne compared to healthy controls. There were strong, significant correlations between 6-minute walk distance and all StepWatch parameters in affected boys only (r = 0.701-0.804). These data proffer intriguing observations that warrant further exploration. Specifically, accelerometry outcomes may compliment the 6-minute walk test in assessment of therapeutic interventions for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Does Helicobacter pylori infection increase gastric sensitivity in functional dyspepsia?

    OpenAIRE

    Mearin, F; de Ribot, X; Balboa, A; Salas, A; Varas, M J; Cucala, M; Bartolomé, R; Armengol, J R; Malagelada, J R

    1995-01-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori infection in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia is debated. It is known that a substantial fraction of dyspeptic patients manifest a low discomfort threshold to gastric distension. This study investigated the symptomatic pattern in 27 H pylori positive and 23 H pylori negative patients with chronic functional dyspepsia, and potential relations between infection and gastric hyperalgesia. Specific symptoms (pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating/fullness, early s...

  20. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  1. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-10-07

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees.

  2. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    -of-interest (ROIs) within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed......There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various...... non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenital blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions...

  3. Carbon nanotubes functionalized electrospun nanofibers formed 3D electrode enables highly strong ECL of peroxydisulfate and its application in immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hong; Xu, Guifang; Zhang, Shupei; Gong, Lingshan; Li, Xiuhua; Yang, Caiping; Lin, Yanyu; Chen, Jinghua; Chen, Guonan

    2014-11-15

    A new biosensing platform based on electrospun carbon nanotubes nanofibers (CNTs@PNFs) composite, which enabled strong electrochemiluminescent emission of peroxydisulfate, was firstly developed for immunoassay with favorable analytical performances, and then was utilized to evaluate the interaction between antibody and antigen in vitro. Moreover, the obvious ECL image of peroxydisulfate on the prepared sensing platform was firstly recorded in this report. In order to expand the application of peroxydisulfate ECL, the specific recognization biomolecules, α-fetoprotein (AFP) antibody was bound to the functionalized film via electrostatic interaction for fabricating label-free ECL immunosensor to detect α-AFP. Based on the ECL change resulting from the specific immunoreaction between antigen and antibody, the quantitative analysis for AFP with wide dynamic response in the range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 160 ng mL(-1) was realized. And the limit of detection was estimated to be 0.09 pg mL(-1). Therefore, the flexible sensing platform not only acted as the sensitized sensing element, but also offered a suitable carrier for immobilization of biological recognition elements with low-toxicity and eco-friendliness, which opened a promising approach to developing further electrospun nanofiber based amplified ECL biosensor with favorable analytical performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  5. The functional potential and active populations of the pit mud microbiome for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yong; Wang, Xiang; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Zhu, Xiaoyu

    2017-11-01

    The popular distilled Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL) is produced by solid fermentation in the ground pit. Microbes inhabiting in the pit mud (PM) on the walls of the fermentation pit are responsible for the production of caproic acid (CA) that determines the quality of CSFL to a large degree. However, little is known about the active microbial populations and metabolic potential of the PM microbiome. Here, we investigated the overall metabolic features of the PM microbiome and its active microbial components by combining metagenomics and MiSeq-sequencing analyses of the 16S rRNA genes from DNA and RNA (cDNA). Results showed that prokaryotes were predominant populations in the PM microbiome, accounting for 95.3% of total metagenomic reads, while eukaryotic abundance was only 1.8%. The dominant prokaryotic phyla were Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for 48.0%, 19.0%, 13.5%, 2.5% and 2.1% of total metagenomic reads respectively. Most genes encoding putative metabolic pathways responsible for the putative CA production via chain elongation pathway were detected. This indicated that the PM microbiome owned functional potential for synthesizing CA from ethanol or lactate. Some key genes encoding enzymes involved in hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis pathways were detected in the PM metagenome, suggesting the possible occurrence of interspecies hydrogen transfer between CA-producing bacteria and methanogens. The 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA profiles showed that the Clostridial cluster IV, Lactobacillus, Caloramator, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter, Bacteroides and Porphyromonas were active populations in situ, in which Clostridial cluster IV and Clostridium were likely involved in the CA production. This study improved our understandings on the active populations and metabolic pathways of the PM microbiome involved in the CA synthesis in the CSFL fermentation. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology

  6. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  7. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    . There was an overall decrease, across species, in an index of thermal requirement (cumulative degree-days) for egg development with increasing temperature. Within an empirically derived optimal thermal range for egg survival, the thermal requirement was more variable in species adapted to cold waters compared......Temperature increase associated with global climate change can be expected to directly influence the spawning success of fish species, with implications for abundance and distribution. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate and compare responses of development time, cumulative degree......-days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species...

  8. Advanced Functional Polymers for Increasing the Stability of Organic Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert

    2013-01-01

    The development of new advanced polymers for improving the stability of OPV is reviewed. Two main degradation pathways for the OPV active layer are identified: photochemically initiated reactions primarily starting in the side chains and morphological changes that degrade the important...... nanostructure. Chemical units can be introduced that impart an increased stability. Similarly, the morphological degradation of the optimal nanostructure can be reduced. Active polymers and blends with acceptor material are used to create nanoparticle links with controlled size. Most of these advanced polymers...

  9. High-Field MRI Reveals a Drastic Increase of Hypoxia-Induced Microhemorrhages upon Tissue Reoxygenation in the Mouse Brain with Strong Predominance in the Olfactory Bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, Xavier; Milford, David; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Human pathophysiology of high altitude hypoxic brain injury is not well understood and research on the underlying mechanisms is hampered by the lack of well-characterized animal models. In this study, we explored the evolution of brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological methods in mice exposed to normobaric hypoxia at 8% oxygen for 48 hours followed by rapid reoxygenation and incubation for further 24 h under normoxic conditions. T2*-, diffusion-weighted and T2-relaxometry MRI was performed before exposure, immediately after 48 hours of hypoxia and 24 hours after reoxygenation. Cerebral microhemorrhages, previously described in humans suffering from severe high altitude cerebral edema, were also detected in mice upon hypoxia-reoxygenation with a strong region-specific clustering in the olfactory bulb, and to a lesser extent, in the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter. The number of microhemorrhages determined immediately after hypoxia was low, but strongly increased 24 hours upon onset of reoxygenation. Histologically verified microhemorrhages were exclusively located around cerebral microvessels with disrupted interendothelial tight junction protein ZO-1. In contrast, quantitative T2 and apparent-diffusion-coefficient values immediately after hypoxia and after 24 hours of reoxygenation did not show any region-specific alteration, consistent with subtle multifocal but not with regional or global brain edema. PMID:26863147

  10. Nephrotic range proteinuria as a strong risk factor for rapid renal function decline during pre-dialysis phase in type 2 diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Yuichiro; Doi, Yohei; Osaki, Keisuke; Sugioka, Sayaka; Koshikawa, Masao; Sugawara, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Proteinuria is an established risk factor for progression of renal disease, including diabetic nephropathy. The predictive power of proteinuria, especially nephrotic range proteinuria, for progressive renal deterioration has been well demonstrated in diabetic patients with normal to relatively preserved renal function. However, little is known about the relationship between severity of proteinuria and renal outcome in pre-dialysis diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function. 125 incident dialysis patients with type 2 diabetes were identified. This study was aimed at retrospectively evaluating the impact of nephrotic range proteinuria (urinary protein-creatinine ratio above 3.5 g/gCr) on renal function decline during the 3 months just prior to dialysis initiation. In total, 103 patients (82.4 %) had nephrotic range proteinuria. The median rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in this study population was 0.98 (interquartile range 0.51-1.46) ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month. Compared to patients without nephrotic range proteinuria, patients with nephrotic range proteinuria showed significantly faster renal function decline (0.46 [0.24-1.25] versus 1.07 [0.64-1.54] ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month; p = 0.007). After adjusting for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, calcium-phosphorus product, hemoglobin A1c, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker, patients with nephrotic range proteinuria showed a 3.89-fold (95 % CI 1.08-14.5) increased risk for rapid renal function decline defined as a decline in eGFR ≥0.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month. Nephrotic range proteinuria is the predominant renal risk factor in type 2 diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function receiving pre-dialysis care.

  11. High-technology metals as emerging contaminants: Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium levels in tap water of Berlin, Germany, from 2009 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, N.; Romero, M.; Bau, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring study Berlin-2012 confirms tap water contamination with gadolinium. • Contamination confined to western districts of Berlin. • Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium from 2009 to 2012. • Anthropogenic gadolinium is tracer for wastewater-derived substances. - Abstract: The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in tap water sampled in December 2012 in Berlin, Germany, is characterized by anomalously high levels of gadolinium (Gd). While the western districts of the city show strong anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in REE distribution patterns, the eastern districts are (almost) unaffected. This contamination with anthropogenic Gd results from Gd-based contrast agents used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that enter rivers, groundwater and eventually tap water via the clear water effluent from wastewater treatment plants. While the spatial distribution of anthropogenic Gd in 2012 confirms results of an earlier study in 2009 (Kulaksiz and Bau, 2011a), anthropogenic Gd concentrations have increased between 1.5- and 11.5-fold in just three years. This confirms predictions based upon the increase of anthropogenic Gd concentrations in the Havel River over the past two decades and the time it takes the water to migrate from the Havel River to the groundwater production wells. Anomalously high levels of anthropogenic Gd in tap water, which are not confined to Berlin but have also been observed in London, U.K., and in German cities in the Ruhr area and along the Rhine River, reveal that high-technology metals have become emerging contaminants. While non-toxic at the observed concentrations, the anthropogenic Gd is a microcontaminant that may be used as a conservative pseudo-natural tracer for wastewater-derived xenobiotics such as pharmaceuticals, food additives and personal care products. Our results suggest that monitoring the concentrations of such substances in Berlin’s drinking water can be restricted to a few central and

  12. Conversion of traditional cropland into teak plantations strongly increased soil erosion in montane catchments of Southeastern Asia (Northern Laos; 2002-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, O.; Ribolzi, O.; Huon, S.; de Rouw, A.; Silvera, N.; Latsachack, K. O.; Soulileuth, B.; Lefèvre, I.; Pierret, A.; Lacombe, G.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Valentin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion delivers an excessive quantity of sediment to rivers of Southeastern Asia. Land use is rapidly changing in this region of the world, and these modifications may further accelerate soil erosion in this area. Although the conversion of forests into cropland has often been investigated, much fewer studies have addressed the replacement of traditional slash-and-burn cultivation systems with commercial perennial monocultures such as teak plantations. The current research investigated the impact of this land use change on the hydrological response and the sediment yields from a representative catchment of Northern Laos (Houay Pano, 0.6 km²) where long-term monitoring (2002-2014) was conducted (http://msec.obs-mip.fr/). The results showed a significant growth in the overland flow contribution to stream flow (from 16 to 31%). Furthermore, sediment yields strongly increased from 98 to 609 Mg km-2. These changes illustrate the severity of soil erosion processes occurring under teak plantations characterized by the virtual absence of understorey vegetation to dissipate raindrop energy, which facilitates the formation of an impermeable surface crust. This counter-intuitive increase of soil erosion generated by afforestation reflects the difficulty to find sustainable production solutions for the local populations of Southeastern Asia. To reduce soil loss under teak plantations, the development of extensive agro-forestry practices could be promoted.

  13. Inflammatory mediator bradykinin increases population of sensory neurons expressing functional T-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyang; Liang, Ce; Zhang, Fan; Men, Hongchao; Du, Xiaona; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Hailin

    2016-04-29

    T-type Ca(2+) channels are important regulators of peripheral sensory neuron excitability. Accordingly, T-type Ca(2+) currents are often increased in various pathological pain conditions, such as inflammation or nerve injury. Here we investigated effects of inflammation on functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in small-diameter cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We found that overnight treatment of DRG cultures with a cocktail of inflammatory mediators bradykinin (BK), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), norepinephrine (NE) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) strongly increased the population size of the small-diameter neurons displaying low-voltage activated (LVA, T-type) Ca(2+) currents while having no effect on the peak LVA current amplitude. When applied individually, BK and ATP also increased the population size of LVA-positive neurons while NE and PGE2 had no effect. The PLC inhibitor U-73122 and B2 receptor antagonist, Hoe-140, both abolished the increase of the population of LVA-positive DRG neurons. Inflammatory treatment did not affect CaV3.2 mRNA or protein levels in DRG cultures. Furthermore, an ubiquitination inhibitor, MG132, did not increase the population of LVA-positive neurons. Our data suggest that inflammatory mediators BK and ATP increase the abundance of LVA-positive DRG neurons in total neuronal population by stimulating the recruitment of a 'reserve pool' of CaV3.2 channels, particularly in neurons that do not display measurable LVA currents under control conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  15. Functional characterization of a strong bi-directional constitutive plant promoter isolated from cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul A Khan

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV, belonging to the genus Begomovirus, possesses single-stranded monopartite DNA genome. The bidirectional promoters representing Rep and coat protein (CP genes of CLCuBuV were characterized and their efficacy was assayed. Rep and CP promoters of CLCuBuV and 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV were fused with β-glucuronidase (GUS and green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter genes. GUS activity in individual plant cells driven by Rep, CP and 35S promoters was estimated using real-time PCR and fluorometric GUS assay. Histochemical staining of GUS in transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi leaves showed highest expression driven by Rep promoter followed by 35S promoter and CP promoter. The expression level of GUS driven by Rep promoter in transformed tobacco plants was shown to be two to four-fold higher than that of 35S promoter, while the expression by CP promoter was slightly lower. Further, the expression of GFP was monitored in agroinfiltrated leaves of N. benthamiana, N. tabacum and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Rep promoter showed strong consistent transient expression in tobacco and cotton leaves as compared to 35S promoter. The strong constitutive CLCuBuV Rep promoter developed in this study could be very useful for high level expression of transgenes in a wide variety of plant cells.

  16. MYB and bHLH transcription factor transgenes increase anthocyanin pigmentation in petunia and lisianthus plants, and the petunia phenotypes are strongly enhanced under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy E Schwinn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.

  17. Strongly Phosphorescent Iridium(III)–Porphyrins – New Oxygen Indicators with Tuneable Photophysical Properties and Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of four iridium(III)–octaethylporphyrins and a π-extended iridium(III)–benzoporphyrin are presented. Strong room-temperature phosphorescence was observed for all of the complexes with quantum yields of up to 30 %. Axial ligands were introduced to tune the photophysical properties and the solubility. Complexes bearing lipophilic ligands such as pyridine or N-(n-butyl)imidazole were incorporated into polystyrene to obtain optical oxygen sensors. Covalent coupling of the dye is possible by introduction of ligands with binding domains (1-imidazoleacetic acid). This enabled preparation of a water-soluble oxygen probe (by staining bovine serum albumin) and a trace oxygen sensor (by coupling to amino-modified silica gel). PMID:22485072

  18. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  19. Natural killer function following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Very early reemergence but strong dependence of cytomegalovirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Jacobsen, N; Ellegaard, J

    1988-01-01

    steadily increased, and at day 28 activated NK cells, which lysed the otherwise resistant P815 cell line, could be demonstrated concomittant with a substantial over-shoot in the proportion of NKH-1+ cells. Furthermore, the increase in NK lysis was more pronounced in patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV...

  20. Increased numbers and functional activity of CD56+ T cells in healthy cytomegalovirus positive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Mazen; Flanagan, Brian F; Khan, Naeem; Alomar, Suliman; Christmas, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    Human T cells expressing CD56 are capable of tumour cell lysis following activation with interleukin-2 but their role in viral immunity has been less well studied. Proportions of CD56+ T cells were found to be highly significantly increased in cytomegalovirus-seropositive (CMV+) compared with seronegative (CMV−) healthy subjects (9·1 ± 1·5% versus 3·7 ± 1·0%; P < 0·0001). Proportions of CD56+ T cells expressing CD28, CD62L, CD127, CD161 and CCR7 were significantly lower in CMV+ than CMV− subjects but those expressing CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD57, CD58, CD94 and NKG2C were significantly increased (P < 0·05), some having the phenotype of T effector memory cells. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CD107a were significantly higher in CD56+ T cells from CMV+ than CMV− subjects following stimulation with CMV antigens. This also resulted in higher levels of proliferation in CD56+ T cells from CMV+ than CMV− subjects. Using Class I HLA pentamers, it was found that CD56+ T cells from CMV+ subjects contained similar proportions of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells to CD56− T cells in donors of several different HLA types. These differences may reflect the expansion and enhanced functional activity of CMV-specific CD56+ memory T cells. In view of the link between CD56 expression and T-cell cytotoxic function, this strongly implicates CD56+ T cells as being an important component of the cytotoxic T-cell response to CMV in healthy carriers. PMID:24433347

  1. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  2. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Nonlocal response functions for predicting shear flow of strongly inhomogeneous fluids. II. Sinusoidally driven shear and multisinusoidal inhomogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Benjamin A; Glavatskiy, Kirill S; Daivis, Peter J; Todd, B D

    2015-07-01

    We use molecular-dynamics computer simulations to investigate the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure responses of a simple model atomic fluid to transverse and longitudinal external forces. We have previously introduced a response function formalism for describing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in an atomic fluid when it is perturbed by a combination of longitudinal and transverse external forces that are independent of time and have a simple sinusoidal spatial variation. In this paper, we extend the application of the previously introduced formalism to consider the case of a longitudinal force composed of multiple sinusoidal components in combination with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We find that additional harmonics are excited in the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles due to couplings between the force components. By analyzing the density, strain-rate, and shear-pressure profiles in Fourier space, we are able to evaluate the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, which now have additional components describing the coupling relationships. Having evaluated the Fourier coefficients of the response functions, we are then able to accurately predict the density, velocity, and shear-pressure profiles for fluids that are under the influence of a longitudinal force composed of two or three sinusoidal components combined with a single-component sinusoidal transverse force. We also find that in the case of a multisinusoidal longitudinal force, it is sufficient to include only pairwise couplings between different longitudinal force components. This means that it is unnecessary to include couplings between three or more force components in the case of a longitudinal force composed of many Fourier components, and this paves the way for a highly accurate but tractable treatment of nonlocal transport phenomena in fluids with density and strain-rate inhomogeneities on the molecular length scale.

  4. Preoperative low muscle mass has a strong negative effect on pulmonary function in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Hisaya; Kaido, Toshimi; Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Yao, Siyuan; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Okumura, Shinya; Kamo, Naoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of preoperative sarcopenia on cardiopulmonary function in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A retrospective analysis was performed of 207 patients who underwent LDLT between January 2008 and April 2015. The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle were evaluated by the psoas muscle mass index (PMI) and intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), respectively, using preoperative computed tomography imaging. The correlations between preoperative cardiopulmonary function and sarcopenic factors (PMI, IMAC, and grip strength [GS]) were examined. Moreover, overall survival (OS) rates according to preoperative pulmonary function and risk factors were analyzed. No significant differences were found between ejection fraction (EF) and these sarcopenic factors. In contrast, preoperative vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1.0 were significantly correlated with PMI (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), IMAC (P = 0.024, P = 0.013), and GS (P = 0.006, P = 0.033) in males. Preoperative VC and FEV1.0 were significantly correlated with IMAC (P = 0.002, P = 0.001) and GS (P = 0.002, P = 0.001) in females. Moreover, %VC, VC, and FEV1.0 in the preoperative low muscle mass group were significantly lower than in the normal muscle mass group (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively) in males. Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative low PMI and preoperative restrictive ventilatory impairment were independent risk factors (P = 0.046 and P = 0.014, respectively). Preoperative low muscle mass was closely involved with pulmonary dysfunction in patients undergoing LDLT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hip Fracture-Related Pain Strongly Influences Functional Performance of Patients With an Intertrochanteric Fracture Upon Discharge From the Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-01-01

    .7 seconds to perform the TUG. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics or pain medication given for patients with a cervical versus an intertrochanteric fracture (P ≥ .22), but patients with an intertrochanteric fracture presented more often with moderate to severe pain during...... testing (P New Mobility Score, fracture type, day of TUG performance, and pain intensity...... compromises the functional performance of patients with an intertrochanteric hip fracture upon discharge from hospital. Physical therapists should be involved in new and optimized fracture-type stratified pain management strategies....

  6. Operating function tests of the PWR type RHR pump for engineering safety system under simulated strong ground excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Homma, Toshiaki; Inazuka, Hisashi; Nakajima, Norifumi.

    1979-08-01

    Results are described of operating function verification tests of a PWR RHR pump during an earthquake. Of the active reactor components, the PWR residual heat removal pump was chosen from view points of aseismic classification, safety function, structural complexity and past aseismic tests. Through survey of the service conditions and structure of this pump, seismic test conditions such as acceleration level, simulated seismic wave form and earthquake duration were decided for seismicity of the operating pump. Then, plans were prepared to evaluate vibration chracteristics of the pump and to estimate its aseismic design margins. Subsequently, test facility and instrumentation system were designed and constructed. Experimental results could thus be acquired on vibration characteristics of the pump and its dynamic behavior during different kinds and levels of simulated earthquake. In conclusion: (1) Stiffeners attached to the auxiliary system piping do improve aseismic performance of the pump. (2) The rotor-shaft-bearing system is secure unless it is subjected to transient disturbunces having high frequency content. (3) The motor and pump casing having resonance frequencies much higher than frequency content of the seismic wave show only small amplifications. (4) The RHR pump possesses an aseismic design margin more than 2.6 times the expected ultimate earthquake on design basis. (author)

  7. Strong doping of the n-optical confinement layer for increasing output power of high- power pulsed laser diodes in the eye safe wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryvkin, Boris S.; Avrutin, Eugene A.; Kostamovaara, Juha T.

    2017-12-01

    An analytical model for internal optical losses at high power in a 1.5 μm laser diode with strong n-doping in the n-side of the optical confinement layer is created. The model includes intervalence band absorption by holes supplied by both current flow and two-photon absorption (TPA), as well as the direct TPA effect. The resulting losses are compared with those in an identical structure with a weakly doped waveguide, and shown to be substantially lower, resulting in a significant improvement in the output power and efficiency in the structure with a strongly doped waveguide.

  8. Social Observation Increases Functional Segregation between MPFC Subregions Predicting Prosocial Consumer Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Daehyun; Sul, Sunhae; Lee, Minwoo; Kim, Hackjin

    2018-02-20

    Although it is now well documented that observation by others can be a powerful elicitor of prosocial behaviour, the underlying neural mechanism is yet to be explored. In the present fMRI study, we replicated the previously reported observer effect in ethical consumption, in that participants were more likely to purchase social products that are sold to support people in need than non-social products when being observed by others. fMRI data revealed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) encoded subject-specific value parameters of purchase decisions for social and non-social products, respectively, under social observation. The ACC showed strong functional coupling with the amygdala and the anterior insula when participants in the observation condition were making purchases of social versus non-social products. Finally, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity predicted faster reaction time and increased prosocial behavior during decisions to purchase social versus non-social products, regardless of social observation. The present findings suggest that subregions of the mPFC, namely the dmPFC, ACC, and vmPFC, are hierarchically organized to encode different levels of decision values from the value of context-sensitive reputation to that of internalized prosociality.

  9. Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Jan M; De Laender, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen; Janssen, Colin R

    2016-12-01

    There is now ample evidence that biodiversity stabilizes aggregated ecosystem functions, such as primary production, in changing environments. In primary producer systems, this stabilizing effect is found to be driven by higher functional resistance (i.e., reduced changes in functions by environmental changes) rather than through higher functional resilience (i.e., rapid recovery following environmental changes) in more diverse systems. The stability of aggregated ecosystem functions directly depends on changes in species composition and by consequence their functional contributions to ecosystem functions. Still, it remains only theoretically explored how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem functions by affecting compositional stability. Here, we demonstrate how biodiversity effects on compositional stability drive biodiversity effects on functional stability in diatom communities. In a microcosm experiment, we exposed 39 communities of five different levels of species richness (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 species) to three concentrations of a chemical stressor (0, 25, and 250 μg/L atrazine) for four weeks, after which all communities were transferred to atrazine-free medium for three more weeks. Biodiversity simultaneously increased, increasing functional and compositional resistance, but decreased functional and compositional resilience. These results confirm the theoretically proposed link between biodiversity effects on functional and compositional stability in primary producer systems, and provide a mechanistic underpinning for observed biodiversity-stability relationships. Finally, we discuss how higher compositional stability can be expected to become increasingly important in stabilizing ecosystem functions under field conditions when multiple environmental stressors fluctuate simultaneously. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Impacts of increasing typhoons on the structure and function of a subtropical forest: reflections of a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Chuan; Hamburg, Steven P; Wang, Lixin; Duh, Chin-Tzer; Huang, Chu-Mei; Chang, Chung-Te; Lin, Teng-Chiu

    2017-07-07

    Due to their destructive and sporadic nature, it is often difficult to evaluate and predict the effects of typhoon on forest ecosystem patterns and processes. We used a 21-yr record of litterfall rates to explore the influence of typhoon frequency and intensity, along with other meteorological variables, on ecosystem dynamics in a subtropical rainforest. Over the past half century there has been an increasing frequency of strong typhoons (category 3; >49.6 m s -1 ; increase of 1.5 typhoons/decade) impacting the Fushan Experimental Forest, Taiwan. At Fushan strong typhoons drive total litterfall mass with an average of 1100 kg ha -1 litterfall typhoon -1 . While mean typhoon season litterfall has been observed to vary by an order of magnitude, mean litterfall rates associated with annual leaf senescence vary by typhoon frequency, total annual litter mass increased gradually over the 21-year record following three major typhoons in 1994. Monthly maximum wind speed was predictive of monthly litterfall, yet the influence of precipitation and temperature was only evident in non-typhoon affected months. The response of this subtropical forest to strong typhoons suggests that increasing typhoon frequency has already shifted ecosystem structure and function (declining carbon sequestration and forest stature).

  11. Formation of antibodies against infliximab and adalimumab strongly correlates with functional drug levels and clinical responses in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radstake, T R D J; Svenson, M; Eijsbouts, A M

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) neutralising antibody constructs are increasingly being used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). OBJECTIVE: To determine potential differences in clinical responses, soluble drug levels and antibody formation between patients with RA receiving...... infliximab and adalimumab. METHODS: 69 patients with RA fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria and about to start treatment with infliximab or adalimumab, were enrolled consecutively. All patients had active disease (28-joint count Disease Activity Score >3.2). Infliximab was given...... intravenously at 3 mg/kg at baseline and after 2, 6 and 14 weeks. Adalimumab was administered as 40 mg biweekly subcutaneously. Concomitant drug treatment was monitored and continued at constant dosage during the study. All serum samples were tested for infliximab/adalimumab levels and anti...

  12. Lysyl oxidase enzymatic function increases stiffness to drive colorectal cancer progression through FAK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, A-M; Bird, D; Lang, G

    2013-01-01

    in stiffening of the matrix both in vitro and in vivo. We observe a strong association between matrix stiffness and activation of the FAK (focal adhesion kinase)/SRC-signaling pathway, with a stiffer environment resulting in increased FAK/SRC phosphorylation and a more proliferative and invasive phenotype. We...

  13. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    is proposed that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and the use of technology from a technical performance perspective. A dynamic approach to definition of the functional unit is proposed that is based on Kano’s model of product function and satisfaction. Results and discussion: The new approach......Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...

  14. Functional connectivity between core and shoulder muscles increases during isometric endurance contractions in judo competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawczyński, Adam; Samani, Afshin; Mroczek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the surface electromyogram (SEMG) changes within and between muscles of the torso and shoulder region during static endurance contraction in elite judokas. We hypothesized an increased functional connectivity of muscles from the shoulder and torso...... endurance contraction consisting of bilateral arm abduction at 90°. The normalized mutual information (NMI) was computed between muscle pairs as an index indicating functional connectivity. Results: The NMIs increased significantly during endurance test for 10 of the 15 muscle pairs (P ... : We concluded that the increases in NMIs highlighted functional changes in the interplay between core and shoulder muscles during an endurance contraction in elite judokas....

  15. Increasing Agrin Function Antagonizes Muscle Atrophy and Motor Impairment in Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Boido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a pediatric genetic disease, characterized by motor neuron (MN death, leading to progressive muscle weakness, respiratory failure, and, in the most severe cases, to death. Abnormalities at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ have been reported in SMA, including neurofilament (NF accumulation at presynaptic terminals, immature and smaller than normal endplates, reduced transmitter release, and, finally, muscle denervation. Here we have studied the role of agrin in SMAΔ7 mice, the experimental model of SMAII. We observed a 50% reduction in agrin expression levels in quadriceps of P10 SMA mice compared to age-matched WT controls. To counteract such condition, we treated SMA mice from birth onwards with therapeutic agrin biological NT-1654, an active splice variant of agrin retaining synaptogenic properties, which is also resistant to proteolytic cleavage by neurotrypsin. Mice were analyzed for behavior, muscle and NMJ histology, and survival. Motor behavior was significantly improved and survival was extended by treatment of SMA mice with NT-1654. At P10, H/E-stained sections of the quadriceps, a proximal muscle early involved in SMA, showed that NT-1654 treatment strongly prevented the size decrease of muscle fibers. Studies of NMJ morphology on whole-mount diaphragm preparations revealed that NT-1654-treated SMA mice had more mature NMJs and reduced NF accumulation, compared to vehicle-treated SMA mice. We conclude that increasing agrin function in SMA has beneficial outcomes on muscle fibers and NMJs as the agrin biological NT-1654 restores the crosstalk between muscle and MNs, delaying muscular atrophy, improving motor performance and extending survival.

  16. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional dive...

  17. Generalized Møller-Plesset Multiconfiguration Perturbation Theory Applied to an Open-Shell Antisymmetric Product of Strongly Orthogonal Geminals Reference Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Moto; Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-11-13

    The antisymmetric product of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG) method is a wave function theory that can effectively treat the static electron correlation. Recently, we proposed the open-shell APSG method using one-electron orbitals for open-shell parts. In this paper, we have extended the perturbation correction to the open-shell APSG calculations through Møller-Plesset-type multiconfiguration perturbation theory (MP-MCPT). Numerical applications demonstrate that the present open-shell MP-MCPT can reasonably reproduce the dissociation energies or equilibrium distances for open-shell systems.

  18. Spatial and temporal functional changes in alpine summit vegetation are driven by increases in shrubs and graminoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Susanna; Pickering, Catherine; Green, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Classical approaches to investigating temporal and spatial changes in community composition offer only partial insight into the ecology that drives species distribution, community patterns and processes, whereas a functional approach can help to determine many of the underlying mechanisms that drive such patterns. Here, we aim to bring these two approaches together to understand such drivers, using an elevation gradient of sites, a repeat species survey and species functional traits. We used data from a repeat vegetation survey on five alpine summits and measured plant height, leaf area, leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area (SLA) for every species recorded in the surveys. We combined species abundances with trait values to produce a community trait-weighted mean (CTWM) for each trait, and then combined survey results with the CTWMs. Across the gradient of summits, more favourable conditions for plant growth (warmer, longer growing season) occurred at the lower elevations. Vegetation composition changes between 2004 and 2011 (according to non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordination) were strongly affected by the high and increasing abundance of species with high SLA at high elevations. Species life-form categories strongly affected compositional changes and functional composition, with increasing dominance of tall shrubs and graminoids at the lower-elevation summits, and an overall increase in graminoids across the gradient. The CTWM for plant height and leaf dry matter content significantly decreased with elevation, whereas for leaf area and SLA it significantly increased. The significant relationships between CTWM and elevation may suggest specific ecological processes, namely plant competition and local productivity, influencing vegetation preferentially across the elevation gradient, with the dominance of shrubs and graminoids driving the patterns in the CTWMs. PMID:24790129

  19. Enhanced interannual precipitation variability increases plant functional diversity that in turn ameliorates negative impact on productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E

    2015-12-01

    Although precipitation interannual variability is projected to increase due to climate change, effects of changes in precipitation variance have received considerable less attention than effects of changes in the mean state of climate. Interannual precipitation variability effects on functional diversity and its consequences for ecosystem functioning are assessed here using a 6-year rainfall manipulation experiment. Five precipitation treatments were switched annually resulting in increased levels of precipitation variability while maintaining average precipitation constant. Functional diversity showed a positive response to increased variability due to increased evenness. Dominant grasses decreased and rare plant functional types increased in abundance because grasses showed a hump-shaped response to precipitation with a maximum around modal precipitation, whereas rare species peaked at high precipitation values. Increased functional diversity ameliorated negative effects of precipitation variability on primary production. Rare species buffered the effect of precipitation variability on the variability in total productivity because their variance decreases with increasing precipitation variance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Construction of three-dimensional graphene interfaces into carbon fiber textiles for increasing deposition of nickel nanoparticles: flexible hierarchical magnetic textile composites for strong electromagnetic shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Xing-Ming; Liu, Lin; Li, Hai-Bing; Wang, Chan-Yuan; Xie, Qing; Zhao, Quan-Liang; Bi, Song; Hou, Zhi-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Since manipulating electromagnetic waves with electromagnetic active materials for environmental and electric engineering is a significant task, here a novel prototype is reported by introducing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) interfaces in carbon fiber (CF) networks for a hierarchical carbon fiber/reduced graphene oxide/nickel (CF-RGO-Ni) composite textile. Upon charaterizations of the microscopic morphologies, electrical and magnetic properties, the presence of three-dimensional RGO interfaces and bifunctional nickel nanoparticles substantially influences the related physical properties in the resulting hierarchical composite textiles. Eletromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance suggests that the hierarchical composite textiles hold a strong shielding effectiveness greater than 61 dB, showing greater advantages than conventional polymeric and foamy shielding composites. As a polymer-free lightweight structure, flexible CF-RGO-Ni composites of all electromagnetic active components offer unique understanding of the multi-scale and multiple mechanisms in electromagnetic energy consumption. Such a novel prototype of shielding structures along with convenient technology highlight a strategy to achieve high-performance EMI shielding, coupled with a universal approach for preparing advanced lightweight composites with graphene interfaces.

  1. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikas, Hash(0x125f4490)

    2011-02-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field ( B) of strength up to 1011 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >109 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >109 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs "dynamically" from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints.

  2. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  3. Management with willow short rotation coppice increase the functional gene diversity and functional activity of a heavy metal polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, K; van Nostrand, J D; Vangronsveld, J; Witters, N; Janssen, J O; Kumpiene, J; Siebielec, G; Galazka, R; Giagnoni, L; Arenella, M; Zhou, J-Z; Renella, G

    2015-11-01

    We studied the microbial functional diversity, biochemical activity, heavy metals (HM) availability and soil toxicity of Cd, Pb and Zn contaminated soils, kept under grassland or short rotation coppice (SRC) to attenuate the risks associated with HM contamination and restore the soil ecological functions. Soil microbial functional diversity was analyzed by the GeoChip, a functional gene microarray containing probes for genes involved in nutrient cycling, metal resistance and stress response. Soil under SRC showed a higher abundance of microbial genes involved in C, N, P and S cycles and resistance to various HM, higher microbial biomass, respiration and enzyme activity rates, and lower HM availability than the grassland soil. The linkages between functional genes of soil microbial communities and soil chemical properties, HM availability and biochemical activity were also investigated. Soil toxicity and N, P and Pb availability were important factors in shaping the microbial functional diversity, as determined by CCA. We concluded that in HM contaminated soils the microbial functional diversity was positively influenced by SRC management through the reduction of HM availability and soil toxicity increase of nutrient cycling. The presented results can be important in predicting the long term environmental sustainability of plant-based soil remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A. Englander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005. Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17, who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study.

  5. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A; Sun, Jessica; Laura Case; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study.

  6. Brief counselling after home-based HIV counselling and testing strongly increases linkage to care: a cluster-randomized trial in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzagira, Eugene; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kamali, Anatoli; Baisley, Kathy

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether counselling provided subsequent to HIV testing and referral for care increases linkage to care among HIV-positive persons identified through home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) in Masaka, Uganda. The study was an open-label cluster-randomized trial. 28 rural communities were randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention (HBHCT, referral and counselling at one and two months) or control (HBHCT and referral only). HIV-positive care-naïve adults (≥18 years) were enrolled. To conceal participants' HIV status, one HIV-negative person was recruited for every three HIV-positive participants. Primary outcomes were linkage to care (clinic-verified registration for care) status at six months, and time to linkage. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat using random effects logistic regression or Cox regression with shared frailty, as appropriate. Three hundred and two(intervention, n = 149; control, n = 153) HIV-positive participants were enrolled. Except for travel time to the nearest HIV clinic, baseline participant characteristics were generally balanced between trial arms. Retention was similar across trial arms (92% overall). One hundred and twenty-seven (42.1%) participants linked to care: 76 (51.0%) in the intervention arm versus 51 (33.3%) in the control arm [odds ratio = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.26-3.78; p = 0.008)]. There was evidence of interaction between trial arm and follow-up time (p = 0.009). The probability of linkage to care, did not differ between arms in the first two months of follow-up, but was subsequently higher in the intervention arm versus the control arm [hazard ratio = 4.87, 95% CI = 1.79-13.27, p = 0.002]. Counselling substantially increases linkage to care among HIV-positive adults identified through HBHCT and may enhance efforts to increase antiretroviral therapy coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS

  7. Increased right-to-left ventricle diameter ratio is a strong predictor of right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Rey P; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M; Qamar, Umair; Garikipati, Sireesha; Trevino, Alejandro R; Aldeiri, Molham; Loebe, Matthias; Bruckner, Brian A; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Trachtenberg, Barry H; Estep, Jerry D

    2013-08-01

    Predictors of right ventricular failure (RVF) in patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have not been fully elucidated and are comprised mostly of clinical variables. We evaluated echocardiographic parameters associated with adverse outcomes in this population. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs) before continuous-flow LVAD implantation were analyzed in 109 patients. Twenty-six 2-dimensional and Doppler parameters were assessed for their association with the primary outcome of 30-day RVF, defined as a requirement of an RV assist device or ≥ 14 consecutive days of inotropic support, and the secondary composite outcome of 30-day death or RVF. Multivariate analysis adjusted for known clinical risk prediction models was performed. Overall, 25 (22.9%) and 27 (24.8%) patients reached the primary and secondary end-points, respectively. An increased RV/LV diameter ratio was the only TTE variable independently associated with both the primary (odds ratio [OR] = 5.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40 to 12.40; p = 0.012) and secondary (OR = 2.70; 95% CI 1.06 to 6.22; p = 0.03) outcomes after multivariate analysis. Scatterplot analysis with regression determined the optimal cut-off value for RV/LV diameter to be 0.75. Based on receiver operating characteristic curves, an increased RV/LV diameter ratio provided an additional predictive value to clinical risk scores. A TTE-measured RV/LV diameter ratio of ≥0.75 is independently associated with a higher risk for RVF in patients with continuous-flow LVAD. When used alone, this simple, easily derived, practical echocardiographic measurement has a predictive value equivalent to known clinical risk scores, whereas their combination provides stronger risk prediction for adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Colchicine Depolymerizes Microtubules, Increases Junctophilin-2, and Improves Right Ventricular Function in Experimental Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Tian, Lian; Wu, Danchen; Thenappan, Thenappan; Metzger, Joseph M; Archer, Stephen L

    2017-05-31

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal disease characterized by obstructive pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Although RV function predicts outcomes in PAH, mechanisms of RV dysfunction are poorly understood, and RV-targeted therapies are lacking. We hypothesized that in PAH, abnormal microtubular structure in RV cardiomyocytes impairs RV function by reducing junctophilin-2 (JPH2) expression, resulting in t-tubule derangements. Conversely, we assessed whether colchicine, a microtubule-depolymerizing agent, could increase JPH2 expression and enhance RV function in monocrotaline-induced PAH. Immunoblots, confocal microscopy, echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and treadmill testing were used to examine colchicine's (0.5 mg/kg 3 times/week) effects on pulmonary hemodynamics, RV function, and functional capacity. Rats were treated with saline (n=28) or colchicine (n=24) for 3 weeks, beginning 1 week after monocrotaline (60 mg/kg, subcutaneous). In the monocrotaline RV, but not the left ventricle, microtubule density is increased, and JPH2 expression is reduced, with loss of t-tubule localization and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves t-tubule morphology in RV cardiomyocytes. Colchicine therapy diminishes RV hypertrophy, improves RV function, and enhances RV-pulmonary artery coupling. Colchicine reduces small pulmonary arteriolar thickness and improves pulmonary hemodynamics. Finally, colchicine increases exercise capacity. Monocrotaline-induced PAH causes RV-specific derangement of microtubules marked by reduction in JPH2 and t-tubule disarray. Colchicine reduces microtubule density, increases JPH2 expression, and improves both t-tubule architecture and RV function. Colchicine also reduces adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling. These results provide biological plausibility for a clinical trial to repurpose colchicine as a RV-directed therapy for PAH

  9. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  10. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  11. Estimation of strong ground motion in broad-frequency band based on a seismic source scaling model and an empirical Green's function technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamae

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized method for simulating strong ground motion from large earthquakes by summing subevent records to follow the ?2 law. The original idea of the method is based on a constant stress parameter between the target event and the subevent. It is applicable to a case where both events have a different stress drop after some manipulation. However, the simulation for a very large earthquake from a small event with this method has inevitably some deficiencies of spectral amplitudes in the intermediate frequency range deviating f`rom the ?2 model, although the high and low frequency motions match the scaling. We improve the simulation algorithm so as not to make spectral sags, introducing self-similar distribution of subfaults with different sizes in the fault plane, so-called fractal composite faulting model. We show successful simulations for intermediate-sized earthquakes (MJMA = 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1, the large aftershocks of the 1983 Akita-Oki earthquake. using the records of smaller aftershocks (MJMA = 3.9 and 5.0 as an empirical Green's function. Further, we attempted to estimate strong ground motion for the 1946 Nankai earthquake with Mw 8.2, using the records of a MJMA 5.1 earthquake occurring near the source region of the mainshock. We found that strong ground motions simulated for the fractal composite faulting model with two asperities radiating significantly high frequency motions matched well the observed data such as the near-field displacement record, the source spectrum estimated from the teleseismic record, and the seismic intensity distribution during the 1946 Nankai earthquake.

  12. New Raman method for aqueous solutions: xi-function dispersion evidence for strong F(-)-water H-bonds in aqueous CsF and KF solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrafen, George E

    2005-08-15

    The Raman xi-function dispersion method recently elucidated for the strong H-bond breaker, ClO4-, in water [G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094510 (2005)] is extended to the strongly H-bond forming ion, F-. Measuring the xi function is analogous to measuring DeltaG from the thermodynamic activity of the water, aH2O, as the stoichiometric mol fraction of the water in the solution decreases due to addition of an electrolyte or nonelectrolyte. xi is the derivative of the OH-stretching part of the Gibbs free energy with respect to the water mol fraction; xiomega identical with-RT[ partial differential ln(Iomega/IREF) partial differentialX2](T,P). I is the Raman intensity at omega (omega=Raman shift in cm-1); IREF, that at an arbitrary reference omega; and, X2 is the water mol fraction (X1=CsF or KF mol fraction). ln(Iomega/IREF) was found to be linear in X2 for the complete range of OH-stretching omega's, with correlation coefficients as large as 0.999 96. Linearity of ln(Iomega/IREF) versus X2 is an experimental fact for all omega's throughout the spontaneous Raman OH-stretching contour; this fact cannot be negated by relative contributions of ultrafast/fast, homogeneous/inhomogeneous processes which may underlie this linearity. Linearity in ln(Iomega/IREF) versus 1T, or in ln(Iomega/IREF) versus P, was also observed for the Raman H-bond energy DeltaE and pair volume DeltaV dispersions, respectively. A low-frequency maximum (MAX) and a high-frequency minimum (MIN) were observed in the xi function dispersion curve. Deltaxi=xiMIN-xiMAX values of -7000+/-800-cal/mol H2O for CsF, and the experimentally equal Deltaxi=-6400+/-1000-cal/mol H2O for KF, were obtained. These Deltaxi's are opposite in sign but have nearly the same absolute magnitude as the Deltaxi value for NaClO4 in water; Deltaxi=+8050+/-100-cal/mol H2O. A positive Deltaxi corresponds to a water-water H-bond breaker; a negative Deltaxi to a H-bond former; specifically, a F--water H-bond former, in the

  13. Quantum fluid dynamics based current-density functional study of a helium atom in a strong time-dependent magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas [Quantum Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, 160014 Chandigrah (India)

    2011-02-15

    Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10{sup 11} G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10{sup 9} G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10{sup 9} G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)

  14. Increased frontal functional networks in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the resting state activity from rs-fMRI data and to select the specific regions associated with executive functions, followed by the secondary analysis of the functional networks connecting these regions. It was found that survivors exhibited differences in the functional connectivity in executive control network (ECN, default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN compared to demographically-matched controls. More specifically, the number of functional connectivity observed in the survivors is higher than that in the controls, and with increased strength, or stronger correlation coefficient between paired seeds, in survivors compared to the controls. Observed hyperconnectivity in the selected frontal functional network thus is consistent with findings in patients with other neurological injuries and diseases.

  15. CD54-Mediated Interaction with Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Increases the Immunosuppressive Function of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Espagnolle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs sense and modulate inflammation and represent potential clinical treatment for immune disorders. However, many details of the bidirectional interaction of MSCs and the innate immune compartment are still unsolved. Here we describe an unconventional but functional interaction between pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages (M1MΦ and MSCs, with CD54 playing a central role. CD54 was upregulated and enriched specifically at the contact area between M1MФ and MSCs. Moreover, the specific interaction induced calcium signaling and increased the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs dependent on CD54 mediation. Our data demonstrate that MSCs can detect an inflammatory microenvironment via a direct and physical interaction with innate immune cells. This finding opens different perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy. : Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are promising for cell-based therapy in inflammatory disorders by switching off the immune response. Varin and colleagues demonstrate that MSCs and inflammatory macrophages communicate via an unconventional but functional interaction that strongly increases the immunosuppressive capacities of MSCs. This new communication between the innate immune system and MSCs opens new perspectives for MSC-based cell therapy. Keywords: macrophages, bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, functional interaction, CD54, immunosuppression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, cell therapy

  16. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  17. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  18. Noradrenaline transporter blockade increases fronto-parietal functional connectivity relevant for working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernaus, Dennis; Casales Santa, Marta Ma; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2017-04-01

    Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers. Atomoxetine increased functional connectivity between right anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and precuneus during the high-working memory load condition of the n-back task. Increased atomoxetine-induced insula-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity during this condition correlated with decreased reaction time variability and was furthermore predicted by working memory capacity. These results show for the first time that noradrenaline transporter blockade-induced increases in cortical catecholamines accentuate fronto-parietal working memory-related network integrity. The observation of significant inter-subject variability in response to atomoxetine has implications for inverted-U frameworks of dopamine and noradrenaline function, which could be useful to predict drug effects in clinical disorders with variable treatment response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Increased Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leisure-time physical activity (PA and exercise training are known to help maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults. However, relatively little is known about the effects of PA on cognitive function or brain function in those at increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease through the presence of the apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4 allele, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, or the presence of metabolic disease. Here, we examine the question of whether PA and exercise interventions may differentially impact cognitive trajectory, clinical outcomes, and brain structure and function among individuals at the greatest risk for AD. The literature suggests that the protective effects of PA on risk for future dementia appear to be larger in those at increased genetic risk for AD. Exercise training is also effective at helping to promote stable cognitive function in MCI patients, and greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with greater brain volume in early-stage AD patients. In APOE-ε4 allele carriers compared to non-carriers, greater levels of PA may be more effective in reducing amyloid burden and are associated with greater activation of semantic memory-related neural circuits. A greater research emphasis should be placed on randomized clinical trials for exercise, with clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging outcomes in people at increased risk for AD.

  20. Coexistence via resource partitioning fails to generate an increase in community function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P DeLong

    Full Text Available Classic ecological theory suggests that resource partitioning facilitates the coexistence of species by reducing inter-specific competition. A byproduct of this process is an increase in overall community function, because a greater spectrum of resources can be used. In contrast, coexistence facilitated by neutral mechanisms is not expected to increase function. We studied coexistence in laboratory microcosms of the bactivorous ciliates Paramecium aurelia and Colpidium striatum to understand the relationship between function and coexistence mechanism. We quantified population and community-level function (biomass and oxygen consumption, competitive interactions, and resource partitioning. The two ciliates partitioned their bacterial resource along a size axis, with the larger ciliate consuming larger bacteria than the smaller ciliate. Despite this, there was no gain in function at the community level for either biomass or oxygen consumption, and competitive effects were symmetrical within and between species. Because other potential coexistence mechanisms can be ruled out, it is likely that inter-specific interference competition diminished the expected gain in function generated by resource partitioning, leading to a system that appeared competitively neutral even when structured by niche partitioning. We also analyzed several previous studies where two species of protists coexisted and found that the two-species communities showed a broad range of biomass levels relative to the single-species states.

  1. Elevated plasma fibrinogen associated with reduced pulmonary function and increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Vestbo, J

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether increased concentrations of the acute-phase reactant fibrinogen correlate with pulmonary function and rate of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalization. We measured plasma fibrinogen and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), and assessed prospectively COPD...

  2. Increased functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and reward system in pathological gambling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Koehler

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG shares clinical characteristics with substance-use disorders and is thus discussed as a behavioral addiction. Recent neuroimaging studies on PG report functional changes in prefrontal structures and the mesolimbic reward system. While an imbalance between these structures has been related to addictive behavior, whether their dysfunction in PG is reflected in the interaction between them remains unclear. We addressed this question using functional connectivity resting-state fMRI in male subjects with PG and controls. Seed-based functional connectivity was computed using two regions-of-interest, based on the results of a previous voxel-based morphometry study, located in the prefrontal cortex and the mesolimbic reward system (right middle frontal gyrus and right ventral striatum. PG patients demonstrated increased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to the right striatum as compared to controls, which was also positively correlated with nonplanning aspect of impulsiveness, smoking and craving scores in the PG group. Moreover, PG patients demonstrated decreased connectivity from the right middle frontal gyrus to other prefrontal areas as compared to controls. The right ventral striatum demonstrated increased connectivity to the right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left cerebellum in PG patients as compared to controls. The increased connectivity to the cerebellum was positively correlated with smoking in the PG group. Our results provide further evidence for alterations in functional connectivity in PG with increased connectivity between prefrontal regions and the reward system, similar to connectivity changes reported in substance use disorder.

  3. Thermal consequences of increased pelt loft infer an additional utilitarian function for grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Richard; Henzi, S Peter; Barrett, Louise; Wanigaratne, Anuradha; Coetzee, Elsie; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-12-20

    A strong case has been made that the primary function of grooming is hygienic. Nevertheless, its persistence in the absence of hygienic demand, and its obvious tactical importance to members of primate groups, underpins the view that grooming has become uncoupled from its utilitarian objectives and is now principally of social benefit. We identify improved thermoregulatory function as a previously unexplored benefit of grooming and so broaden our understanding of the utilitarian function of this behavior. Deriving the maximum thermal benefits from the pelt requires that it be kept clean and that the loft of the pelt is maintained (i.e., greater pelt depth), both of which can be achieved by grooming. In a series of wind-tunnel experiments, we measured the heat transfer characteristics of vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) pelts in the presence and absence of backcombing, which we used as a proxy for grooming. Our data indicate that backcombed pelts have improved thermal performance, offering significantly better insulation than flattened pelts and, hence, better protection from the cold. Backcombed pelts also had significantly lower radiant heat loads compared to flattened pelts, providing improved protection from radiant heat. Such thermal benefits, therefore, furnish grooming with an additional practical value to which its social use is anchored. Given the link between thermoregulatory ability and energy expenditure, our findings suggest that grooming for thermal benefits may be an important explanatory variable in the relationship between levels of sociability and individual fitness. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B

    2015-06-15

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality, leading some to suggest this condition represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers of function and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal, functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Modafinil treatment prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced brain function impairment by increasing MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Peng, Hua; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2011-12-02

    Previous work showed that sleep deprivation (SD) impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and a novel wake-promoting agent modafinil prevents SD-induced memory impairment in rat. However, the mechanisms by which modafinil prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of brain function remain poorly understood. In the present study, rats were sleep-deprived by using the modified multiple platform method and brain function was detected. The results showed that modafinil treatment prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of cognitive function. Modafinil significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo and upregulated synapsin I expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. A synaptic plasticity-related gene, MMP-9 expression was also upregulated in modafinil-treated rats. Importantly, downregulation of MMP-9 expression by special siRNA decreased synapsin I protein levels and synapse numbers. Therefore, we demonstrated that modafinil increased cognition function and synaptic plasticity, at least in part by increasing MMP-9 expression in REM-SD rats. 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A culturally-specific dance intervention to increase functional capacity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2008-01-01

    This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36-82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women.

  8. Application of Functionalized SWCNTs for Increase of Degradation Resistance of Acrylic Paint for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osiel Lucas Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of automotive acrylic paint are improved by incorporation of three different types of carbon nanotubes: single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, OH-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (OH-SWCNTs, and aniline-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotubes (aniline-SWCNTs. The formed composites are studied by electron miscroscopy methods and Raman spectrometry. It is found that the acrylic paints with addition of OH-SWCNTs and aniline-SWCNTs show better quality for their applications. In particular, the resistance against degradation by electron beam increased in ~500%.

  9. Vector species richness increases haemorrhagic disease prevalence through functional diversity modulating the duration of seasonal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andrew W; Cleveland, Christopher A; Dallas, Tad A; Corn, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Although many parasites are transmitted between hosts by a suite of arthropod vectors, the impact of vector biodiversity on parasite transmission is poorly understood. Positive relationships between host infection prevalence and vector species richness (SR) may operate through multiple mechanisms, including (i) increased vector abundance, (ii) a sampling effect in which species of high vectorial capacity are more likely to occur in species-rich communities, and (iii) functional diversity whereby communities comprised species with distinct phenologies may extend the duration of seasonal transmission. Teasing such mechanisms apart is impeded by a lack of appropriate data, yet could highlight a neglected role for functional diversity in parasite transmission. We used statistical modelling of extensive host, vector and microparasite data to test the hypothesis that functional diversity leading to longer seasonal transmission explained variable levels of disease in a wildlife population. We additionally developed a simple transmission model to guide our expectation of how an increased transmission season translates to infection prevalence. Our study demonstrates that vector SR is associated with increased levels of disease reporting, but not via increases in vector abundance or via a sampling effect. Rather, the relationship operates by extending the length of seasonal transmission, in line with theoretical predictions.

  10. Thermal discharge-created increasing temperatures alter the bacterioplankton composition and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Xiong, Shangling; Qian, Peng; Zhang, Demin; Liu, Lian; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-12-01

    Elevated seawater temperature has altered the coupling between coastal primary production and heterotrophic bacterioplankton respiration. This shift, in turn, could influence the feedback of ocean ecosystem to climate warming. However, little is known about how natural bacterioplankton community responds to increasing seawater temperature. To investigate warming effects on the bacterioplankton community, we collected water samples from temperature gradients (ranged from 15.0 to 18.6 °C) created by a thermal flume of a coal power plant. The results showed that increasing temperatures significantly stimulated bacterial abundance, grazing rate, and altered bacterioplankton community compositions (BCCs). The spatial distribution of bacterioplankton community followed a distance similarity decay relationship, with a turnover of 0.005. A variance partitioning analysis showed that temperature directly constrained 2.01 % variation in BCCs, while temperature-induced changes in water geochemical and grazing rate indirectly accounted for 4.03 and 12.8 % of the community variance, respectively. Furthermore, the relative abundances of 24 bacterial families were linearly increased or decreased (P < 0.05 in all cases) with increasing temperatures. Notably, the change pattern for a given bacterial family was in concert with its known functions. In addition, community functional redundancy consistently decreased along the temperature gradient. This study demonstrates that elevated temperature, combined with substrate supply and trophic interactions, dramatically alters BCCs, concomitant with decreases in functional redundancy. The responses of sensitive assemblages are temperature dependent, which could indicate temperature departures.

  11. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Lukkari, Kaarina; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Alf

    2012-01-01

    Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota) effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface) by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days) in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential), gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4)(+) and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4)(3-) were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4)(3-) sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress) explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the benthic habitat

  12. Consequences of increasing hypoxic disturbance on benthic communities and ecosystem functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Villnäs

    Full Text Available Disturbance-mediated species loss has prompted research considering how ecosystem functions are changed when biota is impaired. However, there is still limited empirical evidence from natural environments evaluating the direct and indirect (i.e. via biota effects of disturbance on ecosystem functioning. Oxygen deficiency is a widespread threat to coastal and estuarine communities. While the negative impacts of hypoxia on benthic communities are well known, few studies have assessed in situ how benthic communities subjected to different degrees of hypoxic stress alter their contribution to ecosystem functioning. We studied changes in sediment ecosystem function (i.e. oxygen and nutrient fluxes across the sediment water-interface by artificially inducing hypoxia of different durations (0, 3, 7 and 48 days in a subtidal sandy habitat. Benthic chamber incubations were used for measuring responses in sediment oxygen and nutrient fluxes. Changes in benthic species richness, structure and traits were quantified, while stress-induced behavioral changes were documented by observing bivalve reburial rates. The initial change in faunal behavior was followed by non-linear degradation in benthic parameters (abundance, biomass, bioturbation potential, gradually impairing the structural and functional composition of the benthic community. In terms of ecosystem function, the increasing duration of hypoxia altered sediment oxygen consumption and enhanced sediment effluxes of NH(4(+ and dissolved Si. Although effluxes of PO(4(3- were not altered significantly, changes were observed in sediment PO(4(3- sorption capability. The duration of hypoxia (i.e. number of days of stress explained a minor part of the changes in ecosystem function. Instead, the benthic community and disturbance-driven changes within the benthos explained a larger proportion of the variability in sediment oxygen- and nutrient fluxes. Our results emphasize that the level of stress to the

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. Disintegration of power grid as part of the task of increasing functionality of electric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukatov Bekzhan

    2017-01-01

    operation is inevitable with reduced reliability or, otherwise, with incomplete functionality where functionality is the set of functions provided by the power system and the quality of their performance. With the mass input of distributed small generation in grids of almost all voltage classes it is necessary to solve the problem of ensuring stability in previously passive distribution networks. The traditional approach based on the “struggle” to maintain synchronism between power plants in the distribution networks is associated with a number of difficulties, which causes to apply another approach to control modes in distribution networks. Complication of the power grid, automatic devices, increase in possible variations of modes, and tendency to maximize the use of production assets lead to an increase in the complexity of tasks solved by dispatch centers. In this regard, it is important to note that availability of cascade failures in power systems speaks of the urgency of the task of ensuring the survivability of energy supply systems both globally and locally. The paper shows how disintegration of the power grid can solve the task of ensuring the functionality of traditional power systems and help to create favorable conditions for distributed small generation integration into the integrated electric power system.

  15. Repeated increases in blood flow, independent of exercise, enhance conduit artery vasodilator function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard; FitzSimons, Matthew G; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of repeated increases in blood flow to conduit artery adaptation, using an exercise-independent repeated episodic stimulus. Recent studies suggest that exercise training improves vasodilator function of conduit arteries via shear stress-mediated mechanisms. However, exercise is a complex stimulus that may induce shear-independent adaptations. Nine healthy men immersed their forearms in water at 42°C for three 30-min sessions/wk across 8 wk. During each session, a pneumatic pressure cuff was inflated around one forearm to unilaterally modulate heating-induced increases in shear. Forearm heating was associated with an increase in brachial artery blood flow (P<0.001) and shear rate (P<0.001) in the uncuffed forearm; this response was attenuated in the cuffed limb (P<0.005). Repeated episodic exposure to bilateral heating induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to 5-min ischemic (P<0.05) and ischemic handgrip exercise (P<0.005) stimuli in the uncuffed forearm, whereas the 8-wk heating intervention did not influence dilation to either stimulus in the cuffed limb. Endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses were not altered in either limb. Repeated heating increases blood flow to levels that enhance endothelium-mediated vasodilator function in humans. These findings reinforce the importance of the direct impacts of shear stress on the vascular endothelium in humans.

  16. Loss-of-function variants in ADCY3 increase risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Andersen, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    We have identified a variant in ADCY3 (encoding adenylate cyclase 3) associated with markedly increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Greenlandic population. The variant disrupts a splice acceptor site, and carriers have decreased ADCY3 RNA expression. Additionally, we observe...... an enrichment of rare ADCY3 loss-of-function variants among individuals with type 2 diabetes in trans-ancestry cohorts. These findings provide new information on disease etiology relevant for future treatment strategies....

  17. Increased functional connectivity within memory networks following memory rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Wylie, Glenn R; Girgis, Peter A; DeLuca, John; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2014-09-01

    Identifying effective behavioral treatments to improve memory in persons with learning and memory impairment is a primary goal for neurorehabilitation researchers. Memory deficits are the most common cognitive symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), and hold negative professional and personal consequences for people who are often in the prime of their lives when diagnosed. A 10-session behavioral treatment, the modified Story Memory Technique (mSMT), was studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Behavioral improvements and increased fMRI activation were shown after treatment. Here, connectivity within the neural networks underlying memory function was examined with resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in a subset of participants from the clinical trial. We hypothesized that the treatment would result in increased integrity of connections within two primary memory networks of the brain, the hippocampal memory network, and the default network (DN). Seeds were placed in left and right hippocampus, and the posterior cingulate cortex. Increased connectivity was found between left hippocampus and cortical regions specifically involved in memory for visual imagery, as well as among critical hubs of the DN. These results represent the first evidence for efficacy of a behavioral intervention to impact the integrity of neural networks subserving memory functions in persons with MS.

  18. Increased executive functioning, attention, and cortical thickness in white-collar criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-12-01

    Very little is known on white-collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white-collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared with offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white-collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White-collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared with controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals. It is hypothesized that white-collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits linked to increased volume and functional connectivity within prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponay, Cole; Pujara, Maia; Deming, Philip; Philippi, Carissa; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Studies of brain structure and function in psychopathy have frequently identified abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, findings have not yet converged to yield a clear relationship between specific subregions of prefrontal cortex and particular psychopathic traits. We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of prefrontal cortex volume and functional connectivity in psychopathy, using a sample of adult male prison inmates (N = 124). We conducted volumetric analyses in prefrontal subregions, and subsequently assessed resting-state functional connectivity in areas where volume was related to psychopathy severity. We found that overall psychopathy severity and Factor 2 scores (which index the impulsive/antisocial traits of psychopathy) were associated with larger prefrontal subregion volumes, particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, Factor 2 scores were also positively correlated with functional connectivity between several areas of the prefrontal cortex. The results were not attributable to age, race, IQ, substance use history, or brain volume. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for co-localized increases in prefrontal cortex volume and intra-prefrontal functional connectivity in relation to impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Functionalization of Strongly Interacting Magnetic Nanocubes with (Thermo)responsive Coating and their Application in Hyperthermia and Heat-Triggered Drug Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Kakwere, Hamilton

    2015-04-03

    Herein we prepare nanohybrids by incorporating iron oxide nanocubes (cubic-IONPs) within a thermo-responsive polymer shell that can act as drug carriers for doxorubicin(doxo). The cubic-shaped nanoparticles employed are at the interface between superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior and have an exceptionally high specific absorption rate (SAR) but their functionalization is extremely challenging compared to bare superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as they strongly interact with each other. By conducting the polymer grafting reaction using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization in a viscous solvent medium, we have here developed a facile approach to decorate the nanocubes with stimuli-responsive polymers. When the thermo-responsive shell is composed of poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-polyethylene glycolmethylether acrylate), nanohybrids have a phase transition temperature, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), above 37 °C in physiological conditions. Doxo loaded nanohybrids exhibited a negligible drug release below 37 °C but showed a consistent release of their cargo on demand by exploiting the capability of the nanocubes to generate heat under an alternating magnetic field (AMF). Moreover, the drug free nanocarrier does not exhibit cytotoxicity even when administered at high concentration of nanocubes (1g/L of iron) and internalized at high extent (260 pg of iron per cell). We have also implemented the synthesis protocol to decorate the surface of nanocubes with poly(vinylpyridine) polymer and thus prepare pH-responsive shell coated nanocubes.

  1. Increased resting functional connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortex in creativity by means of cognitive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongtao; Yang, Junyi; Li, Wenfu; Wang, Kangcheng; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Creativity is imperative to the progression of civilization and is central to cultural life. Many neuroimaging studies have investigated the patterns of functional activity in the brain during different creative tasks, and the structural and functional characteristics of the highly creative individuals. However, few studies have investigated resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the brain related to individual differences in creativity, and it is still unclear whether the RSFC underlying creativity can be changed by training. The present study therefore used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI) to investigate the relationship between RSFC and creativity (divergent thinking, measured by the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) to explore whether RSFC can be influenced by cognitive stimulation. The results of 269 adults showed that creativity was positively correlated with the strength of RSFC between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the middle temporal gyrus (mTG). In addition, behavioral data showed that cognitive stimulation was successful in enhancing originality in a subset of the original participants (n = 34). Most interesting, we found that there was also a significantly increased RSFC between the mPFC and the mTG by analyzing the data of Rs-fMRI after creativity training. Taken together, these results suggest that increased RSFC between mPFC and mTG, which belong to the default mode network might be crucial to creativity, and that RSFC between the mPFC and mTG can be improved by means of cognitive stimulation (reflecting creativity training-induced changes in functional connectivity, especially in the lower creativity individuals who had lower scores of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and AV optimization increase myocardial oxygen consumption, but increase cardiac function more than proportionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Pabari, Punam A; Mayet, Jamil; Peters, Nicholas S; Davies, D Wyn; Lim, P Boon; Lefroy, David; Hughes, Alun D; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Francis, Darrel P; Whinnett, Zachary I

    2014-02-01

    The mechanoenergetic effects of atrioventricular delay optimization during biventricular pacing ("cardiac resynchronization therapy", CRT) are unknown. Eleven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, aortic flow velocity-time-integral (VTI) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at 4 pacing states: biventricular pacing (with VV 0 ms) at AVD 40 ms (AV-40), AVD 120 ms (AV-120, a common nominal AV delay), at their pre-identified individualised haemodynamic optimum (AV-Opt); and intrinsic conduction (LBBB). AV-120, relative to LBBB, increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 11(SEM 2)%, p=0.001, and aortic VTI by 11(SEM 3)%, p=0.002, but also increased MVO2 by 11(SEM 5)%, p=0.04. AV-Opt further increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 2(SEM 1)%, p=0.035 and aortic VTI by 4(SEM 1)%, p=0.017. MVO2 trended further up by 7(SEM 5)%, p=0.22. Mechanoenergetics at AV-40 were no different from LBBB. The 4 states lay on a straight line for Δexternal work (ΔLV developed pressure × Δaortic VTI) against ΔMVO2, with slope 1.80, significantly >1 (p=0.02). Biventricular pacing and atrioventricular delay optimization increased external cardiac work done but also myocardial oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, the increase in cardiac work was ~80% greater than the increase in oxygen consumption, signifying an improvement in cardiac mechanoenergetics. Finally, the incremental effect of optimization on external work was approximately one-third beyond that of nominal AV pacing, along the same favourable efficiency trajectory, suggesting that AV delay dominates the biventricular pacing effect - which may therefore not be mainly "resynchronization". © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Increase of the Functional Entropy of the Human Brain with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Lu, W. L.; Xu, B.; Li, C. B.; Lin, C. P.; Waxman, D.; Feng, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    We use entropy to characterize intrinsic ageing properties of the human brain. Analysis of fMRI data from a large dataset of individuals, using resting state BOLD signals, demonstrated that a functional entropy associated with brain activity increases with age. During an average lifespan, the entropy, which was calculated from a population of individuals, increased by approximately 0.1 bits, due to correlations in BOLD activity becoming more widely distributed. We attribute this to the number of excitatory neurons and the excitatory conductance decreasing with age. Incorporating these properties into a computational model leads to quantitatively similar results to the fMRI data. Our dataset involved males and females and we found significant differences between them. The entropy of males at birth was lower than that of females. However, the entropies of the two sexes increase at different rates, and intersect at approximately 50 years; after this age, males have a larger entropy. PMID:24103922

  4. Increased microbial functional diversity under long-term organic and integrated fertilization in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long-Jun; Su, Jian-Qiang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Jin-Shui; Wei, Wen-Xue

    2018-02-01

    Microbes play key roles in diverse biogeochemical processes including nutrient cycling. However, responses of soil microbial community and functional genes to long-term integrated fertilization (chemical combined with organic fertilization) remain unclear. Here, we used pyrosequencing and a microarray-based GeoChip to explore the shifts of microbial community and functional genes in a paddy soil which received over 21-year fertilization with various regimes, including control (no fertilizer), rice straw (R), rice straw plus chemical fertilizer nitrogen (NR), N and phosphorus (NPR), NP and potassium (NPKR), and reduced rice straw plus reduced NPK (L-NPKR). Significant shifts of the overall soil bacterial composition only occurred in the NPKR and L-NPKR treatments, with enrichment of certain groups including Bradyrhizobiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae families that benefit higher productivity. All fertilization treatments significantly altered the soil microbial functional structure with increased diversity and abundances of genes for carbon and nitrogen cycling, in which NPKR and L-NPKR exhibited the strongest effect, while R exhibited the least. Functional gene structure and abundance were significantly correlated with corresponding soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, respectively, suggesting that the structural shift of the microbial functional community under fertilization might promote soil nutrient turnover and thereby affect yield. Overall, this study indicates that the combined application of rice straw and balanced chemical fertilizers was more pronounced in shifting the bacterial composition and improving the functional diversity toward higher productivity, providing a microbial point of view on applying a cost-effective integrated fertilization regime with rice straw plus reduced chemical fertilizers for sustainable nutrient management.

  5. Joint modeling of genetically correlated diseases and functional annotations increases accuracy of polygenic risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of disease risk based on genetic factors is an important goal in human genetics research and precision medicine. Advanced prediction models will lead to more effective disease prevention and treatment strategies. Despite the identification of thousands of disease-associated genetic variants through genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past decade, accuracy of genetic risk prediction remains moderate for most diseases, which is largely due to the challenges in both identifying all the functionally relevant variants and accurately estimating their effect sizes. In this work, we introduce PleioPred, a principled framework that leverages pleiotropy and functional annotations in genetic risk prediction for complex diseases. PleioPred uses GWAS summary statistics as its input, and jointly models multiple genetically correlated diseases and a variety of external information including linkage disequilibrium and diverse functional annotations to increase the accuracy of risk prediction. Through comprehensive simulations and real data analyses on Crohn's disease, celiac disease and type-II diabetes, we demonstrate that our approach can substantially increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction and risk population stratification, i.e. PleioPred can significantly better separate type-II diabetes patients with early and late onset ages, illustrating its potential clinical application. Furthermore, we show that the increment in prediction accuracy is significantly correlated with the genetic correlation between the predicted and jointly modeled diseases.

  6. <strong>OPTIMIZATION OF IMMOBILIZED METAL strong>>ION AFFINITYstrong>> strong>>CHROMATOGRAPHY strong>>FOR strong>>PHOSPHOPEPTIDE ENRICHMENT  PRIOR TO strong>>MASS SPECTROMETRYstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Xumin; Young, Clifford

    simple procedures.     Methods Tryptic digests of standard phosphoproteins (bovine α,β- casein) and 3 non-phosphoproteins (bovine serum albumin, bovine β-lactoglobulin, and bovine carbonic anhydrase) with different ratios (1:50, 1:200, 1:500, 1:1000) were used for Fe(III)-IMAC (Qiagen Ni-NTA) enrichment.......   Results Fe(III)-IMAC using NTA-silica from Qiagen  showed a better performance than two other commercially available resins under the testing conditions. Increase of the acetonitrile content to 60% in loading and washing buffer significantly improved the specificity of IMAC enrichment. It was demonstrated...

  7. Cardiac resynchronization therapy and AV optimization increase myocardial oxygen consumption, but increase cardiac function more than proportionally☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Andreas; Pabari, Punam A.; Mayet, Jamil; Peters, Nicholas S.; Davies, D. Wyn; Lim, P. Boon; Lefroy, David; Hughes, Alun D.; Kanagaratnam, Prapa; Francis, Darrel P.; I.Whinnett, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanoenergetic effects of atrioventricular delay optimization during biventricular pacing (“cardiac resynchronization therapy”, CRT) are unknown. Methods Eleven patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent invasive measurements of left ventricular (LV) developed pressure, aortic flow velocity-time-integral (VTI) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at 4 pacing states: biventricular pacing (with VV 0 ms) at AVD 40 ms (AV-40), AVD 120 ms (AV-120, a common nominal AV delay), at their pre-identified individualised haemodynamic optimum (AV-Opt); and intrinsic conduction (LBBB). Results AV-120, relative to LBBB, increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 11(SEM 2)%, p = 0.001, and aortic VTI by 11(SEM 3)%, p = 0.002, but also increased MVO2 by 11(SEM 5)%, p = 0.04. AV-Opt further increased LV developed pressure by a mean of 2(SEM 1)%, p = 0.035 and aortic VTI by 4(SEM 1)%, p = 0.017. MVO2 trended further up by 7(SEM 5)%, p = 0.22. Mechanoenergetics at AV-40 were no different from LBBB. The 4 states lay on a straight line for Δexternal work (ΔLV developed pressure × Δaortic VTI) against ΔMVO2, with slope 1.80, significantly > 1 (p = 0.02). Conclusions Biventricular pacing and atrioventricular delay optimization increased external cardiac work done but also myocardial oxygen consumption. Nevertheless, the increase in cardiac work was ~ 80% greater than the increase in oxygen consumption, signifying an improvement in cardiac mechanoenergetics. Finally, the incremental effect of optimization on external work was approximately one-third beyond that of nominal AV pacing, along the same favourable efficiency trajectory, suggesting that AV delay dominates the biventricular pacing effect — which may therefore not be mainly “resynchronization”. PMID:24332598

  8. Increased plasmid copy number is essential for Yersinia T3SS function and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Avican, Kemal; Fahlgren, Anna; Erttmann, Saskia F; Nuss, Aaron M; Dersch, Petra; Fallman, Maria; Edgren, Tomas; Wolf-Watz, Hans

    2016-07-29

    Pathogenic bacteria have evolved numerous virulence mechanisms that are essential for establishing infections. The enterobacterium Yersinia uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by a 70-kilobase, low-copy, IncFII-class virulence plasmid. We report a novel virulence strategy in Y. pseudotuberculosis in which this pathogen up-regulates the plasmid copy number during infection. We found that an increased dose of plasmid-encoded genes is indispensable for virulence and substantially elevates the expression and function of the T3SS. Remarkably, we observed direct, tight coupling between plasmid replication and T3SS function. This regulatory pathway provides a framework for further exploration of the environmental sensing mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Non-equilibrium statistical mechanics: partition functions and steepest entropy increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordel, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of just the microscopic definition of thermodynamic entropy and the definition of the rate of entropy increase as the sum of products of thermodynamic fluxes and their conjugated forces, we have derived a general expression for non-equilibrium partition functions, which has the same form as the partition function previously obtained by other authors using different assumptions. Secondly we show that Onsager's reciprocity relations are equivalent to the assumption of steepest entropy ascent, independently of the choice of metric for the space of probability distributions. Finally we show that the Fisher–Rao metric for the space of probability distributions is the only one that guarantees that dissipative systems are what we call constantly describable (describable in terms of the same set of macroscopic observables during their entire trajectory of evolution towards equilibrium). The Fisher–Rao metric is fundamental to Beretta's dissipative quantum mechanics; therefore our last result provides a further justification for Beretta's theory

  10. Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Patients Induces an Increased Contractility in Vein Grafts Independent of Endothelial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Joo Turoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oxidative stress on vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors and on nitric oxide (NO bioavailability in saphenous vein (SV graft with endothelial dysfunction from hypertensive patients (HT. Methods. Endothelial function, vascular reactivity, oxidative state, nitrites and NO release were studied in isolated SV rings from HT and normotensive patients (NT. Only rings with endothelial dysfunction were used. Results. HT rings presented a hyperreactivity to vasoconstrictors that was reverted by diphenylene iodonium (DPI. In NT, no effect of DPI was obtained, but Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased the contractile response. NO was present in SV rings without endothelial function. Nitrites were higher in NT than in HT (1066.1 ± 86.3 pmol/mg; n=11 versus 487.8 ± 51.6; n=23; P<0.01 and inhibited by nNOS inhibitor. L-arginine reversed this effect. Antioxidant agents increased nitrites and NO contents only in HT. The anti-nNOS-stained area by immunohistochemistry was higher in NT than HT. HT showed an elevation of oxidative state. Conclusions. Extraendothelial NO counter-regulates contractility in SV. However, this action could be altered in hypertensive situations by an increased oxidative stress or a decreased ability of nNOS to produce NO. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the implication of these results in graft patency rates.

  11. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  12. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  13. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal O'Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m(2 and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008. NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/- 13% vs 42% +/-12%, p = 0.04. Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001. NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01. Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002 and lean controls (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  14. Structural disconnection is responsible for increased functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kevin R; Tobyne, Sean; Porter, Daria; Bireley, John Daniel; Smith, Victoria; Klawiter, Eric

    2018-02-16

    Increased synchrony within neuroanatomical networks is often observed in neurophysiologic studies of human brain disease. Most often, this phenomenon is ascribed to a compensatory process in the face of injury, though evidence supporting such accounts is limited. Given the known dependence of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) on underlying structural connectivity (SC), we examine an alternative hypothesis: that topographical changes in SC, specifically particular patterns of disconnection, contribute to increased network rsFC. We obtain measures of rsFC using fMRI and SC using probabilistic tractography in 50 healthy and 28 multiple sclerosis subjects. Using a computational model of neuronal dynamics, we simulate BOLD using healthy subject SC to couple regions. We find that altering the model by introducing structural disconnection patterns observed in those multiple sclerosis subjects with high network rsFC generates simulations with high rsFC as well, suggesting that disconnection itself plays a role in producing high network functional connectivity. We then examine SC data in individuals. In multiple sclerosis subjects with high network rsFC, we find a preferential disconnection between the relevant network and wider system. We examine the significance of such network isolation by introducing random disconnection into the model. As observed empirically, simulated network rsFC increases with removal of connections bridging a community with the remainder of the brain. We thus show that structural disconnection known to occur in multiple sclerosis contributes to network rsFC changes in multiple sclerosis and further that community isolation is responsible for elevated network functional connectivity.

  15. Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Stimulation Increases Renal Function in Female, but Not Male, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilliard, Lucinda M; Chow, Charis L E; Mirabito, Katrina M

    2014-01-01

    in female hypertensive rats (PTreatmentarterial pressure. For example, at 300 ng/kg per minute of compound 21, renal blood flow increased by 14.3±1.8% from baseline. Furthermore, at 300 ng/kg per minute of compound 21, a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion...... vasodilatation and sodium excretion without concomitant alterations in glomerular filtration rate in female hypertensive rats. Chronic studies of AT2R agonist therapy on renal function and arterial pressure in hypertensive states are now required to establish the suitability of AT2R as a therapeutic target......Accumulating evidence suggests that the protective pathways of the renin-angiotensin system are enhanced in women, including the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R), which mediates vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. To provide insight into the sex-specific ability of pharmacological AT2R...

  16. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Tumor growth increases neuroinflammation, fatigue and depressive-like behavior prior to alterations in muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Diana M; Bicer, Sabahattin; Clark, Yvonne; Jing, Runfeng; Henry, Christopher J; Wold, Loren E; Reiser, Peter J; Godbout, Jonathan P; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently suffer from fatigue, a complex syndrome associated with loss of muscle mass, weakness, and depressed mood. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) can be present at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and persists for years after treatment. CRF negatively influences quality of life, limits functional independence, and is associated with decreased survival in patients with incurable disease. Currently there are no effective treatments to reduce CRF. The aim of this study was to use a mouse model of tumor growth and discriminate between two main components of fatigue: loss of muscle mass/function and altered mood/motivation. Here we show that tumor growth increased fatigue- and depressive-like behaviors, and reduced body and muscle mass. Decreased voluntary wheel running activity (VWRA) and increased depressive-like behavior in the forced swim and sucrose preference tests were evident in tumor-bearing mice within the first two weeks of tumor growth and preceded the loss of body and muscle mass. At three weeks, tumor-bearing mice had reduced grip strength but this was not associated with altered expression of myosin isoforms or impaired contractile properties of muscles. These increases in fatigue and depressive-like behaviors were paralleled by increased expression of IL-1β mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus. Minocycline administration reduced tumor-induced expression of IL-1β in the brain, reduced depressive-like behavior, and improved grip strength without altering muscle mass. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroinflammation and depressed mood, rather than muscle wasting, contribute to decreased voluntary activity and precede major changes in muscle contractile properties with tumor growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gelatin functionalization with tyrosine derived moieties to increase the interaction with hydroxyapatite fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffe, Axel T; Loebus, Axel; Zaupa, Alessandro; Stoetzel, Christian; Müller, Frank A; Lendlein, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    Combining gelatins functionalized with the tyrosine-derived groups desaminotyrosine or desaminotyrosyl tyrosine with hydroxyapatite (HAp) led to the formation of composite materials with much lower swelling ratios than those of the pure matrices. Shifts of the infra-red (IR) bands related to the free carboxyl groups could be observed in the presence of HAp, which suggested a direct interaction of matrix and filler that formed additional physical cross-links in the material. In tensile tests and rheological measurements the composites equilibrated in water had increased Young's moduli (from 200 kPa up to 2 MPa) and tensile strengths (from 57 kPa up to 1.1 MPa) compared with the matrix polymers without affecting the elongation at break. Furthermore, an increased thermal stability of the networks from 40 to 85°C could be demonstrated. The differences in the behaviour of the functionalized gelatins compared with pure gelatin as a matrix suggested an additional stabilizing bond between the incorporated aromatic groups and the HAp as supported by the IR results. The composites can potentially be applied as bone fillers. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  20. Functional residual capacity increase during laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The number of laparoscopic surgeries performed is increasing every year and in most cases the pneumoperitoneum method is used. One alternative is the abdominal wall lifting method and this study was undertaken to evaluate changes of functional residual capacity during the abdominal wall lift procedure. Methods: From January to April 2013, 20 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a single institution. All patients were anesthetized using propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. FRC was measured automatically by Engstrom Carestation before the abdominal wall lift and again 15 minutes after the start of the procedure. Results: After abdominal wall lift, there was a significant increase in functional residual capacity values (before abdominal wall lift 1.48 × 103 mL, after abdominal wall lift 1.64 × 103 mL (p < 0.0001. No complications such as desaturation were observed in any patient during this study. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift may be appropriate for patients who have risk factors such as obesity and respiratory disease.

  1. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine alter monocyte, macrophage and T cell functions: implications for HAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Coley, Jacqueline S.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) complications resulting from HIV infection remain a major public health problem as individuals live longer due to the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). As many as 70% of HIV infected people have HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Many HIV infected individuals abuse drugs, such as cocaine, heroin or methamphetamine, that may be important cofactors in the development of HIV CNS disease. Despite different mechanisms of action, all drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the CNS. The effects of dopamine on HIV neuropathogenesis are not well understood, and drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which different types of drugs of abuse impact the development of HAND. Monocytes and macrophages are central to HIV infection of the CNS and to HAND. While T cells have not been shown to be a major factor in HIV-associated neuropathogenesis, studies indicate that T cells may play a larger role in the development of HAND in HIV infected drug abusers. Drug induced increases in CNS dopamine may dysregulate functions of, or increase HIV infection in, monocytes, macrophages and T cells in the brain. Thus, characterizing the effects of dopamine on these cells is important for understanding the mechanisms that mediate the development of HAND in drug abusers. PMID:23456305

  2. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Compensatory increase of functional connectivity density in adolescents with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Gao, Peihong; Qi, Xin; Du, Guijin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral studies have demonstrated visual attention bias and working memory deficits in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD). Neuroimaging studies demonstrated that individuals with IGD presented abnormalities in brain structures and functions including resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) disturbance. However, most previous studies investigated IGD-related rsFC alterations by using hypothesis-driven methods with priori selection of a region of interest, which cannot provide a full picture of the rsFC changes in IGD individuals. In this study, we recruited 27 male IGD adolescents and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) to investigate abnormal connective property of each voxel within whole brain of IGD adolescents using resting-state functional connectivity density (rsFCD) method, and further to evaluate the relationship between altered rsFCD and behavioral performances of visual attention and working memory. The results exhibited no significant intergroup difference in behavioral performance (visual working memory and attention). The IGD adolescents exhibited higher global/long-range rsFCD in the bilateral dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right inferior temporal cortex (ITC)/fusiform compared with the HCs. Although no significant correlation survived after Bonferroni correction, higher global/long-range rsFCD of the bilateral DLPFC was correlated with the Young's internet addiction test (IAT) score and/or behavioral performance in IGD adolescents using an uncorrected threshold of P < 0.05. In conclusion, IGD adolescents demonstrated increased rsFCD in the brain regions involved in working memory, spatial orientation and attention processing, which indicated that increased rsFCD may reflect a compensatory mechanism for maintaining the normal behavioral performance in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs.

  4. Baroreflex failure increases the risk of pulmonary edema in conscious rats with normal left ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kazuo; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Saku, Keita; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Tobushi, Tomoyuki; Oga, Yasuhiro; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-15

    In heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the complex pathogenesis hinders development of effective therapies. Since HFpEF and arteriosclerosis share common risk factors, it is conceivable that stiffened arterial wall in HFpEF impairs baroreflex function. Previous investigations have indicated that the baroreflex regulates intravascular stressed volume and arterial resistance in addition to cardiac contractility and heart rate. We hypothesized that baroreflex dysfunction impairs regulation of left atrial pressure (LAP) and increases the risk of pulmonary edema in freely moving rats. In 15-wk Sprague-Dawley male rats, we conducted sinoaortic denervation (SAD, n = 6) or sham surgery (Sham, n = 9), and telemetrically monitored ambulatory arterial pressure (AP) and LAP. We compared the mean and SD (lability) of AP and LAP between SAD and Sham under normal-salt diet (NS) or high-salt diet (HS). SAD did not increase mean AP but significantly increased AP lability under both NS (P = 0.001) and HS (P = 0.001). SAD did not change mean LAP but significantly increased LAP lability under both NS (SAD: 2.57 ± 0.43 vs. Sham: 1.73 ± 0.30 mmHg, P = 0.01) and HS (4.13 ± 1.18 vs. 2.45 ± 0.33 mmHg, P = 0.02). SAD markedly increased the frequency of high LAP, and SAD with HS prolonged the duration of LAP > 18 mmHg by nearly 20-fold compared with Sham (SAD + HS: 2,831 ± 2,366 vs. Sham + HS: 148 ± 248 s, P = 0.01). We conclude that baroreflex failure impairs volume tolerance and together with salt loading increases the risk of pulmonary edema even in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction. Baroreflex failure may contribute in part to the pathogenesis of HFpEF. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. High Level of Nonsynonymous Changes in Common Bean Suggests That Selection under Domestication Increased Functional Diversity at Target Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Rau, Domenico; Benazzo, Andrea; Bellucci, Elisa; Goretti, Daniela; Biagetti, Eleonora; Panziera, Alex; Laidò, Giovanni; Rodriguez, Monica; Gioia, Tania; Attene, Giovanna; McClean, Phillip; Lee, Rian K; Jackson, Scott A; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Papa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Crop species have been deeply affected by the domestication process, and there have been many efforts to identify selection signatures at the genome level. This knowledge will help geneticists to better understand the evolution of organisms, and at the same time, help breeders to implement successful breeding strategies. Here, we focused on domestication in the Mesoamerican gene pool of Phaseolus vulgaris by sequencing 49 gene fragments from a sample of 45 P. vulgaris wild and domesticated accessions, and as controls, two accessions each of the closely related species Phaseolus coccineus and Phaseolus dumosus . An excess of nonsynonymous mutations within the domesticated germplasm was found. Our data suggest that the cost of domestication alone cannot explain fully this finding. Indeed, the significantly higher frequency of polymorphisms in the coding regions observed only in the domesticated plants (compared to noncoding regions), the fact that these mutations were mostly nonsynonymous and appear to be recently derived mutations, and the investigations into the functions of their relative genes (responses to biotic and abiotic stresses), support a scenario that involves new functional mutations selected for adaptation during domestication. Moreover, consistent with this hypothesis, selection analysis and the possibility to compare data obtained for the same genes in different studies of varying sizes, data types, and methodologies allowed us to identify four genes that were strongly selected during domestication. Each selection candidate is involved in plant resistance/tolerance to abiotic stresses, such as heat, drought, and salinity. Overall, our study suggests that domestication acted to increase functional diversity at target loci, which probably controlled traits related to expansion and adaptation to new agro-ecological growing conditions.

  6. Increased numbers and functional activity of CD56⁺ T cells in healthy cytomegalovirus positive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Mazen; Flanagan, Brian F; Khan, Naeem; Alomar, Suliman; Christmas, Stephen E

    2014-06-01

    Human T cells expressing CD56 are capable of tumour cell lysis following activation with interleukin-2 but their role in viral immunity has been less well studied. Proportions of CD56(+) T cells were found to be highly significantly increased in cytomegalovirus-seropositive (CMV(+) ) compared with seronegative (CMV(-) ) healthy subjects (9.1 ± 1.5% versus 3.7 ± 1.0%; P < 0.0001). Proportions of CD56(+) T cells expressing CD28, CD62L, CD127, CD161 and CCR7 were significantly lower in CMV(+) than CMV(-) subjects but those expressing CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD57, CD58, CD94 and NKG2C were significantly increased (P < 0.05), some having the phenotype of T effector memory cells. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CD107a were significantly higher in CD56(+) T cells from CMV(+) than CMV(-) subjects following stimulation with CMV antigens. This also resulted in higher levels of proliferation in CD56(+) T cells from CMV(+) than CMV(-) subjects. Using Class I HLA pentamers, it was found that CD56(+) T cells from CMV(+) subjects contained similar proportions of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells to CD56(-) T cells in donors of several different HLA types. These differences may reflect the expansion and enhanced functional activity of CMV-specific CD56(+) memory T cells. In view of the link between CD56 expression and T-cell cytotoxic function, this strongly implicates CD56(+) T cells as being an important component of the cytotoxic T-cell response to CMV in healthy carriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  8. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  9. Functional differences in the activity of the hamstring muscles with increasing running speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Ayako; Ono, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Okuwaki, Toru; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we examined hamstring muscle activation at different running speeds to help better understand the functional characteristics of each hamstring muscle. Eight healthy male track and field athletes (20.1 +/- 1.1 years) performed treadmill running at 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95% of their maximum velocity. Lower extremity kinematics of the hip and knee joint were calculated. The surface electromyographic activities of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles were also recorded. Increasing the running speed from 85% to 95% significantly increased the activation of the hamstring muscles during the late swing phase, while lower extremity kinematics did not change significantly. During the middle swing phase, the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was significantly greater than that of the biceps femoris muscle at 75%, 85%, and 95% of running speed. Statistically significant differences in peak activation time were observed between the biceps femoris and semitendinosus during 95%max running (P muscles were observed as running speed was increased, indicating that complex neuromuscular coordination patterns occurred during the running cycle at near maximum sprinting speeds.

  10. Pentobarbital dose-dependently increases respiratory genioglossus muscle activity while impairing diaphragmatic function in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikermann, Matthias; Fassbender, Philipp; Zaremba, Sebastian; Jordan, Amy S; Rosow, Carl; Malhotra, Atul; Chamberlin, Nancy L

    2009-06-01

    Anesthetics depress both ventilatory and upper airway dilator muscle activity and thus put the upper airway at risk for collapse. However, these effects are agent-dependent and may involve upper airway and diaphragm muscles to varying degrees. The authors assessed the effects of pentobarbital on upper airway dilator and respiratory pump muscle function in rats and compared these results with the effects of normal sleep. Tracheostomized rats were given increasing doses of pentobarbital to produce deep sedation then light and deep anesthesia, and negative pressure airway stimuli were applied (n = 11). To compare the effects of pentobarbital with those of natural sleep, the authors chronically instrumented rats (n = 10) with genioglossus and neck electromyogram and electroencephalogram electrodes and compared genioglossus activity during wakefulness, sleep (rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement), and pentobarbital anesthesia. Pentobarbital caused a dose-dependent decrease in ventilation and in phasic diaphragmatic electromyogram by 11 +/- 0.1%, but it increased phasic genioglossus electromyogram by 23 +/- 0.2%. Natural non-rapid eye movement sleep and pentobarbital anesthesia (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) decreased respiratory genioglossus electromyogram by 61 +/- 29% and 45 +/- 35%, respectively, and natural rapid eye movement sleep caused the greatest decrease in phasic genioglossus electromyogram (95 +/- 0.3%). Pentobarbital in rats impairs respiratory genioglossus activity compared to the awake state, but the decrease is no greater than seen during natural sleep. During anesthesia, in the absence of pharyngeal airflow, phasic genioglossus activity is increased in a dose-dependent fashion.

  11. Musical training increases functional connectivity, but does not enhance mu suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Carolyn; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J

    2017-09-01

    Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, others suggest that because humans naturally move to music, sensorimotor training is not necessary and there is a more general action representation for music. We previously demonstrated that EEG mu suppression, commonly implemented to demonstrate mirror-neuron-like action representation while observing movements, can also index action representations for sounds in pianists. The current study extends these findings to a group of non-musicians who learned to play randomised sequences on a piano, in order to acquire specific sound-action mappings for the five fingers of their right hand. We investigated training-related changes in neural dynamics as indexed by mu suppression and task-related coherence measures. To test the specificity of training effects, we included sounds similar to those encountered in the training and additionally rhythm sequences. We found no effect of training on mu suppression between pre- and post-training EEG recordings. However, task-related coherence indexing functional connectivity between electrodes over audiomotor areas increased after training. These results suggest that long-term training in musicians and short-term training in novices may be associated with different stages of audiomotor integration that can be reflected in different EEG measures. Furthermore, the changes in functional connectivity were specifically found for piano tones, and were not apparent when participants listened to rhythms, indicating some degree of specificity related to training

  12. Adaptive responses of cardiac function to fetal postural change as gestational age increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Jin; Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Koo, Boo Hae; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The cardiovascular system maintains homeostasis through a series of adaptive responses to physiological requirements. However, little is known about the adaptation of fetal cardiac function to gravity, according to gestational age. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adaptive responses of cardiac function to postural changes, using Tei index measurements. Methods Fetal echocardiography and Doppler examination were performed on 114 women with vertex singleton pregnancies at 19 to 40 weeks' gestation. Participants were placed in an upright seated position, and the Tei index for fetal left ventricular cardiac function was measured. The women were then moved into a supine position and the Tei index was re-measured. Results The mean Tei index when measured in an upright seated position was significantly lower than that measured in a supine positioning for all fetuses (0.528±0.103 vs. 0.555±0.106, P=0.014, respectively). This difference was also noted in fetuses with a gestational age of 28–40 weeks (0.539±0.107 vs. 0.574±0.102, P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no difference in the Tei index between an upright seated and a supine position among fetuses with a gestational age of Postural changes from an upright seated to a supine position result in an increased Tei index after a gestational age of 28 weeks. This appears to reflect maturation in the adaptive responses of the fetal cardiovascular system to postural changes. PMID:27896244

  13. Impairments in real-world executive function increase from childhood to adolescence in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Michael; Wallace, Gregory L; Lawson, Rachel; Wills, Meagan C; Dixon, Eunice; Yerys, Benjamin E; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated developmental trajectories of executive functioning (EF) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using lab-based tasks, no study to date has directly measured how EF skills in everyday settings vary at different ages. The current study seeks to extend prior work by evaluating age-related differences in parent-reported EF problems during childhood and adolescence in a large cross-sectional cohort of children with ASD. Children (N = 185) with an ASD without intellectual disability participated in the study. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (5-7, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-18-year-olds). The four age groups did not differ in IQ, sex ratio, or autism symptoms. There were significant age effects (i.e., worsening scores with increasing age) in three of G. A. Gioia, P. K. Isquith, S. Guy, and L. Kenworthy's (2000) BRIEF: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources scale scores: Initiate (p = .007), working memory (p = .003), and organization of materials (p = .023). In addition, analysis of the BRIEF scale profile revealed that, although multiple scales were elevated, the shift scale showed the greatest problems in both the youngest and oldest age cohorts. Older children with ASD show greater EF problems compared with the normative sample than younger children with ASD. Specifically, there is a widening divergence from the normative sample in metacognitive executive abilities in children with ASD as they age. This, in combination with significant, albeit more stable, impairments in flexibility, has implications for the challenges faced by high-functioning individuals with ASD as they attempt to enter mainstream work and social environments.

  14. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  15. Increased functional stability and homogeneity of viral envelope spikes through directed evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Leaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The functional HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimer, the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (Abs, is innately labile and coexists with non-native forms of Env. This lability and heterogeneity in Env has been associated with its tendency to elicit non-neutralizing Abs. Here, we use directed evolution to overcome instability and heterogeneity of a primary Env spike. HIV-1 virions were subjected to iterative cycles of destabilization followed by replication to select for Envs with enhanced stability. Two separate pools of stable Env variants with distinct sequence changes were selected using this method. Clones isolated from these viral pools could withstand heat, denaturants and other destabilizing conditions. Seven mutations in Env were associated with increased trimer stability, primarily in the heptad repeat regions of gp41, but also in V1 of gp120. Combining the seven mutations generated a variant Env with superior homogeneity and stability. This variant spike moreover showed resistance to proteolysis and to dissociation by detergent. Heterogeneity within the functional population of hyper-stable Envs was also reduced, as evidenced by a relative decrease in a proportion of virus that is resistant to the neutralizing Ab, PG9. The latter result may reflect a change in glycans on the stabilized Envs. The stabilizing mutations also increased the proportion of secreted gp140 existing in a trimeric conformation. Finally, several Env-stabilizing substitutions could stabilize Env spikes from HIV-1 clades A, B and C. Spike stabilizing mutations may be useful in the development of Env immunogens that stably retain native, trimeric structure.

  16. Increased Alpha Band Functional Connectivity Following the Quadrato Motor Training: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lasaponara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quadrato Motor Training (QMT is a new training paradigm, which was found to increase cognitive flexibility, creativity and spatial cognition. In addition, QMT was reported to enhance inter- and intra-hemispheric alpha coherence as well as Fractional Anisotropy (FA in a number of white matter pathways including corpus callosum. Taken together, these results seem to suggest that electrophysiological and structural changes induced by QMT may be due to an enhanced interplay and communication of the different brain areas within and between the right and the left hemisphere. In order to test this hypothesis using the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA, we estimated the current neural density and lagged linear connectivity (LLC of the alpha band in the resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG recorded with open (OE and closed eyes (CE at three different time points, following 6 and 12 weeks of daily QMT. Significant changes were observed for the functional connectivity. In particular, we found that limbic and fronto-temporal alpha connectivity in the OE condition increased after 6 weeks, while it enhanced at the CE condition in occipital network following 12-weeks of daily training. These findings seem to show that the QMT may have dissociable long-term effects on the functional connectivity depending on the different ways of recording rsEEG. OE recording pointed out a faster onset of Linear Lag Connectivity modulations that tend to decay as quickly, while CE recording showed sensible effect only after the complete 3-months training.

  17. Increased Global Functional Connectivity Correlates with LSD-Induced Ego Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Orban, Csaba; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Murphy, Kevin; Laufs, Helmut; Leech, Robert; McGonigle, John; Crossley, Nicolas; Bullmore, Edward; Williams, Tim; Bolstridge, Mark; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin

    2016-04-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a non-selective serotonin-receptor agonist that was first synthesized in 1938 and identified as (potently) psychoactive in 1943. Psychedelics have been used by indigenous cultures for millennia [1]; however, because of LSD's unique potency and the timing of its discovery (coinciding with a period of major discovery in psychopharmacology), it is generally regarded as the quintessential contemporary psychedelic [2]. LSD has profound modulatory effects on consciousness and was used extensively in psychological research and psychiatric practice in the 1950s and 1960s [3]. In spite of this, however, there have been no modern human imaging studies of its acute effects on the brain. Here we studied the effects of LSD on intrinsic functional connectivity within the human brain using fMRI. High-level association cortices (partially overlapping with the default-mode, salience, and frontoparietal attention networks) and the thalamus showed increased global connectivity under the drug. The cortical areas showing increased global connectivity overlapped significantly with a map of serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor densities (the key site of action of psychedelic drugs [4]). LSD also increased global integration by inflating the level of communication between normally distinct brain networks. The increase in global connectivity observed under LSD correlated with subjective reports of "ego dissolution." The present results provide the first evidence that LSD selectively expands global connectivity in the brain, compromising the brain's modular and "rich-club" organization and, simultaneously, the perceptual boundaries between the self and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Melatonin enhances neural stem cell differentiation and engraftment by increasing mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivil-Perez, Miguel; Soto-Mercado, Viviana; Guerra-Librero, Ana; Fernandez-Gil, Beatriz I; Florido, Javier; Shen, Ying-Qiang; Tejada, Miguel A; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Rusanova, Iryna; Garcia-Verdugo, José M; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos; Velez-Pardo, Carlos; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Ferrer, José M; Escames, Germaine

    2017-09-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are regarded as a promising therapeutic approach to protecting and restoring damaged neurons in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (PD and AD, respectively). However, new research suggests that NSC differentiation is required to make this strategy effective. Several studies have demonstrated that melatonin increases mature neuronal markers, which reflects NSC differentiation into neurons. Nevertheless, the possible involvement of mitochondria in the effects of melatonin during NSC differentiation has not yet been fully established. We therefore tested the impact of melatonin on NSC proliferation and differentiation in an attempt to determine whether these actions depend on modulating mitochondrial activity. We measured proliferation and differentiation markers, mitochondrial structural and functional parameters as well as oxidative stress indicators and also evaluated cell transplant engraftment. This enabled us to show that melatonin (25 μM) induces NSC differentiation into oligodendrocytes and neurons. These effects depend on increased mitochondrial mass/DNA/complexes, mitochondrial respiration, and membrane potential as well as ATP synthesis in NSCs. It is also interesting to note that melatonin prevented oxidative stress caused by high levels of mitochondrial activity. Finally, we found that melatonin enriches NSC engraftment in the ND mouse model following transplantation. We concluded that a combined therapy involving transplantation of NSCs pretreated with pharmacological doses of melatonin could efficiently restore neuronal cell populations in PD and AD mouse models depending on mitochondrial activity promotion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Silicon Application Increases Drought Tolerance of Kentucky Bluegrass by Improving Plant Water Relations and Morphophysiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Saud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.. Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L−1 of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L−1 significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  20. Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Shah; Li, Xin; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800 mg L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400 mg L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses.

  1. Functional adaptability of temporomandibular joint mechanoreceptors after an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Satomi; Ishida, Takayoshi; Kokai, Satoshi; Fujita, Koichi; Shibata, Mai; Yabushita, Tadachika; Ono, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effects of an experimentally-induced increase in the occlusal vertical dimension (iOVD) on the functional characteristics of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mechanoreceptors in rats. Sixty 13-week-old male albino Wistar rats were divided into control and iOVD groups (30 animals each). The vertical dimension between the maxillary and mandibular molars in the iOVD group was increased by 2.0 mm with a build-up of resin on the maxillary molars. Single-unit activities of TMJ mechanoreceptors were evoked by passive jaw movement. Recording was performed from the gasserian ganglion 1 day and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 weeks after the establishment of iOVD. Compared with the control group, the firing threshold was significantly lower at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after iOVD in the iOVD group. There were no significant differences in the firing threshold at 1 day, or 7 or 9 weeks. The maximum instantaneous firing frequency was significantly higher at 1, 3, and 5 weeks after iOVD in the iOVD group, but there were no significant differences at 1 day, or 7 or 9 weeks. There were no significant differences in the average firing frequency during the experimental period. The present study findings suggest that TMJ mechanoreceptors in adult rats may ultimately adapt to iOVD.

  2. Specific protein homeostatic functions of small heat-shock proteins increase lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Michel J; Carra, Serena; Kanon, Bart; Bosveld, Floris; Klauke, Karin; Sibon, Ody C M; Kampinga, Harm H

    2016-04-01

    During aging, oxidized, misfolded, and aggregated proteins accumulate in cells, while the capacity to deal with protein damage declines severely. To cope with the toxicity of damaged proteins, cells rely on protein quality control networks, in particular proteins belonging to the family of heat-shock proteins (HSPs). As safeguards of the cellular proteome, HSPs assist in protein folding and prevent accumulation of damaged, misfolded proteins. Here, we compared the capacity of all Drosophila melanogaster small HSP family members for their ability to assist in refolding stress-denatured substrates and/or to prevent aggregation of disease-associated misfolded proteins. We identified CG14207 as a novel and potent small HSP member that exclusively assisted in HSP70-dependent refolding of stress-denatured proteins. Furthermore, we report that HSP67BC, which has no role in protein refolding, was the most effective small HSP preventing toxic protein aggregation in an HSP70-independent manner. Importantly, overexpression of both CG14207 and HSP67BC in Drosophila leads to a mild increase in lifespan, demonstrating that increased levels of functionally diverse small HSPs can promote longevity in vivo. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Analysis and functional consequences of increased Fab-sialylation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) after lectin fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsermann, Fabian; Boerema, David J; Rüegsegger, Monika; Hofmann, Andreas; Wymann, Sandra; Zuercher, Adrian W; Miescher, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might be due to the small fraction of Fc-sialylated IgG. In this study we biochemically and functionally characterized sialic acid-enriched IgG obtained by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) lectin fractionation. Two main IgG fractions isolated by elution with lactose (E1) or acidified lactose (E2) were analyzed for total IgG, F(ab')(2) and Fc-specific sialic acid content, their pattern of specific antibodies and anti-inflammatory potential in a human in vitro inflammation system based on LPS- or PHA-stimulated whole blood. HPLC and LC-MS testing revealed an increase of sialylated IgG in E1 and more substantially in the E2 fraction. Significantly, the increased amount of sialic acid residues was primarily found in the Fab region whereas only a minor increase was observed in the Fc region. This indicates preferential binding of the Fab sialic acid to SNA. ELISA analyses of a representative range of pathogen and auto-antigens indicated a skewed antibody pattern of the sialylated IVIG fractions. Finally, the E2 fraction exerted a more profound anti-inflammatory effect compared to E1 or IVIG, evidenced by reduced CD54 expression on monocytes and reduced secretion of MCP-1 (CCL2); again these effects were Fab- but not Fc-dependent. Our results show that SNA fractionation of IVIG yields a minor fraction (approx. 10%) of highly sialylated IgG, wherein the sialic acid is mainly found in the Fab region. The tested anti-inflammatory activity was associated with Fab not Fc sialylation.

  4. Analysis and functional consequences of increased Fab-sialylation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG after lectin fractionation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Käsermann

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG might be due to the small fraction of Fc-sialylated IgG. In this study we biochemically and functionally characterized sialic acid-enriched IgG obtained by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA lectin fractionation. Two main IgG fractions isolated by elution with lactose (E1 or acidified lactose (E2 were analyzed for total IgG, F(ab'(2 and Fc-specific sialic acid content, their pattern of specific antibodies and anti-inflammatory potential in a human in vitro inflammation system based on LPS- or PHA-stimulated whole blood. HPLC and LC-MS testing revealed an increase of sialylated IgG in E1 and more substantially in the E2 fraction. Significantly, the increased amount of sialic acid residues was primarily found in the Fab region whereas only a minor increase was observed in the Fc region. This indicates preferential binding of the Fab sialic acid to SNA. ELISA analyses of a representative range of pathogen and auto-antigens indicated a skewed antibody pattern of the sialylated IVIG fractions. Finally, the E2 fraction exerted a more profound anti-inflammatory effect compared to E1 or IVIG, evidenced by reduced CD54 expression on monocytes and reduced secretion of MCP-1 (CCL2; again these effects were Fab- but not Fc-dependent. Our results show that SNA fractionation of IVIG yields a minor fraction (approx. 10% of highly sialylated IgG, wherein the sialic acid is mainly found in the Fab region. The tested anti-inflammatory activity was associated with Fab not Fc sialylation.

  5. Increased actin polymerization and stabilization interferes with neuronal function and survival in the AMPKγ mutant Loechrig.

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    Mandy Cook

    Full Text Available loechrig (loe mutant flies are characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, behavioral deficits, and early death. The mutation is due to a P-element insertion in the gene for the γ-subunit of the trimeric AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK complex, whereby the insertion affects only one of several alternative transcripts encoding a unique neuronal isoform. AMPK is a cellular energy sensor that regulates a plethora of signaling pathways, including cholesterol and isoprenoid synthesis via its downstream target hydroxy-methylglutaryl (HMG-CoA reductase. We recently showed that loe interferes with isoprenoid synthesis and increases the prenylation and thereby activation of RhoA. During development, RhoA plays an important role in neuronal outgrowth by activating a signaling cascade that regulates actin dynamics. Here we show that the effect of loe/AMPKγ on RhoA prenylation leads to a hyperactivation of this signaling pathway, causing increased phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizating factor cofilin and accumulation of filamentous actin. Furthermore, our results show that the resulting cytoskeletal changes in loe interfere with neuronal growth and disrupt axonal integrity. Surprisingly, these phenotypes were enhanced by expressing the Slingshot (SSH phosphatase, which during development promotes actin depolymerization by dephosphorylating cofilin. However, our studies suggest that in the adult SSH promotes actin polymerization, supporting in vitro studies using human SSH1 that suggested that SSH can also stabilize and bundle filamentous actin. Together with the observed increase in SSH levels in the loe mutant, our experiments suggest that in mature neurons SSH may function as a stabilization factor for filamentous actin instead of promoting actin depolymerization.

  6. Family disruption increases functional somatic symptoms in late adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2014-11-01

    Functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) are physical symptoms that cannot be (fully) explained by organic pathology. FSSs are very common among children and adolescents, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We hypothesize that (a) the experience of family disruption due to parental divorce or parental death increases FSSs in adolescents; (b) symptoms of depression and anxiety contribute to the relationship between family disruption and FSSs; (c) girls are more vulnerable to these effects than boys. Data were obtained from the prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (N = 2,230), aged 10 to 12 years at baseline. FSSs were assessed using the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report. Parental divorce and parental death were assessed with self-reports. Both outcome and predictors were assessed during 3 assessment waves over the course of 5 years. Linear mixed models were used to investigate associations between both types of family disruption and FSSs. An interaction with age was found for parental divorce (B = 0.01, p = .02) and parental death (B = 0.03, p = .04), indicating that the influence of family disruption on FSSs increases during adolescence. This relationship seems to be partly explained by symptoms of depression and anxiety. No gender differences were found with regard to the effects of family disruption on FSSs. Family disruption is associated with an increased level of FSSs in late adolescence in both genders. This relationship is partly explained by symptoms of depression and/or anxiety. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Transplants and neurotrophic factors increase regeneration and recovery of function after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Barbara S; Coumans, Jean-Valery; Dai, Hai Ning; Kuhn, Penelope L; Lynskey, James; McAtee, Marietta; Sandhu, Faheem

    2002-01-01

    Earlier studies suggested that while after spinal cord lesions and transplants at birth, the transplants serve both as a bridge and as a relay to restore supraspinal input caudal to the injury (Bregman, 1994), after injury in the adult the spinal cord transplants serve as a relay, but not as a bridge. We show here, that after complete spinal cord transection in adult rats, delayed spinal cord transplants and exogenous neurotrophic factors, the transplants can also serve as a bridge to restore supraspinal input (Fig. 9). We demonstrate here that when the delivery of transplants and neurotrophins are delayed until 2 weeks after spinal cord transection, the amount of axonal growth and the amount of recovery of function are dramatically increased. Under these conditions, both supraspinal and propriospinal projections to the host spinal cord caudal to the transection are reestablished. The growth of supraspinal axons across the transplant and back into the host spinal cord caudal to the lesion was dependent upon the presence of exogenous neurotrophic support. Without the neurotrophins, only propriospinal axons were able to re-establish connections across the transplant. Studies using peripheral nerve or Schwann cell grafts have shown that some anatomical connectivity can be restored across the injury site, particularly under the influence of neurotrophins (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Without neurotrophin treatment, brainstem axons do not enter [figure: see text] the graft (Xu et al., 1995a,b; Cheng et al., 1996; Ye and Houle, 1997). Similarly, cells genetically modified to secrete neurotrophins and transplanted into the spinal cord influence the axonal growth of specific populations of spinally projecting neurons (Tuszynski et al., 1996, 1997; Grill et al., 1997; Blesch and Tuszynski, 1997). Taken together, these studies support a role for neurotrophic factors in the repair of the mature CNS. The regrowth of supraspinal and propriospinal

  8. Protein kinase G1 α overexpression increases stem cell survival and cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

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    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that overexpression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type 1α (PKG1α could mimic the effect of tadalafil on the survival of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs contributing to regeneration of the ischemic heart.MSCs from male rats were transduced with adenoviral vector encoding for PKG1α ((PKG1αMSCs.Controls included native MSCs ((NatMSCs and MSCs transduced with an empty vector ((NullMSCs. PKG1α activity was increased approximately 20, 5 and 16 fold respectively in (PKG1αMSCs. (PKG1αMSCs showed improved survival under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD which was evidenced by lower LDH release, caspase-3/7 activity and number of positive TUNEL cells. Anti-apoptotic proteins pAkt, pGSK3β, and Bcl-2 were significantly increased in (PKG1αMSCs compared to (NatMSCs and (NullMSCs. Higher release of multiple prosurvival and angiogenic factors such as HGF, bFGF, SDF-1 and Ang-1 was observed in (PKG1αMSCs before and after OGD. In a female rat model of acute myocardial infarction, (PKG1αMSCs group showed higher survival compared with (NullMSCs group at 3 and 7 days after transplantation as determined by TUNEL staining and sry-gene quantitation by real-time PCR. Increased anti-apoptotic proteins and paracrine factors in vitro were also identified. Immunostaining for cardiac troponin I combined with GFP showed increased myogenic differentiation of (PKG1αMSCs. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared to DMEM group and (NullMSCs group, (PKG1αMSCs group showed increased blood vessel density in infarct and peri-infarct areas (62.5±7.7; 68.8±7.3 per microscopic view, p<0.05 and attenuated infarct size (27.2±2.5%, p<0.01. Heart function indices including ejection fraction (52.1±2.2%, p<0.01 and fractional shortening (24.8%±1.3%, p<0.01 were improved significantly in (PKG1αMSCs group.Overexpression of PKG1α transgene could be a powerful approach to improve MSCs survival and their angiomyogenic potential in the

  9. INCREASING THE FUNCTIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MUNICIPAL SERVICE SYSTEMS THROUGH MUNICIPAL-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Atueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Due to the issue of public utility development becoming a key concern for many Russian municipalities, this study aims to evaluate methods for increasing the efficiency of municipal services. The reason for this is the severe dilapidation of the physical infrastructure. Given the limited budget, the question inevitably arises as to how to most effectively spend the funds available and at the same time solve emerging urban infrastructure problems. Method. Use of the municipal-private partnership mechanism can significantly reduce the burden on the municipal budget.The method of paired comparisons of alternative models is recommended on the basis of the choice of the municipal-private partnership model.Alternative models of municipal-private partnership are ranked in preference against a plurality of predetermined comparison criteria. Results.The results of an analysis of the development of municipal services in the city of Makhachkala are presented. The necessity for municipal-private partnerships to be developed in the area of urban public utilities is substantiated. A structural-logical model of municipal-private partnership in the communal area of the city is proposed with the concrete functions assigned to each of the members of the municipal-private partnership. Conclusion. It is demonstrated that municipal-private partnerships serve as a means of optimising the performance of municipal functions with respect to the seamless provision of quality housing and communal services to the city's population and creation of a favourable urban environment. Use of the proposed method allows alternative models to be evaluated and the optimal model of municipal-private partnership selected for the implementation of a specific project in the area of urban public utilities. 

  10. Progression of residual renal function with an increase in dialysis: haemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruel-Briones, José L; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Rivera-Gorrin, Maite; Ruiz-Roso, Gloria; Díaz-Domínguez, Marta; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Nuria; Quereda-Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to analyse the progression of residual renal function according to the dialysis technique (peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis) and the frequency of treatment (two or three sessions of haemodialysis per week). As secondary objectives, we studied the progression of the serum concentration levels of β2 microglobulin and the response of anaemia to erythropoietic agents. 193 non-anuric patients were included and began renal replacement therapy with dialysis in our hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011, with a follow-up period of over three months. 61 patients (32%) began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week, 49 patients (25%) with three haemodialysis sessions per week and 83 patients (43%) with peritoneal dialysis. The glomerular filtration rate was measured as the mean of the renal clearances of urea and creatinine. The rate of decrease in glomerular filtration was the same in patients who began treatment with two haemodialysis sessions per week and with peritoneal dialysis (median 0.18 ml/min/month) and it was higher in patients who began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week (median 0.33 ml/min/month, Pperitoneal dialysis, and it was lower in the group that began treatment with three sessions of haemodialysis per week with statistical significance during the first 24 months of follow up. In the three patient groups, β2-microglobulin concentration increased as the glomerular filtration rate decreased and it was higher in the group on three weekly haemodialysis sessions for the first 12 months of follow up. In all the controls carried out, there was a negative correlation between the beta-2 microglobulin concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (Pperitoneal dialysis group was below that of the group of two weekly haemodialysis sessions despite maintaining a similar glomerular filtration rate. Patients who begin treatment with two sessions of haemodialysis per week experience

  11. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

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    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  12. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingbo; Cao, Jianzhong; Yuan, Shuanghu; Ji, Wei; Arenberg, Douglas; Dai, Jianrong; Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Wang, Luhua; Kong, Feng-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability

  13. Increasing Compliance in Students with Intellectual Disabilities Using Functional Behavioral Assessment and Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jamie P.; Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Noncompliance in three elementary age students with intellectual disabilities was assessed using functional behavioral assessments. Escape was identified as the primary function of the behavior in all three students, and access to tangible items was identified in one of the students as a secondary function. Teacher-monitoring and self-monitoring…

  14. Increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion: the Saku study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Akiko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Soyano, Fumie; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Sonoda, Nao; Godai, Kayo; Ohno, Yuko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Deura, Kijyo

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion (IIS). This study included 2,209 participants aged 30-69 without diabetes at baseline who underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 2006 and March 2007 at Saku Central Hospital. Participants were classified into eight groups according to the combination of baseline IIS status (non-IIS and IIS) and category of HOMA-IR change between the baseline and follow-up examinations (decrease, no change/small increase, moderate increase, and large increase). Type 2 diabetes was determined from fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose concentrations at the follow-up examination between April 2009 and March 2011. At baseline, 669 individuals (30.3%) were classified as having IIS. At follow-up, 74 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for confounding factors including baseline HOMA-IR values, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for type 2 diabetes in the non-IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.47), non-IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.28), non-IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.83), IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.36), IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08), IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.27), and IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.73) groups, relative to the non-IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08) group were 0.23 (0.04, 1.11), 1.22 (0.26, 5.72), 2.01 (0.70, 6.46), 1.37 (0.32, 4.28), 3.60 (0.83, 15.57), 5.24 (1.34, 20.52), and 7.01 (1.75, 24.18), respectively. Moderate and large increases in HOMA-IR had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes among individuals with IIS in this Japanese population.

  15. Increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion: the Saku study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Morimoto

    Full Text Available Our aim was to assess the impact of increase in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR on the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals with impaired insulin secretion (IIS. This study included 2,209 participants aged 30-69 without diabetes at baseline who underwent comprehensive medical check-ups between April 2006 and March 2007 at Saku Central Hospital. Participants were classified into eight groups according to the combination of baseline IIS status (non-IIS and IIS and category of HOMA-IR change between the baseline and follow-up examinations (decrease, no change/small increase, moderate increase, and large increase. Type 2 diabetes was determined from fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose concentrations at the follow-up examination between April 2009 and March 2011. At baseline, 669 individuals (30.3% were classified as having IIS. At follow-up, 74 individuals developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for confounding factors including baseline HOMA-IR values, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for type 2 diabetes in the non-IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.47, non-IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.28, non-IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.83, IIS with a decrease (mean change in HOMA-IR: -0.36, IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08, IIS with a moderate increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.27, and IIS with a large increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.73 groups, relative to the non-IIS with no change/small increase (mean change in HOMA-IR: 0.08 group were 0.23 (0.04, 1.11, 1.22 (0.26, 5.72, 2.01 (0.70, 6.46, 1.37 (0.32, 4.28, 3.60 (0.83, 15.57, 5.24 (1.34, 20.52, and 7.01 (1.75, 24.18, respectively. Moderate and large increases in HOMA-IR had a strong impact on the development of type 2 diabetes among individuals with IIS in this Japanese population.

  16. Novel Functional Changes during Podocyte Differentiation: Increase of Oxidative Resistance and H-Ferritin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Bányai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Podocytes are highly specialized, arborized epithelial cells covering the outer surface of the glomerular tuft in the kidney. Terminally differentiated podocytes are unable to go through cell division and hereby they are lacking a key property for regeneration after a toxic injury. Podocytes are long-lived cells but, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that support their stress resistance. Our aim was to investigate whether the well-known morphological changes during podocyte differentiation are accompanied by changes in oxidative resistance in a manner that could support their long-term survival. We used a conditionally immortalized human podocyte cell line to study the morphological and functional changes during differentiation. We followed the differentiation process for 14 days by time-lapse microscopy. During this period nondifferentiated podocytes gradually transformed into large, nonproliferating, frequently multinucleated cells, with enlarged nuclei and opened chromatin structure. We observed that differentiated podocytes were highly resistant to oxidants such as H2O2 and heme when applied separately or in combination, whereas undifferentiated cells were prone to such challenges. Elevated oxidative resistance of differentiated podocytes was associated with increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and H-ferritin expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of normal human kidney specimens revealed that podocytes highly express H-ferritin in vivo as well.

  17. Progressive liver functional impairment is associated with an increase in AST/ALT ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, E; Botta, F; Fasoli, A; Ceppa, P; Risso, D; Lantieri, P B; Celle, G; Testa, R

    1999-06-01

    The ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT ratio) has been proposed as a noninvasive method of assessing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Our aims were to confirm the usefulness of the AST/ALT ratio in diagnosing cirrhosis noninvasively as well as to verify the existence of a relationship between the ratio and liver functional impairment. In all, 348 patients (177 with chronic hepatitis, 171 with cirrhosis) were retrospectively evaluated and the AST/ALT ratio was related to monoethyl glycine xylidide (MEGX) formation. Moreover, in a subgroup of 54 patients we analyzed the relationships among the AST/ALT ratio and indocyanine green clearance and half-life. The AST/ALT ratio was able to separate patients with mild fibrosis from those with severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. The AST/ALT ratio, MEGX, prothrombin activity, and platelet count were selected by multivariate analysis as variables associated with cirrhosis. The AST/ALT ratio showed significant correlations both with MEGX formation and with indocyanine green clearance and half-life. The alterations of indocyanine green kinetics, which depend upon liver blood flow and uptake, were likely due to progressive fibrosis. These findings might partially explain the increase in the AST/ALT ratio as disease progresses.

  18. Increased left hemisphere impairment in high-functioning autism: a tract based spatial statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Thomas John; Stokes, Mark Andrew; McGillivray, Jane Anne; Mussap, Alexander Julien; Cox, Ivanna Anne; Maller, Jerome Joseph; Bittar, Richard Garth

    2014-11-30

    There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was examined, in addition to axial, radial and mean diffusivity (AD, RD and MD). In the left hemisphere, participants with HFA/AS demonstrated significantly reduced FA in predominantly thalamic and fronto-parietal pathways and increased RD. Symmetry analyses confirmed that in the HFA/AS group, WM disturbance was significantly greater in the left compared to right hemisphere. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature suggestive of reduced FA in ASD, and provide preliminary evidence for RD impairments in the left hemisphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictions for Boson-Jet Observables and Fragmentation Function Ratios from a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet Quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We have previously introduced a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching in heavy ion collisions that describes the production and fragmentation of jets at weak coupling, using PYTHIA, and describes the rate at which each parton in the jet shower loses energy as it propagates through the strongly coupled plasma, dE/dx, using an expression computed holographically at strong coupling. The model has a single free parameter that we fit to a single experimental measurement. We then confront our model with experimental data on many other jet observables, focusing here on boson-jet observables, finding that it provides a good description of present jet data. Next, we provide the predictions of our hybrid model for many measurements to come, including those for inclusive jet, dijet, photon-jet and Z-jet observables in heavy ion collisions with energy $\\sqrt{s}=5.02$ ATeV coming soon at the LHC. As the statistical uncertainties on near-future measurements of photon-jet observables are expected to be much sm...

  20. Functioning heterotopic grey matter? Increased blood flow with voluntary movement and sensory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimodozono, M.; Kawahira, K.; Tanaka, N.

    1995-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter has never been reported to have any neuronal function other than as an epileptic focus. However, recent advances in measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolism have enabled us to assess localised function and functional changes of the brain. We saw a patient with cerebral haemorrhage with bilateral heterotopic grey matter. No neurological deficits or seizures were present before the haemorrhage. To establish the function of the heterotopic grey matter, we studied changes in their rCBF during voluntary movement and sensory stimulation of unilateral extremities using xenon-CT (Xe-CT). (orig.)

  1. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increase in MST activity correlates with visual motion learning: A functional MRI study of perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Stephanie J; Kennard, Chris; Bridge, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Repeated practice of a specific task can improve visual performance, but the neural mechanisms underlying this improvement in performance are not yet well understood. Here we trained healthy participants on a visual motion task daily for 5 days in one visual hemifield. Before and after training, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the change in neural activity. We also imaged a control group of participants on two occasions who did not receive any task training. While in the MRI scanner, all participants completed the motion task in the trained and untrained visual hemifields separately. Following training, participants improved their ability to discriminate motion direction in the trained hemifield and, to a lesser extent, in the untrained hemifield. The amount of task learning correlated positively with the change in activity in the medial superior temporal (MST) area. MST is the anterior portion of the human motion complex (hMT+). MST changes were localized to the hemisphere contralateral to the region of the visual field, where perceptual training was delivered. Visual areas V2 and V3a showed an increase in activity between the first and second scan in the training group, but this was not correlated with performance. The contralateral anterior hippocampus and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and frontal pole showed changes in neural activity that also correlated with the amount of task learning. These findings emphasize the importance of MST in perceptual learning of a visual motion task. Hum Brain Mapp 39:145-156, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic

  4. Modest human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor function of CXCR3 is strongly enhanced by mimicking the CXCR4 ligand binding pocket in the CXCR3 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatse, Sigrid; Huskens, Dana; Princen, Katrien

    2007-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR3 can exhibit weak coreceptor function for several human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 strains and clinical isolates. These viruses produced microscopically visible cytopathicity in U87.CD4.CXCR3 cell cultures, whereas untransfected (CXCR3-negative) U87...... at positions 300 and 304 of the CXCR3 receptor. This mutant receptor (CXCR3[K300A, S304E]) showed markedly enhanced HIV coreceptor function compared to the wild-type receptor (CXCR3[WT]). Moreover, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 exhibited antagonistic and anti-HIV activities in U87.CD4.CXCR3[K300A, S304E] cells...

  5. Microbial community structure and function respond more strongly to temporal progression than to the application of slurry in an Irish grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Aaron; Ikoyi, Israel; Creamer, Rachel; Lanigan, Gary; Schmalenberger, Achim

    2017-01-01

    The application of slurry to grassland for fertilization purposes is common practice, but its effect on the soil microbiota is mostly overlooked. This study investigated the short term response of the functionality and composition of the soil microbiome to slurry application. A 180 m2

  6. Nicotinamide-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes increase insulin production in pancreatic beta cells via MIF pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ioana Ilie,1 Razvan Ilie,2 Teodora Mocan,3 Flaviu Tabaran,4 Cornel Iancu,4 Lucian Mocan4 1Department of Endocrinology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Physiology, 4Third Surgery Clinic, Department of Nanomedicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Abstract: Recent data in the literature support the role of nicotinamide (NA as a pharmacologic agent that stimulates pancreatic beta-cells to produce insulin in vitro. There are data showing that carbon nanotubes may be useful in initiating and maintaining cellular metabolic responses. This study shows that administration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs functionalized with nicotinamide (NA-MWCNTs leads to significant insulin production compared with individual administration of NA, MWCNTs, and a control solution. Treatment of 1.4E7 cells for 30 minutes with NA-MWCNTs at concentrations ranging from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L resulted in significantly increased insulin release (0.18 ± 0.026 ng/mL for 1 mg/L, 0.21 ± 0.024 ng/mL for 5 mg/L, and 0.27 ± 0.028 ng/mL for 20 mg/L. Thus, compared with cells treated with NA only (0.1 ± 0.01 ng/mL for 1 mg/L, 0.12 ± 0.017 ng/mL for 5 mg/L, and 0.17 ± 0.01 ng/mL for 20 mg/L we observed a significant positive effect on insulin release in cells treated with NA-MWCNTs. The results were confirmed using flow cytometry, epifluorescence microscopy combined with immunochemistry staining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques. In addition, using immunofluorescence microscopy techniques, we were able to demonstrate that MWCNTs enhance insulin production via the macrophage migration inhibitory factor pathway. The application and potential of NA combined with MWCNTs as an antidiabetic agent may represent the beginning of a new chapter in the nanomediated treatment of diabetes mellitus. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, NA, insulin-producing cells, insulin, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, diabetes mellitus

  7. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  8. Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation of the Lateral Cerebellum Increases Functional Connectivity of the Default Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Faranak; Eldaief, Mark C.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cortical intrinsic connectivity networks share topographically arranged functional connectivity with the cerebellum. However, the contribution of cerebellar nodes to distributed network organization and function remains poorly understood. In humans, we applied theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, guided by subject-specific connectivity, to regions of the cerebellum to evaluate the functional relevance of connections between cerebellar and cerebral cortical nodes in different networks. We demonstrate that changing activity in the human lateral cerebellar Crus I/II modulates the cerebral default mode network, whereas vermal lobule VII stimulation influences the cerebral dorsal attention system. These results provide novel insights into the distributed, but anatomically specific, modulatory impact of cerebellar effects on large-scale neural network function. PMID:25186750

  9. Withania somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R significantly increases the efficacy of antileishmanial drugs by generating strong IFN-γ and IL-12 mediated immune responses in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sangwan, Rajender Singh; Mandal, Chitra; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Dube, Anuradha

    2017-01-15

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most important medicinal plant in the traditional Indian medical systems. Pharmacological studies have established that root extracts of W. somnifera contain several bioactive constituents called withanolides. The plant has long been used for its several beneficial properties and recently as an immunomodulator. A combination therapy including a potential and safe immunostimulant with lower doses of effective drug, which can reduce the parasitic burden and simultaneously can produce an enhancement of adaptive immunity, has proven to be significantly a more effective approach than immunotherapy or drug therapy alone. Evaluation of the immunostimulatory effect of W. somnifera chemotype NMITLI 101R when used in combination with ED 50 doses of antileishmanial drugs in Leishmania donovani infected hamsters. Infected animals were administered with chemotype 101R(30mg/kg × 15 days) either alone or in combination with ED 50 doses of miltefosine (10mg/kg × 5 days), paromomycin (30mg/kg × 5 days) or amphotericin B (0.5mg/kg × 5 days). The treated animals were euthanized on days 30 and 60 post-treatment (p.t.) and checked for parasite clearance, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels by real-time PCR, nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lymphoproliferative and antibody responses. The group of animals that received 101R and ED 50 dose of miltefosine showed optimum inhibition of parasite multiplication (∼98%) by day 60 p.t. followed by the group that received 101R plus paromomycin (∼94%) and 101R plus amphotericin B (∼93%). The efficacy was well supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript, strong IFN-γand IL-12 mediated Th1 immune responses and significantly suppressed levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β). Additionally, same

  10. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  11. Increased hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex resting state functional connectivity and memory function after Tai Chi Chuan practice in elder adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eTao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC. Memory function measurements and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that 1 the memory quotient (MQ measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-CR significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; 2)rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold, and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; 3 rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  12. High diversity in functional properties of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in divergent primate species is more strongly associated with phylogeny than coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Ringholm, Aneta; Kelly, Joanne; Mundy, Nicholas I; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-09-01

    We have characterized the biochemical function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a critical regulator of melanin synthesis, from 9 phylogenetically diverse primate species with varying coat colors. There is substantial diversity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding affinity and basal levels of activity in the cloned MC1Rs. MSH binding was lost independently in lemur and New World monkey lineages, whereas high basal levels of MC1R activity occur in lemurs and some New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Highest levels of basal activity were found in the MC1R of ruffed lemurs, which have the E94K mutation that leads to constitutive activation in other species. In 3 species (2 lemurs and the howler monkey), we report the novel finding that binding and inhibition of MC1R by agouti signaling protein (ASIP) can occur when MSH binding has been lost, thus enabling continuing regulation of the melanin type via ASIP expression. Together, these findings can explain the previous paradox of a predominantly pheomelanic coat in the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The presence of a functional, MSH-responsive MC1R in orangutan demonstrates that the mechanism of red hair generation in this ape is different from the prevalent mechanism in European human populations. Overall, we have found unexpected diversity in MC1R function among primates and show that the evolution of the regulatory control of MC1R activity occurs by independent variation of 3 distinct mechanisms: basal MC1R activity, MSH binding and activation, and ASIP binding and inhibition. This diversity of function is broadly associated with primate phylogeny and does not have a simple relation to coat color phenotype within primate clades.

  13. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  14. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  15. Altered Daytime Fluctuation Pattern of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Strong Association with Persistently Elevated Plasma Insulin, Increased Insulin Resistance, and Abdominal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lalić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating daily fluctuation of PAI-1 levels in relation to insulin resistance (IR and daily profile of plasma insulin and glucose levels in 26 type 2 diabetic (T2D patients with coronary artery disease (CAD (group A, 10 T2D patients without CAD (group B, 12 nondiabetics with CAD (group C, and 12 healthy controls (group D. The percentage of PAI-1 decrease was lower in group A versus group B (4.4 ± 2.7 versus 35.0 ± 5.4%; P<0.05 and in C versus D (14.0 ± 5.8 versus 44.7 ± 3.1%; P<0.001. HOMA-IR was higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01. Simultaneously, AUCs of PAI-1 and insulin were higher in group A versus group B (P<0.05 and in C versus D (P<0.01, while AUC of glucose did not differ between groups. In multiple regression analysis waist-to-hip ratio and AUC of insulin were independent determinants of decrease in PAI-1. The altered diurnal fluctuation of PAI-1, especially in T2D with CAD, might be strongly influenced by a prolonged exposure to hyperinsulinemia in the settings of increased IR and abdominal obesity, facilitating altogether an accelerated atherosclerosis.

  16. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel; Jennische, Eva; Odén, Anders; Holm, Göran; Hellström, Mikael; Lönn, Lars; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lönn, Malin

    2011-02-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  17. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  18. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  19. Family disruption increases functional somatic symptoms in late adolescence : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A. M.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) are physical symptoms that cannot be (fully) explained by organic pathology. FSSs are very common among children and adolescents, yet their etiology is largely unknown. We hypothesize that (a) the experience of family disruption due to parental divorce

  20. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

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    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  1. Combined effect of lung function level and decline increases morbidity and mortality risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob Louis; Lange, Peter

    2012-01-01

    by combinations of baseline predicted FEV1 and quartiles of slope. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % con¿dence intervals (CI) were estimated using strati¿ed analysis by gender, smoking status, and baseline age (B45 and [45). For COPD morbidity, quartiles of increasing FEV1 decline increased HRs (95 % CI...

  2. Mutation of the key residue for extraribosomal function of ribosomal protein S19 cause increased grooming behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kaitsuka, Taku; Fujino, Rika; Araki, Kimi; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2016-08-26

    Ribosomal protein S19 (RP S19) possesses ribosomal function as RP S19 monomer and extraribosomal function as cross-linked RP S19 oligomers which function as a ligand of the complement 5a (C5a) receptor (CD88). We have generated a Gln137Glu-RP S19 knock-in (KI) mouse, which is shown to possess the weakened extraribosomal function of RP S19. Because whether the extraribosomal function of RP S19 has a role in brain function had been unclear, we performed behavioral analysis on these mice and demonstrated that KI mice displayed an increased grooming behavior during open-field test and elevated plus maze test and an enhanced freezing behavior in contextual fear conditioning test. These results suggest an involvement of RP S19 oligomers in some anxiety-like behavior, especially grooming behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain

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    Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595 with a -propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function.We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C, a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in E. coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (Escherichia coli DsbA protein were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.

  4. Landslides induced by heavy rainfall in July 2012 in Northern Kyushu District, Japan and the influence of long term rainfall increase comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tetsuya; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Aditian, Aril

    2013-04-01

    1. Objective We had a deluge in July 2012 in the northern Kyushu district with intense rainfall of 800mm and 108mm/hr. This intensity yielded countless traces of debris flow and landslides, slope failures that induced tremendous damage and causalities in the area. Hence, several field investigations and reconnaissance tasks were conducted to delve into this sediment-related disaster. The various results and the information obtained through this investigation were reported, mentioning the damage, the meteorological condition, geologic-geomorphologic features and hydraulic characteristics of the debris flows, vegetation effects, and the influence of the climate change. Increase in rainfall that may be induced by the global climate change is obvious in Kyushu district, Japan, according to the analysis of rain data observed in various locations including mountainside points that are not influenced by local warming due to urbanization. On this point of view, we are intrigued to elucidate the response of landslide to this increase in rainfall. Hence, its long term impact on this landslide disaster is also analyzed comparing with the slope destabilization due to strong seismic shaking. 2. Method and target areas Field investigation on landslides slopes, slope failures and torrents where debris flows occurred are conducted to obtain the geologic data, geo-structure, vegetation feature, soil samples and topographic data i.e. cross sections, then soil shear tests and soil permeability tests are also conducted. The rainfall data at the nearest rain observatory were obtained from the database of Japan meteorological agency. The long term impact on the slope stability at some slopes in the area is analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) combined with rain infiltration and seepage analysis with the long term rainfall fluctuation data, obtaining factor of safety ( Fs) on real landslide slopes. The results are compared with the destabilized influence on the slopes due to the

  5. Wet-spinning of PEDOT:PSS/Functionalized-SWNTs Composite: a Facile Route Toward Production of Strong and Highly Conducting Multifunctional Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Rouhollah; Razal, Joselito M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of fabricating multifunctional fibers with enhanced mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance, we develop wet-spinning of composite formulation based on functionalized PEG-SWNT and PEDOT:PSS. The method of addition and loading are directly correlated to the quality and the ease of spinnability of the formulation and to the mechanical and electrical properties of the resultant fibers. Both the fiber modulus (Y) and strength (σ) scaled linearly with PEG-SWNT volume fraction (Vf). A remarkable reinforcement rate of dY/dVf = 417 GPa and dσ/dVf = 4 GPa were obtained when PEG-SWNTs at Vf stress, respectively. We also show the enhancement of electrochemical supercapacitor performance of composite fibers. These outstanding mechanical, electrical and electrochemical performances place these fibers among the best performing multifunctional composite fibers.

  6. Acute Ascorbic Acid Infusion Increases Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozemek, Cemal; Hildreth, Kerry L.; Groves, Daniel W.; Moreau, Kerrie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to reductions in left ventricular diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, related in part to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Study design LV diastolic function – recorded using transthoracic echocardiography and determined as the peak early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow velocity ratio and the E to peak early (e’) mitral annular velocity ratio – and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), a biomarker of NO bioavailability, were measured during acute systemic infusions of saline (control) and ascorbic acid (experimental model to decrease oxidative stress) in healthy premenopausal women (N=14, 18-40 years) and postmenopausal women (N=23, 45-75 years). Results The E/A ratio was lower (1.16[1.06−1.33] vs 1.65[1.5−2.3]; median[interquartile range]) and the E/e’ ratio was elevated (8.8[7.6−9.9] vs. 6.6[5.5−7.3]) in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women, indicating reduced LV diastolic function. E/A and E/e’ were correlated with FMD (r=0.54 and r=−0.59, respectively, both PAscorbic acid infusion improved both FMD (5.4±2.0% to 7.8±2.6%) and E/e’ (to 8.1[7.2−9.7], P=0.01) in postmenopausal women but not in premenopausal women. Ascorbic acid did not change E/A in either group. Conclusion The current study provides evidence that oxidative stress contributes to reduced LV diastolic function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women, possibly by reducing the availability of NO. PMID:27621254

  7. Atrial fibrillation-linked germline GJA5/connexin40 mutants showed an increased hemichannel function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiguo Sun

    Full Text Available Mutations in GJA5 encoding the gap junction protein connexin40 (Cx40 have been linked to lone atrial fibrillation. Some of these mutants result in impaired gap junction function due to either abnormal connexin localization or impaired gap junction channels, which may play a role in promoting atrial fibrillation. However, the effects of the atrial fibrillation-linked Cx40 mutants on hemichannel function have not been studied. Here we investigated two atrial fibrillation-linked germline Cx40 mutants, V85I and L221I. These two mutants formed putative gap junction plaques at cell-cell interfaces, with similar gap junction coupling conductance as that of wild-type Cx40. Connexin deficient HeLa cells expressing either one of these two mutants displayed prominent propidium iodide-uptake distinct from cells expressing wild-type Cx40 or other atrial fibrillation-linked Cx40 mutants, I75F, L229M, and Q49X. Propidium iodide-uptake was sensitive to [Ca2+]o and the hemichannel blockers, carbenoxolone, flufenamic acid and mefloquine, but was not affected by the pannexin 1 channel blocking agent, probenecid, indicating that uptake is most likely mediated via connexin hemichannels. A gain-of-hemichannel function in these two atrial fibrillation-linked Cx40 mutants may provide a novel mechanism underlying the etiology of atrial fibrillation.

  8. Functional ADA polymorphism increases sleep depth and reduces vigilant attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Valérie; Klaus, Federica; Bodenmann, Sereina; Schäfer, Nikolaus; Brugger, Peter; Huber, Susanne; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2012-04-01

    Homeostatically regulated slow-wave oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may reflect synaptic changes across the sleep-wake continuum and the restorative function of sleep. The nonsynonymous c.22G>A polymorphism (rs73598374) of adenosine deaminase (ADA) reduces the conversion of adenosine to inosine and predicts baseline differences in sleep slow-wave oscillations. We hypothesized that this polymorphism affects cognitive functions, and investigated whether it modulates electroencephalogram (EEG), behavioral, subjective, and biochemical responses to sleep deprivation. Attention, learning, memory, and executive functioning were quantified in healthy adults. Right-handed carriers of the variant allele (G/A genotype, n = 29) performed worse on the d2 attention task than G/G homozygotes (n = 191). To test whether this difference reflects elevated homeostatic sleep pressure, sleep and sleep EEG before and after sleep deprivation were studied in 2 prospectively matched groups of G/A and G/G genotype subjects. Deep sleep and EEG 0.75- to 1.5-Hz oscillations in non-REM sleep were significantly higher in G/A than in G/G genotype. Moreover, attention and vigor were reduced, whereas waking EEG alpha activity (8.5-12 Hz), sleepiness, fatigue, and α-amylase in saliva were enhanced. These convergent data demonstrate that genetic reduction of ADA activity elevates sleep pressure and plays a key role in sleep and waking quality in humans.

  9. Effects of increased nitrogen availability on the structure and functioning of a mediterranean Basin maquis

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Teresa Machado, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecofisiologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 Increased N availability, resulting from agro-industrial activities, affects ecosystems’ stability. Mediterranean Basin ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots threatened by N deposition, however, little or no information is available on their responses to increased N. The general aim of this thesis was to develop an integrated system-level approach to study the responses of a Mediterranean Bas...

  10. Increased fibrosis: A novel means by which GH influences white adipose tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Lara A; Comisford, Ross; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lee, Kevin; Troike, Katie; Wilson, Cody; Jara, Adam; Harberson, Mitchell; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2018-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice). Collagen content and adipocyte size were studied in all cohorts and compared to littermate controls. In addition, mRNA expression of fibrosis-associated genes was assessed in one cohort (6month old male bovine GH transgenic and WT mice) and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH. Collagen stained area was increased in WAT from bGH mice, was depot-dependent, and increased with age. Furthermore, increased collagen content was associated with decreased adipocyte size in all depots but more dramatic changes in the subcutaneous fat pad. Notably, the increase in collagen was not associated with an increase in collagen gene expression or other genes known to promote fibrosis in WAT, but collagen gene expression was increased with acute GH administration in 3T3-LI cells. In contrast, evaluation of 6month old GH antagonist (GHA) male mice showed significantly decreased collagen in the subcutaneous depot. Lastly, to assess if GH induced collagen deposition directly or indirectly (via IGF-1), fat (Fa) and liver (Li) specific GHRKO mice were evaluated. Decreased fibrosis in FaGHRKO and increased fibrosis in LiGHRKO mice suggest GH is primarily responsible for the alterations in collagen. Our results show that GH action is positively associated with an increase in WAT collagen content as

  11. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  12. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  13. Chemotherapeutic agents increase the risk for pulmonary function test abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Jarrod T; Tran, Jerry M; Phillips, Gary; Elder, Pat; Mastronarde, John G; Devine, Steven M; Hofmeister, Craig C; Wood, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    Case reports of pulmonary toxicity have been published regarding bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide but there are no published reports looking at the possible long-term pulmonary effects of these medications. This article describes a possible relationship between the administration of bortezomib and thalidomide and the development of pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. It also suggests that routine pulmonary function testing may be required in patients receiving these medications until larger studies can be performed to confirm this observation. Multiple myeloma is a common malignancy accounting for approximately 1% of all malignancies worldwide. Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide are immunomodulatory derivatives that are used in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). There have been case reports of pulmonary disease associated with these agents, but the effect of these agents on pulmonary function test (PFT) results is unknown. We reviewed the records of 343 patients with MM who underwent PFTs before autologous stem cell transplantation. One hundred nine patients had not received any of the 3 medications, whereas 234 had received 1 or more of these agents. Patients exposed to bortezomib were more likely to have obstructive PFT results (P = .015) when compared with patients not exposed to this medication. Restrictive PFT results were more likely after exposure to thalidomide (P = .017). A logistic regression model was performed and when adjusted for age, sex, Durie-Salmon (DS) stage, body mass index (BMI), time from diagnosis to transplantation in days, and smoking history, the odds of obstruction were 1.96 times higher for patients who received bortezomib. The odds of restriction were 1.97 times higher after exposure to thalidomide. There appears to be a risk of PFT abnormalities developing in patients treated with bortezomib and thalidomide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Physical Fitness Is Associated with Higher Executive Functioning in People with Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Hollamby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical fitness (PF has been associated with improved cognition in older age, but less is known about its effects on different cognitive domains in individuals diagnosed with dementia. We explored the associations between PF and cognitive performance in 40 healthy elderly and 30 individuals with dementia. Participants completed a battery of standardized cognitive tests (Mini-Mental State Exam, Verbal Fluency, Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Clock Drawing, and California Verbal Learning Test and were classified into high versus low levels of PF based on their score on the Physical Fitness Questionnaire. Analyses took into account age, gender, education, occupation, head injury, Internet use, brain training, and past levels of exercise and revealed overall benefits of PF, in particular for the people with dementia. Discriminant analysis showed high accuracy of reclassification, with most errors being due to the misclassification of dementia cases as healthy when they had high PF. The first discriminant function accounted for 83% of the variance. Using individual estimates of this function, which reflected global cognitive performance, confirmed the beneficial role of PF in dementia, even when taking into account age, past level of exercise, and the number of years since the dementia diagnosis. Finally, univariate analyses confirmed the differential sensitivity of the cognitive tests, with MMSE and clock drawing showing reliable interaction effects. This work shows that PF is associated with a reduced level of cognitive deterioration expected with dementia, especially in executive functioning and provides empirical support for the cognitive benefits of interventions promoting PF for individuals with dementia.

  15. Economical driving in the function of increasing the efficency of road transport companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladović Pavle V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of road transport companies, whose activity is transport of goods or passengers, is to constantly increase the efficiency of the resources at their disposal in order to increase the transport market competitiveness. As fuel costs compose one of the largest costs in overall business, their reduction has a significant impact on the final product price. The paper presents the eco - driving significance, that can be used as a toll for increasing the transport fleet efficiency. The driver’s eco - driving training was carried out at the Public transport company in Belgrade by instructors of RICo training centre (Accredited training institute. Analysing the driving parameters before and after training, there were achieved the savings from 9,1% to 20,41% in total fuel consumption, average fuel consumption and average CO2 emissions after training.

  16. Impaired renal allograft function is associated with increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneifel, M; Scholze, A; Burkert, A

    2006-01-01

    It is important whether impairment of renal allograft function may deteriorate arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, arterial vascular characteristics were non-invasively determined in 48 patients with renal allograft using applanation tonometry and digital...... photoplethysmography. Mean age was 51 +/- 2 years (mean +/- SEM), and studies were performed 17 +/- 1 months after transplantation. The stage of chronic kidney disease was based on the glomerular filtration rate. We observed a significant association between the stage of chronic kidney disease and arterial stiffness...... of large arteries S1 and small arteries S2 in renal transplant recipients (each p renal allograft (p

  17. Functional characterisation of an Arabidopsis gene strongly induced by ionising radiation: the gene coding the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (AthPARP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet-Chabeaud, G.

    2000-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana, the model-system in plant genetics, has been used to study the responses to DNA damage, experimentally introduced by γ-irradiation. We have characterised a radiation-induced gene coding a 111 kDa protein, AthPARP-1, homologous to the human poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (hPARP-1). As hPARP-1 is composed by three functional domain with characteristic motifs, AthPARP-1 binds to DNA bearing single-strand breaks and shows DNA damage-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The preferential expression of AthPARP-1 in mitotically active tissues is in agreement with a potential role in the maintenance of genome integrity during DNA replication, as proposed for its human counterpart. Transcriptional gene activation by ionising radiation of AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 genes is to date plant specific activation. Our expression analyses after exposure to various stress indicate that 1) AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 play an important role in the response to DNA lesions, particularly they are activated by genotoxic agents implicating the BER DNA repair pathway 2) AthPARP-2 gene seems to play an additional role in the signal transduction induced by oxidative stress 3) the observed expression profile of AthPARP-1 is in favour of the regulation of AthPARP-1 gene expression at the level of transcription and translation. This mode of regulation of AthPARP-1 protein biosynthesis, clearly distinct from that observed in animals, needs the implication of a so far unidentified transcription factor that is activated by the presence of DNA lesions. The major outcome of this work resides in the isolation and characterisation of such new transcription factor, which will provide new insight on the regulation of plant gene expression by genotoxic stress. (author) [fr

  18. Changes in the location of biodiversity-ecosystem function hot spots across the seafloor landscape with increasing sediment nutrient loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Kraan, Casper; Lohrer, A M; Pilditch, Conrad A; Douglas, Emily

    2017-04-12

    Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators. We investigated spatial variation in BEF relationships across a 300 000 m 2 intertidal sandflat by nesting experimental manipulations of sediment pore water nitrogen concentration into sites with contrasting macrobenthic community composition. Our results highlight the significance of many different elements of biodiversity associated with environmental characteristics, community structure, functional diversity, ecological traits or particular species (ecosystem engineers) to important functions of coastal marine sediments (benthic oxygen consumption, ammonium pore water concentrations and flux across the sediment-water interface). Using the BEF relationships developed from our experiment, we demonstrate patchiness across a landscape in functional performance and the potential for changes in the location of functional hot and cold spots with increasing nutrient loading that have important implications for mapping and predicating change in functionality and the concomitant delivery of ecosystem services. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Gonzalez-Usano, Alba; Agusti, Ana; Balzano, Tiziano; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2016-04-18

    Hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation and increases GABAergic tone in the cerebellum which contributes to cognitive and motor impairment in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The link between neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone remains unknown. New treatments reducing neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone could improve neurological impairment. The aims were, in hyperammonemic rats, to assess whether: (a) Enhancing endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms by sulforaphane treatment reduces neuroinflammation and restores learning and motor coordination. (b) Reduction of neuroinflammation by sulforaphane normalizes extracellular GABA and glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and identify underlying mechanisms. (c) Identify steps by which hyperammonemia-induced microglial activation impairs cognitive and motor function and how sulforaphane restores them. We analyzed in control and hyperammonemic rats, treated or not with sulforaphane, (a) learning in the Y maze; (b) motor coordination in the beam walking; (c) glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and extracellular GABA by microdialysis; (d) microglial activation, by analyzing by immunohistochemistry or Western blot markers of pro-inflammatory (M1) (IL-1b, Iba-1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) microglia (Iba1, IL-4, IL-10, Arg1, YM-1); and (e) membrane expression of the GABA transporter GAT-3. Hyperammonemia induces activation of astrocytes and microglia in the cerebellum as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation is associated with increased membrane expression of the GABA transporter GAT-3, mainly in activated astrocytes. This is also associated with increased extracellular GABA in the cerebellum and with motor in-coordination and impaired learning ability in the Y maze. Sulforaphane promotes polarization of microglia from the M1 to the M2 phenotype, reducing IL-1b and increasing IL-4, IL-10, Arg1, and YM-1 in the cerebellum. This is associated with astrocytes deactivation and normalization of GAT-3 membrane

  20. Tranexamic acid increases early perioperative functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Grosso, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of tranexamic acid (TXA on functional outcomes in the immediate postoperative period after total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We hypothesized that the known benefits of TXA would confer measurable clinical improvements in physical therapy (PT performance, decrease pain, and decrease hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 560 TKA patients, including 280 consecutive patients whose surgery was performed before the initiation of a standardized TXA protocol and the first 280 patients who received TXA after protocol initiation. Outcome measurements included postoperative changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit, LOS, pain scores, destination of discharge, and steps ambulated with PT over 5 sessions. Results: TXA administration resulted in less overall drops in hemoglobin (P < .001 and hematocrit levels (P < .001. Moreover, patients administered TXA ambulated more than their counterparts during every PT session, which was statistically significant during the second (P = .010, third (P = .011, and fourth (P = .024 sessions. On average, the TXA cohort ambulated 20% more per PT session than patients who did not receive TXA (P < .001. TXA administration did not influence pain levels during PT, hospital LOS, or discharge destination in this investigation. Conclusions: It is well known that TXA reduces postoperative anemia, but this study also demonstrates that it confers early perioperative functional benefits for TKA patients. Potential mechanisms for this benefit include reduced rates of postoperative anemia and reduced rates of hemarthroses. Keywords: Tranexamic acid, Total knee arthroplasty, Blood loss, Physical therapy

  1. Biochemical Engineering Approaches for Increasing Viability and Functionality of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Thanh; Truong, Dieu-Hien; Kouhoundé, Sonagnon; Ly, Sokny; Razafindralambo, Hary; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-06-02

    The literature presents a growing body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of probiotics on health. Probiotic consumption levels are rising quickly in the world despite the fluctuation of their viability and functionality. Technological methods aiming at improving probiotic characteristics are thus highly wanted. However, microbial metabolic engineering toolbox is not available for this kind of application. On the other hand, basic microbiology teaches us that bacteria are able to exhibit adaptation to external stresses. It is known that adequately applied sub-lethal stress, i.e., controlled in amplitude and frequency at a given stage of the culture, is able to enhance microbial robustness. This property could be potentially used to improve the viability of probiotic bacteria, but some technical challenges still need to be overcome before any industrial implementation. This review paper investigates the different technical tools that can be used in order to define the proper condition for improving viability of probiotic bacteria and their implementation at the industrial scale. Based on the example of Bifidobacterium bifidum, potentialities for simultaneously improving viability, but also functionality of probiotics will be described.

  2. [Case of functional and esthetic rehabilitation by increased occlusal vertical dimension with prosthetic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2008-07-01

    The patient was a 72-year-old woman who presented with chief complaints of masticatory and esthetic impairment due to detachment of a bridge in the anterior tooth region. These symptoms were attributed to displacement of the mandibular position caused by an untreated defect in the mandibular molar region and extrusion of the mandibular anterior tooth region associated with reductions in the occlusal vertical dimension of the molar region. The occlusal vertical dimension was restored using a denture with an occlusal splint as treatment denture, and functional and esthetic recovery was observed. Establishment of stable occlusal support in the molar region is thought to be utmost importance in stabilizing prosthesis of the anterior tooth region. Although a unilateral defect was observed in the mandibular molar region, use of a denture with an occlusal splint enabled bilateral elevation in addition to creation of denture space in the maxilla. The occlusal splint region was then replaced with prosthesis to obtain a stable occlusal relationship in the molar region and simultaneously to facilitate functional and esthetic recovery of the anterior tooth region.

  3. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ele...

  4. Treatment of human muscle cells with popular dietary supplements increase mitochondrial function and metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a common pathology with increasing incidence, and is associated with increased mortality and healthcare costs. Several treatment options for obesity are currently available ranging from behavioral modifications to pharmaceutical agents. Many popular dietary supplements claim to enhance weight loss by acting as metabolic stimulators, however direct tests of their effect on metabolism have not been performed. Purpose This work identified the effects popular dietary supplements on metabolic rate and mitochondrial biosynthesis in human skeletal muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with popular dietary supplements at varied doses for 24 hours. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α, an important stimulator of mitochondrial biosynthesis, was quantified using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was measured using flow cytometry confirmed with confocal microscopy. Glycolytic metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification rate (ECAR and oxidative metabolism was quantified by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR. Total relative metabolism was quantified using WST-1 end point assay. Results Treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells with dietary supplements OxyElite Pro (OEP or Cellucore HD (CHD induced PGC-1α leading to significantly increased mitochondrial content. Glycolytic and oxidative capacities were also significantly increased following treatment with OEP or CHD. Conclusion This is the first work to identify metabolic adaptations in muscle cells following treatment with popular dietary supplements including enhanced mitochondrial biosynthesis, and glycolytic, oxidative and total metabolism.

  5. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, R.; Westerik, N.; Mariela Serrano, L.; Douillard, F.P.; Gottstein, W.; Mukisa, I.M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Basten, L.; Hafkamp, B.; Meijer, W.C.; Teusink, B.; Vos, W.M.; Reid, G.; Sybesma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access

  6. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L.; Douillard, François P.; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M.; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C.; Teusink, Bas; Vos, de Willem; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased

  7. Factors associated with increasing functional decline in multimorbid independently living older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W.; Bleijenberg, N.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With increasing age the levels of activities of daily living (ADL) deteriorate. In this study we aimed to investigate which demographic characteristics and disorders are associated with ADL disabilities in multi-morbid older people. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study with

  8. Six sigma and six sigma system in the function of quality and profits increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality is the degree to which a set of permanent characteristics fulfills default, set, contracted or planned requirements for the result of the process (semi-finished product, product, documentation, services. There is a widespread belief in America that the quality is always determined by the user, not the supplier, because the quality is important not only because of the cost but because there is a completely different approach to maintaining the quality of the process. In Serbia, the applicable ISO 9000 family of standards which demonstrates the ability of suppliers, allows only stabilization of the current level of quality but not its increase that can be achieved only through better design and application of new materials and technologies. Application of Six Sigma is a different approach, which actually increases the level of quality and organization's profit; using modern computer technology it also allows the reduction of defects in the process, until the defects of 3.4 per million are realized as the results of the process. Since in Serbia, it is difficult to achieve, the authors have developed a special system of Six Sigma System, which allows realisation of a number of projects for reduction of possible costs, shortening time rational, radical elimination of losses, significante increase of the quality of the process and increase of organizations' profit.

  9. Muscarinic receptor stimulation increases tolerance of rat salivary gland function to radiation damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Zeilstra, LJW; Konings, AWT

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if muscarinic receptor-stimulated activation of the PLC/PIP2 second messenger pathway prior to irradiation increases the radiotolerance of rat salivary gland. Materials and methods: Rats were treated with pilocarpine, methacholine, reserpine, methacholine plus reserpine, or

  10. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...... some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation across settings combines savings on health care costs with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects.   Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...

  11. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Gavin J.; Graves, Jamie A.; Grounds, Miranda D.; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis.Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N‐acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l‐2‐oxothiazolidine‐4‐carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine.We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress.Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug.These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l‐2‐oxothiazolidine‐4‐carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx

  12. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Graves, Jamie A; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex

  13. Malnutrition in Healthy Individuals Results in Increased Mixed Cytokine Profiles, Altered Neutrophil Subsets and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Y.; Adem, E.; Getahun, M.; Tajebe, F.; Kiflie, A.; Hailu, A.; Raynes, J.; Mengesha, B.; Ayele, T. A.; Shkedy, Z.; Lemma, M.; Diro, E.; Toulza, F.; Modolell, M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Kropf, P.

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with increased infectious disease susceptibility and severity. Whereas malnutrition might enhance the incidence of disease as well as its severity, active infection can in turn exacerbate malnutrition. Therefore, in a malnourished individual suffering from a severe infection, it is not possible to determine the contribution of the pre-existing malnutrition and/or the infection itself to increased disease severity. In the current study we focussed on two groups of malnourished, but otherwise healthy individuals: moderately malnourished (BMI: 18.4–16.5) and severely malnourished (BMI <16.5) and compared several immune parameters with those of individuals with a normal BMI (≥18.5). Our results show a similar haematological profile in all three groups, as well as a similar ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We found significant correlations between low BMI and increased levels of T helper (Th) 1 (Interferon (IFN)-γ, (interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), as well as IL-10, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, but not IL-8 or C reactive protein. The activities of arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression, were similar in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and neutrophils from all groups and no differences in the expression levels of CD3ζ, a marker of T cell activation, were observed in CD4+ and CD8+T cells. Furthermore, whereas the capacity of neutrophils from the malnourished groups to phagocytose particles was not impaired, their capacity to produce reactive oxygen species was impaired. Finally we evaluated the frequency of a subpopulation of low-density neutrophils and show that they are significantly increased in the malnourished individuals. These differences were more pronounced in the severely malnourished group. In summary, our results show that even in the absence of apparent infections, healthy malnourished individuals display dysfunctional immune responses that might contribute to

  14. Vorinostat increases expression of functional norepinephrine transporter in neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S.; Itsara, Melissa; Yang, Xiaodong; Geier, Ethan G.; Tadano, Michelle K.; Seo, Youngho; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Weiss, William A.; Mueller, Sabine; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; DuBois, Steven G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition causes transcriptional activation or repression of several genes that in turn can influence the biodistribution of other chemotherapeutic agents. Here, we hypothesize that the combination of vorinostat, a HDAC inhibitor, with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) would lead to preferential accumulation of the latter in neuroblastoma (NB) tumors via increased expression of the human norepinephrine transporter (NET). Experimental Design In vitro and in vivo experiments examined the effect of vorinostat on the expression of NET, an uptake transporter for 131I-MIBG. Human NB cell lines (Kelly and SH-SY-5Y) and NB1691luc mouse xenografts were employed. The upregulated NET protein was characterized for its effect on 123I-MIBG biodistribution. Results Preincubation of NB cell lines, Kelly and SH-SY-5Y, with vorinostat caused dose-dependent increases in NET mRNA and protein levels. Accompanying this was a corresponding dose-dependent increase in MIBG uptake in NB cell lines. Four-fold and 2.5 fold increases were observed in Kelly and SH-SY-5Y cells, respectively, pre-treated with vorinostat in comparison to untreated cells. Similarly, NB xenografts, created by intravenous tail vein injection of NB1691-luc, and harvested from nude mice livers treated with vorinostat (150 mg/kg i.p.) showed substantial increases in NET protein expression. Maximal effect of vorinostat pretreatment in NB xenografts on 123I-MIBG biodistribution was observed in tumors that exhibited enhanced uptake in vorinostat treated (0.062 ± 0.011 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected)) versus untreated mice (0.022 ± 0.003 μCi/(mg tissue-dose injected); p vorinostat treatment can enhance NB therapy with 131I-MIBG. PMID:21421857

  15. Increased resistin in brain dead organ donors is associated with delayed graft function after kidney transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Resistin increases during several inflammatory diseases and after intracerebral bleeding or head trauma. Resistin activates the endothelium and may initiate an inflammatory response. No data are available on resistin in brain dead donors (DBD) that regularly manifest a pronounced inflammatory state. Methods We analyzed plasma resistin in 63 DBDs and correlated results with donor variables and the postoperative course following kidney transplantation using organs from these donors. Endocan and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were also studied. Twenty-six live kidney donors (LD) and the corresponding kidney transplantations were used as controls. Results DBDs had higher resistin (median/range 30.75 ng/ml, 5.41–173.6) than LD (7.71 ng/ml, 2.41–15.74, p organ retrieval are associated with DGF after kidney transplantation. The resistin increase seems related to the inflammatory state after brain death but not to the cause of death. PMID:24070260

  16. Weight Gain and Serum TSH Increase within the Reference Range after Hemithyroidectomy Indicate Lowered Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft Kristensen, Tina; Larsen, Jacob; Pedersen, Palle Lyngsie

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight gain is frequently reported after hemithyroidectomy but the significance is recently discussed. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine changes in body weight of hemithyroidectomized patients and to evaluate if TSH increase within the reference range could be related...... to weight gain. Methods. In a controlled follow-up study, two years after hemithyroidectomy for benign euthyroid goiter, postoperative TSH and body weight of 28 patients were compared to preoperative values and further compared to the results in 47 matched control persons, after a comparable follow......-up period. Results. Two years after hemithyroidectomy, median serum TSH was increased over preoperative levels (1.23 versus 2.08 mIU/L, P gained weight (75.0 versus 77.3 kg, P = 0.02). Matched healthy controls had unchanged median serum TSH (1.70 versus 1.60 mIU/L, P = 0...

  17. Functional CRH variation increases stress-induced alcohol consumption in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Christina S.; Dvoskin, Rachel L.; Gupte, Manisha; Sommer, Wolfgang; Sun, Hui; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; Kasckow, John W.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Goldman, David; Higley, J. Dee; Heilig, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), encoded by the CRH gene, is a key integrator of stress responses, and, as such, CRH gene variation may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to stress-related pathology. In rhesus macaques, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is found within the CRH promoter (−248C→ T). Here, we assessed whether this variant influenced stress responding and, because increased CRF system activity drives alcohol drinking in rodents, we examined whether i...

  18. Use of motivational levers of increase of efficiency of functioning of enterprises of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of increase of efficiency of work of labor collective is developed and approved due to the improvement of socially psychological climate. On the basis of the questionnaire questioning, utilizing separate expert descriptions of mutual relations of people in a collective, the integral index of mutual relations is measured in a collective, measures are then developed for the correction of conduct of his cocks with the purpose of improvement of morally psychological climate

  19. The use of controlled microbial cenoses in producers' link to increase steady functioning of artificial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Mikheeva, Galina; Somova, Lydia

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Simple ecosystems include 3 links: producers (plants), consumers (man, animals) and reducers (microorganisms). Microorganisms are substantial component of every link of LSS. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Controlled microbiocenoses can increase productivity of producer's link and protect plants from infections. The goal of this work was development of methodological bases of formation of stable, controlled microbiocenoses, intended for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants. Main results of our investigations: 1. Experimental microbiocenoses, has been produced in view of the developed methodology on the basis of natural association of microorganisms by long cultivation on specially developed medium. Dominating groups are bacteria of genera: Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Bifidobacterium, Rhodopseudomonas and yeast of genera: Kluyveromyces, Saccharomyces, Torulopsis. 2. Optimal parameters of microbiocenosis cultivation (t, pH, light exposure, biogenic elements concentrations) were experimentally established. Conditions of cultivation on which domination of different groups of microbiocenosis have been found. 3. It was shown, that processing of seeds of wheat, oats, bulbs and plants Allium cepa L. (an onions) with microbial association raised energy of germination of seeds and bulbs and promoted the increase (on 20-30 %) of growth green biomass and root system of plants in comparison with the control. This work is supported by grant, Yenissey , 07-04-96806

  20. Increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor function associated with sickle red cell membrane ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, M.; Nair, C.N.; Abraham, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The biological receptor for tumor-promoting phorbol esters has been identified as the Ca 2+ /phospholipid dependent enzyme, protein kinase C. In the red cell, this enzyme is mainly cytosolic but becomes translocated to the membrane if the cellular Ca 2+ is allowed to rise. Since cellular Ca 2+ in sickle red cells is high, it was reasoned that this enzyme may become more membrane-bound. In fact, the authors noticed a four-fold increase in the binding of 3 H-PDBu by membrane ghosts isolated from sickle red cells compared to normal red cells (pmoles PDBu bound/mg protein; normal = 0.3 vs sickle cell = 1.4). Attempts to assay the enzyme directly as phospholipid-activated 32 P incorporation into the acid-precipitable membrane proteins also indicated a two-fold increase in the radiolabelling of sickle cell membrane ghosts. Autophosphorylation of membrane proteins and analysis of the phosphorylation profile by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography revealed phosphorylation predominantly of bands 3, 4.1 and 4.9 which are known protein kinase C substrates for the red cell enzyme. The increased membrane-associated protein kinase C in sickle red cells may have a bearing on the altered membrane properties reported in this condition

  1. Oxidative stress impairs function and increases redox protein modifications in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morielli, Tania; O'Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, generated by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or decreased antioxidant defenses (and possibly both), is associated with male infertility. Oxidative stress results in redox-dependent protein modifications, such as tyrosine nitration and S-glutathionylation. Normozoospermic sperm samples from healthy individuals were included in this study. Samples were incubated with increasing concentrations (0-5 mM) of exogenous hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, or diethylamine NONOate (DA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO∙) donor) added to the medium. Spermatozoa treated with or without ROS were incubated under capacitating conditions and then levels of tyrosine phosphorylation and percentage of acrosome reaction (AR) induced by lysophosphatidylcholine were determined. Modified sperm proteins from cytosolic, triton-soluble, and triton-insoluble fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry with anti-glutathione and anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies. Levels of S-glutathionylation increased dose dependently after exposure to hydroperoxides (Psperm capacitation by oxidative stress. In conclusion, oxidative stress promotes a dose-dependent increase in tyrosine nitration and S-glutathionylation and alters motility and the ability of spermatozoa to undergo capacitation.Free Spanish abstractA Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/149/1/113/suppl/DC1. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p training increases for each group) in maximal aerobic power (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic threshold (13% vs. 12%), respiratory compensation threshold (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic power (15% vs. 12%), and anaerobic capacity (18% vs. 14%). The MM-HIIT group had significant (p performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  4. Aging leads to altered microglial function that reduces brain resiliency increasing vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Paula C; Flowers, Antwoine; Grimmig, Bethany

    2017-08-01

    Aging is the primary risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, understanding the basic biological changes that take place with aging that lead to the brain being less resilient to disease progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease or insults to the brain such as stroke or traumatic brain injuries. Clearly this will not cure the disease per se, yet increasing the ability of the brain to respond to injury could improve long term outcomes. The focus of this review is examining changes in microglia with age and possible therapeutic interventions involving the use of polyphenol rich dietary supplements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stable cystatin C serum levels confirm normal renal function in patients with dronedarone-associated increase in serum creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, David; Oswald, Hanno; Gardiwal, Ajmal; Lüsebrink, Ulrich; König, Thorben; Schreyer, Hendrik; Klein, Gunnar

    2013-03-01

    Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic drug for patients with nonpermanent atrial fibrillation (AF). A relatively consistent finding in all trials studying dronedarone was a moderate but significant elevation of serum creatinine. Since dronedarone competes for the same organic cation transporter in the distal renal tubule with creatinine, serum creatinine and its derived estimated glomerular filtration rate might not reflect true renal function in patients on dronedarone. We therefore investigated alternative markers for renal function in these patients. We prospectively included 20 patients with nonpermanent AF in whom dronedarone 400 mg twice daily was started. Patients had normal renal function and serum creatinine; serum cystatin C and creatinine clearance were measured before treatment and 10 and 90 days after treatment started. Mean serum creatinine level for all 20 patients at baseline (day 0) was 84.55 ± 12.14 and 87.8 ± 17.59 µmol/L on day 10. This slight increase in all patients was not significant. Patients were now divided into the predefined groups of "increased creatinine" (increase in serum creatinine level > 1 standard deviation) and "not increased creatinine." Patients with increased creatinine levels (n = 5) showed a significant elevation of serum creatinine levels from day 0 to day 10 (82.4 ± 9.18 to 104.4 ± 12.74 µmol/L; P = .003), whereas change in serum creatinine levels in the not increased creatinine group (n = 15) was not significant. Serum cystatin C levels remained stable in both of these groups (increased creatinine group: 0.76 ± 0.08 to 0.78 ± 0.08 mg/L; P = .65; not increased creatinine group: 0.77 ± 0.108 to 0.77 ± 0.107 mg/L; P = .906). In conclusion, cystatin C represents an easily available and reliable biomarker for estimation of true renal function in patients on dronedarone treatment.

  6. Biochemical and functional correlates of an increased membrane density of caveolae in hypertrophic rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirova, Yulia; Swärd, Karl; Uvelius, Bengt; Ekman, Mari

    2010-12-15

    Organ hypertrophy is often found to be associated with changes in the expression of caveolins and altered density of caveolae in the membrane. A plethora of signalling intermediaries are associated with caveolae and loss of caveolae has profound effects on contractility of the urinary bladder. We hypothesized that smooth muscle hypertrophy caused by bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) might lead to an altered caveola density with consequences for contractile regulation. Rat BOO for 6 weeks caused a 2.56-fold increase in the number of smooth muscle caveolae per μm membrane. No changes in the expression of caveolin-1 or cavin-1, normalized to β-actin were seen, but membrane area per unit muscle volume dropped to 0.346. Hypertrophy was associated with altered contraction in response to carbachol. The effect on contraction of cholesterol desorption, which disrupts lipid rafts and caveolae, was however not changed. Contraction in response to bradykinin resisted mβcd in control destrusor, but was inhibited by it after 6 weeks of obstruction. It is concluded that rat detrusor hypertrophy leads to an increased number of caveolae per unit membrane area. This change is due to a reduction of membrane area per volume muscle and it does not play a role for cholinergic activation, but promotes contraction in response to bradykinin after long-term obstruction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Patterns of increased intrinsic functional connectivity in patients with restless legs syndrome are associated with attentional control of sensory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, Martin; Rosskopf, Johannes; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lindemann, Klaas; Hornyak, Magdolna; Kassubek, Jan

    2016-03-23

    Potential alterations of intrinsic functional connectivity in idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) are to be assumed since RLS is considered a network disorder. Whole-brain-based investigation of intrinsic functional connectivity networks including the sensorimotor systems in patients with RLS was compared with matched healthy controls. 'Resting-state' functional MRI (1.5 T) from 26 patients with RLS and 26 matched controls were analyzed using standardized seed-based analysis procedures. The motor/sensorimotor, sensory thalamic, ventral and dorsal attention, basal ganglia-thalamic, cingulate, and brainstem networks were used for voxel-based group comparisons between RLS patients and controls. Significantly increased connectivities were observed in the sensory thalamic, ventral and dorsal attention, basal ganglia-thalamic, and cingulate networks in RLS patients, whereas no differences could be demonstrated for the motor/sensorimotor and the brainstem system. The pattern of functional connectivity alterations was positively correlated with increasing symptom severity. Abnormally increased regional BOLD synchronization appears to be a key feature of intrinsic brain architecture in RLS. Alterations in cortical and sub-cortical functional networks support the notion that the underlying pathophysiology of RLS is beyond the sensorimotor and the brainstem system and may be also associated with altered attentional control of sensory inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  9. Loss of Peripheral Sensory Function Explains Much of the Increase in Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Anson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD, vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH, proprioceptive function (PROP, and age, with center of mass sway area (COM measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested. Multiple linear regressions examined the association between COM and VISFIELD, PROP, CANAL, and OTOLITH separately and in multi-sensory models controlling for age and gender. PROP dominated sensory prediction of sway across most balance conditions (β's = 0.09–0.19, p's < 0.001, except on foam eyes closed where CANAL function loss was the only significant sensory predictor of sway (β = 2.12, p < 0.016. Age was not a consistent predictor of sway. This suggests loss of peripheral sensory function explains much of the age-associated increase in sway.

  10. Mendelian randomization analysis associates increased serum urate, due to genetic variation in uric acid transporters, with improved renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya; de Zoysa, Janak; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-02-01

    Increased serum urate predicts chronic kidney disease independent of other risk factors. The use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors coincides with improved renal function. Whether this is due to reduced serum urate or reduced production of oxidants by xanthine oxidase or another physiological mechanism remains unresolved. Here we applied Mendelian randomization, a statistical genetics approach allowing disentangling of cause and effect in the presence of potential confounding, to determine whether lowering of serum urate by genetic modulation of renal excretion benefits renal function using data from 7979 patients of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Framingham Heart studies. Mendelian randomization by the two-stage least squares method was done with serum urate as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine as the outcomes. Increased genetic risk score was associated with significantly improved renal function in men but not in women. Analysis of individual genetic variants showed the effect size associated with serum urate did not correlate with that associated with renal function in the Mendelian randomization model. This is consistent with the possibility that the physiological action of these genetic variants in raising serum urate correlates directly with improved renal function. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of the potential renal function protection mediated by xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  11. An Integrated Functional Genomics Consortium to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Poplars: Optimizing Aboveground Carbon Gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnosky, David F (deceased); Podila, G Krishna; Burton, Andrew J (for DF Karnosky)

    2009-02-17

    This project used gene expression patterns from two forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments (Aspen FACE in northern Wisconsin and POPFACE in Italy) to examine ways to increase the aboveground carbon sequestration potential of poplars (Populus). The aim was to use patterns of global gene expression to identify candidate genes for increased carbon sequestration. Gene expression studies were linked to physiological measurements in order to elucidate bottlenecks in carbon acquisition in trees grown in elevated CO2 conditions. Delayed senescence allowing additional carbon uptake late in the growing season, was also examined, and expression of target genes was tested in elite P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids. In Populus euramericana, gene expression was sensitive to elevated CO2, but the response depended on the developmental age of the leaves. Most differentially expressed genes were upregulated in elevated CO2 in young leaves, while most were downregulated in elevated CO2 in semi-mature leaves. In P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa hybrids, leaf development and leaf quality traits, including leaf area, leaf shape, epidermal cell area, stomatal number, specific leaf area, and canopy senescence were sensitive to elevated CO2. Significant increases under elevated CO2 occurred for both above- and belowground growth in the F-2 generation. Three areas of the genome played a role in determining aboveground growth response to elevated CO2, with three additional areas of the genome important in determining belowground growth responses to elevated CO2. In Populus tremuloides, CO2-responsive genes in leaves were found to differ between two aspen clones that showed different growth responses, despite similarity in many physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and leaf area index). The CO2-responsive clone shunted C into pathways associated with active defense/response to stress, carbohydrate/starch biosynthesis and subsequent growth. The CO2

  12. Impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy is associated with reduced rapid force generation and increased passive stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Kirk, Henrik; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is still not clarified whether spasticity contributes to impairments of gait function. Here we compared biomechanical measures of muscle weakness and stiffness of ankle muscles to impairments of gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-four adults with CP...... analysis of the ankle joint during treadmill walking was obtained by 3-D motion analysis. RESULTS: Passive stiffness was significantly increased in adults with CP compared to controls. Passive stiffness and RFDdf were correlated to reduced toe lift. RFDpf provided the best correlation to push-off velocity......, range of movement in the ankle joint and gait speed. Reflex-mediated stiffness was not correlated to any parameters of impaired gait. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired gait function in adults with CP is associated with reduced RFD and increased passive stiffness of ankle muscles. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings...

  13. Normal mitochondrial function and increased fat oxidation capacity in leg and arm muscles in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ara, I; Larsen, S; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2011-01-01

    was that fat oxidation during exercise might be differentially preserved in leg and arm muscles after weight loss.Methods:Indirect calorimetry was used to calculate fat and carbohydrate oxidation during both progressive arm-cranking and leg-cycling exercises. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from musculus......, and plasma leptin was higher in O than in PO and C.Conclusions:In O subjects, maximal fat oxidation during exercise and the eliciting relative exercise intensity are increased. This is associated with higher intramuscular triglyceride levels and higher resting non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations...... deltoideus (m. deltoideus) and m. vastus lateralis muscles. Fibre-type composition, enzyme activity and O(2) flux capacity of saponin-permeabilized muscle fibres were measured, the latter by high-resolution respirometry.Results:During the graded exercise tests, peak fat oxidation during leg cycling...

  14. Structural and Functional Consequences of Increased Tubulin Glycosylation in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stuart K.; Howarth, Nancy L.; Devenny, James J.; Bitensky, Mark W.

    1982-11-01

    The extent of in vitro nonenzymatic glycosylation of purified rat brain tubulin was dependent on time and glucose concentration. Tubulin glycosylation profoundly inhibited GTP-dependent tubulin polymerization. Electron microscopy and NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that glycosylated tubulin forms high molecular weight amorphous aggregates that are not disrupted by detergents or reducing agents. The amount of covalently bound NaB3H4-reducible sugars in tubulin recovered from brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was dramatically increased as compared with tubulin recovered from normal rat brain. Moreover, tubulin recovered from diabetic rat brain exhibited less GTP-induced polymerization than tubulin from nondiabetic controls. The possible implications of these data for diabetic neuropathy are discussed.

  15. Working memory circuit as a function of increasing age in healthy adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Andre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382 that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10–17 years and young adults (18–30 years. Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6 bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40. Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8, left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40, and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31. These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.

  16. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  17. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in

  18. Competitive interactions between cultivated and red rice as a function of recent and projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although carbon dioxide represents a fundamental resource for plant function, increases in atmospheric concentration may differentially stimulate cultivated and weedy types of the same species. Because wild types often represent a weedy constraint to cultivated crops in the field, any differential ...

  19. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Merete Skovdal; Hommel, Eva; Friberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients ...

  20. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  1. Diet-induced obesity and low testosterone increase neuroinflammation and impair neural function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Lent-Schochet, Daniella; Pike, Christian J

    2014-09-16

    Low testosterone and obesity are independent risk factors for dysfunction of the nervous system including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the independent and cooperative interactions of testosterone and diet-induced obesity on metabolic, inflammatory, and neural health indices in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Male C57B6/J mice were maintained on normal or high-fat diet under varying testosterone conditions for a four-month treatment period, after which metabolic indices were measured and RNA isolated from cerebral cortex and sciatic nerve. Cortices were used to generate mixed glial cultures, upon which embryonic cerebrocortical neurons were co-cultured for assessment of neuron survival and neurite outgrowth. Peripheral nerve damage was determined using paw-withdrawal assay, myelin sheath protein expression levels, and Na+,K+-ATPase activity levels. Our results demonstrate that detrimental effects on both metabolic (blood glucose, insulin sensitivity) and proinflammatory (cytokine expression) responses caused by diet-induced obesity are exacerbated by testosterone depletion. Mixed glial cultures generated from obese mice retain elevated cytokine expression, although low testosterone effects do not persist ex vivo. Primary neurons co-cultured with glial cultures generated from high-fat fed animals exhibit reduced survival and poorer neurite outgrowth. In addition, low testosterone and diet-induced obesity combine to increase inflammation and evidence of nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. Testosterone and diet-induced obesity independently and cooperatively regulate neuroinflammation in central and peripheral nervous systems, which may contribute to observed impairments in neural health. Together, our findings suggest that low testosterone and obesity are interactive regulators of neuroinflammation that, in combination with adipose-derived inflammatory pathways and other factors

  2. Increasing Total Serum IgE, Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis, and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Florian; Kappler, Matthias; Griese, Matthias

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity disorder contributing to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and challenging to diagnose. This study analyzed the predictive value of increasing total IgE (t-IgE) levels in a CF cohort alongside with clinical and serologic data. A total of 387 children and young adults were followed from 2000 to 2006 and retrospectively classified into 6 groups. Patients with t-IgE levels IgE were classified as "Naïve," those with Af-specific IgE (Af-sIgE) as "Sensitized." Patients with elevated t-IgE at entrance and Af-sIgE were labeled "Former ABPA," and those without, as "High t-IgE." Patients whose t-IgE values started normal and exceeded the 95th percentile during the study were labeled either "ABPA at risk" if Af-sIgE-positive or "Rising t-IgE" if not. Courses of t-IgE over time were divided into episodes with increasing IgE (ΔIgE) and related to pulmonary outcome. A total of 125 patients were classified Naïve (32%), 64 Sensitized (17%), 49 ABPA at risk (13%), 32 Rising t-IgE (8%), 102 Former ABPA (26%), and 15 High t-IgE (4%). A total of 874 ΔIgE episodes were accompanied by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) declines (r = -0.21, P IgE levels at least doubled within 3 months and exceeded the 95th age-specific percentile (P IgE levels may be helpful in diagnosing treatment requiring ABPA and predicts the effect of systemic steroid treatment on pulmonary outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  4. Explosive Resistance Training Increases Rate of Force Development in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Gait Function in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend S; Lorentzen, Jakob; Krarup, Kasper B; Bandholm, Thomas; Nielsen, Jens B

    2016-10-01

    Kirk, H, Geertsen, SS, Lorentzen, J, Krarup, KB, Bandholm, T, and Nielsen, JB. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2749-2760, 2016-Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). In this study, we investigated whether 12 weeks of explosive and progressive heavy-resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function, and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP. Thirty-five adults (age: 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were nonrandomly assigned to a PRT or nontraining control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls, and back extension 3 days per week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12 to 6 repetition maximums. RFDdf, 3-dimensional gait analysis, functional performance, and ankle joint passive and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness were evaluated before and after. RFDdf increased significantly after PRT compared to CON. PRT also caused a significant increase in toe lift late in swing and a significantly more dorsiflexed ankle joint at ground contact and during stance. The increased toe-lift amplitude was correlated to the increased RFDdf (r = 0.73). No other between-group differences were observed. These findings suggest that explosive PRT may increase RFDdf and facilitate larger range of movement in the ankle joint during gait. Explosive PRT should be tested in clinical practice as part of a long-term training program for adults with CP.

  5. <strong>Authenticated hash tablesstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Papamanthou, Charalampos; Tamassia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are fundamental data structures that optimally answer membership queries. Suppose a client stores n elements in a hash table that is outsourced at a remote server so that the client can save space or achieve load balancing. Authenticating the hash table functionality, i.e., verifying...... the correctness of queries answered by the server and ensuring the integrity of the stored data, is crucial because the server, lying outside the administrative control of the client, can be malicious. We design efficient and secure protocols for optimally authenticating membership queries on hash tables: for any...... fixed constants 0 1/ε, the server can provide a proof of integrity of the answer to a (non-)membership query in constant time, requiring O(nε/logκε--1 n) time to treat updates, yet keeping the communication and verification costs constant. This is the first construction...

  6. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  7. Increased functional connectivity strength of right inferior temporal gyrus in first-episode, drug-naive somatization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qinji; Yao, Dapeng; Jiang, Muliang; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jiajing; Xu, Chunxing; Dai, Yi; Yu, Miaoyu; Long, Liling; Li, Hongzheng; Liu, Jianrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Changqing; Guo, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of brain structural and functional alterations have been implicated in patients with somatization disorder (SD). However, little is known about brain functional connectivity in SD. In the present study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and graph theory were used to obtain a comprehensive view of whole-brain functional connectivity and to investigate the changes of voxel-wise functional networks in patients with SD. Twenty-five first-episode, medication-naive patients with SD and 28 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI. The graph theory approach was employed to analyze the data. Compared to the HCs, patients with SD showed significantly increased functional connectivity strength in the right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG). There is a significant positive correlation between the z-values of the cluster in the right ITG and Hamilton Anxiety Scale scores. Our findings indicate that there is a disruption of the functional connectivity pattern in the right ITG in first-episode, treatment-naive patients with SD, which bears clinical significance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  8. Heart Failure Increases the Risk of Adverse Renal Outcomes in Patients With Normal Kidney Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lekha K; Koshy, Santhosh K G; Molnar, Miklos Z; Thomas, Fridtjof; Lu, Jun L; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with poor cardiac outcomes and mortality. It is not known whether HF leads to poor renal outcomes in patients with normal kidney function. We hypothesized that HF is associated with worse long-term renal outcomes. Among 3 570 865 US veterans with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 during October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006, we identified 156 743 with an International Classification of Diseases , Ninth Revision , diagnosis of HF. We examined the association of HF with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), the composite of incident CKD or mortality, and rapid rate of eGFR decline (slopes steeper than -5 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 y -1 ) using Cox proportional hazard analyses and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for various confounders. The mean±standard deviation baseline age and eGFR of HF patients were 68±11 years and 78±14 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 and in patients without HF were 59±14 years and 84±16 mL min -1 1.73 m -2 , respectively. HF patients had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac, peripheral vascular and chronic lung diseases, stroke, and dementia. Incidence of CKD was 69.0/1000 patient-years in HF patients versus 14.5/1000 patient-years in patients without HF, and 22% of patients with HF had rapid decline in eGFR compared with 8.5% in patients without HF. HF patients had a 2.12-, 2.06-, and 2.13-fold higher multivariable-adjusted risk of incident CKD, composite of CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline, respectively. HF is associated with significantly higher risk of incident CKD, incident CKD or mortality, and rapid eGFR decline. Early diagnosis and management of HF could help reduce the risk of long-term renal complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Celiac disease prevalence is not increased in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LASA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Previous evidence trying to assess the risk of celiac disease among dyspeptic patients has been inconclusive, showing in some cases notorious discrepancies. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of celiac disease in patients with dyspepsia compared to healthy controls without dyspepsia. METHODS Adult patients under evaluation for dyspepsia were invited to participate. These patients were offered an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies. On the other hand, asymptomatic adult volunteers who performed a preventive visit to their primary care physician were invited to participate and agreed to undertake an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsies as well. Those patients with histologic signs of villous atrophy were furtherly evaluated and serological tests were performed in order to determine celiac disease diagnosis. Celiac disease prevalence was compared between groups. RESULTS Overall, 320 patients with dyspepsia and 320 healthy controls were recruited. There were no significant differences in terms of gender or age between groups. Celiac disease diagnosis was made in 1.25% (4/320 of patients in the dyspepsia group versus 0.62% (2/320 in the control group. CONCLUSION Patients with dyspepsia who underwent routine duodenal biopsies did not show an increased risk for celiac disease when compared to healthy individuals.

  10. Transglutaminase 2 expression is increased as a function of malignancy grade and negatively regulates cell growth in meningioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available Most meningiomas are benign, but some clinical-aggressive tumors exhibit brain invasion and cannot be resected without significant complications. To identify molecular markers for these clinically-aggressive meningiomas, we performed microarray analyses on 24 primary cultures from 21 meningiomas and 3 arachnoid membranes. Using this approach, increased transglutaminase 2 (TGM2 expression was observed, which was subsequently validated in an independent set of 82 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, the TGM2 expression level was associated with increasing WHO malignancy grade as well as meningioma recurrence. Inhibition of TGM2 function by siRNA or cystamine induced meningioma cell death, which was associated with reduced AKT phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGM2 expression increases as a function of malignancy grade and tumor recurrence and that inhibition of TGM2 reduces meningioma cell growth.

  11. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L; Douillard, François P; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M; Tuijn, Coosje J; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-12-08

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.

  12. Increased functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams during retrieval of novel words in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Valizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl; Jäncke, Lutz; Besson, Mireille; Elmer, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations. In accordance with the dual stream model, word learning was generally associated with increased beta functional connectivity in the ventral stream compared to the dorsal stream. In addition, in the linguistically most demanding "semantic task," musicians outperformed nonmusicians, and this behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased left-hemispheric theta connectivity in both streams. Moreover, theta coherence in the left dorsal pathway was positively correlated with the number of years of music training. These results provide evidence for a complex interplay within a network of brain regions involved in semantic processing and verbal memory functions, and suggest that intensive music training can modify its functional architecture leading to advantages in novel word learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The effect of hydrochloric acid addition to increase carbon nanotubes dispersibility as drug delivery system by covalent functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulan, P. P. D. K.; Ulwani, S. H.; Wulandari, H.; Purwanto, W. W.; Mulia, K.

    2018-03-01

    This study is to obtain the effect of adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and HNO3 in CNT covalent functionalization. HCl expected to increase the dispersibility of functionalized CNT by improving the dispersion time period done with H2SO4 or HNO3. Functionalization used mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3 with volume ratio of 3:1. Covalent functionalization used 0.5 grams of MWCNT ultra sonicated in 50mL HNO3 with and mixture of H2SO4 and HNO3. Additions of 200 mL HCl used variation of molarity from 1M, 2M, 3M, 4M, 5M to 6M. CNT were oxidized to form carboxylic and hydroxyl bonds on the surface that increase dispersibility of CNT. FTIR spectrums showed the existences of carboxyl and hydroxyl group on spectra of 2600-3700 cm-1 and 900-1400 cm-1. Dispersion tests, which showed functionalized CNT (f-CNT) dispersion capabilities, were done by dissolving f-CNT in water. The study resulted that 6M f-CNT (NSC6) gave the best dispersion with zeta potential value of -37.1mV. NSC6 gave the longest dispersion time which was 20 days until f-CNT settle again. SEM-EDS micrographs showed the surface structure of 6M f-CNT without significant damage and no longer contain impurities of Fe, Ni, and Cl.

  14. Do parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increase the risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Lally, Meghan; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    In the family-based prevention science literature, family functioning, defined as positive parenting, parental involvement, family cohesion, family communication, parental monitoring of peers, and parent-adolescent communication, has been shown to ameliorate HIV risk behaviors in Hispanic youth. However, the majority of studies have relied solely on parent or adolescent reports and we know very little about parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and to what extent parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning increased the risk of HIV risk behaviors, including substance use and sexual risk behaviors, and whether these associations vary as a function of acculturation and youth gender. A total of 746 Hispanic 8th grade youth and their primary caregivers were included in the study. Structural equation modeling findings indicate that parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies are associated with an increased risk of Hispanic adolescent HIV risk behaviors, including lifetime and past 90-day alcohol and illicit drug use, and early sex initiation. In addition, study findings indicate that results vary by acculturation and youth gender. Findings are discussed in the context of existing family-based research and practice in preventing and reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and their families. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  15. Downregulated regulatory T cell function is associated with increased peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Elahi, Shokrollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Rashidii, Reza; Sarafnejad, Abdulfatah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Faridani, Rana; Tahmasbi, Kamran; Kheiri, Soleiman; Razavi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronically colonizes gastric/duodenal mucosa and induces gastroduodenal disease such as gastritis and peptic ulcer and induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. The objective of this study was to determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Tregs. A total of 89 patients with gastritis, 63 patients with peptic ulcer and 40 healthy, H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled in this study. Expression of CD4 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, bacterial virulence factors and histopathological assessments. TGF-β1, IL-10 and FOXP3 expressions were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The numbers of CD4 + and Foxp3 + T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3, INF-γ and IL-17A in infected patients were significantly higher than the ones in uninfected patients. Also, the number of CD4 + T cells was independent on the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) and outer inflammatory protein A (oipA), but it was positively correlated with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). Instead, the number of Foxp3 + T cells was dependent on the vacA and oipA, but it was independent on cagA. The number of Foxp3 + T cells and the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 in infected patients with gastritis were significantly higher than the ones in infected patients with peptic ulcer. Moreover, the number of CD4 + T cells and the expression of IL-17A and INF-γ was the lowest in the gastritis patients, however, increased progressively in the peptic ulcer patients. Additionally, the numbers of CD4 + and Foxp3 + T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3 and INF-γ were positively

  16. The Increasing Complexity of the Oncofetal H19 Gene Locus: Functional Dissection and Therapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Hochberg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA is advancing rapidly. Currently, it is one of the most popular fields in the biological and medical sciences. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the majority of the human transcriptome has little or no-protein coding capacity. Historically, H19 was the first imprinted non-coding RNA (ncRNA transcript identified, and the H19/IGF2 locus has served as a paradigm for the study of genomic imprinting since its discovery. In recent years, we have extensively investigated the expression of the H19 gene in a number of human cancers and explored the role of H19 RNA in tumor development. Here, we discuss recently published data from our group and others that provide further support for a central role of H19 RNA in the process of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we focus on major transcriptional modulators of the H19 gene and discuss them in the context of the tumor-promoting activity of the H19 RNA. Based on the pivotal role of the H19 gene in human cancers, we have developed a DNA-based therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers that have upregulated levels of H19 expression. This approach uses a diphtheria toxin A (DTA protein expressed under the regulation of the H19 promoter to treat tumors with significant expression of H19 RNA. In this review, we discuss the treatment of four cancer indications in human subjects using this approach, which is currently under development. This represents perhaps one of the very few examples of an existing DNA-based therapy centered on an lncRNA system. Apart from cancer, H19 expression has been reported also in other conditions, syndromes and diseases, where deregulated imprinting at the H19 locus was obvious in some cases and will be summarized below. Moreover, the H19 locus proved to be much more complicated than initially thought. It houses a genomic sequence that can transcribe, yielding various transcriptional outputs, both in sense and antisense directions. The

  17. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies.

  18. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  19. Improved smell function with increased nasal mucus sonic hedgehog in hyposmic patients after treatment with oral theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I; Hosein, Suzanna; Stateman, William A; Knöppel, Alexandra B; Abdelmeguid, Mona

    We previously demonstrated the presence of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in nasal mucus in normal subjects and in patients with smell loss (hyposmia). Nasal mucus Shh levels were found significantly diminished in untreated hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies. Since treatment with oral theophylline has been previously associated with improvement in smell function we wished to study if such treatment increased nasal mucus Shh as well as improved smell function in patients with hyposmia. Forty-four patients with hyposmia of several etiologies were evaluated for changes in hyposmia by subjective measurements of smell, taste and flavor perception and by olfactometry. Measurements of nasal mucus Shh were made in relationship to each set of sensory measurements. Patients were treated with oral theophylline at doses of 200-800mg for periods of 2-10months with sensory function, nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline levels evaluated at these time intervals. Nasal mucus Shh measurements were made with a sensitive spectrophotometric ELISA assay and theophylline with a fluorometric assay. There was consistent, significant improvement in subjective responses in smell, taste and flavor perception and in olfactometry associated with increased nasal mucus Shh and serum theophylline after theophylline treatment. Improvement in smell function and in nasal mucus Shh was positively correlated in a dose-response relationship after treatment with oral theophylline. Results are consistent with a successful role for theophylline in improvement of smell function in hyposmic patients of multiple etiologies associated with increased nasal mucus Shh which can act as a biochemical marker for smell function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. White matter hyperintensities among older adults are associated with futile increase in frontal activation and functional connectivity during spatial search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N Lockhart

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control.

  1. White Matter Hyperintensities among Older Adults Are Associated with Futile Increase in Frontal Activation and Functional Connectivity during Spatial Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Disbrow, Elizabeth A.; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which aging and other processes can affect the structure and function of brain networks are important to understanding normal age-related cognitive decline. Advancing age is known to be associated with various disease processes, including clinically asymptomatic vascular and inflammation processes that contribute to white matter structural alteration and potential injury. The effects of these processes on the function of distributed cognitive networks, however, are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the extent of magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities would be associated with visual attentional control in healthy aging, measured using a functional magnetic resonance imaging search task. We assessed cognitively healthy older adults with search tasks indexing processing speed and attentional control. Expanding upon previous research, older adults demonstrate activation across a frontal-parietal attentional control network. Further, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with increased activation of a frontal network node independent of chronological age. Also consistent with previous research, greater white matter hyperintensity volume was associated with anatomically specific reductions in functional magnetic resonance imaging functional connectivity during search among attentional control regions. White matter hyperintensities may lead to subtle attentional network dysfunction, potentially through impaired frontal-parietal and frontal interhemispheric connectivity, suggesting that clinically silent white matter biomarkers of vascular and inflammatory injury can contribute to differences in search performance and brain function in aging, and likely contribute to advanced age-related impairments in cognitive control. PMID:25793922

  2. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  3. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  4. Explosive resistance training increases rate of force development in ankle dorsiflexors and gait function in adults with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Henrik; Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Lorentzen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    dorsiflexion, plantarflexion, leg press, hamstring curls, abdominal curls and back extension 3 days/week for 12 weeks, with 3 sets per exercise and progressing during the training period from 12-6 RM. RFDdf, 3-D gait analysis, functional performance and ankle joint passive- and reflex-mediated muscle stiffness......Alterations in passive elastic properties of muscles and reduced ability to quickly generate muscle force contribute to impaired gait function in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Here, we investigated if 12 weeks of progressive and explosive resistance training (PRT) increases rate of force...... development of ankle dorsiflexors (RFDdf), improves gait function and affects passive ankle joint stiffness in adults with CP.Thirty-five adults (age 36.5; range: 18-59 years) with CP were non-randomly assigned to a PRT or non-training control (CON) group in this explorative trial. The PRT group trained ankle...

  5. Increased interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanqiang; Feng, Zhiyan; Xu, Junling; Fu, Chang; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Shi, Dapeng; Qin, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Several functional imaging studies have investigated the regional effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on impaired brain function; however, potential changes in the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres after SD are not well understood. In this study, we used a recently validated approach, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), to directly examine the changes in interhemispheric homotopic resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) after SD. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 28 participants both after rest wakefulness (RW) and a total night of SD. An interhemispheric RSFC map was obtained by calculating the Pearson correlation (Fisher Z transformed) between each pair of homotopic voxel time series for each subject in each condition. The between-condition differences in interhemispheric RSFC were then examined at global and voxelwise levels separately. Significantly increased global VMHC was found after sleep deprivation; specifically, a significant increase in VMHC was found in specific brain regions, including the thalamus, paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus and lingual gyrus. No regions showed significantly reduced VMHC after sleep deprivation. Further analysis indicates that these findings did not depend on the various sizes of smoothing kernels that were adopted in the preprocessing steps and that the differences in these regions were still significant with or without global signal regression. Our data suggest that the increased VMHC might reflect the compensatory involvement of bilateral brain areas, especially the bilateral thalamus, to prevent cognitive performance deterioration when sleep pressure is elevated after sleep deprivation. Our findings provide preliminary evidence of interhemispheric correlation changes after SD and contribute to a better understanding of the neural mechanisms of SD.

  6. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shaikh M., E-mail: rmizanoor@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Miyazaki, Makoto [Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Friedman, Jacob E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  7. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ −/− mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. ► Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. ► C/EBPβ inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBPβ expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBPβ deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBPβ −/− mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBPβ −/− mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBPβ in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBPβ might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR activation-mediated adverse effects on liver TG metabolism without disrupting its beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  8. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A.; Vanuk, John R.; Berryhill, Sarah M.; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R.; Knight, Sara A.; Killgore, William D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. Methods: A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Results: Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. Citation: Alkozei A, Smith R, Pisner DA, Vanuk JR, Berryhill SM, Fridman A, Shane BR, Knight SA, Killgore WD. Exposure to blue light increases subsequent functional activation of the prefrontal cortex during performance of a working memory task. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1671–1680. PMID:27253770

  9. Increased heart rate caused by atrial pacing with the closed-loop stimulation function prevented micturition syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Haraki, MD,PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had been experiencing syncope several times a year. We implanted a DDD pacemaker with closed-loop stimulation (CLS function. When he urinated early in the morning, his increased atrial pacing rates elevated his heart rate (HR during and after micturition. After implantation of the DDD-CLS mode, he did not experience symptoms. In contrast, in the DDD-R mode, his intrinsic HR changed to atrial pacing after micturition but decreased to the basal rate within 2 min, and he experienced a sense of cold perspiration and presyncope. Increased HRs caused by atrial pacing with the CLS function were useful in the prevention of micturition syncope.

  10. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated...... in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....

  11. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....

  12. Brief report: Does PTH increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Simon J; Walsh, John P; Brown, Suzanne J; Wardrop, Robert; Hadlow, Narelle C

    2015-05-01

    Circulating PTH concentrations increase with age. It is uncertain whether an age-related PTH increase occurs independent of changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. The purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between PTH and age, controlling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the relationship between PTH and age in 2 independent datasets (laboratory 1, n = 17 275 and laboratory 2, n = 4878). We further analyzed subgroups after excluding participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate of PTH (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-5.6%; P PTH (95% CI, 5.5%-6.8%; P PTH concentrations increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium, phosphate, and renal function. Further research is required to explore the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance and to determine whether the use of age-related PTH reference ranges improves diagnostic accuracy, particularly in elderly individuals.

  13. Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Maaike; Hulsker, Margriet; Young, Courtney; Nadarajah, Vishna D.; Heemskerk, Hans; van der Weerd, Louise; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke M.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle-wasting disorder caused by the lack of functional dystrophin. There is no cure, but several clinical trials aimed to restore the synthesis of functional dystrophin are underway. The dystrophin levels needed for improvement of muscle pathology, function, and overall vitality are not known. Here, we describe the mdx/utrn−/−/XistΔhs mouse model, which expresses a range of low dystrophin levels, depending on the degree of skewing of X inactivation in a utrophin-negative background. Mdx/utrn−/− mice develop severe muscle weakness, kyphosis, respiratory and heart failure, and premature death closely resembling DMD pathology. We show that at dystrophin levels 4% dystrophin, histopathology is ameliorated, as well. These findings suggest that the dystrophin levels needed to benefit vitality and functioning of patients with DMD might be lower than those needed for full protection against muscle damage.—Van Putten, M., Hulsker, M., Young, C., Nadarajah, V. D., Heemskerk, H., van der Weerd, L., 't Hoen, P. A. C., van Ommen, G. J. B., Aartsma-Rus, A. M. Low dystrophin levels increase survival and improve muscle pathology and function in dystrophin/utrophin double-knockout mice. PMID:23460734

  14. Postprandial hyperglycemia impairs vascular endothelial function in healthy men by inducing lipid peroxidation and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Matos, Manuel E; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) and increases future cardiovascular disease risk. We hypothesized that postprandial hyperglycemia would decrease vascular function in healthy men by inducing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses and increasing asymmetric dimethylarginine:arginine (ADMA:arginine), a biomarker that is predictive of reduced NO biosynthesis. In a randomized, cross-over design, healthy men (n = 16; 21.6 ± 0.8 y) ingested glucose or fructose (75 g) after an overnight fast. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose and insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine, and ADMA were measured at regular intervals during the 3-h postprandial period. Baseline FMD did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Postprandial FMD was reduced following the ingestion of glucose only. Postprandial MDA concentrations increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose compared to fructose. Plasma arginine decreased and the ratio of ADMA:arginine increased to a greater extent following the ingestion of glucose. Inflammatory cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules were unaffected by the ingestion of either sugar. Postprandial AUC(0-3 h) for FMD and MDA were inversely related (r = -0.80; P lipid peroxidation suppresses postprandial vascular function. Collectively, these findings suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia in healthy men reduces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing lipid peroxidation independent of inflammation. Postprandial alterations in arginine and ADMA:arginine also suggest that acute hyperglycemia may induce VED by decreasing NO bioavailability through an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Additional work is warranted to define whether inhibiting lipid peroxidation and restoring arginine metabolism would mitigate hyperglycemia-mediated decreases in vascular function.

  15. Increased short-range and long-range functional connectivity in first-episode, medication-naive schizophrenia at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Xiao, Changqing; Liu, Jianrong; Yu, Miaoyu; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-08-01

    Schizophrenia is conceived as a disconnection syndrome and anatomical distance may affect functional connectivity (FC) in schizophrenia patients. However, whether and how anatomical distance affects FC remains unclear in first-episode, medication-naive schizophrenia at rest. Forty-nine schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Regional FC strength was computed for each voxel in the brain, which was further divided into short-range and long-range FC strength. The patients exhibited increased short-range positive FC strength in the left superior medial frontal gyrus, and increased long-range positive FC strength in the right angular gyrus and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus compared with the controls. Further seed-based FC analysis showed that the left superior medial frontal gyrus had increased short-range FC with the right inferior frontal gyrus, while the right angular gyrus and bilateral PCC/precuneus had increased long-range FC with the prefrontal gyrus. No significant correlation was observed between abnormal FC strength and clinical variables in the patient group. The findings reveal a pattern of increased anatomical distance affecting FC in the patients, with the results of increased short-range positive FC strength in the anterior default-mode network (DMN) and increased long-range positive FC strength in the posterior DMN in schizophrenia, and highlight the importance of the DMN in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors increases functional TRPV1-expressing neurons in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi eMasuoka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damaged tissues release glutamate and other chemical mediators for several hours. These chemical mediators contribute to modulation of pruritus and pain. Herein, we investigated the effects of long-term activation of excitatory glutamate receptors on functional expression of transient receptor potential vaniloid type 1 (TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons and then on thermal pain behavior. In order to detect the TRPV1-mediated responses in cultured DRG neurons, we monitored intracellular calcium responses to capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, with Fura-2. Long-term (4 h treatment with glutamate receptor agonists (glutamate, quisqualate or DHPG increased the proportion of neurons responding to capsaicin through activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1, and only partially through the activation of mGluR5; engagement of these receptors was evident in neurons responding to allylisothiocyanate (AITC, a transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1 agonist. Increase in the proportion was suppressed by phospholipase C, protein kinase C, mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or transcription inhibitors. Whole-cell recording was performed to record TRPV1-mediated membrane current; TRPV1 current density significantly increased in the AITC-sensitive neurons after the quisqualate treatment. To elucidate the physiological significance of this phenomenon, a hot plate test was performed. Intraplantar injection of quisqualate or DHPG induced heat hyperalgesia that lasted for 4 h post injection. This chronic hyperalgesia was attenuated by treatment with either mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists. These results suggest that long-term activation of mGluR1/5 by peripherally released glutamate may increase the number of neurons expressing functional TRPV1 in DRG, which may be strongly associated with chronic hyperalgesia.

  17. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  18. Increased Lower Limb Spasticity but Not Strength or Function Following a Single-Dose Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourab, Krishnaj; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of single doses of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on lower limb voluntary and reflex function in individuals with chronic stroke. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Outpatient research setting. Individuals (N=10; 7 men; mean age ± SD, 57±10y) with poststroke hemiplegia of >1 year duration who completed all assessments. Patients were assessed before and 5 hours after single-dose, overencapsulated 10-mg doses of escitalopram (SSRI) or placebo, with 1 week between conditions. Primary assessments included maximal ankle and knee isometric strength, and velocity-dependent (30°/s-120°/s) plantarflexor stretch reflexes under passive conditions, and separately during and after 3 superimposed maximal volitional drive to simulate conditions of increased serotonin release. Secondary measures included clinical measures of lower limb coordination and locomotion. SSRI administration significantly increased stretch reflex torques at higher stretch velocities (eg, 90°/s; P=.03), with reflexes at lower velocities enhanced by superimposed voluntary drive (P=.02). No significant improvements were seen in volitional peak torques or in clinical measures of lower limb function (lowest P=.10). Increases in spasticity but not strength or lower limb function were observed with single-dose SSRI administration in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies should evaluate whether repeated dosing of SSRIs, or as combined with specific interventions, is required to elicit significant benefit of these agents on lower limb function poststroke. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Concentrated growth factor increases Schwann cell proliferation and neurotrophic factor secretion and promotes functional nerve recovery in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yue; Sun, Xiaolin; Wen, Chaoju; Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Zhou, Yanmin

    2016-02-01

    Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a newly generated complex that comprises a fibrin matrix incorporating growth factors and plasmatic and leukocyte cytokines. It has been widely used in bone regenerative medicine. However, the effect of CGF on peripheral nerve regeneration had not been previously investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using CGF for nerve regeneration by i) investigating the effect of CGF on the proliferation of Schwann cells (SCs) and secretion of neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line‑derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro; and ii) analyzing the effect of CGF on functional nerve recovery after nerve injury in vivo. CGF was prepared from venous blood taken from rats, and using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we noted that it featured a fiber‑like appearance with pore size ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 µm. The soluble component of CGF was used to produce conditioned media with which to treat the Schwann cell line. A cell counting kit-8 assay and cell cycle analysis were both used to study the proliferative effect of CGF on SCs. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that there was an increase in the mRNA and protein expression of NGF and GDNF, both of which are markers of SC neurotrophic secretion. A model of sciatic nerve crush injury was established for the in vivo experiment, and CGF was found to increase the sciatic functional index (indicative of nerve function). We noted that CGF increased SC proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors in vitro, and promoted functional recovery after peripheral nerve injuries in vivo. These results suggest that CGF is a promising candidate biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration, and may potentially be utilized to repair nerve injuries.

  20. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Simard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI, we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual

  2. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  3. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  4. Phonon driven proton transfer in crystals with short strong hydrogen bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine-Vive, F.; Johnson, M.R.; Kearley, G.J.; Cowan, J.A.; Howard, J.A.K.; Parker, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent work on understanding why protons migrate with increasing temperature in short, strong hydrogen bonds is extended here to three more organic, crystalline systems. Inelastic neutron scattering and density functional theory based simulations are used to investigate structure, vibrations, and

  5. Increased anthropogenic disturbance and aridity reduce phylogenetic and functional diversity of ant communities in Caatinga dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Arcoverde, Gabriela B; Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro-Neto, José D; Leal, Inara R

    2018-03-09

    Anthropogenic disturbance and climate change are major threats to biodiversity. The Brazilian Caatinga is the world's largest and most diverse type of seasonally dry tropical forest. It is also one of the most threatened, but remains poorly studied. Here, we analyzed the individual and combined effects of anthropogenic disturbance (three types: livestock grazing, wood extraction, and miscellaneous use of forest resources) and increasing aridity on taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional ant diversity in the Caatinga. We found no aridity and disturbance effects on taxonomic diversity. In spite of this, functional diversity, and to a lesser extent phylogenetic diversity, decreased with increased levels of disturbance and aridity. These effects depended on disturbance type: livestock grazing and miscellaneous resource use, but not wood extraction, deterministically filtered both components of diversity. Interestingly, disturbance and aridity interacted to shape biodiversity responses. While aridity sometimes intensified the negative effects of disturbance, the greatest declines in biodiversity were in the wettest areas. Our results imply that anthropogenic disturbance and aridity interact in complex ways to endanger biodiversity in seasonally dry tropical forests. Given global climate change, neotropical semi-arid areas are habitats of concern, and our findings suggest Caatinga conservation policies must prioritize protection of the wettest areas, where biodiversity loss stands to be the greatest. Given the major ecological relevance of ants, declines in both ant phylogenetic and functional diversity might have downstream effects on ecosystem processes, insect populations, and plant populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risks of decreased renal function and increased albuminuria for glycemic status and metabolic syndrome components: Taichung Community Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lai, Ming-May; Lee, Yih-Dar; Chen, Ching-Chu; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR creatinine ratio >30 mg g(-1) creatinine. 593 (25.23%) had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21%) had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11-4.07) for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18-3.58) for decreased eGFR. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR.

  7. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  8. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  9. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  10. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E. Thomason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  11. Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J; Kučera, Tomáš; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities.

  12. Resistance exercise training increases the expression of irisin concomitant with improvement of muscle function in aging mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Choi, Mijung; Kang, Dongheon; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of resistance training on irisin expression with improvement in muscle strength and function in aged mice and human. In the mice study, 19 months old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into two groups; control group and resistance exercise group. Ladder climbing exercise with tail weight was performed 3 days per week for 12 weeks. In the human study, participants (aged over 65 years) were randomly assigned into exercise group or control group. Elastic band exercise program consisted of 12 weeks of 1-h session 2 days per week. In the mice study, we found an increase of irisin in serum and soleus muscle as well as improvement in muscle strength (p=0.02) and muscle quality (p=0.03) without body composition change in training animals. In the human study, isokinetic leg strength and grip strength were improved in the exercise group compared to the control group without change of body composition. In addition, the level of circulating irisin level was increased. It had a positive correlation with grip strength (R=0.526, p=0.002) and leg strength (R=0.414, p=0.003) in the exercise group. Thus, resistant training might be an efficient intervention method to increase irisin levels and prevent age-related decline in muscle function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bimanual motor coordination in older adults is associated with increased functional brain connectivity--a graph-theoretical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus H Heitger

    Full Text Available In bimanual coordination, older and younger adults activate a common cerebral network but the elderly also have additional activation in a secondary network of brain areas to master task performance. It remains unclear whether the functional connectivity within these primary and secondary motor networks differs between the old and the young and whether task difficulty modulates connectivity. We applied graph-theoretical network analysis (GTNA to task-driven fMRI data in 16 elderly and 16 young participants using a bimanual coordination task including in-phase and anti-phase flexion/extension wrist movements. Network nodes for the GTNA comprised task-relevant brain areas as defined by fMRI activation foci. The elderly matched the motor performance of the young but showed an increased functional connectivity in both networks across a wide range of connectivity metrics, i.e., higher mean connectivity degree, connection strength, network density and efficiency, together with shorter mean communication path length between the network nodes and also a lower betweenness centrality. More difficult movements showed an increased connectivity in both groups. The network connectivity of both groups had "small world" character. The present findings indicate (a that bimanual coordination in the aging brain is associated with a higher functional connectivity even between areas also activated in young adults, independently from task difficulty, and (b that adequate motor coordination in the context of task-driven bimanual control in older adults may not be solely due to additional neural recruitment but also to aging-related changes of functional relationships between brain regions.

  14. Development and Characterization of Carob Flour Based Functional Spread for Increasing Use as Nutritious Snack for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aydın

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carob flour enriched functional spread was developed and textural, sensory, colour, and some nutritional properties of the product were investigated. Spread samples were prepared with major ingredients for optimisation and minor ingredients for improving texture and aroma. Major ingredients were carob flour and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO and minor ingredients were commercial skim milk powder, soya flour, lecithin, and hazelnut puree. The ratio of major ingredients was optimised using sensory scores and instrumental texture values to produce a carob spread that most closely resembles commercial chocolate spread (control, in both spreadability and overall acceptability. The amounts of minor ingredients (milk powder, 10%; soybean flour, 5%; lecithin, 1%; hazelnut puree, 4% were kept in constant ratio (20%. Addition of hydrogenated palm oil (HPO decreased the hardness and hardness work done (HWD values in contrast to carob flour. Higher rates of carob flour were linked to lower lightness, greenness, and yellowness values. Spread was optimised at 38 g carob flour/100 g spread and 42 g hydrogenated palm oil/100 g spread level and the formulation tended to receive the highest sensory scores compared to other spreads and presented closer instrumental spreadability values to control samples. This indicates a strong market potential for optimised carob spreads.

  15. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  16. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  17. Anacetrapib, but not evacetrapib, impairs endothelial function in CETP-transgenic mice in spite of marked HDL-C increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Branko; Mocharla, Pavani; Crucet, Margot; Osto, Elena; Kratzer, Adelheid; Stivala, Simona; Kühnast, Susan; Speer, Thimoteus; Doycheva, Petia; Princen, Hans M; van der Hoorn, Jose W; Jukema, J Wouter; Giral, Hector; Tailleux, Anne; Landmesser, Ulf; Staels, Bart; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2017-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is inversely related to cardiovascular risk. HDL-C raising ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, are novel therapeutics. We studied the effects of CETP inhibitors anacetrapib and evacetrapib on triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoproteins, cholesterol efflux, paraoxonase activity (PON-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and endothelial function in E3L and E3L.CETP mice. Triglycerides and cholesterol were measured at weeks 5, 14 and 21 in E3L.CETP mice on high cholesterol diet and treated with anacetrapib (3 mg/kg/day), evacetrapib (3 mg/kg/day) or placebo. Cholesterol efflux was assessed ex-vivo in mice treated with CETP inhibitors for 3 weeks on a normal chow diet. Endothelial function was analyzed at week 21 in isolated aortic rings, and serum lipoproteins assessed by fast-performance liquid chromatography. Anacetrapib and evacetrapib increased HDL-C levels (5- and 3.4-fold, resp.) and reduced triglycerides (-39% vs. placebo, p = 0.0174). Total cholesterol levels were reduced only in anacetrapib-treated mice (-32%, p = 0.0386). Cholesterol efflux and PON-1 activity (+45% and +35% vs. control, p < 0.005, resp.) were increased, while aortic ROS production was reduced with evacetrapib (-49% vs. control, p = 0.020). Anacetrapib, but not evacetrapib, impaired endothelium dependent vasorelaxation (p < 0.05). In contrast, no such effects were observed in E3L mice for all parameters tested. Notwithstanding a marked rise in HDL-C, evacetrapib did not improve endothelial function, while anacetrapib impaired it, suggesting that CETP inhibition does not provide vascular protection. Anacetrapib exerts unfavorable endothelial effects beyond CETP inhibition, which may explain the neutral results of large clinical trials in spite of increased HDL-C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Epothilone B impairs functional recovery after spinal cord injury by increasing secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Liang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Shurui; Song, Ying; Song, Changwei; Zhou, Zipeng; Zhao, Haosen; Zhou, Kang; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Kunming; Liu, Chang; Mei, Xifan

    2017-11-02

    The microtubule-stabilizing drug epothilone B (epoB) has shown potential value in the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) through diverse mechanisms. However, it remains elusive why a limited overall effect was observed. We aim to investigate the limiting factors underlying functional recovery promoted by epoB. The same SCI model treated by epoB was established as discussed previously. We used a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample to assess the changes in cytokines in milieu of the SCI lesion site after epoB treatment. We then analyzed the source of cytokines, the state of microglia/macrophages/monocytes (M/Ms), and the recruitment of neutrophil in the lesion site by using the results of antibody array. Following these findings, we further evaluated the motor functional recovery caused by the reshaped microenvironment. Systemic administration of epoB significantly increased levels of several cytokines in the CSF of the rat SCI model; macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted by intact central nervous system (CNS) cells was one of the cytokines with increased levels. Along with epoB and other cytokines, M-CSF reshapes the SCI milieu by activating the microglias, killing bone marrow-derived macrophages, polarizing the M/M to M1 phenotype, and activating downstream cytokines to exacerbate the SCI injury, but it also increases the expression of neurotrophic factors. Anti-inflammatory therapy using a neutralizing antibody mix shows encouraging results. Using in vivo experiments, our findings indicate that epoB inhibits the SCI functional recovery in many ways by reshaping the milieu, which counteracts the therapeutic efficacy that led to the limited overall effectiveness.

  19. Hypertension and obesity comorbidities increases coronary risk, affects domains of sexual function and sexual quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidu, H; Owiredu, W K B A; Amidu, N; Gyasi-Sarpong, C K; Dapare, P P M; Bawah, A T; Obirikorang, C; Luuse, A T

    2017-11-27

    About 25% of the world's adult population suffers from arterial hypertension with about 1.5 billion estimated to develop hypertension by 2025. Hypertensive patients have been reported to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and sexual dysfunction. Hypertension have been linked with lubricative and orgasmic difficulties in females, as wel as ED and vascular disease in men. Obesity has also been linked to ED in diabetic males as well as several aspects of female sexuality. Hypertension and obesity are closely related, each occurring in greater frequency with the other, it is only logical to think that comorbidities of obesity and hypertension could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and SD. This research looks at the relationship between hypertension and obesity comorbidities and its association with sexual function in type II diabetics. Diabetic patients who were at least 18 years old and were engaged in a stable heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year were recruited for this study. Participants were categorized into the -HYP/-OB, +HYP/-OB and the +HYP/+OB groups. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M and GRIS-F for the diabetic males and females respectively. Early morning fasting blood samples was used in lipid profile as well as FBG assay. The Coronary risk was estimated as Total/HDL Cholesterol. Triglyceride levels and coronary risk were highest in the +HYP/+OBES group, followed by the +HYP/-OBES group, with the -HYP/-OBES group recording the lowest levels. PE and infrequency recorded the highest score among the +HYP/+OBES group with the +HYP/-OBES group recording the lowest scores. SQoL was highest amongst the -HYP/-OBES group, with the +HYP/+OBES group recording the lowest scores. Anorgasmia and avoidance increased along the shades of HYP/OBES groups. Comorbidities of hypertension and obesity increases the risk of coronary disease, affects some domains of sexual function and decreases the SQoL of diabetics.

  20. Increased Rho-kinase expression and activity and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers with normal lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Quy, S; Dao, P; Hua-Huy, T; Guilluy, C; Pacaud, P; Dinh-Xuan, A T

    2011-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main consequences of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke on the vascular system. Increasing evidence suggests that the small G-protein RhoA and its downstream effectors, the Rho-kinases (ROCKs), are involved in systemic endothelial dysfunction induced by cigarette smoke. This study aimed to evaluate the role of the RhoA/ROCKs pathway in pulmonary artery endothelial function in current smokers with normal lung function. Lung tissues were obtained from nonsmokers and smokers who underwent lobectomy for lung carcinoma. Arterial relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was assessed in isolated pulmonary arterial rings. Protein expressions and activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), ROCKs and the myosin phosphatase subunit 1 (MYPT-1) were sought. Relaxation in response to ACh was significantly lower in smokers as compared with nonsmokers (n = 8 in each group), consistent with reduced eNOS activity in the former compared with the latter. eNOS protein expression remained, however, the same in both groups. Expression of ROCKs, guanosine triphosphate-RhoA and phosphorylated MYPT-1 were significantly increased in smokers compared with controls. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction is present in smokers whose lung function has not yet been impaired. Reduced activity of eNOS accounts at least in part for this endothelial dysfunction. Increased expression and activity of ROCKs accounts for another part through direct or indirect inhibition of the Rho-A/ROCKs pathway on nitric oxide synthesis and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction through inhibition of myosin phosphatase.

  1. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A; Vanuk, John R; Berryhill, Sarah M; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R; Knight, Sara A; Killgore, William D S

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction....... Furthermore, using synthetic peptides that comprise sequences in either NLGN-1 (neurolide-1) or NLGN-2 (neurolide-2) involved in the interaction with their presynaptic partner NRXN1, intra-hippocampal administration of neurolide-2 led also to reduced sociability and increased aggression. These results...

  3. Constraints on parton distribution functions and extraction of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-06-26

    The inclusive jet cross section for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ was measured by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0$~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The measurement covers a phase space up to 2$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ in jet transverse momentum and 2.5 in absolute jet rapidity. The statistical precision of these data leads to stringent constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton. The data provide important input for the gluon density at high fractions of the proton momentum and for the strong coupling constant at large energy scales. Using predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, complemented with electroweak corrections, the constraining power of these data is investigated and the strong coupling constant at the Z boson mass $M_{\\mathrm{Z}}$ is determined to be $\\alpha_S(M_{\\mathrm{Z}}) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0019\\,(\\mathrm{exp})\\,^{+0.0060}_{-0.0037}\\,(\\mathrm{theo})$, which is in a...

  4. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  5. Can increased nitrogen uptake at elevated CO2 be explained by an hypothesis of optimal root function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, R. E.; Norby, R. J.; Näsholm, T.; Iversen, C.; Dewar, R. C.; Medlyn, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments have shown that annual nitrogen (N) uptake increases when trees are grown at elevated CO2 (eCO2) and that increased N uptake is critical for a sustained growth response to eCO2. Processes contributing to increased N uptake at eCO2 may include: accelerated decomposition of soil organic matter due to enhanced root carbon (C) exudation (so-called rhizosphere priming); increased C allocation to fine roots and increased root production at depth, both of which enhance N acquisition; differences in soil N availability with depth; changes in the abundance of N in chemical forms with differing mobility in soil; and reduced N concentrations, reduced maintenance respiration rates, and increased longevities of deeper roots. These processes have been synthesised in a model of annual N uptake in relation to the spatial distribution of roots. We hypothesise that fine roots are distributed spatially in order to maximise annual N uptake. The optimisation hypothesis leads to equations for the optimal vertical distribution of root biomass in relation to the distribution of available soil N and for maximum annual N uptake. We show how maximum N uptake and rooting depth are related to total root mass, and compare the optimal solution with an empirical function that has been fitted to root-distribution data from all terrestrial biomes. Finally, the model is used to explore the consequences of rhizosphere priming at eCO2 as observed at the Duke forest FACE experiment (Drake et al. 2011, Ecology Letters 14: 349-357) and of increasing N limitation over time as observed at the Oak Ridge FACE experiment (Norby et al. 2010, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 19368-19373).

  6. Increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma: from euthyroidism to thyrotoxicosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Solter, M

    2012-01-31

    AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the intrathyroid conversion of T4 to T3 in autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma (AFTA) tissue could influence serum T3 levels and suppression of TSH, especially in patients with borderline thyroid function. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In ten patients with AFTA, thyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 was investigated in nodular and paranodular, TSH-suppressed tissue. All patients had normal serum T4 and suppressed TSH. Serum T3 was normal in six, and borderline or slightly increased in four. AFTA and paranodular tissues were surgically removed and frozen at -70 degrees C, then homogenized in a glass homogenizer, centrifuged at 100,000xg, and particulate fraction collected as a pellet. Analysis mixture consisted of thyroid enzyme suspension in 50 mumol\\/L TRIS buffer with 5 mumol DTT and 200 muL 1.3 mumol T4. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and the generation of T3 measured after 5, 10, 20 and 40 minutes respectively. RESULTS: T3 production (pmol\\/mg protein) was significantly higher in AFTA than in paranodular tissues (8.8 1.2\\/Mean +\\/- SE\\/vs. 1.8 +\\/- 0.2; p<0.01), and excessively high (9.8, 14.1, 14.2 and 15.0) in four patients with borderline or slightly supranormal serum T3. A significant correlation was found between serum T3 concentrations and T3 generation (T4 conversion) in AFTA tissues. CONCLUSION: Results suggest that increased thyroidal T4 to T3 conversion in AFTA tissue could be involved in an increased delivery of T3, increased serum T3 and suppressed serum TSH, particularly in patients with the disease evolving from euthyroid to an early hyperthyroid phase.

  7. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  9. Optimized lighting method of applying shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of LED-multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Hu, Yajia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes an optimized lighting method of applying a shaped-function signal for increasing the dynamic range of light emitting diode (LED)-multispectral imaging system. The optimized lighting method is based on the linear response zone of the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) and the spectral response of the camera. The auxiliary light at a higher sensitivity-camera area is introduced to increase the A/D quantization levels that are within the linear response zone of ADC and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The active light is modulated by the shaped-function signal to improve the gray-scale resolution of the image. And the auxiliary light is modulated by the constant intensity signal, which is easy to acquire the images under the active light irradiation. The least square method is employed to precisely extract the desired images. One wavelength in multispectral imaging based on LED illumination was taken as an example. It has been proven by experiments that the gray-scale resolution and the accuracy of information of the images acquired by the proposed method were both significantly improved. The optimum method opens up avenues for the hyperspectral imaging of biological tissue.

  10. Glomerular hyperfiltration and increased glomerular filtration surface are associated with renal function decline in normo- and microalbuminuric type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Tatsumi; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Okizaki, Shin-ichiro; Hayashi, Akinori; Tanaka, Keiji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration in type 2 diabetic patients varies widely. Here we studied whether glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetic nephropathy in type 2 patients is related to renal structural changes and predicts the functional development of diabetic nephropathy. Thirty normo- or microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients having a renal biopsy were followed every 6 months for a mean of 6.2 years. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the time of biopsy, determined by iohexol clearance, correlated with filtration surface per glomerulus, but no other quantitative microscopic morphometric parameter. The filtration surface was positively associated with the decrease in GFR during the first year but not associated in subsequent years following the renal biopsy. The GFR showed a statistically significant linear decrease in 9 of the 30 patients; however, slopes of the regression lines were almost zero in 11 patients. The GFR increased and decreased in a parabolic manner in two patients. Seven of the nine patients with a statistically significant decline in renal function did not show any appreciable worsening of albuminuria, while two patients developed persistent proteinuria. Thus, in renal biopsy-proven normo- or microalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients, glomerular hyperfiltration is closely associated with an increased glomerular filtration surface. An elevated GFR predicts its subsequent decline, which may occur without worsening of albuminuria.

  11. Chronic fluoxetine administration enhances synaptic plasticity and increases functional dynamics in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Dina; Castrén, Eero; Taira, Tomi

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that chronic administration of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) promotes neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the adult hippocampus, cortex and amygdala. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects and how are they related to the clinical antidepressant efficacy are still poorly understood. We show here that chronic FLX administration decreases hippocampus-associated neophobia in naïve mice. In parallel, electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry revealed that the FLX treatment resulted in increased short- and long-term plasticity likely attributed to changes in presynaptic function. These changes were accompanied by enhancement in the expression of proteins related to vesicular trafficking and release, namely synaptophysin, synaptotagmin 1, MUNC 18 and syntaxin 1. Thus, chronic FLX administration is associated with enhanced synaptic dynamics atypical of mature CA1 synapses, elevated hippocampal plasticity, improved hippocampus-dependent behavior as well as altered expression of synaptic proteins regulating neurotransmitter trafficking and release. The results support the idea that antidepressants can promote neuronal plasticity and show that they can increase the functional dynamic range and information processing in synaptic circuitries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three intertidal macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Félix L; Domínguez-González, Belén; Korbee, Nathalie

    2014-06-01

    The vulnerability and acclimation to increased UVB radiation in three macroalgae of different morpho-functional groups collected in the Mediterranean coastal waters were evaluated. The algae were submitted for 7 days to increased (PAB+) and decreased (PAB-) UVB radiation. The thickness and morphology influenced the response to increased UVB radiation, being Cystoseira tamariscifolia the less vulnerable algae followed by Ellisolandia elongata. The highest resistance to increased UVB radiation in C. tamariscifolia was related to the accumulation of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity, whereas E. elongata was due to its high reflectance. Finally, Ulva rigida suffered the highest photoinhibition under PAB+ culture. The latest species presented 10 times lower polyphenol content and antioxidant activity than C. tamariscifolia. The three species showed different acclimation patterns to the changes of UVB radiation related to the morphology, photosynthetic activity, accumulation of photoprotectors and antioxidant activities. The ecological implications of the UVB variations on macroalgae are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  14. Oxytocin selectively facilitates learning with social feedback and increases activity and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiehui; Qi, Song; Becker, Benjamin; Luo, Lizhu; Gao, Shan; Gong, Qiyong; Hurlemann, René; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-06-01

    In male Caucasian subjects, learning is facilitated by receipt of social compared with non-social feedback, and the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) facilitates this effect. In this study, we have first shown a cultural difference in that male Chinese subjects actually perform significantly worse in the same reinforcement associated learning task with social (emotional faces) compared with non-social feedback. Nevertheless, in two independent double-blind placebo (PLC) controlled between-subject design experiments we found OXT still selectively facilitated learning with social feedback. Similar to Caucasian subjects this OXT effect was strongest with feedback using female rather than male faces. One experiment performed in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that during the response, but not feedback phase of the task, OXT selectively increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and putamen during the social feedback condition, and functional connectivity between the amygdala and insula and caudate. Therefore, OXT may be increasing the salience and reward value of anticipated social feedback. In the PLC group, response times and state anxiety scores during social feedback were associated with signal changes in these same regions but not in the OXT group. OXT may therefore have also facilitated learning by reducing anxiety in the social feedback condition. Overall our results provide the first evidence for cultural differences in social facilitation of learning per se, but a similar selective enhancement of learning with social feedback under OXT. This effect of OXT may be associated with enhanced responses and functional connectivity in emotional memory and reward processing regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Functional genetic polymorphisms in PP2A subunit genes confer increased risks of lung cancer in southern and eastern Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Yang

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases and functions as a tumor suppressor that negatively regulates the activity of some oncogenic kinases. Recent studies have reported that PP2A expression was suppressed during lung carcinogenesis, we there hypothesized that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in PP2A subunit genes may affect PP2A function and thus contribute to lung cancer susceptibility. In a two-stage case-control study with a total of 1559 lung cancer patients and 1679 controls, we genotyped eight putative functional SNPs and one identified functional SNP (i.e., rs11453459 in seven major PP2A subunits (i.e., PPP2R1A, PPP2R1B, PPP2CA, PPP2R2A, PPP2R2B, PPP2R5C, PPP2R5E in southern and eastern Chinese. We found that rs11453459G (-G/GG variant genotypes of PPP2R1A and the rs1255722AA variant genotype of PPP2R5E conferred increased risks of lung cancer (rs11453459, -G/GG vs. -: OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13-1.51; rs1255722, AA vs.OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.07-1.51. After combined the two variants, the number of the adverse genotypes was positively associated with lung cancer risk in a dose-response manner (P trend = 5.63 × 10(-6. Further functional assay showed that lung cancer tissues carrying rs1255722AA variant genotype had a significantly lower mRNA level of PPP2R5E compared with tissues carrying GG/GA genotypes. However, such effect was not observed for the other SNPs and other combinations. Our findings suggested that the two functional variants in PPP2R1A and PPP2R5E and their combination are associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese, which may be valuable biomarkers to predict risk of lung cancer.

  16. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  17. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Adesso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoxyl sulfate (IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD. IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15–60 μM treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15–60 μM in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p. into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications.

  18. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Simona; Magnus, Tim; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Campolo, Michela; Rissiek, Björn; Paciello, Orlando; Autore, Giuseppina; Pinto, Aldo; Marzocco, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS) cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15-60 μM) treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB) activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15-60 μM) in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p.) into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications.

  19. Impaired barrier function by dietary fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS in rats is accompanied by increased colonic mitochondrial gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Evelien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates stimulate the gut microflora and are therefore presumed to improve host resistance to intestinal infections. However, several strictly controlled rat infection studies showed that non-digestible fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS increase, rather than decrease, translocation of Salmonella towards extra-intestinal sites. In addition, it was shown that FOS increases intestinal permeability already before infection. The mechanism responsible for this adverse effect of FOS is unclear. Possible explanations are altered mucosal integrity due to changes in tight junctions or changes in expression of defense molecules such as antimicrobials and mucins. To examine the mechanisms underlying weakening of the intestinal barrier by FOS, a controlled dietary intervention study was performed. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted to a diet with or without FOS. mRNA was collected from colonic mucosa and changes in gene expression were assessed for each individual rat using Agilent rat whole genome microarrays. Results Among the 997 FOS induced genes we observed less mucosal integrity related genes than expected with the clear permeability changes. FOS did not induce changes in tight junction genes and only 8 genes related to mucosal defense were induced by FOS. These small effects are unlikely the cause for the clear increase in intestinal permeability that is observed. FOS significantly increased expression of 177 mitochondria-related genes. More specifically, induced expression of genes involved in all five OXPHOS complexes and the TCA cycle was observed. These results indicate that dietary FOS influences intestinal mucosal energy metabolism. Furthermore, increased expression of 113 genes related to protein turnover, including proteasome genes, ribosomal genes and protein maturation related genes, was seen. FOS upregulated expression of the peptide hormone proglucagon gene, in agreement with previous studies, as

  20. Frontline Science: Functionally impaired geriatric CAR-T cells rescued by increased α5β1 integrin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Prajna; Cunetta, Marissa; Somasundar, Ponnandai; Espat, N Joseph; Junghans, Richard P; Katz, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor expressing T cells (CAR-T) are a promising form of immunotherapy, but the influence of age-related immune changes on CAR-T production remains poorly understood. We showed that CAR-T cells from geriatric donors (gCAR-T) are functionally impaired relative to CAR-T from younger donors (yCAR-T). Higher transduction efficiencies and improved cell expansion were observed in yCAR-T cells compared with gCAR-T. yCAR-T demonstrated significantly increased levels of proliferation and signaling activation of phosphorylated (p)Erk, pAkt, pStat3, and pStat5. Furthermore, yCAR-T contained higher proportions of CD4 and CD8 effector memory (EM) cells, which are known to have enhanced cytolytic capabilities. Accordingly, yCAR-T demonstrated higher levels of tumor antigen-specific cytotoxicity compared with gCAR-T. Enhanced tumor killing by yCAR-T correlated with increased levels of perforin and granzyme B. yCAR-T had increased α5β1 integrin expression, a known mediator of retroviral transduction. We found that treatment with M-CSF or TGF-β1 rescued the impaired transduction efficiency of the gCAR-T by increasing the α5β1 integrin expression. Neutralization of α5β1 confirmed that this integrin was indispensable for CAR expression. Our study suggests that the increase of α5β1 integrin expression levels enhances CAR expression and thereby improves tumor killing by gCAR-T. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Increase in nitrite content and functionality of ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens following treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Chul Woo; Lee, Juri; Yong, Hae In; Yum, Su Jin; Jeong, Hee Gon; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on nitrite content and functionality of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens (EEP) were prepared and treated with APP for 60min. Nitrite content increased from 0 to 45.8mg/l in EEP after APP treatment for 60min. Antimicrobial activity of EEP against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella Typhimurium was increased by APP with no influence on antioxidative activity (p<0.05). Lyophilized EEP (LEEP) treated with APP for 60min contained 3.74mg/g nitrite. The control (LEEP without APP) contained no nitrite. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEEP for C. perfringens was 200µg/ml. The control did not inhibit C. perfringens growth between 25 and 1000µg/ml. MICs of LEEP and the control against S. Typhimurium were 25 and 50µg/ml, respectively. New nitrite sources with increased antimicrobial activity can be produced from natural plants by APP treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Universal Intervention Program Increases Ethnic-Racial Identity Exploration and Resolution to Predict Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Kornienko, Olga; Douglass Bayless, Sara; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic-racial identity formation represents a key developmental task that is especially salient during adolescence and has been associated with many indices of positive adjustment. The Identity Project intervention, which targeted ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution, was designed based on the theory that program-induced changes in ethnic-racial identity would lead to better psychosocial adjustment (e.g., global identity cohesion, self-esteem, mental health, academic achievement). Adolescents (N =215; Mage =15.02, SD =.68; 50% female) participated in a small-scale randomized control trial with an attention control group. A cascading mediation model was tested using pre-test and three follow-up assessments (12, 18, and 67 weeks after baseline). The program led to increases in exploration, subsequent increases in resolution and, in turn, higher global identity cohesion, higher self-esteem, lower depressive symptoms, and better grades. Results support the notion that increasing adolescents' ethnic-racial identity can promote positive psychosocial functioning among youth.

  3. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  4. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  5. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  6. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4–26 weeks after measles rash onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca D. Jackson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4–26 weeks following measles rash onset. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Results Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in

  7. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4-26 weeks after measles rash onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-07

    Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in the risk of diarrhea mortality. The available evidence

  8. Increasing days at work using function-centered rehabilitation in nonacute nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Jan P; Oesch, Peter R; Bachmann, Stefan; Knuesel, Otto; Dierkes, Judith G; Russo, Mirella; de Bie, Rob A; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of function-centered compared with pain-centered inpatient rehabilitation in patients whose absence from work is due to chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Single-blinded randomized controlled trial with follow-up assessments immediately after treatment and at 3 months. Center for work rehabilitation in Switzerland. Patients with more than 6 weeks of work absence due to chronic nonspecific LBP (N=174; 137 men, 37 women; mean age +/- standard deviation, 42+/-8 y; mean sick leave before study, 6.5 mo). Function-centered treatment (FCT) (4h/d, 6d/wk, for 3 wk) consisted of work simulation, strength, endurance, and cardiovascular training. Pain-centered treatment (PCT) (2.5h/d, 6d/wk, for 3 wk) used a mini back school, individually selected passive and active mobilization, stretching, and low-intensity strength training. The number of days at work in 3 months after treatment, self-efficacy, lifting capacity, pain, mobility, strength, and global perceived effect. Effect sizes (ESs) (Cohen d ) were defined as small (ES range, 0.2-0.5), moderate (ES range, 0.5-0.8), and large (ES, >0.8). Groups were comparable at baseline. Moderate ESs for the FCT group versus PCT group were found for days at work (25.9 d vs 15.8d, ES=.36, P =.029), self-efficacy (5.9 points vs -7.4 points, ES=.55, P =.003), and lifting capacity (2.3 kg vs 0.2 kg, ES=.54, P =.004). Function-centered rehabilitation increases the number of work days, self-efficacy, and lifting capacity in patients with nonacute nonspecific LBP.

  9. On generalized fuzzy strongly semiclosed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bedre Ozbakir

    2002-01-01

    semiclosed, generalized fuzzy almost-strongly semiclosed, generalized fuzzy strongly closed, and generalized fuzzy almost-strongly closed sets. In the light of these definitions, we also define some generalizations of fuzzy continuous functions and discuss the relations between these new classes of functions and other fuzzy continuous functions.

  10. Estimation of the effect of increased doses of UV-radiation on functional state and productivity of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.L.; Ipatova, A.G.; Zejnalov, A.A.; Kozlov, V.A.; Sarukhanov, V. Ya.

    2000-01-01

    The results of evaluation of sensitivity and adaptive possibilities of the sheep organism by long impact of increased doses of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of the UV-range in the experiment by clinical-physiological indices modeling the 25 and 50 % depletion of the Earth ozone layer are presented. It is established that the character of changes in the animals organism depends on the irradiation dose sensitivity of the individual living system organism to the EMR and physiological peculiarities of its protection. However, the functional changes in the cardiovascular, immune and reproduction systems, homeostasis system and substance exchange in the period of chronic irradiation do not effect the development of irreversible pathological changes [ru

  11. Does increased Nitric Oxide production and oxidative stress due to high fat diet affect cardiac function after myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Aghajani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objectives: High fat (HF diet by affecting the oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO production may lead to different effects on function of the heart after myocardial infarction (MI. In the present study we aimed to address the hypothesis that high release of NO by activated macrophages affects LV function after MI.Methods: The animals were randomly divided into four groups comprising each of 10 rats: 1 Sham; 2 MI; 3 Sham+ HF diet; 4 MI+ HF diet. Animals fed with HF diet 30 days before sham and MI surgery. MI was induced by permanent ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD. Nitric oxide (NO production of peritoneal macrophages, the concentrations of MDA in the heart and the infarct size were measured.Results: Our study indicated that HF has adverse effects on myocardium and it may increase NO production as well as oxidative stress, resulting in augmentation of infarct size.Conclusion: Our results add to our knowledge that HF diet was associated with overproduction of NO by peritoneal macrophages and ROS that lead to development of infarct size and adverse remodeling.

  12. Insula-based networks in professional musicians: Evidence for increased functional connectivity during resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Anna M; Cifre, Ignacio; Montoya, Pedro; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres. While whole-brain connectivity across all participants confirmed previously reported patterns, between-group comparisons revealed increased insular connectivity in musicians relative to nonmusicians. Coactivated regions encompassed constituents of large-scale networks involved in salience detection (e.g., anterior and middle cingulate cortex), affective processing (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole), and higher order cognition (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction), whereas no differences were found for the reversed group contrast. Importantly, these connectivity patterns were stronger in musicians who experienced more years of musical practice, including also sensorimotor regions involved in music performance (M1 hand area, S1, A1, and SMA). We conclude that musical training triggers significant reorganization in insula-based networks, potentially facilitating high-level cognitive and affective functions associated with the fast integration of multisensory information in the context of music performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4834-4849, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preliminary evidence for increased parasympathetic activity during social inclusion and exclusion in adolescents with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Jusyte, Aiste; Mazurak, Nazar; Weimer, Katja; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Peer victimization (e.g. social exclusion) has been shown to be associated with physical health problems such as functional somatic complaints and especially symptoms of pain. To date, no study has investigated the mechanisms underlying this association in clinical pediatric samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasympathetic activity during a social exclusion experience in adolescents with functional abdominal pain (FAP). Twenty adolecents with FAP and 21 matched healthy participants were compared regarding parameters of parasympathetic activation before, during, and after participating in the Cyberball-game, a well-established paradigm to induce social exclusion. Adolescents with FAP showed an increase in parasympathetic activation during both consecutive phases of the Cyberball game (inclusion as well as exclusion condition) whereas the healthy control group remained stable. There were no differences in subjective experience of in- and exclusion between the groups. The parasympathetic activation pattern may indicate altered processing of social stimuli in adolescents with FAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81 were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  15. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp- somatotropinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzo, D; Losa, M; Albiger, N M; Terreni, M R; Vazza, G; Ceccato, F; Emanuelli, E; Denaro, L; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G

    2017-05-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor ( GIPR ) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp - somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIP/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Nearly 80% of GIPR -expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to Forskolin but not to somatostatin analogs. Besides increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. We demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp - acromegalic patients. In these cases, the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH/IGF-1/GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  17. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRusch, Jessica; Jung, Jinsei; General, Ignacio J; Lewis, Michele D; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B; Amann, Stephen T; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C

    2014-07-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  18. Mechanisms of CFTR functional variants that impair regulated bicarbonate permeation and increase risk for pancreatitis but not for cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica LaRusch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF, a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002. Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005 and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001. WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in

  19. Serum Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3 Is Increased in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Is a Strong Independent Indicator of Disease Severity; 6.7kbp LILRA3 Gene Deletion Is Not Associated with Diseases Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan An

    Full Text Available Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3 is a soluble immune regulatory molecule primarily expressed by monocytes and macrophages. A homozygous 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion that removes the first seven of its eight exons is predicted to lead to lack of LILRA3 protein, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. Moreover, there are conflicting results with regards to the link between the LILRA3 homozygous genetic deletion and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in different European populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LILRA3 gene deletion is associated with MS susceptibility in a North American cohort of European ancestry and assess if serum LILRA3 protein level is a marker of clinical subtype and/or disease severity in MS. A total of 456 patients with MS and 99 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for the 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion and levels of LILRA3 protein in sera determined by in-house sandwich ELISA. We showed that LILRA3 gene deletion was not associated with MS susceptibility and did not affect the age of disease onset, clinical subtype or disease severity. However, we discovered for the first time that homozygous LILRA3 gene deletion results in lack of production of LILRA3 protein. Importantly, LILRA3 protein level was significantly increased in sera of patients with MS when compared with control subjects, particularly in more severe type primary progressive MS. Multiple regression analysis showed that LILRA3 level in serum was one of the strongest independent markers of disease severity in MS, which potentially can be used as a diagnostic marker.

  20. Functional expression of Burkholderia cenocepacia xylose isomerase in yeast increases ethanol production from a glucose-xylose blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; de Mello, Vinicius Mattos; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; Bon, Elba Pinto da Silva; Gonçalves Torres, Fernando Araripe; Neves, Bianca Cruz; Eleutherio, Elis Cristina Araújo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents results regarding the successful cloning of the bacterial xylose isomerase gene (xylA) of Burkholderia cenocepacia and its functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant yeast showed to be competent to efficiently produce ethanol from both glucose and xylose, which are the main sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The heterologous expression of the gene xylA enabled a laboratorial yeast strain to ferment xylose anaerobically, improving ethanol production from a fermentation medium containing a glucose-xylose blend similar to that found in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysates. The insertion of xylA caused a 5-fold increase in xylose consumption, and over a 1.5-fold increase in ethanol production and yield, in comparison to that showed by the WT strain, in 24h fermentations, where it was not detected accumulation of xylitol. These findings are encouraging for further studies concerning the expression of B. cenocepacia xylA in an industrial yeast strain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy W C Bi

    Full Text Available Fo Shou San (FSS is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+ and a reduction of ROS.

  2. Suppression of the Nuclear Factor Eny2 Increases Insulin Secretion in Poorly Functioning INS-1E Insulinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eny2, the mammalian ortholog of yeast Sus1 and drosophila E(y2, is a nuclear factor that participates in several steps of gene transcription and in mRNA export. We had previously found that Eny2 expression changes in mouse pancreatic islets during the metabolic adaptation to pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that the protein contributes to the regulation of islet endocrine cell function and tested this hypothesis in rat INS-1E insulinoma cells. Overexpression of Eny2 had no effect but siRNA-mediated knockdown of Eny2 resulted in markedly increased glucose and exendin-4-induced insulin secretion from otherwise poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E cells. Insulin content, cellular viability, and the expression levels of several key components of glucose sensing remained unchanged; however glucose-dependent cellular metabolism was higher after Eny2 knockdown. Suppression of Eny2 enhanced the intracellular incretin signal downstream of cAMP. The use of specific cAMP analogues and pathway inhibitors primarily implicated the PKA and to a lesser extent the EPAC pathway. In summary, we identified a potential link between the nuclear protein Eny2 and insulin secretion. Suppression of Eny2 resulted in increased glucose and incretin-induced insulin release from a poorly glucose-responsive INS-1E subline. Whether these findings extend to other experimental conditions or to in vivo physiology needs to be determined in further studies.

  3. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeob Kwak

    Full Text Available Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM and peat mineral soil mix (PMM are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05 in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05 near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01 according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05 but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates in both cover soils (p<0.05 in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05 regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining.

  4. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X.; Naeth, M. Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05) in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05) near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01) according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05) but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (p<0.05) in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05) regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining. PMID:26618605

  5. The MTHFD1 p.Arg653Gln variant alters enzyme function and increases risk for congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Karen E; Rohlicek, Charles V; Andelfinger, Gregor U; Michaud, Jacques; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Richter, Andrea; Mackenzie, Robert E; Rozen, Rima

    2009-02-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase)methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase)formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) is a trifunctional enzyme that interconverts tetrahydrofolate (THF) derivatives for nucleotide synthesis. A common variant in MTHFD1, p.Arg653Gln (c.1958G>A), may increase the risk for neural tube defects (NTD). To examine the biological impact of this variant on MTHFD1 function, we measured enzyme activity and stability in vitro and assessed substrate flux in transfected mammalian cells. The purified Arg653Gln enzyme has normal substrate affinity but a 36% reduction in half)life at 42 degrees C. Thermolability is reduced by magnesium adenosine triphosphate and eliminated by the substrate analog folate pentaglutamate, suggesting that folate status may modulate impact of the variant. The mutation reduces the metabolic activity of MTHFD1 within cells: formate incorporation into DNA in murine Mthfd1 knockout cells transfected with Arg653Gln is reduced by 26%+/-7.7% (Pcells transfected with wild)type protein, indicating a disruption of de novo purine synthesis. We assessed the impact of the variant on risk for congenital heart defects (CHD) in a cohort of Quebec children (158 cases, 110 controls) and mothers of children with heart defects (199 cases, 105 controls). The 653QQ genotype in children is associated with increased risk for heart defects (odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-4.42), particularly Tetralogy of Fallot (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.38-9.42) and aortic stenosis (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.13-8.66). There was no effect of maternal genotype. Our results indicate that the Arg653Gln polymorphism decreases enzyme stability and increases risk for CHD. Further evaluation of this polymorphism in folate)related disorders and its potential interaction with folate status is warranted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. NeuroSPECT demonstrates increased cortical function in Alzheimer's disease patients for at least two years after omental transposition neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankle, William R; Mena, Ismael; Hara, Junko; O'Heany, Terence; Bjornsen, Lynda; Gade, George; Leport, Peter; Ali, Mir; Rayhaun, Abraham; Kim, Jinho; Malkazian, Dennis; Raimo, Maryellen; Reyes, Linda; Fallon, James; Kim, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Clinical improvement following surgical transposition of the omentum to the brain (OTS) has been observed in a variety of neurologic disorders, including stroke, encephalitis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord transaction and Alzheimer's disease. The basis for such improvement is not known, but may relate to the presence of stem cells and growth factors in the omentum, which have been implicated in angiogenesis, neurogenesis and neuronal survival. The present report describes the changes in brain activity in two patients with biopsy confirmed Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose course had entered a phase of more rapid decline prior to OTS. The patients were followed with disease severity (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale), cognitive (Mini-Mental Status Exam) and HMPAO NeuroSPECT measures for 22 and 42 months. Dementia severity lessened for 2 or more years while cortical activity in areas underneath, adjacent to, and contralateral to the omentum increased by 1-2 standard deviations above the patient's preoperative baseline (maximum increase was 21%, 4 Standard Deviations). In the more mildly demented AD patient 22 months after OTS, the posterior cingulate cortex showed up to a 20% increase in activity compared to is preoperative level of activity. This is remarkable in that the omentum had no direct contact with the posterior cingulate gyrus, which is involved in the early stages of AD neuropathology (Braak and Braak stages 3-4). These findings warrant further investigation into the mechanism(s) by which the omentum can improve cortical activity and clinical function for two or more years in Alzheimers' disease (au)

  7. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of hadrons in strongly interacting matter provide a link between quantum chromodynamics in the ... Top: Spectral function of the ρ-meson at normal nuclear matter density as a function of mass and ... directly but folded with the branching ratio ΓV →p1+p2 /Γtot into the specific final channel one is investigating.

  8. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  9. FUNCTIONALITY ASSESSMENT OF ALGORITHMS FOR THE COLORING OF IMAGES IN TERMS OF INCREASING RADIOMETRIC VALUES OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS ARCHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewiak Ireneusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Available on the commercial market are a number of algorithms that enable assigning to pixels of a monochrome digital image suitable colors according to a strictly defined schedule. These algorithms have been recently used by professional film studios involved in the coloring of archival productions. This article provides an overview on the functionality of coloring algorithms in terms of their use to improve the interpretation quality of historical, black - and - white aerial photographs. The analysis covered intuitive (Recolored programs, as well as more advanced (Adobe After Effect, DaVinci Resolve programs. The use of their full functionality was limited by the too large information capacity of aerial photograph images. Black - and - white historical aerial photographs, which interpretation quality in many cases does not meet the criteria posed on photogrammetric developments, require an increase of their readability. The solution in this regard may be the process of coloring images. The authors of this article conducted studies aimed to determine to what extent the tested coloring algorithms enable an automatic detection of land cover elements on historical aerial photographs and provide color close to the natural. Used in the studies were archival black - and - white aerial photographs of the western part of Warsaw district made available by the Main Centre of Geodetic and Cartographic Documentation , the selection of which was associated with the presence in this area of various elements of land cover, such as water, forests, crops, exposed soils and also anthropogenic objects. In the analysis of different algorithms are included: format and size of the image, degree of automation of the process, degree of compliance of the result and processing time. The accuracy of the coloring process was different for each class of objects mapped on the photograph. The main limitation of the coloring process created shadows of anthropogenic objects

  10. Increased functional connectivity between superior colliculus and brain regions implicated in bodily self-consciousness during the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Tempelmann, Claus; Berthoz, Alain; Heinze, Hans-Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Bodily self-consciousness refers to bodily processes operating at personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal spatial dimensions. Although the neural underpinnings of representations of personal and peripersonal space associated with bodily self-consciousness were thoroughly investigated, relatively few is known about the neural underpinnings of representations of extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness. In the search to unravel brain structures generating a representation of the extrapersonal space relevant for bodily self-consciousness, we developed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to investigate the implication of the superior colliculus (SC) in bodily illusions, and more specifically in the rubber hand illusion (RHi), which constitutes an established paradigm to study the neural underpinnings of bodily self-consciousness. We observed activation of the colliculus ipsilateral to the manipulated hand associated with eliciting of RHi. A generalized form of context-dependent psychophysiological interaction analysis unravelled increased illusion-dependent functional connectivity between the SC and some of the main brain areas previously involved in bodily self-consciousness: right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), bilateral ventral premotor cortex (vPM), and bilateral postcentral gyrus. We hypothesize that the collicular map of the extrapersonal space interacts with maps of the peripersonal and personal space generated at rTPJ, vPM and the postcentral gyrus, producing a unified representation of space that is relevant for bodily self-consciousness. We suggest that processes of multisensory integration of bodily-related sensory inputs located in this unified representation of space constitute one main factor underpinning emergence of bodily self-consciousness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Jisuikang, a Chinese herbal formula, increases neurotrophic factor expression and promotes the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese medicine compound, Jisuikang, can promote recovery of neurological function by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, scavenging oxygen free radicals, and effectively improving the local microenvironment after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Thus, we established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using a modified version of Allen's method. Jisuikang (50, 25, and 12.5 g/kg/d and prednisolone were administered 30 minutes after anesthesia. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor scale scores and the oblique board test showed improved motor function recovery in the prednisone group and moderate-dose Jisuikang group compared with the other groups at 3–7 days post-injury. The rats in the moderate-dose Jisuikang group recovered best at 14 days post-injury. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that the survival rate of neurons in treatment groups increased after 3–7 days of administration. Further, the structure of neurons and glial cells was more distinct, especially in prednisolone and moderate-dose Jisuikang groups. Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry showed that expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in injured segments was maintained at a high level after 7–14 days of treatment. In contrast, expression of nerve growth factor (NGF was down-regulated at 7 days after spinal cord injury. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that expression of BDNF and NGF mRNA was induced in injured segments by prednisolone and Jisuikang. At 3–7 days after injury, the effect of prednisolone was greater, while 14 days after injury, the effect of moderate-dose Jisuikang was greater. These results confirm that Jisuikang can upregulate BDNF and NGF expression for a prolonged period after spinal cord injury and promote repair of acute spinal cord injury, with its effect being similar to prednisolone.

  12. <strong>Anonysense>: privacy-aware people-centric sensingstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Cornelius, Cory; Kapadia, Apu

    2008-01-01

    by personal mobile devices. AnonySense allows applications to submit sensing tasks that will be distributed across anonymous participating mobile devices, later receiving verified, yet anonymized, sensor data reports back from the field, thus providing the first secure implementation of this participatory......Personal mobile devices are increasingly equipped with the capability to sense the physical world (through cameras, microphones, and accelerometers, for example) and the, network world (with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth interfaces). Such devices offer many new opportunities for cooperative sensing...... applications. For example, users' mobile phones may contribute data to community-oriented information services, from city-wide pollution monitoring to enterprise-wide detection of unauthorized Wi-Fi access points. This people-centric mobile-sensing model introduces a new security challenge in the design...

  13. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  14. Increased recruitment but impaired function of leukocytes during inflammation in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Sofia Pettersson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from diabetes show defective bacterial clearance. This study investigates the effects of elevated plasma glucose levels during diabetes on leukocyte recruitment and function in established models of inflammation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by intravenous alloxan (causing severe hyperglycemia, or by high fat diet (moderate hyperglycemia. Leukocyte recruitment was studied in anaesthetized mice using intravital microscopy of exposed cremaster muscles, where numbers of rolling, adherent and emigrated leukocytes were quantified before and during exposure to the inflammatory chemokine MIP-2 (0.5 nM. During basal conditions, prior to addition of chemokine, the adherent and emigrated leukocytes were increased in both alloxan- (62±18% and 85±21%, respectively and high fat diet-induced (77±25% and 86±17%, respectively diabetes compared to control mice. MIP-2 induced leukocyte emigration in all groups, albeit significantly more cells emigrated in alloxan-treated mice (15.3±1.0 compared to control (8.0±1.1 mice. Bacterial clearance was followed for 10 days after subcutaneous injection of bioluminescent S. aureus using non-invasive IVIS imaging, and the inflammatory response was assessed by Myeloperoxidase-ELISA and confocal imaging. The phagocytic ability of leukocytes was assessed using LPS-coated fluorescent beads and flow cytometry. Despite efficient leukocyte recruitment, alloxan-treated mice demonstrated an impaired ability to clear bacterial infection, which we found correlated to a 50% decreased phagocytic ability of leukocytes in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that reduced ability to clear bacterial infections observed during experimentally induced diabetes is not due to reduced leukocyte recruitment since sustained hyperglycemia results in increased levels of adherent and emigrated leukocytes in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes

  15. Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Wagener

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal infections to life-threatening systemic infections. Phagocytic cells of the innate immune response, such as neutrophils and macrophages, are important first-line responders to an infection and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as part of their protective antimicrobial response. During an infection, host cells generate nitric oxide through the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS to kill the invading pathogen. Inside the phagocyte, iNOS competes with the enzyme arginase-1 for a common substrate, the amino acid l-arginine. Several pathogenic species, including bacteria and parasitic protozoans, actively modulate the production of nitric oxide by inducing their own arginases or the host’s arginase activity to prevent the conversion of l-arginine to nitric oxide. We report here that C. albicans blocks nitric oxide production in human-monocyte-derived macrophages by induction of host arginase activity. We further determined that purified chitin (a fungal cell wall polysaccharide and increased chitin exposure at the fungal cell wall surface induces this host arginase activity. Blocking the C. albicans-induced arginase activity with the arginase-specific substrate inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA or the chitinase inhibitor bisdionin F restored nitric oxide production and increased the efficiency of fungal killing. Moreover, we determined that C. albicans influences macrophage polarization from a classically activated phenotype toward an alternatively activated phenotype, thereby reducing antimicrobial functions and mediating fungal survival. Therefore, C. albicans modulates l-arginine metabolism in macrophages during an infection, potentiating its own survival.

  16. Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly at ...

  17. Strong demand despite increased excise duty / Ella Karapetyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karapetyan, Ella

    2010-01-01

    Ettevõtte Liviko juht Janek Kalvi räägib alkohoolsete jookide turust Eestis, ettevõtte tegevusest ja investeeringutest. Kuigi Eestis tõusis alkohoolsete jookide aktsiis, ei ole tarbimine vähenenud