WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly distorted tetra-hedral

  1. Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Isabella Odorico; Zmylon, Nanna Nielsen; Britze, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the audience’s perception of the music festival Distortion. By conducting a field-study focusing on the subject’s perception of Distortion, their perception of the Distortion-attendants, and their perception on the promotion of Distortion, the paper will relate the audience perception to the promotion of the event. Using the group’s own research on the promotion of Distortion, the paper points out both the consistencies and the inconsistencies between the promotion and...

  2. Vector neural net identifying many strongly distorted and correlated patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovsky, Boris V.; Mikaelian, Andrei L.; Fonarev, Anatoly B.

    2005-01-01

    We suggest an effective and simple algorithm providing a polynomial storage capacity of a network of the form M ~ N2s+1, where N is the dimension of the stored binary patterns. In this problem the value of the free parameter s is restricted by the inequalities N >> slnN >= 1. The algorithm allows us to identify a large number of highly distorted similar patterns. The negative influence of correlations of the patterns is suppressed by choosing a sufficiently large value of the parameter s. We show the efficiency of the algorithm by the example of a perceptron identifier, but it also can be used to increase the storage capacity of full connected systems of associative memory.

  3. Theory of X-ray scattering by strongly distorted aging alloys with lamellar distribution of inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, R.I.; Krivoglaz, M.A.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray scattering by strongly distorted heterogeneous alloys containing inclusions of new phase particles is discussed. Two models describing the lamellar structure with various orientation of inclusion axes in different layers are studied. In the first model the dimensions of inclusions are small in comparison with the layer thickness and they are randomly distributed in it, in the second model lamellar inclusions stretch through the whole layer. It is shown that in both models the Debye broadened line intensity distribution consists of overlapping Lorentz curves. A case of inclusions oriented along directions [100] and layers perpendicular to axes [110] is analyzed in detail. The results obtained for this case are compared with experimental results for the Cu-Be alloy

  4. Band Gap Distortion in Semiconductors Strongly Driven by Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, J.; Chin, A. H.

    2000-03-01

    Crystalline solids non-resonantly driven by intense time-periodic electric fields are predicted to exhibit unusual band-gap distortion.(e.g., Y. Yacoby, Phys. Rev. 169, 610 (1968); L.C.M. Miranda, Solid State Commun. 45, 783 (1983); J.Z. Kaminski, Acta Physica Polonica A 83, 495(1993).) Such non-perturbative effects have not been observed to date because of the unavoidable sample damage due to the very high intensity required using conventional lasers ( 1 eV photon energy). Here, we report the first clear evidence of laser-induced bandgap shrinkage in semiconductors under intense mid-infrared (MIR) laser fields. The use of long-wavelength light reduces the required intensity and prohibits strong interband absorption, thereby avoiding the damage problem. The significant sub-bandgap absorption persists only during the existence of the MIR laser pulse, indicating the virtual nature of the effect. We show that this particular example of non-perturbative behavior, known as the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect, occurs when the effective ponderomotive potential energy is comparable to the photon energy of the applied field. This work was supported by ONR, NSF, JST and NEDO.

  5. Effect of strong-focusing field distortions on particle motion in a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, B.I.; Durkin, A.P.; Solov'ev, L.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The increased sensitivity of quadrupole focusing channel used in the highenergetic part of the linear accelerator makes it necessary to pay serious attention to the effect of various distortions of focusing fields on the transverse motion of the beam. The distortions may cause the inadmissible losses of particles in the accelerator. To achieve this aim the main equation of disturbed motion of particles in the linear accelerator, obtained by analogy with the cyclic accelerator theory is presented. The investigation of the solutions of this equation has permitted to obtain the analytical formulas for the estimation of the beam size increase under the effect of focusing field distortions of various types, such as structural non-linearity, gradient errors, random non-linearity, channel axis deformation. While studying the effect of structural non-linearity considered are the resonance effects and obtained are the relations describing the maximum beam size increase in the channel of the linear accelerator in the presence and in the absence of the resonance

  6. Whole Earth Telescope discovery of a strongly distorted quadrupole pulsation in the largest amplitude rapidly oscillating Ap star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Saio, H.; Provencal, J. L.; Letarte, B.; Sefako, R. R.; Petit, V.; Smalley, B.; Thomsen, H.; Fletcher, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star, 2MASS J19400781 - 4420093 (J1940; V = 13.1). The star was discovered using SuperWASP broad-band photometry to have a frequency of 176.39 d-1 (2041.55 μHz; P = 8.2 min; Holdsworth et al. 2014a) and is shown here to have a peak-to-peak amplitude of 34 mmag. J1940 has been observed during three seasons at the South African Astronomical Observatory, and has been the target of a Whole Earth Telescope campaign. The observations reveal that J1940 pulsates in a distorted quadrupole mode with unusual pulsational phase variations. A higher signal-to-noise ratio spectrum has been obtained since J1940's first announcement, which allows us to classify the star as A7 Vp Eu(Cr). The observing campaigns presented here reveal no pulsations other than the initially detected frequency. We model the pulsation in J1940 and conclude that the pulsation is distorted by a magnetic field of strength 1.5 kG. A difference in the times of rotational maximum light and pulsation maximum suggests a significant offset between the spots and pulsation axis, as can be seen in roAp stars.

  7. A self-interference cancelling receiver for in-band full-duplex wireless with low distortion under cancellation of strong TX leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Dirk-Jan; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    In-band full-duplex (FD) wireless communication, i.e. simultaneous transmission and reception at the same frequency, in the same channel, promises up to 2x spectral efficiency, along with advantages in higher network layers [1]. the main challenge is dealing with strong in-band leakage from the

  8. Amplifier Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  9. Distortion Control during Welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

  10. Components of segregation distortion in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganetzky, B.

    1977-01-01

    The segregation distorter (SD) complex is a naturally occurring meiotic drive system with the property that males heterozygous for an SD-bearing chromosome 2 and an SD+-bearing homolog transmit the SD-bearing chromosome almost exclusively. This distorted segregation is the consequence of an induced dysfunction of those sperm that receive the SD+ homolog. From previous studies, two loci have been implicated in this phenomenon: the Sd locus which is required to produce distortion, and the Responder (Rsp) locus that is the site at which Sd acts. There are two allelic alternatives of Rsp-sensitive (Rsp/sup sens/) and insensitive (Rsp/sup ins/); a chromosome carrying Rsp/sup ins/ is not distorted by SD. In the present study, the function and location of each of these elements was examined by a genetic and cytological characterization of x-ray-induced mutations at each locus. The results indicate the following: the Rsp locus is located in the proximal heterochromatin of 2R; a deletion for the Rsp locus renders a chromosome insensitive to distortion; the Sd locus is located to the left of pr (2-54.5), in the region from 37D2-D7 to 38A6-B2 of the salivary chromosome map; an SD chromosome deleted for Sd loses its ability to distort; there is another important component of the SD system, E(SD), in or near the proximal heterochromatin of 2L, that behaves as a strong enhancer of distortion. The results of these studies allow a reinterpretation of results from earlier analyses of the SD system and serve to limit the possible mechanisms to account for segregation distortion

  11. Distortion dependent intersystem crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Anne Boutrup; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2017-01-01

    . The effect is observed to increase in the presence of methyl-groups on the pinnacle carbon-atoms, where largest extents of r and p orbital-mixing are observed. This is fully consistent with the time-resolved spectroscopy data: Toluene and p-xylene show evidence for ultrafast triplet formation competing......The competition between ultrafast intersystem crossing and internal conversion in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene is investigated with time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. By exciting to S2 out-of-plane symmetry breaking, distortions are activated at early...... times whereupon spin-forbidden intersystem crossing becomes (partly) allowed. Natural bond orbital analysis suggests that the pinnacle carbon atoms distorting from the aromatic plane change hybridization between the planar Franck-Condon geometry and the deformed (boat-shaped) S2 equilibrium geometry...

  12. Deep subcritical levels measurements dependents upon kinetic distortion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Shibiao; Li Xiang; Fu Guo'en; Huang Liyuan; Mu Keliang

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of deep subcritical levels, with the increase of subcriticality, showed that the results impact on the kinetic distortion effect, along with neutron flux strongly deteriorated. Using the diffusion theory, calculations have been carried out to quantify the kinetic distortion correction factors in subcritical systems, and these indicate that epithermal neutron distributions are strongly affected by kinetic distortion. Subcriticality measurements in four different rod-state combination at the zero power device was carried out. The test data analysis shows that, with increasing subcriticality, kinetic distortion effect correction factor gradually increases from 1.052 to 1.065, corresponding reactive correction amount of 0.78β eff ∼ 3.01β eff . Thus, it is necessary to consider the kinetic distortion effect in the deep subcritical reactivity measurements. (authors)

  13. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  14. Limited distortion in LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Duric, Zoran; Richards, Dana

    2006-02-01

    It is well known that all information hiding methods that modify the least significant bits introduce distortions into the cover objects. Those distortions have been utilized by steganalysis algorithms to detect that the objects had been modified. It has been proposed that only coefficients whose modification does not introduce large distortions should be used for embedding. In this paper we propose an effcient algorithm for information hiding in the LSBs of JPEG coefficients. Our algorithm uses parity coding to choose the coefficients whose modifications introduce minimal additional distortion. We derive the expected value of the additional distortion as a function of the message length and the probability distribution of the JPEG quantization errors of cover images. Our experiments show close agreement between the theoretical prediction and the actual additional distortion.

  15. Bidimensional distortion in ferroelectric liquid crystals with strong ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characterized by bistability and optical memory in the surface-stabilized bookshelf [2,3] ... tic layers, which lies in a plane parallel to the cell walls (see figure 1). Up to now ... Theory. We consider a liquid crystalline material exhibiting ferroelectric phase organized in book- ... By applying an external electric field Eext along.

  16. [1,2-Bis(diisopropyl-phosphan-yl)ethane-κ(2) P,P'](carbonato-κ(2) O,O')nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Becerril, Illan; Flores-Alamo, Marcos; Garcia, Juventino J

    2013-04-01

    In the crystal of the title compound, [Ni(CO3)(C14H32P2)], the metal center in each of three independent mol-ecules shows slight tetra-hedral distortion from ideal square-planar coordination geometry, with angles between the normals to the planes defined by the cis-P-Ni-P and cis-O-Ni-O fragments of 3.92 (17), 0.70 (16) and 2.17 (14)° in the three mol-ecules. In the crystal, there are inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds that show a laminar growth in the ab plane.

  17. (O-Methyl di-thio-carbonato-κS)tri-phenyl-tin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fatima; Ali, Saqib; Shah, Wajid; Tahir, M Nawaz; Ullah, Hameed

    2013-06-01

    In the title compound, [Sn(C6H5)3(C2H3OS2)], the Sn(IV) atom adopts a distorted SnC3S tetra-hedral coordination geometry. A short Sn⋯O contact [2.988 (4) Å] is also present. The phenyl rings are each disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.550 (8):0.450 (8). The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin with a twin component ratio of 0.57 (18):0.43 (18).

  18. Rate-distortion theory and human perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental goal of perception is to aid in the achievement of behavioral objectives. This requires extracting and communicating useful information from noisy and uncertain sensory signals. At the same time, given the complexity of sensory information and the limitations of biological information processing, it is necessary that some information must be lost or discarded in the act of perception. Under these circumstances, what constitutes an 'optimal' perceptual system? This paper describes the mathematical framework of rate-distortion theory as the optimal solution to the problem of minimizing the costs of perceptual error subject to strong constraints on the ability to communicate or transmit information. Rate-distortion theory offers a general and principled theoretical framework for developing computational-level models of human perception (Marr, 1982). Models developed in this framework are capable of producing quantitatively precise explanations for human perceptual performance, while yielding new insights regarding the nature and goals of perception. This paper demonstrates the application of rate-distortion theory to two benchmark domains where capacity limits are especially salient in human perception: discrete categorization of stimuli (also known as absolute identification) and visual working memory. A software package written for the R statistical programming language is described that aids in the development of models based on rate-distortion theory. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Distortions in Judged Spatial Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Distortions in judgments of relative geographical relations were observed, particularly when the locations were in different geographical or political units. Subjects distorted the judged relation to conform with the relation of the superordinate political unit. A model for the hierachical storage of spatial information is presented. (Author/RD)

  20. The evolution of costly mate choice against segregation distorters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Andri; Lindholm, Anna K; Weissing, Franz J

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of female preference for male genetic quality remains a controversial topic in sexual selection research. One well-known problem, known as the lek paradox, lies in understanding how variation in genetic quality is maintained in spite of natural selection and sexual selection against low-quality alleles. Here, we theoretically investigate a scenario where females pay a direct fitness cost to avoid males carrying an autosomal segregation distorter. We show that preference evolution is greatly facilitated under such circumstances. Because the distorter is transmitted in a non-Mendelian fashion, it can be maintained in the population despite directional sexual selection. The preference helps females avoid fitness costs associated with the distorter. Interestingly, we find that preference evolution is limited if the choice allele induces a very strong preference or if distortion is very strong. Moreover, the preference can only persist in the presence of a signal that reliably indicates a male's distorter genotype. Hence, even in a system where the lek paradox does not play a major role, costly preferences can only spread under specific circumstances. We discuss the importance of distorter systems for the evolution of costly female choice and potential implications for the use of artificial distorters in pest control. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Volterra Series Based Distortion Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    A large part of the characteristic sound of the electric guitar comes from nonlinearities in the signal path. Such nonlinearities may come from the input- or output-stage of the amplier, which is often equipped with vacuum tubes or a dedicated distortion pedal. In this paper the Volterra series...... expansion for non linear systems is investigated with respect to generating good distortion. The Volterra series allows for unlimited adjustment of the level and frequency dependency of each distortion component. Subjectively relevant ways of linking the dierent orders are discussed....

  2. Distortion effects in pion-induced knock-out reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.K.

    The cross-section for (π + ,π + p) reaction on 12 C is calculated in DWIA at 100 and 180 MeV incident energy. The effect of pion distortion is found to be strong. Around 180 MeV the effect is strongly absorptive while around 10O MeV it is mainly dispersive. (auth.)

  3. CMB spectral distortion constraints on thermal inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kihyun; Stewart, Ewan D. [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungwook E. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Zoe, Heeseung, E-mail: cho_physics@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr, E-mail: jcap@profstewart.org, E-mail: heezoe@dgist.ac.kr [School of Undergraduate Studies, College of Transdisciplinary Studies, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Thermal inflation is a second epoch of exponential expansion at typical energy scales V {sup 1/4} ∼ 10{sup 6} {sup ∼} {sup 8} GeV. If the usual primordial inflation is followed by thermal inflation, the primordial power spectrum is only modestly redshifted on large scales, but strongly suppressed on scales smaller than the horizon size at the beginning of thermal inflation, k > k {sub b} = a {sub b} H {sub b}. We calculate the spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background generated by the dissipation of acoustic waves in this context. For k {sub b} || 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1}, thermal inflation results in a large suppression of the μ-distortion amplitude, predicting that it falls well below the standard value of μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8}. Thus, future spectral distortion experiments, similar to PIXIE, can place new limits on the thermal inflation scenario, constraining k {sub b} ∼> 10{sup 3} Mpc{sup −1} if μ ≅ 2× 10{sup −8} were found.

  4. Market distortions and aggregate productivity: Evidence from Chinese energy enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xiaoyong; Cheng, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Market distortions can generate resource misallocations across heterogeneous firms and reduce aggregate productivity. This paper measures market distortions and aggregate productivity growth in China's energy sector. We use the wedge between output elasticities and factor shares in revenues to recover a measure of firm-level market distortions. Using data on a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises from 1999 to 2007, our estimations provide strong evidence of the existence of both factor and product market distortions within and across China's various energy industries. The productivity aggregation and decomposition results demonstrate that the estimated aggregate productivity growth (APG) is, on average, 2.595% points per year, of which technological change, resource reallocation, and firm entries and exits account for 1.981, 0.068, and 0.546% points, respectively. The weak contributions of resource reallocation and firm turnover to APG are also found in energy sub-industries, except in the coal industry. Our research suggests that China's energy sector has major potential for productivity gains from resource reallocation through the reduction of market distortions. - Highlights: •We estimate market distortions and productivity growth of China's energy sector. •We use a large sample of Chinese energy enterprises. •There are evidences of the existence of factor and product market distortions. •Aggregate productivity growth is largely driven by firm-level technological change. •China's energy sector can realize productivity gains from resource reallocations.

  5. An Improved Distortion Operator for Insurance Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jian-wei; QIU Wan-hua

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the distortion function approach developed in the actuarial literature for insurance risks. The main aim of this paper is to derive an extensive distortion operator, and to propose a new premium principle based on this extensive distortion operator. Furthermore, the non-robustness of general distortion operator is also discussed. Examples are provided using Bernoulli, Pareto, Lognormal and Gamma distribution assumptions.

  6. Possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Ehksperimental' noj Morfologii)

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H/sup 3/-thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough investigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient.

  7. TPC track distortions IV: post tenebras lux

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Boyko, I; Chelkov, G; Dedovitch, D; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Krumshtein, Z; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2007-01-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion and summary of static and dynamic track distortions in the HARP TPC in terms of physical origin, mathematical modelling and correction algorithms. `Static' distortions are constant with time, while `dynamic' distortions are distortions that occur only during the 400 ms long accelerator spill. The measurement of dynamic distortions, their mathematical modelling and the correction algorithms build on our understanding of static distortions. In the course of corroborating the validity of our static distortion corrections, their reliability and precision was further improved. Dynamic TPC distortions originate dominantly from the `stalactite' effect: a column of positive-ion charge starts growing at the begin of the accelerator spill, and continues growing with nearly constant velocity out from the sense-wire plane into the active TPC volume. However, the `stalactite' effect is not able to describe the distortions that are present already at the start of the spill and which ha...

  8. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  9. Visualization and spectral synthesis of rotationally distorted stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, T H; Sbordone, L

    2011-01-01

    Simple spherical, non-rotating stellar models are inadequate when describing real stars in the limit of very fast rotation: Both the observable spectrum and the geometrical shape of the star deviate strongly from simple models. We attempt to approach the problem of modeling geometrically distorted, rapidly rotating stars from a new angle: By constructing distorted geometrical models and integrating standard stellar models with varying temperature, gravity, and abundances, over the entire surface, we attempt a semi-empirical approach to modeling. Here we present our methodology, and present simple examples of applications.

  10. Rietveld refinement of the mixed boracite Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Godínez, Sandra; Rosales, Ivonne; Bucio, Lauro; Farías, Mario H; Campa-Molina, Jorge

    2009-10-31

    The structural characterization of the new iron-zinc hepta-borate bromide with composition Fe(1.59)Zn(1.41)B(7)O(13)Br, prepared by chemical transport is reported. A rigid-body model with constrained generalized coordinates was defined in order to hold the positions of the B atoms at reasonable inter-atomic distances that typically would reach unacceptable values because of the weak scattering power of boron. There are three independent sites for the B atoms of which two are tetra-hedrally coordinated. The bond-valence sum around the third B atom, located on a threefold rotation axis, was calculated considering two cases of coordination of boron with oxygens: trigonal-planar and tetrahedral. The contribution of the fourth O atom to the bond-valence sum was found to be only 0.06 v.u., indicating the presence of a very weak bond in the right position to have a distorted tetra-hedral coordination in favour of the trigonal-planar coordination for the third B atom. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determinate the Fe/Zn ratio.

  11. Guessing and compression subject to distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar; Sundaresan, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. The relation-ship between guessing without distortion and compression is extended to the case when source alphabet size is countably in¯nite. Further, similar relationship is established for the case when distortion allowed by establishing a tight relationship between rate distortion codes and guessing strategies.

  12. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  13. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  14. Space mappings with bounded distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Reshetnyak, Yu G

    1989-01-01

    This book is intended for researchers and students concerned with questions in analysis and function theory. The author provides an exposition of the main results obtained in recent years by Soviet and other mathematicians in the theory of mappings with bounded distortion, an active direction in contemporary mathematics. The mathematical tools presented can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems that go beyond the context of the main topic of investigation. For a number of questions in the theory of partial differential equations and the theory of functions with generalized derivatives, this is the first time they have appeared in an internationally distributed monograph.

  15. Frequency modulation television analysis: Distortion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, W. H.; Wong, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Computer simulation is used to calculate the time-domain waveform of standard T-pulse-and-bar test signal distorted in passing through an FM television system. The simulator includes flat or preemphasized systems and requires specification of the RF predetection filter characteristics. The predetection filters are modeled with frequency-symmetric Chebyshev (0.1-db ripple) and Butterworth filters. The computer was used to calculate distorted output signals for sixty-four different specified systems, and the output waveforms are plotted for all sixty-four. Comparison of the plotted graphs indicates that a Chebyshev predetection filter of four poles causes slightly more signal distortion than a corresponding Butterworth filter and the signal distortion increases as the number of poles increases. An increase in the peak deviation also increases signal distortion. Distortion also increases with the addition of preemphasis.

  16. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  17. Structural Change Accounting with Labor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbiao Cai

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative importance of sectoral productivity and labor market distortions for structural change. I use a model in which labor productivity is the product of TFP and human capital in each sector, but distortions generate wedges in wage per efficiency worker across sectors. I calculate human capital by sector using micro census data, and use the model to infer TFP and distortions such that it replicates structural change in the US, India, Mexico and Brazil between 1960...

  18. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  19. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  20. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in NH_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Pirali, Olivier; Coudert, L. H.

    2017-06-01

    The NH2 radical spectrum, first observed by Herzberg and Ramsay, is dominated by a strong Renner-Teller effect giving rise to two electronic states: the bent X ^{2}B_1 ground state and the quasi-linear A ^{2}A_1 excited state. The NH2 radical has been the subject of numerous high-resolution investigations and its electronic and ro-vibrational transitions have been measured. Using synchrotron radiation, new rotational transitions have been recently recorded and a value of the rotational quantum number N as large as 26 could be reached. In the X ^{2}B_1 ground state, the NH2 radical behaves like a triatomic molecule displaying spin-rotation splittings. Due to the lightness of the molecule, a strong coupling between the overall rotation and the bending mode arises whose effects increase with N and lead to the anomalous centrifugal distortion evidenced in the new measurements.^d In this talk the Bending-Rotation approach developed to account for the anomalous centrifugal distortion of the water molecule is modified to include spin-rotation coupling and applied to the fitting of high-resolution data pertaining to the ground electronic state of NH2. A preliminary line position analysis of the available data^{c,d} allowed us to account for 1681 transitions with a unitless standard deviation of 1.2. New transitions could also be assigned in the spectrum recorded by Martin-Drumel et al.^d In the talk, the results obtained with the new theoretical approach will be compared to those retrieved with a Watson-type Hamiltonian and the effects of the vibronic coupling between the ground X ^{2}B_1 and the excited A ^{2}A_1 electronic state will be discussed. Herzberg and Ramsay, J. Chem. Phys. 20 (1952) 347 Dressler and Ramsay, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 25 (1959) 553 Hadj Bachir, Huet, Destombes, and Vervloet, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 193 (1999) 326 McKellar, Vervloet, Burkholder, and Howard, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 142 (1990) 319 Morino and Kawaguchi, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 182 (1997) 428

  1. Modelling the Perceptual Components of Loudspeaker Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sune L.; Agerkvist, Finn T.; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    While non-linear distortion in loudspeakers decreases audio quality, the perceptual consequences can vary substantially. This paper investigates the metric Rnonlin [1] which was developed to predict subjective measurements of sound quality in nonlinear systems. The generalisability of the metric...... the perceptual consequences of non-linear distortion....

  2. Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Advanced Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion FINAL STATUS REPORT Prepared by Brian Becker R&D Technology Manager Third Wave Systems, Inc... Machining Toolpath for Low Distortion December 2016 Contract No.: W911W6-16-P-0044 2 Table of Contents 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...2 2.1 Task 1: Collect Details of Machining Lab to Support

  3. TPC track distortions III: fiat lux

    CERN Document Server

    Boyko, I; Dydak, F; Elagin, A; Gostkin, M; Guskov, A; Koreshev, V; Nefedov, Y; Nikolaev, K; Veenhof, R; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview and final summary of all four types of static track distortions seen in the HARP TPC, in terms of physical origins, mathematical modelling, and correction algorithms. 'Static'™ distortions are defined as not depending on the event time within the 400 ms long accelerator spill. Calculated static distortions are compared with measurements from cosmic-muon tracks. We characterize track distortions by the r phi residuals of cluster positions with respect to the transverse projection of a helical trajectory constrained by hits in the RPC overlap regions. This method provides a fixed TPC-external reference system (by contrast to the co-moving coordinate system associated with a fit) which solely permits to identify individually, and measure quantitatively, the static TPC track distortions arising from (i) the inhomogeneity of the solenoidal magnetic field, (ii) the inhomogeneity of the electric field from the high-voltage mismatch between the inner and outer TPC field cages, (...

  4. TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Brown, Warren R., E-mail: jjhermes@astro.as.utexas.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-04-10

    We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

  5. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  6. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  7. Sonographic ally Detected Architectural Distortion: Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Kee; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cho, Kyu Ran; Kim, Young Sik; Son, Gil Soo; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Young

    2008-01-01

    Architectural distortion is a suspicious abnormality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of sonographic ally detected architectural distortion. From January 2006 to June 2008, 20 patients were identified who had sonographic ally detected architectural distortions without a history of trauma or surgery and abnormal mammographic findings related to an architectural distortion. All of the lesions were pathologically verified. We evaluated the clinical and pathological findings and then assessed the clinical significance of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions. Based on the clinical findings, one (5%) of the 20 patients had a palpable lump and the remaining 19 patients had no symptoms. No patient had a family history of breast cancer. Based on the pathological findings, three (15%) patients had malignancies. The malignant lesions included invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 2) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 1). Four (20%) patients had high-risk lesions: atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 3) and lobular carcinoma in situ (n = 1). The remaining 13 (65%) patients had benign lesions, however, seven (35%) out of 13 patients had mild-risk lesions (three intraductal papillomas, three moderate or florid epithelial hyperplasia and one sclerosing adenosis). Of the sonographic ally detected architectural distortions, 35% were breast cancers or high-risk lesions and 35% were mild-risk lesions. Thus, a biopsy might be needed for an architectural distortion without an associated mass as depicted on breast ultrasound, even though the mammographic findings are normal

  8. Distortional Modes of Thin-Walled Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The classic thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross-sections can be generalized by including distortional displacement modes. The introduction of additional displacement modes leads to coupled differential equations, which seems to have prohibited the use of exact shape functions...... in the modelling of coupled torsion and distortion. However, if the distortional displacement modes are chosen as those which decouple the differential equations as in non proportionally damped modal dynamic analysis then it may be possible to use exact shape functions and perform analysis on a reduced problem....... In the recently developed generalized beam theory (GBT) the natural distortional displacement modes are determined on the basis of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. However, as in linear modal dynamic analysis of proportionally damped structures this problem has been solved approximately using linear eigenvalue...

  9. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

    2009-09-01

    The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

  10. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  11. Structures and properties of spatially distorted porphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg A; Kuvshinova, Elizaveta M; Pukhovskaya, Svetlana G

    2005-01-01

    The published data on the structures and properties of porphyrins with distorted aromatic macrocycles are generalised and analysed. Data on the crystal structures, spectra and kinetics of formation and dissociation of their coordination derivatives are summarised. It is demonstrated that the distortion of the planar structure of the tetrapyrrole core is one of the most efficient means of controlling spectral, physicochemical and coordination properties of these compounds.

  12. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  13. Welding distortion control in double walled KSTAR vacuum vessel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, D. W.; Lee, G. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yang, H. L.; Bak, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    The KSTAR(Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) vacuum vessel is designed to be a double walled structure made of 12mm thick 316LN stainless steel with a D shaped cross-section about 4 m height. Vacuum vessel was pre-fabricated in two parts, 180 degree and 157.5 degree sectors in toroidal direction to meet the transportation purpose. These two parts have to be welded on site with ±2mm allowable fabrication tolerances. 1/3 scaled mock-up model was used to estimate the welding distortion and to ensure the weld quality of vacuum vessel. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding(GTAW), which has been approved by procedure qualification test, was used during mock-up test and vacuum vessel site fabrication. Welding distortion could be managed by allowing for distortion in opposite direction, by applying high restraint using lots of strong backs, by controlling the welding heat input with symmetrical welding sequence. The integrity of the site welding joint was assured by radiographic test, ultrasonic test and leak test with helium detecting method

  14. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mammographic Architectural Distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Hwangbo, Seol; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Chung, Yong An

    2008-01-01

    To review the sonographic findings of various diseases showing architectural distortion depicted under mammography. We collected and reviewed architectural distortions observed under mammography at our health institution between 1 March 2004, and 28 February 2007. We collected 23 cases of sonographically-detected mammographic architectural distortions that confirmed lesions after surgical resection. The sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion were analyzed by use of the BI-RADS lexicon for shape, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature and orientation. There were variable diseases that showed architectural distortion depicted under mammography. Fibrocystic disease was the most common presentation (n = 6), followed by adenosis (n = 2), stromal fibrosis (n = 2), radial scar (n = 3), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 1), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 1) and mild fibrosis with microcalcification (n = 1). Malignant lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 2), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 2), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 2) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 1) were observed. As observed by sonography, shape was divided as irregular (n = 22) and round (n = 1). Margin was divided as circumscribed (n = 1), indistinct (n = 7), angular (n = 1), microlobulated (n = 1) and sipculated (n = 13). Lesion boundary was divided as abrupt interface (n = 11) and echogenic halo (n = 12). Echo pattern was divided as hypoechoic (n = 20), anechoic (n = 1), hyperechoic (n = 1) and isoechoic (n = 1). Posterior acoustic feature was divided as posterior acoustic feature (n = 7), posterior acoustic shadow (n = 15) and complex posterior acoustic feature (n = 1). Orientation was divided as parallel (n = 12) and not parallel (n = 11). There were no differential sonographic findings between benign and malignant lesions. This study presented various sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion and that it is

  15. Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.

  16. Expertise and processing distorted structure in chess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, James C; Boggan, Amy L; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    A classic finding in research on human expertise and knowledge is that of enhanced memory for stimuli in a domain of expertise as compared to either stimuli outside that domain, or within-domain stimuli that have been degraded or distorted in some way. However, we do not understand how experts process degradation or distortion of stimuli within the expert domain (e.g., a face with the eyes, nose, and mouth in the wrong positions, or a chessboard with pieces placed randomly). Focusing on the domain of chess, we present new fMRI evidence that when experts view such distorted/within-domain stimuli, they engage an active search for structure-a kind of exploratory chunking-that involves a component of a prefrontal-parietal network linked to consciousness, attention and working memory.

  17. Lattice shear distortions in fluorite structure oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, J. Jr.; Mueller, M.H.; Hitterman, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Crystallographic shear distortions have been observed in fluorite structure, single crystals of UO 2 and Zr(Ca)O 2 /sub-x/ by neutron-diffraction techniques. These distortions localize on the oxygen sublattice and do not require the presence of an external strain. The internal rearrangement mode in UO 2 is a transverse, zone boundary q vector = 2π/a (0.5, 0.0) deformation with amplitude 0.014 A. In Zr(Ca)O/sub 2-x/, the mode is a longitudinal, q vector = 2-/a (0,0,0.5) deformation with amplitude 0.23 A. Cation-anion elastic interactions dominate in selecting the nature of the internal distortion

  18. Density distortion within a rotating body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzano, P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper ascertains the distortion of the density distribution within a self-gravitating body in hydrostatic equilibrium under the influence of rotation. For this purpose, the Poisson equation has been solved by using the undistorted density profile within the Laplacian to obtain the distorted density. The Laplacian has been expressed in terms of a system of curvilinear coordinates for which the equipotential surfaces constitute a family of fundamental surfaces. In performing the requisite algebraic manipulations, the Clairaut and Radau equations developed in a previous paper (Lanzano,1974) were utilized to eliminate the derivatives of the elements pertaining to the equipotential surfaces. The density distortion has been obtained up to third-order terms in a small rotational parameter. (Auth.)

  19. 'Distorted structure modelling' - a more physical approach to Rapid Distortion Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savill, A.M.

    1979-11-01

    Rapid Distortion Theory is reviewed in the light of the modern mechanistic approach to turbulent motion. The apparent failure of current models, based on this theory, to predict stress intensity ratios accurately in distorted shear flows is attributed to their oversimplistic assumptions concerning the inherent turbulence structure of such flows. A more realistic picture of this structure and the manner in which it responds to distortion is presented in terms of interactions between the mean flow and three principal types of eddies. If Rapid Distortion Theory is modified to account for this it is shown that the stress intensity ratios can be accurately predicted in three test flows. It is concluded that a computational scheme based on Rapid Distortion Theory might ultimately be capable of predicting turbulence parameters in the highly complex geometries of reactor cooling systems. (author)

  20. Holographic measurement of distortion during laser melting: Additive distortion from overlapping pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Peter; Frostevarg, Jan; Powell, John; Eriksson, Ingemar; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Laser - material interactions such as welding, heat treatment and thermal bending generate thermal gradients which give rise to thermal stresses and strains which often result in a permanent distortion of the heated object. This paper investigates the thermal distortion response which results from pulsed laser surface melting of a stainless steel sheet. Pulsed holography has been used to accurately monitor, in real time, the out-of-plane distortion of stainless steel samples melted on one face by with both single and multiple laser pulses. It has been shown that surface melting by additional laser pulses increases the out of plane distortion of the sample without significantly increasing the melt depth. The distortion differences between the primary pulse and subsequent pulses has also been analysed for fully and partially overlapping laser pulses.

  1. Distorted representation in visual tourism research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    how photographic materialities, performativities and sensations contribute to new tourism knowledges. While highlighting the potential of distorted representation, the paper posits a cautionary note in regards to the influential role of academic journals in determining the qualities of visual data....... The paper exemplifies distorted representation through three impressionistic tales derived from ethnographic research on the European rail travel phenomenon: interrail.......Tourism research has recently been informed by non-representational theories to highlight the socio-material, embodied and heterogeneous composition of tourist experiences. These advances have contributed to further reflexivity and called for novel ways to animate representations...

  2. Crystal structure of bis-[(acetato-κO)(imidazolidine-2-thione-κS)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)silver(I)] di-μ-imidazol-idine-2-thione-κ(4) S:S-bis-[(imidazol-id-ine-2-thione-κS)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)silver(I)] di-acetate aceto-nitrile disolvate tetra-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimthong-Roldán, Arunpatcha; Ratthiwan, Janejira; Lakmas, Sawanya; Wattanakanjana, Yupa

    2016-04-01

    In the title compound, [Ag2(C3H6N2S)4(C18H15P)2](C2H3O2)2·[Ag(C2H3O2)(C3H6N2S)(C18H15P)2]2·2C2H3N·4H2O, the Ag(I) ion in the mononuclear neutral complex exhibits a distorted tetra-hedral environment with coordination by two P atoms from tri-phenyl-phosphane (PPh3) ligands, one S atom of an imidazolidine-2-thione (etu) ligand and one O atom of an acetate anion. The binuclear cationic complex comprises two inversion-related [Ag(C3H6N2S)2(C18H15P)] units with Ag(I) ions bridged by two S atoms from etu ligands forming a four-membered Ag-S-Ag-S ring. Each Ag(I) ion is coordinated by a P atom of a PPh3 ligand, two S atoms of bridging etu ligands and the terminal S atom of an etu ligand in a distorted tetra-hedral environment. In the crystal, the mononuclear complex is linked to lattice water mol-ecules through O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along [100]. In addition, the binuclear complex mol-ecules are connected to acetate anions and lattice water mol-ecules via O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, also along [100].

  3. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...

  4. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  5. The possible distortion of autoradiographic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.A.; Tumanushvili, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of radioactive labelling (H 3 -thymidine) on the infusorian division is studied. The presented results show that introduction of labelled compounds results in accelerating infusorian cell division v. Thorough inestigation of labelled compound effect with low activity on the parameters of cell division and the search of methods to eliminate distortions able to appear in autoradiographic experiments is expedient [ru

  6. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based performa...

  7. Electromagnetic pulse distortion in living tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Insight into the distortion of electromagnetic (EM) signals in living tissue is important for optimising medical applications. To obtain this insight, field calculations have been carried out for a plane-stratified configuration of air, skin, fat, muscle and bone tissue. In this configuration, an EM

  8. DISTORTION ANALYSIS OF TILL -WALLED BOX GIRDERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    bridges, buildings, motor vehicles, ships and aircrafts. Due to thinness of the box walls, generalized loads applied to this structure give rise to warping and distortion of ..... Recommendation for Design of. Intermediate Diaphragms in Box. Girders, Transactions of Japanese. Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 14,1984, pp 121-126.

  9. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  10. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  11. Forensic image analysis - CCTV distortion and artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckiner, Dilan; Mallett, Xanthé; Roux, Claude; Meuwly, Didier; Maynard, Philip

    2018-04-01

    As a result of the worldwide deployment of surveillance cameras, authorities have gained a powerful tool that captures footage of activities of people in public areas. Surveillance cameras allow continuous monitoring of the area and allow footage to be obtained for later use, if a criminal or other act of interest occurs. Following this, a forensic practitioner, or expert witness can be required to analyse the footage of the Person of Interest. The examination ultimately aims at evaluating the strength of evidence at source and activity levels. In this paper, both source and activity levels are inferred from the trace, obtained in the form of CCTV footage. The source level alludes to features observed within the anatomy and gait of an individual, whilst the activity level relates to activity undertaken by the individual within the footage. The strength of evidence depends on the value of the information recorded, where the activity level is robust, yet source level requires further development. It is therefore suggested that the camera and the associated distortions should be assessed first and foremost and, where possible, quantified, to determine the level of each type of distortion present within the footage. A review of the 'forensic image analysis' review is presented here. It will outline the image distortion types and detail the limitations of differing surveillance camera systems. The aim is to highlight various types of distortion present particularly from surveillance footage, as well as address gaps in current literature in relation to assessment of CCTV distortions in tandem with gait analysis. Future work will consider the anatomical assessment from surveillance footage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality Evaluation and Nonuniform Compression of Geometrically Distorted Images Using the Quadtree Distortion Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Costa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the effects of lossy compression algorithms applied to images affected by geometrical distortion. It will be shown that the encoding-decoding process results in a nonhomogeneous image degradation in the geometrically corrected image, due to the different amount of information associated to each pixel. A distortion measure named quadtree distortion map (QDM able to quantify this aspect is proposed. Furthermore, QDM is exploited to achieve adaptive compression of geometrically distorted pictures, in order to ensure a uniform quality on the final image. Tests are performed using JPEG and JPEG2000 coding standards in order to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the performance of the proposed method.

  13. Evaluation of core distortion in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikarimoto, I.; Tanaka, M.; Okubo, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The analyses of FBR's core distortion are mainly performed in order to evaluate the following items: 1) Change of reactivity; 2) Force at pads on core assemblies; 3) Withdrawal force at refueling; 4) Loading, refueling and residual deviations of wrapper tubes (core assemblies) at the top; 5) Bowing modes of guide tubes for control rods. The analysis of core distortion are performed by using computer program for two-dimensional row deformation analysis or three-dimensional core deformation if necessary, considering these evaluated items which become design conditions. This report shows the relationship between core deformation analysis and component design, a point of view of choosing an analysis program for design considering core characteristics, and computing examples of core deformation of prototype class reactor by the above code. (author)

  14. Lawful Distortion of Consumers’ Economic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ‘collateral damage’. In that vein this article discusses situations where consumers may have their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices that are not unfair under the Directive. It is expected that many consumers will make relatively good decisions most of the time...... Visitors’). The article suggests how behavioural sciences may be applied to understand these situations in order to protect more consumers from having their economic behaviour distorted by commercial practices. It is suggested that per se prohibitions may be advantageous in some instances as long......The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive prohibits unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices with a view to protect consumers’ economic interests. In a market economy such regulation cannot protect the economic interests of all consumers in all situations – there must inevitably be some...

  15. Numerical simulation of distorted crystal Darwin width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Li; Xu Zhongmin; Wang Naxiu

    2012-01-01

    A new numerical simulation method according to distorted crystal optical theory was used to predict the direct-cooling crystal monochromator optical properties(crystal Darwin width) in this study. The finite element analysis software was used to calculate the deformed displacements of DCM crystal and to get the local reciprocal lattice vector of distorted crystal. The broadening of direct-cooling crystal Darwin width in meridional direction was estimated at 4.12 μrad. The result agrees well with the experimental data of 5 μrad, while it was 3.89 μrad by traditional calculation method of root mean square (RMS) of the slope error in the center line of footprint. The new method provides important theoretical support for designing and processing of monochromator crystal for synchrotron radiation beamline. (authors)

  16. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  17. Distorted wave calculations for double electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.E.; Rivarola, R.D.; Gayet, R.; Hanssen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The resonant double electron capture by alpha particles in helium targets is studied, at intermediate and high collision energies, using the Continuum Distorted Wave - Eikonal Initial State (CDW-EIS) model. Differential and total cross sections for capture into the He (1 s 2 ) final state are calculated in the framework of an Independent Electron Approximation (IEA). Theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present for capture into any final state of helium. (author)

  18. Lattice distortion in hcp rare gas solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, A.; Tretyak, S. M.; Freiman, Yu. A.

    2010-04-01

    The lattice distortion parameter δ ≡c/a-√8/3 has been calculated as a function of molar volume for the hcp phases of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Results from both semi-empirical potentials and density functional theory are presented. Our study shows that δ is negative for helium in the entire pressure range. For Ar, Kr, and Xe δ changes sign from negative to positive as the pressure increases, growing rapidly in magnitude at higher pressures.

  19. Distortion of the microwave background by dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The Woody and Richards distortion of the microwave background has a natural explanation within the framework of the isothermal density fluctuation picture. A pregalactic generation of ''stars'' makes light and metals. The latter are able to condense into dust grains at a redshift approximately 150-225, which then absorb the starlight and reradiate it in the infrared. At the present epoch we see this emission redshifted into the millimetre range of the spectrum

  20. A review of PFR core distortion experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron induced voidage (NIV) swelling and irradiation creep, acting together or individually, produce deformation in core components exposed to a fast neutron flux and can lead to mechanical interaction between them. Today the nature of these processes is reasonably well understood, and reactor designers have two options in attempting to accomodate them: either by employing a flexible free standing design in which contact loadings are low but in which distortion may be high, or more commonly, by some type of restrained core in which inter-component loadings are high, but where distortion is relatively small. The aims of this paper are: a. to describe briefly the various operational limits of core and core component distortion and how they arise, for which a brief description of reactor construction is necessary; b. to outline how the problems of inter-component contact loadings are overcome for the interactive core; c. to describe some other potential problems which arise either from absolute swelling, or from differential swelling between components; of particular relevance here is the problem of contact loadings between absorber rods and their guide tubes; d. to comment on the degree of agreement with, and the feedback provided by, PIE findings; e. to show how the results of the work influence reactor operators and the reload program

  1. Strong electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panico, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the view of the recent LHC discovery of an Higgs-like scalar particle, I review the phenomenological aspects of the Composite Higgs scenarios which can be used to probe this class of models, namely the distortion of the Higgs couplings and the presence of new resonances. (author)

  2. Cognitive Distortions in Depressed Women: Trait, or State Dependent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BATMAZ

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The results have revealed that self-criticism, helplessness, hopelessness and preoccupation with danger related distortions had trait-like features, whereas self-blame related distortions were state dependent. This has clinical implications for the psychotherapeutic treatment of cognitive distortions in depression. Specifically, self-criticism related distortions should be managed during cognitive therapy for depression since the other subscales seem rather problematic. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 147-152

  3. India’s Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2017-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India’s patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide. PMID:28286369

  4. India's Distorted Sex Ratio: Dire Consequences for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lisa R; Montgomery, Susanne B

    2016-01-01

    Female gender discrimination related to cultural preference for males is a common global problem, especially in Asian countries. Numerous laws intended to prevent discrimination on the basis of gender have been passed in India, yet the distorted female-to-male sex ratio seems to show worsening tendencies. Using detailed, two-year longitudinal chart abstraction data about delivery records of a private mission hospital in rural India, we explored if hospital birth ratio data differed in comparison to regional data, and what demographic and contextual variables may have influenced these outcomes. Using quantitative chart abstraction and qualitative contextual data, study results showed the female-to-male ratio was lower than the reported state ratio at birth. In the context of India's patriarchal structure, with its strong son preference, women are under tremendous pressure or coerced to access community-based, sex-selective identification and female fetus abortion. Nurses may be key to turning the tide.

  5. Detection of chromatic and luminance distortions in natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Ben J; Wang, Karen; Menzies, Samantha; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2015-09-01

    A number of studies have measured visual thresholds for detecting spatial distortions applied to images of natural scenes. In one study, Bex [J. Vis.10(2), 1 (2010)10.1167/10.2.231534-7362] measured sensitivity to sinusoidal spatial modulations of image scale. Here, we measure sensitivity to sinusoidal scale distortions applied to the chromatic, luminance, or both layers of natural scene images. We first established that sensitivity does not depend on whether the undistorted comparison image was of the same or of a different scene. Next, we found that, when the luminance but not chromatic layer was distorted, performance was the same regardless of whether the chromatic layer was present, absent, or phase-scrambled; in other words, the chromatic layer, in whatever form, did not affect sensitivity to the luminance layer distortion. However, when the chromatic layer was distorted, sensitivity was higher when the luminance layer was intact compared to when absent or phase-scrambled. These detection threshold results complement the appearance of periodic distortions of the image scale: when the luminance layer is distorted visibly, the scene appears distorted, but when the chromatic layer is distorted visibly, there is little apparent scene distortion. We conclude that (a) observers have a built-in sense of how a normal image of a natural scene should appear, and (b) the detection of distortion in, as well as the apparent distortion of, natural scene images is mediated predominantly by the luminance layer and not chromatic layer.

  6. Centi-pixel accurate real-time inverse distortion correction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, Johan P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Inverse distortion is used to create an undistorted image from a distorted image. For each pixel in the undistorted image it is required to determine which pixel in the distorted image should be used. However the process of characterizing a lens...

  7. Appraisal Distortions and Intimate Partner Violence: Gender, Power, and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B.; Oka, Megan; Fife, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    In relationships characterized by control, abuse, or violence, many appraisal distortions occur including denial and minimization. However, the nature of the distortion varies depending on the individual's role in the relationship (i.e., abuser or victim). Reducing these distortions is an important component in treatment success and involves…

  8. Face detection on distorted images using perceptual quality-aware features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, Suriya; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bovik, Alan C.

    2014-02-01

    We quantify the degradation in performance of a popular and effective face detector when human-perceived image quality is degraded by distortions due to additive white gaussian noise, gaussian blur or JPEG compression. It is observed that, within a certain range of perceived image quality, a modest increase in image quality can drastically improve face detection performance. These results can be used to guide resource or bandwidth allocation in a communication/delivery system that is associated with face detection tasks. A new face detector based on QualHOG features is also proposed that augments face-indicative HOG features with perceptual quality-aware spatial Natural Scene Statistics (NSS) features, yielding improved tolerance against image distortions. The new detector provides statistically significant improvements over a strong baseline on a large database of face images representing a wide range of distortions. To facilitate this study, we created a new Distorted Face Database, containing face and non-face patches from images impaired by a variety of common distortion types and levels. This new dataset is available for download and further experimentation at www.ideal.ece.utexas.edu/˜suriya/DFD/.

  9. Fish's Muscles Distortion and Pectoral Fins Propulsion of Lift-Based Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. B.; Han, X. Y.; Qiu, J.

    As a sort of MPF(median and/or paired fin propulsion), pectoral fins propulsion makes fish easier to maneuver than other propulsion, according to the well-established classification scheme proposed by Webb in 1984. Pectoral fins propulsion is classified into oscillatory propulsion, undulatory propulsion and compound propulsion. Pectoral fins oscillatory propulsion, is further ascribable to two modes: drag-based mode and lift-based mode. And fish exhibits strong cruise ability by using lift-based mode. Therefore to robot fish design using pectoral fins lift-based mode will bring a new revolution to resources exploration in blue sea. On the basis of the wave plate theory, a kinematic model of fish’s pectoral fins lift-based mode is established associated with the behaviors of cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) in the present work. In view of the power of fish’s locomotion from muscle distortion, it would be helpful benefit to reveal the mechanism of fish’s locomotion variation dependent on muscles distortion. So this study puts forward the pattern of muscles distortion of pectoral fins according to the character of skeletons and muscles of cownose ray in morphology and simulates the kinematics of lift-based mode using nonlinear analysis software. In the symmetrical fluid field, the model is simulated left-right symmetrically or asymmetrically. The results qualitatively show how muscles distortion determines the performance of fish locomotion. Finally the efficient muscles distortion associated with the preliminary dynamics is induced.

  10. Towards distortion-free robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltuc, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates a general framework for distortion-free robust image authentication by multiple marking. First, by robust watermarking a subsampled version of image edges is embedded. Then, by reversible watermarking the information needed to recover the original image is inserted, too. The hiding capacity of the reversible watermarking is the essential requirement for this approach. Thus in case of no attacks not only image is authenticated but also the original is exactly recovered. In case of attacks, reversibility is lost, but image can still be authenticated. Preliminary results providing very good robustness against JPEG compression are presented

  11. Rate dependent image distortions in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trow, M.W.; Bento, A.C.; Smith, A.

    1994-01-01

    The positional linearity of imaging proportional counters is affected by the intensity distribution of the incident radiation. A mechanism for this effect is described, in which drifting positive ions in the gas produce a distorting electric field which perturbs the trajectories of the primary electrons. In certain cases, the phenomenon causes an apparent improvement of the position resolution. We demonstrate the effect in a detector filled with a xenon-argon-CO 2 mixture. The images obtained are compared with the results of a simulation. If quantitative predictions for a particular detector are required, accurate values of the absolute detector gain, ion mobility and electron drift velocity are needed. ((orig.))

  12. Multiple shadows from distorted static black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Jai; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Wittig, Alexander; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2018-04-01

    We study the local shadow of the Schwarzschild black hole with a quadrupole distortion and the influence of the external gravitational field on the photon dynamics. The external matter sources modify the light ring structure and lead to the appearance of multiple shadow images. In the case of negative quadrupole moments we identify the most prominent mechanism causing multiple shadow formation. Furthermore, we obtain a condition under which this mechanism can be realized. This condition depends on the quadrupole moment, but also on the position of the observer and the celestial sphere.

  13. Renormalization of a distorted gauge: invariant theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.; Underwood, J.A.

    1976-02-01

    A new type of renormalizable theory involving massive Yang-Mills fields whose mass is generated by an intrinsic breakdown of the usual local gauge symmetry is considered. However, the Lagrangian has a distorted gauge symmetry which leads to the Ward-Takahashi (W-T) identities. Also, the theory is independent of the gauge parameter xi. An explicit renormalization at the oneloop level is completely carried out by exhibiting counter terms, defining the physical parameters and computing all renormalization constants to check the W-T identities

  14. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  15. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; Gaztanaga, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1993-01-01

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r 0 and power index γ of the 2-point correlation, anti Ξ 2 = (r 0 /r) γ , and as the hierarchical amplitudes of the 3- and 4-point functions, S 3 = anti Ξ 3 /anti Ξ 2 2 and S 4 = anti Ξ/anti Ξ 2 3 . We find a characteristic distortion for anti Ξ 2 : The slope γ is flatter and the correlation length is larger in redshift space than in real space; that is, redshift distortions ''move'' correlations from small to large scales. At the largest scales, extra power in the redshift distribution is compatible with Ω 4/7 /b ∼ 1; we find 0.53 ± 0.15, 1.10 ± 0.16 and 0.84 ± 0.45 for the CfA, SSRS and IRAS catalogs. Higher order correlations anti Ξ 3 and anti Ξ 4 suffer similar redshift distortions, but in such a way that, within the accuracy of our analysis, the normalized amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are insensitive to this effect. The hierarchical amplitudes S 3 and S 4 are constant as a function of scale between 1-12 h -1 Mpc and have similar values in all samples and catalogues, S 3 ∼ 2 and S 4 ∼ 6, despite the fact that anti Ξ 2 , anti Ξ 3 , and anti Ξ 4 differ from one sample to another by large factors. The agreement between the independent estimations of S 3 and S 4 is remarkable given the different criteria in the selection of galaxies and also the difference in the resulting range of densities, luminosities and locations between samples

  16. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  17. JET ENGINE INLET DISTORTION SCREEN AND DESCRIPTOR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  18. Prediction of transmission distortion for wireless video communication: analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Wu, Dapeng

    2012-03-01

    Transmitting video over wireless is a challenging problem since video may be seriously distorted due to packet errors caused by wireless channels. The capability of predicting transmission distortion (i.e., video distortion caused by packet errors) can assist in designing video encoding and transmission schemes that achieve maximum video quality or minimum end-to-end video distortion. This paper is aimed at deriving formulas for predicting transmission distortion. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we identify the governing law that describes how the transmission distortion process evolves over time and analytically derive the transmission distortion formula as a closed-form function of video frame statistics, channel error statistics, and system parameters. Second, we identify, for the first time, two important properties of transmission distortion. The first property is that the clipping noise, which is produced by nonlinear clipping, causes decay of propagated error. The second property is that the correlation between motion-vector concealment error and propagated error is negative and has dominant impact on transmission distortion, compared with other correlations. Due to these two properties and elegant error/distortion decomposition, our formula provides not only more accurate prediction but also lower complexity than the existing methods.

  19. Structural factors involved in the recognition of helix distortions in uv-damaged DNA by model peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, H; Zimmer, C [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Forschungszentrum fuer Molekularbiologie und Medizin

    1977-02-28

    On the basis of our previous and present results concerning conformational changes of DNA after uv-irradiation some conclusions on the structure of DNA double helix in uv-damaged regions were drawn. From the results it appears that local distortions like denaturation or premelting should be excluded. Furthermore it was shown that the thymine dimerization strongly depends on the adjacent nucleic acid bases. By means of a strong binding effect of the oligopeptide netropsin to DNA irradiated at low uv-doses it is concluded that such local distortions in DNA together with a specific sequence-dependent variation of the conformation could act as recognition sites for endonucleases.

  20. Rate-distortion analysis of steganography for conveying stereovision disparity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Toshiyuki; Batolomeu, Ana B. D. T.; Francob, Filipe A. L.; Delannay, Damien; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2004-06-01

    3-D images transmission in a way which is compliant with traditional 2-D representations can be done through the embedding of disparity maps within the 2-D signal. This approach enables the transmission of stereoscopic video sequences or images on traditional analogue TV channels (PAL or NTSC) or printed photographic images. The aim of this work is to study the achievable performances of such a technique. The embedding of disparity maps has to be seen as a global rate-distortion problem. The embedding capacity through steganography is determined by the transmission channel noise and by the bearable distortion on the watermarked image. The distortion of the 3-D image displayed as two stereo views depends on the rate allocated to the complementary information required to build those two views from one reference 2-D image. Results from the works on the scalar Costa scheme are used to optimize the embedding of the disparity map compressed bit stream into the reference image. A method for computing the optimal trade off between the disparity map distortion and embedding distortion as a function of the channel impairments is proposed. The goal is to get a similar distortion on the left (the reference image) and the right (the disparity compensated image) images. We show that in typical situations the embedding of 2 bits/pixels in the left image, while the disparity map is compressed at 1 bit per pixel leads to a good trade-off. The disparity map is encoded with a strong error correcting code, including synchronisation bits.

  1. Lattice effects in La1-xCaxMnO3 (x=0→1): Relationships between distortions, charge distribution, and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, C.H.; Bridges, F.; Kwei, G.H.; Lawrence, J.M.; Cornelius, A.L.; Neumeier, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray-absorption fine-structure measurements from the Mn and La K edges of samples of La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 (x=0→1) are presented as a function of temperature. In the insulating state, distortions of the Mn-O environment are found to be linear with calcium concentration x. These distortions are consistent with a model where individual Mn 3+ sites have strong Jahn-Teller (JT) distortions while Mn 4+ sites do not, although intermediate distortions are also possible. Comparisons to simulations of various possible bond length distributions show that these distortions are best modeled as a JT distortion, as opposed to charge disproportionation or other models. In the metallic state, at least ∼70% of the distortion is removed. A similar effect is seen in the Mn-Mn bond length distribution. The La-O bond length distribution does not change significantly through the ferromagnetic transition, constraining possible changes in the Mn-O-Mn bond angle to less than 0.5 degree. The changes in the MnO 6 distortion that occur near T c are also present (to a lesser degree) in an insulating sample with x=0.12. The functional relation between the MnO 6 distortions and the magnetization is determined, and compared to transport measurements. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Globalization, tax distortions and public sector retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    is strengthened by globalization, it is inferred that the marginal costs of public funds increase and a retrenchment of the public sector follows. We challenge whether these conclusions have support in a general equilibrium model featuring standard effects from open macroeconomics and trade theory. Even though...... income taxation unambiguously worsens wage competitiveness, it does not follow that marginal costs of public funds increase with product market integration due to gains from trade. Moreover, non-cooperative fiscal policies do not have a race-to-the-bottom bias despite that taxes harm competitiveness......It is widely perceived that globalization is a threat to tax financed public sector activities. The argument is that public activities (public consumption and transfers) financed by income taxes distort labour markets and cause higher wages and thus a loss of competitiveness. Since this link...

  3. Distortion compensation in interferometric testing of mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Brian M.; Reardon, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to compensate for the imaging distortion encountered in interferometric testing of mirrors, which is introduced by interferometer optics as well as from geometric projection errors. Our method involves placing a mask, imprinted with a regular square grid, over the mirror and finding a transformation that relates the grid coordinates to coordinates in the base plane of the parent surface. This method can be used on finished mirrors since no fiducials have to be applied to the surfaces. A critical step in the process requires that the grid coordinates be projected onto the mirror base plane before the regression is performed. We apply the method successfully during a center-of-curvature null test of an F/2 off-axis paraboloid

  4. Cosmic microwave background distortions at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Peratt, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors analyze the deviation of the cosmic background radiation spectrum from the 2.76+-0.02 0 Κ blackbody curve. If the cosmic background radiation is due to absorption and re-emission of synchrotron radiation from galactic-width current filaments, higher-order synchrotron modes are less thermalized than lower-order modes, causing a distortion of the blackbody curve at higher frequencies. New observations of the microwave background spectrum at short wavelengths should provide an indication of the number of synchrotron modes thermalized in this process. The deviation of the spectrum from that of a perfect blackbody can thus be correlated with astronomical observations such as filament temperatures and electron energies. The results are discussed and compared with the theoretical predictions of other models which assume the presence of intergalactic superconducting cosmic strings

  5. A scale distortion theory of anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Shane W; Mochon, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We propose that anchoring is often best interpreted as a scaling effect--that the anchor changes how the response scale is used, not how the focal stimulus is perceived. Of importance, we maintain that this holds true even for so-called objective scales (e.g., pounds, calories, meters, etc.). In support of this theory of scale distortion, we show that prior exposure to a numeric standard changes respondents' use of that specific response scale but does not generalize to conceptually affiliated judgments rendered on similar scales. Our findings highlight the necessity of distinguishing response language effects from representational effects in places where the need for that distinction has often been assumed away.

  6. Moebius inverse problem for distorted black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, H.

    1993-01-01

    Hawking ''thermal'' radiation could be a means to detect black holes of micron sizes, which may be hovering through the universe. We consider these micro-black holes to be distorted by the presence of some distribution of matter representing a convolution factor for their Hawking radiation. One may hope to determine from their Hawking signals the temperature distribution of their material shells by the inverse black body problem. In 1990, Nan-xian Chen has used a so-called modified Moebius transform to solve the inverse black body problem. We discuss and apply this technique to Hawking radiation. Some comments on supersymmetric applications of Moebius function and transform are also added. (author). 22 refs

  7. Distortions in memory for visual displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Systematic errors in perception and memory present a challenge to theories of perception and memory and to applied psychologists interested in overcoming them as well. A number of systematic errors in memory for maps and graphs are reviewed, and they are accounted for by an analysis of the perceptual processing presumed to occur in comprehension of maps and graphs. Visual stimuli, like verbal stimuli, are organized in comprehension and memory. For visual stimuli, the organization is a consequence of perceptual processing, which is bottom-up or data-driven in its earlier stages, but top-down and affected by conceptual knowledge later on. Segregation of figure from ground is an early process, and figure recognition later; for both, symmetry is a rapidly detected and ecologically valid cue. Once isolated, figures are organized relative to one another and relative to a frame of reference. Both perceptual (e.g., salience) and conceptual factors (e.g., significance) seem likely to affect selection of a reference frame. Consistent with the analysis, subjects perceived and remembered curves in graphs and rivers in maps as more symmetric than they actually were. Symmetry, useful for detecting and recognizing figures, distorts map and graph figures alike. Top-down processes also seem to operate in that calling attention to the symmetry vs. asymmetry of a slightly asymmetric curve yielded memory errors in the direction of the description. Conceptual frame of reference effects were demonstrated in memory for lines embedded in graphs. In earlier work, the orientation of map figures was distorted in memory toward horizontal or vertical. In recent work, graph lines, but not map lines, were remembered as closer to an imaginary 45 deg line than they had been. Reference frames are determined by both perceptual and conceptual factors, leading to selection of the canonical axes as a reference frame in maps, but selection of the imaginary 45 deg as a reference frame in graphs.

  8. Correction of distortions in a discontinuous image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geagan, M.J.; Chase, B.B.; Muehllehner, G.

    1994-01-01

    Large area position-sensitive NaI detectors have been successfully applied to positron emission tomography (PET). Typical PET studies involve detector singles rates in excess of 500 kcps, which can lead to pile-up and image degradation as a function of countrate. Better high countrate performance can be achieved with a local centroid algorithm, in which the position of each event is calculated from a small group of photomultipliers (PMTs) immediately surrounding the PMT with the highest signal (the peak PMT). The local centroid contains most of the light from the scintillation. If a local centroid of only seven PMTs is used, the position resolution becomes quite stable at high countrates, however, discontinuities appear in the detector flood image as events cluster around each PMT. We therefore developed a method for distortion correction of a discontinuous flood image. For each PMT on the detector, a peak PMT domain is defined. The peak PMT domain is the area on the detector where that PMT could have the highest signal. The peak PMT domains overlap slightly, so that all combinations of peak PMT and position are represented. A collimated source is moved through a regular grid of points - a template - over each peak PMT region. A short collection is performed at each point, and the real and measured position data are recorded. For each point in the spatial range of a given PMT, distortion correction offsets are computed by interpolating between the data points which correspond to that PMT. This new method has been implemented and evaluated. System resolution has been measured at low and high countrates. The high countrate resolution is better with the new method, with no degradation in low countrate resolution. The axial sensitivity profile is also more stable at high countrates, compared to the previously developed method. 3-D brain phantom images show a clear improvement in image quality at high countrates. ((orig.))

  9. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  10. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  11. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 BahIa Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2004-05-28

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data.

  12. Influence of initial state distortion in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciappina, M F; Cravero, W R; Garibotti, C R

    2004-01-01

    We have studied the influence of initial state distortion in a single ionization by ion impact. We have taken a continuum distorted wave type distortion and by taking up to the first order in its asymptotic series expansion we build an eikonal-spherical distortion. In this way the influence of each term in the transition amplitude can be stated. This approximation can be considered an intermediate one between the eikonal initial state and the continuum distorted wave approaches for initial state distortion. We have computed doubly differential cross sections for helium ionization by protons and highly charged ions at high and intermediate impact energy. We have also discussed the contribution of the different terms in electron energy spectra, specially in the vicinity of ECC peak. Very good agreement is found with the available experimental data

  13. Helical Peierls distortion: Formation of helices of polyketone and polyisocyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang-Xing; Kertesz, Miklos

    1990-06-01

    A new type of Peierls-like distortion, the formation of a helix due to the existence of partially filled crossing bands, is reported for polyketone and polyisocyanide. The torsional potential curves, optimized geometries, band structures and phonon dispersion curves are derived. A comparison with the well-known Peierls-distorted all-trans polyacetylene indicates close similarity between the two types of Peierls distortions.

  14. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  15. Could unstable relic particles distort the microwave background radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, A.; Loeb, A.; Nussinov, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three general classes of possible scenarios for the recently reported distortion of the microwave background radiation (MBR) via decaying relic weakly interacting particles are analyzed. The analysis shows that such particles could not reheat the universe and cause the spectral distortion of the MBR. Gravitational processes such as the early formation of massive black holes may still be plausible energy sources for producing the reported spectral distortion of the MBR at an early cosmological epoch. 24 references

  16. Structural versus electronic distortions of symmetry-broken IrTe$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Yang, Junjie; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate atomic and electronic structures of the intriguing low temperature phase of IrTe2 using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We confirm various stripe superstructures such as $\\times$3, $\\times$5, and $\\times$8. The strong vertical and lateral distortions of the lattice for the stripe structures are observed in agreement with recent calculations. The spatial modulations of electronic density of states are clearly identified as separated from the struc...

  17. Systems and methods for mirror mounting with minimized distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R. (Inventor); Wallace, Thomas E. (Inventor); Content, David A. (Inventor); Wake, Shane W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for mounting a mirror for use in a telescope includes attaching the mirror to a plurality of adjustable mounts; determining a distortion in the mirror caused by the plurality adjustable mounts, and, if the distortion is determined to be above a predetermined level: adjusting one or more of the adjustable mounts; and determining the distortion in the mirror caused by the adjustable mounts; and in the event the determined distortion is determined to be at or below the predetermined level, rigidizing the adjustable mounts.

  18. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    because of different sintering rates of the materials resulting in undesired distortions of the component. An analytical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been developed to describe the kinetics of densification and distortion in the sintering processes. A new approach is used...... to extract the material parameters controlling shape distortion through optimizing the model to experimental data of free shrinkage strains. The significant influence of weight of the sample (gravity) on the kinetics of distortion is taken in to consideration. The modeling predictions indicate good agreement...

  19. Spectral Distortion in Lossy Compression of Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aiazzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortion allocation varying with wavelength in lossy compression of hyperspectral imagery is investigated, with the aim of minimizing the spectral distortion between original and decompressed data. The absolute angular error, or spectral angle mapper (SAM, is used to quantify spectral distortion, while radiometric distortions are measured by maximum absolute deviation (MAD for near-lossless methods, for example, differential pulse code modulation (DPCM, or mean-squared error (MSE for lossy methods, for example, spectral decorrelation followed by JPEG 2000. Two strategies of interband distortion allocation are compared: given a target average bit rate, distortion may be set to be constant with wavelength. Otherwise, it may be allocated proportionally to the noise level of each band, according to the virtually lossless protocol. Comparisons with the uncompressed originals show that the average SAM of radiance spectra is minimized by constant distortion allocation to radiance data. However, variable distortion allocation according to the virtually lossless protocol yields significantly lower SAM in case of reflectance spectra obtained from compressed radiance data, if compared with the constant distortion allocation at the same compression ratio.

  20. Modeling distortion of HIT by an Actuator Disk in a periodic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Aditya; Ghaisas, Niranjan; Lele, Sanjiva

    2017-11-01

    We study the distortion of incompressible, homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) by a dragging actuator disk with a fixed thrust coefficient (under the large Reynolds number limit), using Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The HIT inflow is tailored to ensure that the largest length scales in the flow are smaller than the actuator disk diameter in order to minimize the meandering of the turbulent wake and isolate the length scales that undergo distortion. The numerical scheme (Fourier collocation with dealiasing) and the SGS closure (anisotropic minimum dissipation model) are carefully selected to minimize numerical artifacts expected due to the inviscid assumption. The LES is used to characterize the following 3 properties of the flow a) distortion of HIT due to the expanding streamtube resulting in strong anisotropy, b) turbulent pressure modulation across the actuator disk, and the c) turbulent wake state. Finally, we attempt to model the initial distortion and the pressure modulation using a WKB variant of RDT solved numerically using a set of discrete Gabor modes. Funding provided by Precourt Institute for Energy at Stanford University.

  1. Breathing mode distortion and magnetic order in rare-earth nickelates RNiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, Alexander; Ederer, Claude [Materials Theory, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth nickelate perovskites display a rich and not yet fully understood phase diagram, where all RNiO{sub 3} compounds with R from Sm to Lu undergo a non-magnetic metal-insulator transition (MIT). This transition is connected to a lattice distortion, which can be described as breathing mode of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the Ni cations. Between 100-250 K the RNiO{sub 3} compounds undergo a magnetic transition to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, with a wave-vector k= [(1)/(4) (1)/(4) (1)/(4)] relative to the underlying simple cubic perovskite structure. Here, we use density functional theory and its extensions (DFT+U, DFT+DMFT) together with distortion mode analysis to explore the interplay between lattice distortions, magnetic order, and the strength of the local Coulomb interaction U in rare earth nickelates. Our results show a strong dependency of the breathing mode amplitude on the magnetic order, with a much larger breathing mode obtained for the AFM state compared to the ferromagnetic case. Furthermore, we demonstrate that DFT+U is able to capture the correct trends of the lattice distortions across the nickelate series.

  2. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  3. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  4. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  5. About the factors distorting biological dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosseh, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    The row of chemical substances that have not mutagenic effect can strengthen ionising radiation induced cytogenetic effects. For example nitrite sodium and nitrate sodium reinforce mutagenic action of radiation and cause sensitized effect although they aren't mutagens. Presence of residual amount of herbicides in food products can have influence at level of aberration in human cells. It was investigated the influence of herbicide zencor at mutagenic action of radiation. This substance has weak mutagenic activity. In the case of combined action of zencor with irradiation antagonistic effect was observed. Mutation rate turns out to be lower than expected summary value. At the same time many foods products (tea, coffee, cacao, chocolate etc., which contain melanin) are antimutagens and can also change the frequency of radiation induced mutations. Taking of medicine distort the results of dose estimation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in blood lymphocytes after acute irradiation is considered to be adequate method of biological dosimetry. In the case of chronic irradiation this analysis becomes complicated with such processes as adaptation (selection and proliferation of cells with more radioresistant genotype) and the origin of genetic un stability which leads to higher radiosensitivity. The estimation of the level of point mutations is the most precise method of biological dosimetry because their existence is less exposed to modifications

  6. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  7. Rate-distortion analysis of directional wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Arian; Rajaei, Boshra; Pourreza, Hamid Reza

    2012-02-01

    The inefficiency of separable wavelets in representing smooth edges has led to a great interest in the study of new 2-D transformations. The most popular criterion for analyzing these transformations is the approximation power. Transformations with near-optimal approximation power are useful in many applications such as denoising and enhancement. However, they are not necessarily good for compression. Therefore, most of the nearly optimal transformations such as curvelets and contourlets have not found any application in image compression yet. One of the most promising schemes for image compression is the elegant idea of directional wavelets (DIWs). While these algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art image coders in practice, our theoretical understanding of them is very limited. In this paper, we adopt the notion of rate-distortion and calculate the performance of the DIW on a class of edge-like images. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the edges are not "sharp," the DIW will compress them more efficiently than the separable wavelets. It also demonstrates the inefficiency of the quadtree partitioning that is often used with the DIW. To solve this issue, we propose a new partitioning scheme called megaquad partitioning. Our simulation results on real-world images confirm the benefits of the proposed partitioning algorithm, promised by our theoretical analysis. © 2011 IEEE

  8. Motivational Distortion on 16 PF Primaries by Male Felons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrown, Fred H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated motivational distortion using the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) for male (n=331) criminal offenders. Results indicated that ego-strength, free-floating anxiety, ability to bind anxiety, boldness, dominance, emotional sensitivity and suspiciousness contributed most to the motivational distortion scale predictions.…

  9. FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Although the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method, Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum, in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody which can be modeled for known sources of spectral distortions like y & μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.

  10. Audiovisual Cues and Perceptual Learning of Spectrally Distorted Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Michael; Thomas, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) speech cues (cues derived from both seeing and hearing a talker speak) in facilitating perceptual learning of spectrally distorted speech. Speech was distorted through an eight channel noise-vocoder which shifted the spectral envelope of the speech signal to simulate the properties…

  11. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…

  12. Method and device for monitoring distortion in an optical network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A method and a device for monitoring of distortion in an optical network are provided, wherein at least one reference signal and at least one data signal are conveyed via an optical link and wherein a distortion of the at least one data signal is determined based on the at least one reference

  13. How Distorted Thinking Influence Arab Children Academic Achievement in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gith, Emad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relation between the parents Cognitive Distortion and Arab children academic achievements in Israel. 52 fifth grade Arab Children and their parents from Israel were participated. The results indicated that parent's cognitive distortion related negatively to children academic achievements; there…

  14. Distortions caused by the signal processing in analog AM modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    Complete analytical expressions for distortions caused by signal processing in analog AM modulators are developed. The salient features in these expressions are shown to be consistent with displays of actual spectra of AM signals. Finally suggestions are given on how the distortions may be practically minimized. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  15. Distorted Risk Measures with Application to Military Capability Shortfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-15

    effects of different distortions and to make basic recommendations regarding the appropriateness of certain distortion functions and parameters using...and increased limits ratemaking by proportional hazards transforms. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, 17: 43-54. [9] Wang, S. (1996a). Premium

  16. Structural distortion and electronic properties of NiO under high pressure: an ab initio GGA+U study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weibing; Hu Yulin; Han Keli; Tang Biyu

    2006-01-01

    The structural distortion and electronic properties of NiO under high pressure are investigated by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The strong electronic correlations are also taken into account in the form of GGA+U. Recent experiments implied that previous local density approximation (LDA) calculations incorrectly predicted structural distortion under high pressure, especially above 60 GPa. The present results show that even GGA calculations do not give a proper description of structural distortion under high pressure, although much improved structural and bulk properties are obtained. When strong correlations are included, overall agreement of the structural distortions of NiO under high pressure is obtained. The lattice constants a and c as well as the axial ratio c/a are in good agreement with experiment over the entire experimental pressure range. The successful prediction of the structural distortion of GGA+U can be attributed to the reasonable description of nearest-neighbour magnetic exchange interactions. In addition, we also analyse the density of states under different pressures. Present results indicate that, with increasing pressure, the bandwidth increases and the bandgap transits from being a mixture of charge-transfer and Mott-Hubbard type towards solely Mott-Hubbard type

  17. Fisheye image rectification using spherical and digital distortion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pi, Yingdong; Jia, Yanling; Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Zhiyong; Hou, Wenguang

    2018-02-01

    Fisheye cameras have been widely used in many applications including close range visual navigation and observation and cyber city reconstruction because its field of view is much larger than that of a common pinhole camera. This means that a fisheye camera can capture more information than a pinhole camera in the same scenario. However, the fisheye image contains serious distortion, which may cause trouble for human observers in recognizing the objects within. Therefore, in most practical applications, the fisheye image should be rectified to a pinhole perspective projection image to conform to human cognitive habits. The traditional mathematical model-based methods cannot effectively remove the distortion, but the digital distortion model can reduce the image resolution to some extent. Considering these defects, this paper proposes a new method that combines the physical spherical model and the digital distortion model. The distortion of fisheye images can be effectively removed according to the proposed approach. Many experiments validate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  18. Effects of image distortion correction on voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to show that correcting image distortion significantly affects brain volumetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and to assess whether the processing of distortion correction reduces system dependency. We obtained contiguous sagittal T 1 -weighted images of the brain from 22 healthy participants using 1.5- and 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) scanners, preprocessed images using Statistical Parametric Mapping 5, and tested the relation between distortion correction and brain volume using VBM. Local brain volume significantly increased or decreased on corrected images compared with uncorrected images. In addition, the method used to correct image distortion for gradient nonlinearity produced fewer volumetric errors from MR system variation. This is the first VBM study to show more precise volumetry using VBM with corrected images. These results indicate that multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials require correction for distortion induced by gradient nonlinearity. (author)

  19. Magnetoelastic couplings in the distorted diamond-chain compound azurite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Pham Thanh; Wolf, Bernd; Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Tutsch, Ulrich; de Souza, Mariano; Brühl, Andreas; Lang, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present results of ultrasonic measurements on a single crystal of the distorted diamond-chain compound azurite Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2. Pronounced elastic anomalies are observed in the temperature dependence of the longitudinal elastic mode c22 which can be assigned to the relevant magnetic interactions in the system and their couplings to the lattice degrees of freedom. From a semiquantitative analysis of the magnetic contribution to c22 the magnetoelastic coupling G =∂J2/∂ɛb can be estimated, where J2 is the intradimer coupling constant and ɛb the strain along the intrachain b axis. We find an exceptionally large coupling constant of |G |˜ 3650 K highlighting an extraordinarily strong sensitivity of J2 against changes of the b-axis lattice parameter. These results are complemented by measurements of the hydrostatic pressure dependence of J2 by means of thermal expansion and magnetic susceptibility measurements performed both at ambient and finite hydrostatic pressure. We propose that a structural peculiarity of this compound, in which Cu2O6 dimer units are incorporated in an unusually stretched manner, is responsible for the anomalously large magnetoelastic coupling.

  20. Selectivity of face distortion aftereffects for differences in expression or gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eTillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The perceived configuration of a face can be strongly biased by prior adaptation to a face with a distorted configuration. These aftereffects have been found to be weaker when the adapt and test faces differ along a number of dimensions. We asked whether the adaptation shows more transfer between faces that share a common identity, by comparing the strength of aftereffects when the adapt and test faces differed either in expression (a configural change in the same face identity or gender (a configural change between identities. Observers adapted to expanded or contracted images of either male or female faces with either happy or fearful expressions, and then judged the perceived configuration in either the same faces or faces with a different gender and/or expression. The adaptation included exposure to a single face (e.g. expanded happy or to alternated faces where the distortion was contingent on the attribute (e.g. expanded happy vs. contracted fearful. In all cases the aftereffects showed strong transfer and thus only weak selectivity. However, selectivity was equal or stronger for the change in expression than gender. Our results thus suggest that the distortion aftereffects between faces can be weakly modulated by both variant and invariant attributes of the face.

  1. Prussian phenomenon and its historical distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Y. Plenkov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of Prussia. Once, Prussia had been the largest continental Protestant state in Europe. The main issue of this phenomenon is that upon the tragic events of the World War II Prussian history and heritage had been considerably distorted, in order to compensate somehow for the dreadful casualties suffered by the victorious powers. The common European misconception implied that Prussia had been the bulwark of militarism, and therefore had to bear all the responsibility for the atrocities of war. Unfortunately, the majority of modern German historians share such misinterpretation of Prussian heritage in order to please false political correctness, perhaps, as an act of contrition for National Socialism and its crimes. However, the Prussian tradition and history go far beyond this militarism, and this article explains what ways. The authors believe that there should not be any prejudices and biases, that any subject should be examined sine ira et studio. Moreover, given that it is possible to characterize the Great French Revolution as a juristic one, and the Great October revolution – as a social one, the Prussian revolution “from above”, led by the first representatives of the Hohenzollern family, may be well considered as a pedagogical revolution. This revolution did bring definitely positive changes; they are surveyed in the article. The French Revolution has not eliminated the covetousness of the bourgeoisie after 1789; despotism of the authorities and people’s passiveness similarly have remained unaltered in Russia after 1917. On the contrary, Federal Republic of Germany of nowadays, distinctive for its law, order and effective responsible government is unthinkable without Prussian heritage.

  2. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  3. The psychological analysis of distortions of a behaviour of schoolboys living in various regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furmanov, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    The necessity of compelled living on contaminated territory and the state social psychological disadaptation, connected with expectation of a remove to other regions, is the reason that the children are in a situation of a prolongation stress, destroying motivational, emotional, strong-willed and moral components of a behaviour regulation. It results to inadequate behaviour reactions to effects of social environment and varying conditions of activity. For the explanation of the reasons of a distortion of behaviour in a critical situation a psychological diagnostics of school teenagers living in the contamination and 'clear' regions was conducted, inter regional distinctions in the behaviour sphere of schoolboys are determined, psychological analysis of the main components of a regulation of a behaviour of teenagers with a various level of an aggressive is conducted. A psychological portrait of schoolboys with various types of behaviour distortions is received. Main directions of a correction work with various categories schoolboys are offered. 8 refs., 1 tab

  4. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  5. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  6. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng, E-mail: panghongfeng@126.com; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-03-15

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods.

  7. Improvement of vector compensation method for vehicle magnetic distortion field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic distortions such as eddy-current field and low frequency magnetic field have not been considered in vector compensation methods. A new compensation method is proposed to suppress these magnetic distortions and improve compensation performance, in which the magnetic distortions related to measurement vectors and time are considered. The experimental system mainly consists of a three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (DM-050), an underwater vehicle and a proton magnetometer, in which the scalar value of magnetic field is obtained with the proton magnetometer and considered to be the true value. Comparing with traditional compensation methods, experimental results show that the magnetic distortions can be further reduced by two times. After compensation, error intensity and RMS error are reduced from 11684.013 nT and 7794.604 nT to 16.219 nT and 5.907 nT respectively. It suggests an effective way to improve the compensation performance of magnetic distortions. - Highlights: • A new vector compensation method is proposed for vehicle magnetic distortion. • The proposed model not only includes magnetometer error but also considers magnetic distortion. • Compensation parameters are computed directly by solving nonlinear equations. • Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method is not related with rotation angle rate. • Error intensity and RMS error can be reduced to 1/2 of the error with traditional methods

  8. Bilateral Symmetry of Distortions of Tactile Size Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Matthew R; Ghosh, Arko; Yahya, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    The perceived distance between touches on the limbs is generally bigger for distances oriented across the width of the limb than for distances oriented along the length of the limb. The present study aimed to investigate the coherence of such distortions of tactile size perception across different skin surfaces. We investigated distortions of tactile size perception on the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both the left and right hands as well as the forehead. Participants judged which of two tactile distances felt larger. One distance was aligned with the proximodistal axis (along the body), the other with the mediolateral axis (across the body). Clear distortions were found on all five skin surfaces, with stimuli oriented across the width of the body being perceived as farther apart than those oriented along the length of the body. Consistent with previous results, distortions were smaller on the palmar than on the dorsal hand surface. Distortion on the forehead was intermediate between the dorsal and palmar surfaces. There were clear correlations between distortion on the left and right hands, for both the dorsal and palmar skin surfaces. In contrast, within each hand, there was no significant correlation between the two skin surfaces. Distortion on the forehead was not significantly correlated with that on any of the other skin surfaces. These results provide evidence for bilaterally symmetric representations underlying tactile size perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. CMB spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Atsuhisa, E-mail: a.ota@th.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    We propose to re-interpret the cosmic microwave background spectral distortions as solutions to the Boltzmann equation. This approach makes it possible to solve the second order Boltzmann equation explicitly, with the spectral y distortion and the momentum independent second order temperature perturbation, while generation of μ distortion cannot be explained even at second order in this framework. We also extend our method to higher order Boltzmann equations systematically and find new type spectral distortions, assuming that the collision term is linear in the photon distribution functions, namely, in the Thomson scattering limit. As an example, we concretely construct solutions to the cubic order Boltzmann equation and show that the equations are closed with additional three parameters composed of a cubic order temperature perturbation and two cubic order spectral distortions. The linear Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect whose momentum dependence is different from the usual y distortion is also discussed in the presence of the next leading order Kompaneets terms, and we show that higher order spectral distortions are also generated as a result of the diffusion process in a framework of higher order Boltzmann equations. The method may be applicable to a wider class of problems and has potential to give a general prescription to non-equilibrium physics.

  10. Spatial distortion in MRI with application to stereotactic neurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, P.S.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this work was to implement a thorough method for quantifying the errors introduced to frame-based neurosurgical stereotactic procedures by the use of MRI. Chang and Fitzpatrick's reversed gradient distortion correction method was used, in combination with a phantom, to measure these errors. Spatial distortion in MR images of between 1 mm and 2 mm was measured. Further analysis showed that this typically introduced an additional error in the coordinate of the actual treatment point of 0.7 mm. The implications of this are discussed. The main source of distortion in the MR images used for stereotaxis was found to be the head ring. A comparison between imaging sequences and MR scanners revealed that the spatial distortion depends mainly on the bandwidth per pixel of the sequence rather than other differences in the imaging sequences. By comparison with a phase map distortion correction technique, the imaging parameters required to allow successful distortion correction with the reversed gradient method were identified. The most important was the use of full Fourier spin echo acquisitions. The reversed gradient correction method was applied to two contemporary EPI techniques. Considerable improvement was seen in the production of ADC maps after the images had been corrected for distortion. The method also was shown to be valid in application to BOLD fMRl data. (author)

  11. Word Recognition for Temporally and Spectrally Distorted Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, Margaret Kathleen; Wilson, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    listeners with near-normal hearing and hearing loss performed best in the unaltered condition, followed by the jitter and smear conditions, with the poorest performance in the combined jitter-smear condition in both quiet and noise. Overall, listeners with near-normal hearing performed better than listeners...... to predict group differences, but not the effects of distortion. Individual differences in performance were similar across all distortion conditions with both age and hearing loss being implicated. The speech materials needed to be both spectrally and temporally distorted to mimic the effects of age...

  12. Perceptual distortion analysis of color image VQ-based coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Christophe; Knoblauch, Kenneth; Cherifi, Hocine

    1997-04-01

    It is generally accepted that a RGB color image can be easily encoded by using a gray-scale compression technique on each of the three color planes. Such an approach, however, fails to take into account correlations existing between color planes and perceptual factors. We evaluated several linear and non-linear color spaces, some introduced by the CIE, compressed with the vector quantization technique for minimum perceptual distortion. To study these distortions, we measured contrast and luminance of the video framebuffer, to precisely control color. We then obtained psychophysical judgements to measure how well these methods work to minimize perceptual distortion in a variety of color space.

  13. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  14. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  15. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  16. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  17. Journal Afrika Statistika ISSN 0852-0305 Distortion risk measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    la somme et sur la structure de dépendance des risques, représentée par une copule. ... Key words: Coherence; Dependence structure; Distortion function; Risk measure; Risk theory; insurance; Wang ..... Weighted risk capital allocations.

  18. A method to correct coordinate distortion in EBSD maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.B.; Elbrønd, A.; Lin, F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Drift during electron backscatter diffraction mapping leads to coordinate distortions in resulting orientation maps, which affects, in some cases significantly, the accuracy of analysis. A method, thin plate spline, is introduced and tested to correct such coordinate distortions in the maps after the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. The accuracy of the correction as well as theoretical and practical aspects of using the thin plate spline method is discussed in detail. By comparing with other correction methods, it is shown that the thin plate spline method is most efficient to correct different local distortions in the electron backscatter diffraction maps. - Highlights: • A new method is suggested to correct nonlinear spatial distortion in EBSD maps. • The method corrects EBSD maps more precisely than presently available methods. • Errors less than 1–2 pixels are typically obtained. • Direct quantitative analysis of dynamic data are available after this correction

  19. Off-shell distortions of multichannel atomic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrachina, R. O.; Clauser, C. F.

    2017-10-01

    Any multichannel problem can be reduced to a succession of two-body events. However, these basic building blocks of many-body theories do not correspond to elastic processes but are off-the-energy-shell. In view of this difficulty, the great majority of the Distorted-Wave models includes a subsidiary approximation where these off-shell terms are arbitrarily forced to lie on the energy shell. At a first glance, since the energy deficiency is negligible for high enough velocities, the on-shell assumption seems to be completely justified. However, for the case of Coulomb interactions, the two-body off-shell distortions have branch-point singularities on the on-shell limit. In this article we demonstrate that these singularities might produce sizeable distortions of multiple scattering amplitudes, mainly when dealing with ion-ion collisions. Finally, we propose a method of including these distortions that might lead to better results that removing them completely.

  20. FPGA Based Compensation Method for Correcting Distortion in Voltage Inverters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williamson, Kenya D

    2007-01-01

    ...) voltage source inverters. Blanking time distortion is caused by the delay inserted to prevent the short circuit that would occur if the two transistors in the same inverter leg are both on at the same time...

  1. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  2. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential embryonic mortality, nondisjunction and gene conversion that are rather irregular forms of ... Keywords. transmission ratio distortion; meiotic drive; inbred mice. ..... Sapienza 2000 Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system.

  3. Estimates of Atmospheric Distortion Number for Nonlinear Refraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, J. R; McNicholl, P. J; Beland, R. R; Jumper, G. Y

    2007-01-01

    A characteristic nondimensional distortion number Nd was derived in the 1970s that allows inference of the degree of nonlinear refraction or thermal blooming associated with an atmospheric laser path...

  4. SBS [stimulated Brillouin scattering] pulse distortion in multimode optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Hawkins, R.J.; Laumann, C.W.; Hatch, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed sever temporal-pulse-shape distortion due to stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in multimode optical fibers used to diagnose 351 m laser pulses on the Nova laser system. Our measurements can be fit by a basic model of SBS and provide a clear indication of the intensity and temporal regimes where significant SBS-induced temporal-pulse-shape distortion can be avoided. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Reactivity analysis of core distortion effects in the FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved technique for evaluating core distortion reactivity effects was developed using reactivity analyses of two core geometry models (R-Z and HEX). This technique is incorporated into a new processor code called CORDIS. The advantages of this technique over existing reactivity models are that is preserves core heterogeneity, provides a control rod insertion effect model, uses row-dependent axial shape functions, and provides a flexible and cost efficient core distortion reactivity analysis method

  6. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  7. Distorted eikonal cross sections: A time-dependent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    For Hamiltonians with two potentials, differential cross sections are written as time-correlation functions of reference and distorted transition operators. Distorted eikonal differential cross sections are defined in terms of straight-line and reference classical trajectories. Both elastic and inelastic results are obtained. Expressions for the inelastic cross sections are presented in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions through the use of the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method

  8. Correlation of lattice distortion with photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xia; Shui Miao; Li Rongsheng; Song Yue

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide dispersions on X-3B pigment degradation has been investigated. A variety of factors that would influence the photocatalytic activity such as crystallite size, lattice distortion, and anatase content are discussed in detail. It is found that lattice distortion is the most important one among these factors and is expected to inhibit the hole and electron pair recombination. It determines, to some extent, the photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide dispersions

  9. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  10. Elliptical Galaxies: Rotationally Distorted, After All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2009-12-01

    .15$, and low rotationparameters $(0lechi_v^2<0.15$, while fastrotators show large ellipticities $(0.2lehat{e}<0.65$, large anisotropy parameters$(0.15ledelta<0.35$, and large rotationparameters $(0.15lechi_v^2<0.5$. Analternative kinematic classification withrespect to earlier attempts (Emsellem etal. 2007 requires larger samples for providingadditional support to the above mentionedresults. A possible interpretation of slowrotators as nonrotating at all and elongated due to negative anisotropy parameters,instead of flattened due to positiveanisotropy parameters, is exploited.Finally, the elliptical side of the Hubblemorphological sequence is interpreted as asequence of equilibrium (adjoint configurations where the ellipticity is an increasing functionof the rotation parameter, slow rotators correspond to early classes (E0-E2 in the oblate limit and E2-E0 in the prolate limitand fast rotators to late classes (E3-E6.In this view, boundaries are rotationally distorted regardless of angular momentumand stress tensor, where rotation has tobe intended as due to additional kinetic energy of tangential equatorial velocity components,with respect to spherical configurations with isotropic stress tensor.

  11. Two dimensional spatial distortion correction algorithm for scintillation GAMMA cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, R.; Gray, E.; Jih, F.; King, S.E.; Lim, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial distortion in an Anger gamma camera originates fundamentally from the discrete nature of scintillation light sampling with an array of PMT's. Historically digital distortion correction started with the method based on the distortion measurement by using 1-D slit pattern and the subsequent on-line bi-linear approximation with 64 x 64 look-up tables for X and Y. However, the X, Y distortions are inherently two-dimensional in nature, and thus the validity of this 1-D calibration method becomes questionable with the increasing distortion amplitude in association with the effort to get better spatial and energy resolutions. The authors have developed a new accurate 2-D correction algorithm. This method involves the steps of; data collection from 2-D orthogonal hole pattern, 2-D distortion vector measurement, 2-D Lagrangian polynomial interpolation, and transformation to X, Y ADC frame. The impact of numerical precision used in correction and the accuracy of bilinear approximation with varying look-up table size have been carefully examined through computer simulation by using measured single PMT light response function together with Anger positioning logic. Also the accuracy level of different order Lagrangian polynomial interpolations for correction table expansion from hole centroids were investigated. Detailed algorithm and computer simulation are presented along with camera test results

  12. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  13. The Dirac distorted wave Born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.; Sherif, H.S.; Johansson, J.; Sawafta, R.I.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to illuminate the assumptions which are made when one writes down a Dirac DWBA matrix element. Due to the strong nature of the nucleon-nucleon potentials it is difficult to justify some of the steps involved in the general case; however by limiting ourselves to situations where only one (interacting) nucleon is present we can side-step this difficulty. We conclude the excellent agreement with the experiment justifies, a posteriori, the procedure, however we would like to remind the reader that, at least for proton inelastic scattering to collective states, the same quality of agreement can be obtained purely within a Schrodinger formalism

  14. The influence of head frame distortions on stereotactic localization and targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuer, H; Hunsche, S; Hoevels, M; Luyken, K; Maarouf, M; Voges, J; Sturm, V [Department of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, 50924 Cologne (Germany)

    2004-09-07

    A strong attachment of a stereotactic head frame to the patient's skull may cause distortions of the head frame. The aim of this work was to identify possible distortions of the head frame, to measure the degree of distortion occurring in clinical practice and to investigate its influence on stereotactic localization and targeting. A model to describe and quantify the distortion of the Riechert-Mundinger (RM) head frame was developed. Distortions were classified as (a) bending and (b) changes from the circular ring shape. Ring shape changes were derived from stereotactic CT scans and frame bending was determined from intraoperative stereotactic x-ray images of patients with implanted {sup 125}I-seeds acting as landmarks. From the examined patient data frame bending was determined to be 0.74 mm {+-} 0.32 mm and 1.30 mm in maximum. If a CT-localizer with a top ring is used, frame bending has no influence on stereotactic CT-localization. In stereotactic x-ray localization, frame bending leads to an overestimation of the z-coordinate by 0.37 mm {+-} 0.16 mm on average and by 0.65 mm in maximum. The accuracy of patient positioning in radiosurgery is not affected by frame bending. But in stereotactic surgery with an RM aiming bow trajectory displacements are expected. These displacements were estimated to be 0.36 mm {+-} 0.16 mm (max. 0.74 mm) at the target point and 0.65 mm {+-} 0.30 mm (max. 1.31 mm) at the entry point level. Changes from the circular ring shape are small and do not compromise the accuracy of stereotactic targeting and localization. The accuracy of CT-localization was found to be close to the resolution limit due to voxel size. Our findings for frame bending of the RM frame could be validated by statistical analysis and by comparison with an independent patient examination. The results depend on the stereotactic system and details of the localizers and instruments and also reflect our clinical practice. Therefore, a generalization is not possible

  15. Nonthermal ice nucleation observed at distorted contact lines of supercooled water drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cruikshank, Owen; He, Weilue; Kostinski, Alex; Shaw, Raymond A

    2018-02-01

    Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines. Results show that symmetric motion of supercooled water on a vertically oscillating substrate does not freeze, no matter how we agitate it. However, when the moving contact line is distorted with the help of trace amounts of oil or inhomogeneous pinning on the substrate, freezing can occur at temperatures much higher than in a static droplet, equivalent to ∼10^{10} increase in nucleation rate. Several possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the observations. One plausible explanation among them, decreased pressure due to interface curvature, is explored theoretically and compared with the observational results quasiquantitatively. Indeed, the observed freezing-temperature increase scales with contact line speed in a manner consistent with the pressure hypothesis. Whatever the mechanism, the experiments demonstrate a strong preference for ice nucleation at three-phase contact lines compared to the two-phase interface, and they also show that movement and distortion of the contact line are necessary contributions to stimulating the nucleation process.

  16. A complex-plane strategy for computing rotating polytropic models - Numerical results for strong and rapid differential rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geroyannis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method, called complex-plane strategy, is implemented in the computation of polytropic models distorted by strong and rapid differential rotation. The differential rotation model results from a direct generalization of the classical model, in the framework of the complex-plane strategy; this generalization yields very strong differential rotation. Accordingly, the polytropic models assume extremely distorted interiors, while their boundaries are slightly distorted. For an accurate simulation of differential rotation, a versatile method, called multiple partition technique is developed and implemented. It is shown that the method remains reliable up to rotation states where other elaborate techniques fail to give accurate results. 11 refs

  17. Dopant structural distortions in high-temperature superconductors: an active or a passive role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskel, D.; Stern, E.A.; Dogan, F.; Moodenbaugh, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    The parent compounds of high-temperature superconductors, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 , are strongly interacting electron systems, rendering them insulators with Mott-Hubbard gaps of a few electron volts. Charge carriers (holes) are introduced by chemical doping, causing an insulator-metal (IM) transition and, at low temperatures, superconductivity. The role of dopants is widely seen as limited to the introduction of holes into the CuO 2 planes (i.e. occupying electronic states derived from Cu 3d x2-y2 and O 2p x,y atomic orbitals). Most theories of high-T c superconductivity deal with pairing interactions between these planar holes. Local distortions around dopants are poorly understood, because of the experimental difficulty in obtaining such information, particularly at low doping. This has resulted in the neglect, in most theories, of the effect of such distortions on the chemical and electronic structure of high-T c superconductors. Angular-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy on oriented samples is an ideal technique to elucidate the dopant distortions. Element specificity, together with a large orientation dependence of the XAFS signal in these layered structures, allows the local structure around dopants to be resolved. Results are presented here on (Sr, Ba) and Ni dopants, which substitute at the La and Cu sites, respectively, of insulating La 2 CuO 4 . The relevance of the measured local distortions for a complete understanding of the normal and superconducting properties of cuprates is discussed. (au)

  18. The influence of the Coulomb-distortion effect on proton-proton observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessas, W.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the Coulomb distortion of the strong interaction is studied on the basis of nucleon-nucleon observables. In particular, cross sections, polarizations, spin-correlation parameters, and spin-transfer coefficients are considered for proton-proton as well as neutron-neutron scattering at laboratory kinetic energies Esub(Lab) = 10, 20, and 50 MeV. The calculations are performed for the meson-theoretical PARIS potential, the nonlocal separable GRAZ potential and also using the Arndt-Hackman-Roper parametrization of proton-proton scattering phase shifts. Important conclusions are drawn with respect to phenomenological phase-shift analyses. (Auth.)

  19. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  20. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  1. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Subramaniam

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above in Singapore.Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis.The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18, of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16, with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes-illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler's fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses.Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder.

  2. Distortion definition and correction in off-axis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Off-axis optical configurations are becoming more and more used in a variety of applications, in particular they are the most preferred solution for cameras devoted to Solar System planets and small bodies (i.e. asteroids and comets) study. Off-axis designs, being devoid of central obstruction, are able to guarantee better PSF and MTF performance, and thus higher contrast imaging capabilities with respect to classical on-axis designs. In particular they are suitable for observing extended targets with intrinsic low contrast features, or scenes where a high dynamical signal range is present. Classical distortion theory is able to well describe the performance of the on-axis systems, but it has to be adapted for the off-axis case. A proper way to deal with off-axis distortion definition is thus needed together with dedicated techniques to accurately measure and hence remove the distortion effects present in the acquired images. In this paper, a review of the distortion definition for off-axis systems will be given. In particular the method adopted by the authors to deal with the distortion related issues (definition, measure, removal) in some off-axis instruments will be described in detail.

  3. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan Abdulhamid Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of optical distortion calibration by digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zeren; Zhang, Qingchuan; Su, Yong; Wu, Shangquan

    2017-11-01

    Due to its convenience of operation, the camera calibration algorithm, which is based on the plane template, is widely used in image measurement, computer vision and other fields. How to select a suitable distortion model is always a problem to be solved. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an experimental evaluation of the accuracy of camera distortion calibrations. This paper presents an experimental method for evaluating camera distortion calibration accuracy, which is easy to implement, has high precision, and is suitable for a variety of commonly used lens. First, we use the digital image correlation method to calculate the in-plane rigid body displacement field of an image displayed on a liquid crystal display before and after translation, as captured with a camera. Next, we use a calibration board to calibrate the camera to obtain calibration parameters which are used to correct calculation points of the image before and after deformation. The displacement field before and after correction is compared to analyze the distortion calibration results. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used industrial camera lenses for four commonly used distortion models.

  5. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  6. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  7. An Exact Formula for Calculating Inverse Radial Lens Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Drap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new approach to calculating the inverse of radial distortions. The method presented here provides a model of reverse radial distortion, currently modeled by a polynomial expression, that proposes another polynomial expression where the new coefficients are a function of the original ones. After describing the state of the art, the proposed method is developed. It is based on a formal calculus involving a power series used to deduce a recursive formula for the new coefficients. We present several implementations of this method and describe the experiments conducted to assess the validity of the new approach. Such an approach, non-iterative, using another polynomial expression, able to be deduced from the first one, can actually be interesting in terms of performance, reuse of existing software, or bridging between different existing software tools that do not consider distortion from the same point of view.

  8. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavallaro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  9. Multiview Trajectory Mapping Using Homography with Lens Distortion Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayumbi Gabin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a trajectory mapping algorithm for a distributed camera setting that is based on statistical homography estimation accounting for the distortion introduced by camera lenses. Unlike traditional approaches based on the direct linear transformation (DLT algorithm and singular value decomposition (SVD, the planar homography estimation is derived from renormalization. In addition to this, the algorithm explicitly introduces a correction parameter to account for the nonlinear radial lens distortion, thus improving the accuracy of the transformation. We demonstrate the proposed algorithm by generating mosaics of the observed scenes and by registering the spatial locations of moving objects (trajectories from multiple cameras on the mosaics. Moreover, we objectively compare the transformed trajectories with those obtained by SVD and least mean square (LMS methods on standard datasets and demonstrate the advantages of the renormalization and the lens distortion correction.

  10. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  11. Lepton asymmetry, neutrino spectral distortions, and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, C. T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2017-03-01

    We calculate Boltzmann neutrino energy transport with self-consistently coupled nuclear reactions through the weak-decoupling-nucleosynthesis epoch in an early universe with significant lepton numbers. We find that the presence of lepton asymmetry enhances processes which give rise to nonthermal neutrino spectral distortions. Our results reveal how asymmetries in energy and entropy density uniquely evolve for different transport processes and neutrino flavors. The enhanced distortions in the neutrino spectra alter the expected big bang nucleosynthesis light element abundance yields relative to those in the standard Fermi-Dirac neutrino distribution cases. These yields, sensitive to the shapes of the neutrino energy spectra, are also sensitive to the phasing of the growth of distortions and entropy flow with time/scale factor. We analyze these issues and speculate on new sensitivity limits of deuterium and helium to lepton number.

  12. Time distortion for expert and novice online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Peng, Shu-Yun; Yang, Chin-Chow

    2006-08-01

    Online game addiction is a new mental disorder. This disorder is difficult to describe because of its comprehensive nature. Many online game players have problems controlling their playing time. They cannot stop playing a game that they enjoy. This research surveyed the past literature on "flow" and time disorder theory. A time distortion experiment was conducted. This research invited 64 children, teenagers, and young adults to investigate player skill and playing time effects on online game break-off. The playing experience and degree of time distortion were measured and analyzed. The results showed that both novice and expert online game players were subject to time distortion. The participants had difficulty breaking off from the game without intrusion by others in the real world. This research also suggests eight questions for self-evaluation for online game addiction.

  13. Geometrical theory of nonlinear phase distortion of intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Phase distortion arising from whole beam self-focusing of intense laser pulses with arbitrary spatial profiles is treated in the limit of geometrical optics. The constant shape approximation is used to obtain the phase and angular distribution of the geometrical rays in the near field. Conditions for the validity of this approximation are discussed. Geometrical focusing of the aberrated beam is treated for the special case of a beam with axial symmetry. Equations are derived that show both the shift of the focus and the distortion of the intensity distribution that are caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of the optical medium. An illustrative example treats the case of beam distortion in a Nd:Glass amplifier

  14. Distorted Images of Islam: The Case of Former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Karčić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the former Yugoslavia has witnessed increasing distortion of images of Islam in academic publications, media, and public life. This process has been connected with the changes in power structure in Serbia, and with the new ideological orientation of the Serbian leadership which opted for national exclusivism (ethno fascism. The Muslims have been portrayed as a threat to the realization of the Serbian hegemonist project. In order to mobilize domestic public opinion against the Muslims and to justify future acts against them in the eyes of the West, the Serbian leadership needed an image of Islam as a totalitarian, inherently violent, and culturally alien system on European soil. Such a distorted image has been provided by some influential Serbian orientalists, the Orthodox Church, and some historians. Due to these distortions, these Serbian intellectual circles have become accomplices in the crimes committed against the Muslims in former Yugoslavia during 1992-1995.

  15. Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models

  16. Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi

    2014-10-01

    Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models.

  17. Anisotropic extinction distortion of the galaxy correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wenjuan; Hui Lam; Menard, Brice; May, Morgan; Scranton, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Similar to the magnification of the galaxies' fluxes by gravitational lensing, the extinction of the fluxes by comic dust, whose existence is recently detected by [B. Menard, R. Scranton, M. Fukugita, and G. Richards, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 405, 1025 (2010).], also modifies the distribution of a flux-selected galaxy sample. We study the anisotropic distortion by dust extinction to the 3D galaxy correlation function, including magnification bias and redshift distortion at the same time. We find the extinction distortion is most significant along the line of sight and at large separations, similar to that by magnification bias. The correction from dust extinction is negative except at sufficiently large transverse separations, which is almost always opposite to that from magnification bias (we consider a number count slope s>0.4). Hence, the distortions from these two effects tend to reduce each other. At low z (< or approx. 1), the distortion by extinction is stronger than that by magnification bias, but at high z, the reverse holds. We also study how dust extinction affects probes in real space of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the linear redshift distortion parameter β. We find its effect on BAO is negligible. However, it introduces a positive scale-dependent correction to β that can be as large as a few percent. At the same time, we also find a negative scale-dependent correction from magnification bias, which is up to percent level at low z, but to ∼40% at high z. These corrections are non-negligible for precision cosmology, and should be considered when testing General Relativity through the scale-dependence of β.

  18. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  19. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  20. Coil extensions improve line shapes by removing field distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2018-06-01

    The static magnetic susceptibility of the rf coil can substantially distort the field B0 and be a dominant source of line broadening. A scaling argument shows that this may be a particular problem in microcoil NMR. We propose coil extensions to reduce the distortion. The actual rf coil is extended to a much longer overall length by abutted coil segments that do not carry rf current. The result is a long and nearly uniform sheath of copper wire, in terms of the static susceptibility. The line shape improvement is demonstrated at 43.9 MHz and in simulation calculations.

  1. Analytical evaluation of nonlinear distortion effects on multicarrier signals

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Due to their ability to support reliable high quality of service as well as spectral and power efficiency, multicarrier modulation systems have found increasing use in modern communications services. However, one of the main drawbacks of these systems is their vulnerability to nonlinear distortion effects. Analytical Evaluation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects on Multicarrier Signals details a unified approach to well-known analytical results on memoryless nonlinearities that takes advantage of the Gaussian behavior of multicarrier signals.Sharing new insights into the behavior of nonlinearly d

  2. Sudden distortion of turbulence at a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    Dellwik et al. (2013) presented data from a forest edge experiment based on two meteorological towers instrumented with sonic anemometers. The experiment was performed at a dense edge of the Tromnæs Forest, which is a 24 m tall mature beech stand on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography...... in the lateral variance, whereas the streamwise variance remained approximately constant. This result is in contrast to the predictions by homogeneous rapid distortion theory. We apply and develop an alternative framework based on inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory, also called blocking, in combination...

  3. Information theory and rate distortion theory for communications and compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    This book is very specifically targeted to problems in communications and compression by providing the fundamental principles and results in information theory and rate distortion theory for these applications and presenting methods that have proved and will prove useful in analyzing and designing real systems. The chapters contain treatments of entropy, mutual information, lossless source coding, channel capacity, and rate distortion theory; however, it is the selection, ordering, and presentation of the topics within these broad categories that is unique to this concise book. While the cover

  4. A method to correct coordinate distortion in EBSD maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Elbrønd, Andreas Benjamin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    Drift during electron backscatter diffraction mapping leads to coordinate distortions in resulting orientation maps, which affects, in some cases significantly, the accuracy of analysis. A method, thin plate spline, is introduced and tested to correct such coordinate distortions in the maps after...... the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. The accuracy of the correction as well as theoretical and practical aspects of using the thin plate spline method is discussed in detail. By comparing with other correction methods, it is shown that the thin plate spline method is most efficient to correct...

  5. Temperature and distortion transients in gas tungsten-arc weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1979-10-01

    An analysis and test program to develop a fundamental understanding of the gas tungsten-arc welding process has been undertaken at the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to develop techniques to determine and control the various welding parameters and weldment conditions so as to result in optimum weld response characteristics. These response characteristics include depth of penetration, weld bead configuration, weld bead sink and roll, distortion, and cracking sensitivity. The results are documented of that part of the program devoted to analytical and experimental investigations of temperatures, weld bead dimensions, and distortions for moving gas tungsten-arc welds applied to Alloy 600 plates

  6. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  7. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  8. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  9. Studies of radial distortions of the ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute momentum scale of charged particles provided by the ATLAS inner detector is affected by biases related to geometrical deformations which are not well constrained by the track-based alignment procedure. The focus of this note is on momentum biases related to radial distortions of the inner detector. The $J/\\psi$, $\\Upsilon$, and $Z$-boson resonances decaying into pairs of muons are used to study and quantify such radial distortions in the barrel region of the inner detector. The analysis is performed on data collected in 2016 during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, and corresponding to 33 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity.

  10. Identification and control of harmonic distortions report on Furnas experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano Filho, Salvatore; Medeiros, Jose Roberto de; Bezerra, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Denise Borges de; Praca, Antonio Augusto Souza; Paiva Fontes, Marco Antonio de; Marques, Luiz Carlos Borges C. [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes FURNAS experience on identification and control of harmonic distortions obtained from conservation of system operation and research for solutions. Special attention is paid to the harmonic overload observed at Ibiuna substation, the receiving end of the FURNAS HVDC transmission of the Itaipu 50 Hz energy, and the solutions that have been adopted. Methods of measurement and digital simulation have been developed and successfully tested so far. The present stage of those methods will be described. Not less important is the need for a specific legislation on harmonic distortion as explained in this paper. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Improved distorted wave theory with the localized virial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Y. K.; Zerrad, E.

    2009-12-01

    The distorted wave theory is operationally improved to treat the full collision amplitude, such that the corrections to the distorted wave Born amplitude can be systematically calculated. The localized virial conditions provide the tools necessary to test the quality of successive approximations at each stage and to optimize the solution. The details of the theoretical procedure are explained in concrete terms using a collisional ionization model and variational trial functions. For the first time, adjustable parameters associated with an approximate scattering solution can be fully determined by the theory. A small number of linear parameters are introduced to examine the convergence property and the effectiveness of the new approach.

  12. Contrast distortion induced by modulation voltage in scanning capacitance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M. N.; Hu, C. W.; Chou, T. H.; Lee, Y. J.

    2012-08-01

    With a dark-mode scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM), we directly observed the influence of SCM modulation voltage (MV) on image contrasts. For electrical junctions, an extensive modulated area induced by MV may lead to noticeable changes in the SCM signal phase and intensity, resulting in a narrowed junction image and a broadened carrier concentration profile. This contrast distortion in SCM images may occur even if the peak-to-peak MV is down to 0.3 V. In addition, MV may shift the measured electrical junction depth. The balance of SCM signals components explain these MV-induced contrast distortions.

  13. Perovskite LaPbMSbO6 (M=Co, Ni): Structural distortion, magnetic and dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yijia; Han, Lin; Liu, Xiaojuan; Deng, Xiaolong; Wu, Xiaojie; Yao, Chuangang; Liang, Qingshuang; Meng, Junling; Meng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The B-site ordered double perovskite oxides LaPbMSbO 6 (M=Co, Ni) have been synthesized via the modified Sol–Gel precursor two-step route. Rietveld refinements reveal strong abnormal structural distortion and BO 6 octahedral deformation appearing along the ab plane. Owing to the cooperative Jahn–Teller effect of Co 2+ and Pb 2+ ions, the Co-related compound exhibits almost complete Co 2+ –Sb 5+ order. For magnetic properties, spin-canted antiferromagnetic state with high extent of magnetic frustration is confirmed. The Ni-related compound presents heavier magnetic frustration for introducing tiny disorder on site occupation accompanied with valence state and further enhancing the complexity of magnetic competition. Dielectric measurements present a considerable temperature dependent dielectric relaxation with great dc-like loss feature in the LaPbCoSbO 6 . For LaPbNiSbO 6 , however, the permittivity with low dielectric loss is shown to be insensitive to either temperature or frequency. The corresponding electronic active energy manifests that the weakly bounded 3d-electron is prone to hop in a more distorted Co–Sb sublattice. - Graphical abstract: XRD Rietveld refinement result of LaPbCoSbO 6 presented a large BO 6 octahedral distortion along the ab plane. Based upon the variations from Co–O–Sb bond angles, a fierce competition from many extended magnetic coupling routes (M–O–O–M) would induce a considerably large magnetic frustration and electron hopping restriction. - Highlights: • Highly ordered LaPbMSbO 6 (M=Co, Ni) were synthesized. • Abnormal structural distortion appeared in the ab plane. • Strong magnetic frustration was confirmed via M 2+ –O–O–M 2+ route. • Dielectric measurements presented a large difference between Co and Ni samples. • 3d-electronic structure determines lattice distortion and physical properties

  14. Using CMB spectral distortions to distinguish between dark matter solutions to the small-scale crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diacoumis, James A.D.; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: j.diacoumis@unsw.edu.au, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2017-09-01

    The dissipation of small-scale perturbations in the early universe produces a distortion in the blackbody spectrum of cosmic microwave background photons. In this work, we propose to use these distortions as a probe of the microphysics of dark matter on scales 1 Mpc{sup -1}∼< k ∼< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. We consider in particular models in which the dark matter is kinetically coupled to either neutrinos or photons until shortly before recombination, and compute the photon heating rate and the resultant μ-distortion in both cases. We show that the μ-parameter is generally enhanced relative to ΛCDM for interactions with neutrinos, and may be either enhanced or suppressed in the case of interactions with photons. The deviations from the ΛCDM signal are potentially within the sensitivity reach of a PRISM-like experiment if σ{sub DM-γ} ∼> 1.1 × 10{sup -30} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} and σ{sub DM-ν} ∼> 4.8 × 10{sup -32} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} for time-independent cross sections, and σ{sup 0}{sub DM-γ} ∼> 1.8 × 10{sup -40} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} and σ{sup 0}{sub DM-ν} ∼> 2.5 × 10{sup -47} (m{sub DM}/GeV) cm{sup 2} for cross sections scaling as temperature squared, coinciding with the parameter regions in which late kinetic decoupling may serve as a solution to the small-scale crisis. Furthermore, these μ-distortion signals differ from those of warm dark matter (no deviation from ΛCDM) and a suppressed primordial power spectrum (a strongly suppressed or negative μ-parameter), demonstrating that CMB spectral distortion can potentially be used to distinguish between solutions to the small-scale crisis.

  15. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  16. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Inlet Distortion in a Multistage Axial Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Razvan

    The primary objective of this research is to present results and methodologies used to study total pressure inlet distortion in a multi-stage axial compressor environment. The study was performed at the Purdue 3-Stage Axial Compressor Facility (P3S) which models the final three stages of a production turbofan engine's high-pressure compressor (HPC). The goal of this study was twofold; first, to design, implement, and validate a circumferentially traversable total pressure inlet distortion generation system, and second, to demonstrate data acquisition methods to characterize the inter-stage total pressure flow fields to study the propagation and attenuation of a one-per-rev total pressure distortion. The datasets acquired for this study are intended to support the development and validation of novel computational tools and flow physics models for turbomachinery flow analysis. Total pressure inlet distortion was generated using a series of low-porosity wire gauze screens placed upstream of the compressor in the inlet duct. The screens are mounted to a rotatable duct section that can be precisely controlled. The P3S compressor features fixed instrumentation stations located at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP) and downstream and upstream of each vane row. Furthermore, the compressor features individually indexable stator vanes which can be traverse by up to two vane passages. Using a series of coordinated distortion and vane traverses, the total pressure flow field at the AIP and subsequent inter-stage stations was characterized with a high circumferential resolution. The uniformity of the honeycomb carrier was demonstrated by characterizing the flow field at the AIP while no distortion screens where installed. Next, the distortion screen used for this study was selected following three iterations of porosity reduction. The selected screen consisted of a series of layered screens with a 100% radial extent and a 120° circumferential extent. A detailed total

  18. Numerical simulation of hot-pressed veneer products: Forming - Spring back – Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Sandberg, Dick

    2007-01-01

    Customers demand very high quality of veneered furniture products with regard to surface appearance, shape stability and stiffness. To meet these requirements, it is important to improve the manufacturing process by a better understanding of the thermo-hygro-mechanical behaviour of the individual...... veneers. During the manufacture of strongly curved products, the veneers are exposed to large membrane and bending deformations and to high pressure in the radial fibre direction. When hot-press forming is used, the veneers are also exposed to a high surface temperature during the pressing time (curing...... time). These severe conditions can result in plastic deformation perpendicular to the veneer surface as well as mechano-sorptive strains in the curved regions, since the heating can have a significant influence on the moisture distribution. How strong an influence these factors have on the distortion...

  19. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  20. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  1. The relationship of anger and cognitive distortions with violence in violent offenders’ population: A meta-analytic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pintea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present meta-analysis, the magnitude of the relationship between cognitive distortions and anger and violent behaviour of incarcerated offenders, based on selected data for the relationship between anger and violence, and cognitive distortions and violence was empirically assessed. Out of nineteen studies included for analysis nine of them contain statistical indicators regarding the relationship between anger and violence, and fourteen studies regarding cognitive distortions and violence. The results indicated a strong relationship both between anger and violence, and between cognitive distortions and violent behaviour. Furthermore, the moderating effect of the type of instruments (self-reported vs. observational behavioural measurements used for violence assessment was tested. The results indicated that the type of instruments had no significant influence on the cognition-violence relationship, QB(1 = 0.12, p > .05, while in case of the anger-violence relationship, a significant moderating effect was identified, QB(1 = 14.26, p < .01, which supports a higher effect size when violence was measured by a self-reported than when was measured by behavioural observation.

  2. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: A Distorting Mirror ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angela

    certainly at work in Rwanda, where an estimated one million people from a ... See Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, US Efforts to Promote Human .... Part 2 of the article provides a tour d'horizon of Rwanda's history, aimed at bringing ..... misleading and distorts the overall vision and dialectics necessary for the.

  3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Easing the Distress of Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Cynthia M.

    People who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder believe that their body is defected and that this defect makes them ugly. Their distorted body image can be precipitated by many internal and external factors and as a result of their imagined defect, these normal-appearing individuals exhibit self-defeating behaviors. The disorder can lead to the…

  4. Alternative agricultural price distortions for CGE analysis, 2007 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    A recent World Bank research project has generated an annual time series of distortions to agricultural incentives over the past half century for 82 countries, the majority of which are low-and middle-income countries. In this memorandum, the current GTAP version 8 Data Base may be modified to in...

  5. A new interpretation of distortion artifacts in sweep measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of acoustical spaces by means of impulse response measurements is often biased by the nonlinear behavior of the loudspeaker used to excite the system under test. In this context the distortion immunity provided by the sweep technique has been investigated. The results show...

  6. Electromagnetic hammer removes weld distortions from aluminum tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinghamer, R. J.

    1965-01-01

    Distortions around weld areas on sheet-aluminum tanks and other structures are removed with a portable electromagnetic hammer. The hammer incorporates a coil that generates a controlled high-energy pulsed magnetic field over localized areas on the metal surface.

  7. Effects of galvanic distortions on magnetotelluric data: Interpretation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    But in the case of field data the problem is ... The distorted data set is corrected using the MT response for DRS model and further ... ments, the apparent resistivity and phase at differ- ... from the telluric field, which is of galvanic or inductive ...

  8. Phantom limb phenomenon as an example of body image distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmus Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The perception of one’s own body, its mental representation, and emotional attitude to it are the components of so-called “body image” [1]. The aim of the research was to analyse phantom pain and non-painful phantom sensations as results of limb loss and to explain them in terms of body image distortion.

  9. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  10. Mode distortion measurements on the Jefferson lab IR FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S V; Shinn, M

    2002-01-01

    We have previously reported on the analytical calculations of mirror distortion in a high-power FEL with a near-concentric cavity. This analysis allowed us to estimate the power level at which the FEL interaction would be affected, though no exact theory of FEL power vs. distortion exists at this point. Recently we have directly measured the mode size and beam quality as a function of power using a resonator with a center wavelength of 5 mu m. The resonator mirrors were calcium fluoride. This particular material exhibits a large amount of distortion for a given power but, due to the negative slope of refractive index vs. temperature, adds almost no optical phase distortion on the laser output. The mode in the cavity can thus be directly calculated from the measurements at the resonator output. The presence of angular jitter produced raw measurements inconsistent with cold cavity expectations. Removing the effects of the angular jitter, we derive results in agreement with cold cavity measurements. The result i...

  11. Analysis of tractable distortion metrics for EEG compression applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazán-Prieto, Carlos; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; Cárdenas-Barrera, Julián

    2012-01-01

    Coding distortion in lossy electroencephalographic (EEG) signal compression methods is evaluated through tractable objective criteria. The percentage root-mean-square difference, which is a global and relative indicator of the quality held by reconstructed waveforms, is the most widely used criterion. However, this parameter does not ensure compliance with clinical standard guidelines that specify limits to allowable noise in EEG recordings. As a result, expert clinicians may have difficulties interpreting the resulting distortion of the EEG for a given value of this parameter. Conversely, the root-mean-square error is an alternative criterion that quantifies distortion in understandable units. In this paper, we demonstrate that the root-mean-square error is better suited to control and to assess the distortion introduced by compression methods. The experiments conducted in this paper show that the use of the root-mean-square error as target parameter in EEG compression allows both clinicians and scientists to infer whether coding error is clinically acceptable or not at no cost for the compression ratio. (paper)

  12. Modeling Distortion Effects in Class-D Amplifier Filter Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Stegenborg-Andersen, Tore; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    Distortion is generally accepted as a quantifier to judge the quality of audio power amplifiers. In switchmode power amplifiers various mechanisms influence this performance measure. After giving an overview of those, this paper focuses on the particular effect of the nonlinearity of the output f...

  13. Spectral Behavior of Weakly Compressible Aero-Optical Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Edwin; Wang, Kan; Wang, Meng; Jumper, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In classical theories of optical distortions by atmospheric turbulence, an appropriate and key assumption is that index-of-refraction variations are dominated by fluctuations in temperature and the effects of turbulent pressure fluctuations are negligible. This assumption is, however, not generally valid for aero-optical distortions caused by turbulent flow over an optical aperture, where both temperature and pressures fluctuations may contribute significantly to the index-of-refraction fluctuations. A general expression for weak fluctuations in refractive index is derived using the ideal gas law and Gladstone-Dale relation and applied to describe the spectral behavior of aero-optical distortions. Large-eddy simulations of weakly compressible, temporally evolving shear layers are then used to verify the theoretical results. Computational results support theoretical findings and confirm that if the log slope of the 1-D density spectrum in the inertial range is -mρ , the optical phase distortion spectral slope is given by - (mρ + 1) . The value of mρ is then shown to be dependent on the ratio of shear-layer free-stream densities and bounded by the spectral slopes of temperature and pressure fluctuations. Supported by HEL-JTO through AFOSR Grant FA9550-13-1-0001 and Blue Waters Graduate Fellowship Program.

  14. Effects Of Field Distortions In Ih-apf Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kapin, Valery; Yamada, S

    2004-01-01

    The project on developing compact medical accelera-tors for the tumor therapy using carbon ions has been started at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Alternating-phase-focused (APF) linac using an interdigital H-mode (IH) cavity has been proposed for the injector linac. The IH-cavity is doubly ridged circular resonator loaded by the drift-tubes mounted on ridges with supporting stems. The effects of intrinsic and random field distortions in a practical design of the 4-MeV/u 200 MHz IH-APF linac are considered. The intrinsic field distortions in IH-cavity are caused by the asymmetry of the gap field due to presence of the drift-tube supporting stems and pair of ridges. The random field distortions are caused by drift-tube misalignments and non-regular deviations of the voltage distribution from programmed law. The RF fields in IH-cavity have been calculated using Microwave Studio (MWS) code. The effects of field distortions on beam dynamics have been simulated numerically.

  15. Multiaxial ratcheting with advanced kinematic and directional distortional hardening rules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dugdale, J.; Dafalias, Y.F.; Kourousis, K. I.; Plešek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 22 (2012), s. 3063-3076 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : plasticity * directional distortional hardening * thermodynamics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768312002612

  16. Determination of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on a 33kv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern day AC power systems are proliferated by the introduction of several kinds of nonlinear loads which generate harmonics in a power system and this has a cumulative negative effect on power quality. Examples of nonlinear loads are power electronic devices, which cause distortion of voltage and current waveforms ...

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Structures by Virtual Distortion Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gierlinski, J.T.; Holnicki-Szulc, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1991-01-01

    are used in structural optimization, see Haftka [4]. The recently developed Virtual Distortion Method (VDM) is a numerical technique which offers an efficient approach to calculation of the sensitivity derivatives. This method has been orginally applied to structural remodelling and collapse analysis, see...

  18. Investigation of the Geometrical Distortions in the Nuclear Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Rumyantseva, V.P.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The geometrical distortions in the nuclear emulsion were investigated by means of two devices: 1) stereoscopic meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) and 2) traditional optical microscope (KSM-1) designed for precise measurements. The particle tracks were produced by primary Oxygen-nuclei with impulse 65.6 GeV/c and by secondary α-particles in various regions of the nuclear emulsion. The measurement errors were: 1.8' (angular minute) for orientation angle θ xy ; 2.7' (angular minute) for dip angle θ z ; 0.3 μm for transverse coordinate x; 0.1 μm for longitudinal coordinate y and 0.3 μm for depth coordinate z. The effect of the global forced bending of the nuclear emulsion glass support was detected and estimated as dθ z /dy=2' (angular minute) per mm. To suppress the local geometrical distortions, a difference plot was calculated for two secondary α-particles going very close within ≤ 10 μm over the distance 6 mm. It was shown that this mode of the local geometrical distortions is kept constant over the mutual transverse distances up to 0.6 mm. By observing the zy-plots of four secondary α-particles we have isolated the rotating mode of the local geometrical distortions in the nuclear emulsion. 5 refs., 11 figs

  19. Distributed Remote Vector Gaussian Source Coding with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a distributed remote source coding problem, where a sequence of observations of source vectors is available at the encoder. The problem is to specify the optimal rate for encoding the observations subject to a covariance matrix distortion constraint and in the presence...

  20. Source Coding in Networks with Covariance Distortion Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2016-01-01

    results to a joint source coding and denoising problem. We consider a network with a centralized topology and a given weighted sum-rate constraint, where the received signals at the center are to be fused to maximize the output SNR while enforcing no linear distortion. We show that one can design...

  1. Factors associated with body image distortion in Korean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mi-Yeul Hyun,1 Young-Eun Jung,2 Moon-Doo Kim,2 Young-Sook Kwak,2 Sung-Chul Hong,3 Won-Myong Bahk,4 Bo-Hyun Yoon,5 Hye Won Yoon,6 Bora Yoo61College of Nursing, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, Korea; 6School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaPurpose: Body image incorporates cognitive and affective components as well as behaviors related to own body perception. This study evaluated the occurrence of body image distortion and its correlates in Korean adolescents.Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional survey, a total of 2,117 adolescents were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on body image distortion, eating attitudes, and behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26 and related factors.Results: Body image distortions were found in 51.8 percent of adolescents. Univariate analyses showed that boys and older adolescents had higher rates of body image distortion. In the multivariate analyses, body image distortion was associated with high risk for eating disorders (odds ratio [OR] =1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–2.58; P=0.015 and being over weight (OR =33.27; 95% CI 15.51–71.35; P<0.001 or obese (OR =9.37; 95% CI 5.06–17.34; P<0.001.Conclusion: These results suggest that body image distortion is relatively common in Korean adolescents, which has implications for adolescents at risk of developing eating disorders.Keywords: body image distortion, high risk for eating disorders, Korean adolescent

  2. The selfish Segregation Distorter gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larracuente, Amanda M; Presgraves, Daven C

    2012-09-01

    Segregation Distorter (SD) is an autosomal meiotic drive gene complex found worldwide in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. During spermatogenesis, SD induces dysfunction of SD(+) spermatids so that SD/SD(+) males sire almost exclusively SD-bearing progeny rather than the expected 1:1 Mendelian ratio. SD is thus evolutionarily "selfish," enhancing its own transmission at the expense of its bearers. Here we review the molecular and evolutionary genetics of SD. Genetic analyses show that the SD is a multilocus gene complex involving two key loci--the driver, Segregation distorter (Sd), and the target of drive, Responder (Rsp)--and at least three upward modifiers of distortion. Molecular analyses show that Sd encodes a truncated duplication of the gene RanGAP, whereas Rsp is a large pericentromeric block of satellite DNA. The Sd-RanGAP protein is enzymatically wild type but mislocalized within cells and, for reasons that remain unclear, appears to disrupt the histone-to-protamine transition in drive-sensitive spermatids bearing many Rsp satellite repeats but not drive-insensitive spermatids bearing few or no Rsp satellite repeats. Evolutionary analyses show that the Sd-RanGAP duplication arose recently within the D. melanogaster lineage, exploiting the preexisting and considerably older Rsp satellite locus. Once established, the SD haplotype collected enhancers of distortion and suppressors of recombination. Further dissection of the molecular genetic and cellular basis of SD-mediated distortion seems likely to provide insights into several important areas currently understudied, including the genetic control of spermatogenesis, the maintenance and evolution of satellite DNAs, the possible roles of small interfering RNAs in the germline, and the molecular population genetics of the interaction of genetic linkage and natural selection.

  3. Distortion of He(2l2l') Fano lineshapes by strong post-collision interaction in H+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.

    1996-01-01

    The three-body post-collisional interaction (PCI) between the scattered proton, recoil target ion and emitted electron has been investigated by electron spectrometry near the 2l2l' helium resonances, in the 20-100 keV energy range (V p 0.9-2 au). Particular attention has been paid to the PCI deformations of the Fano lineshapes when V-vector'' p ≅ V-vector e (2l2l'). Their angle and collision velocity dependences have been studied for the first time experimentally. A large variety of lineshapes have been observed, all of them successfully described by a single formula. At the lowest proton velocities the rescattering effect (also called Coulomb two-path scattering) is seen. (Author)

  4. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  5. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  6. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  7. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Cowie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamblers’ cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., “Luck/Chance” and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., “Skill/Attitude”. Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior. Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research

  8. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Megan E; Stewart, Sherry H; Salmon, Joshua; Collins, Pam; Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Boffo, Marilisa; Salemink, Elske; de Jong, David; Smits, Ruby; Wiers, Reinout W

    2017-01-01

    Gamblers' cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI) evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., "Luck/Chance") and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., "Skill/Attitude"). Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems) and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes) at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior . Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research and clinical practice

  9. Can journalistic "false balance" distort public perception of consensus in expert opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J

    2016-03-01

    Media critics have expressed concern that journalistic "false balance" can distort the public's perceptions of what ought to be noncontroversial subjects (e.g., climate change). I report several experiments testing the influence of presenting conflicting comments from 2 experts who disagree on an issue (balance condition) in addition to a complete count of the number of experts on a panel who favor either side. Compared with a control condition, who received only the complete count, participants in the balance condition gave ratings of the perceived agreement among the experts that did not discriminate as clearly between issues with and without strong expert consensus. Participants in the balance condition also perceived less agreement among the experts in general, and were less likely to think that there was enough agreement among experts on the high-consensus issues to guide government policy. Evidently, "false balance" can distort perceptions of expert opinion even when participants would seem to have all the information needed to correct for its influence. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Forced Response Analysis of a Fan with Boundary Layer Inlet Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    2014-01-01

    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn for future generations of commercial aircraft, but these systems must be designed to overcome the challenge of high dynamic stresses in fan blades due to forced response. High dynamic stresses can lead to high cycle fatigue failures. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan aeromechanics is integral to an ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for a wind-tunnel test. An unsteady flow solution from a Reynoldsaveraged Navier Stokes analysis of a coupled inlet-fan system is used to calculate blade unsteady loading and assess forced response of the fan to distorted inflow. Conducted prior to the mechanical design of a fan, the initial forced response analyses performed in this study provide an early look at the levels of dynamic stresses that are likely to be encountered. For the boundary layer ingesting inlet, the distortion contains strong engine order excitations that act simultaneously. The combined effect of these harmonics was considered in the calculation of the forced response stresses. Together, static and dynamic stresses can provide the information necessary to evaluate whether the blades are likely to fail due to high cycle fatigue. Based on the analyses done, the overspeed condition is likely to result in the smallest stress margin in terms of the mean and alternating stresses. Additional work is ongoing to expand the analyses to off-design conditions, on-resonance conditions, and to include more detailed modeling of the blade structure.

  11. Profile distortion by beam space-charge in Ionization Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vilsmeier, D; Wettig, T

    Measuring the transverse beam size in the Large Hadron Collider by using Ionization Profile Monitors is a difficult task for energies above injection during the energy ramp from 450 GeV to 6.5TeV. The beam size decreases from around 1mm to 200um and the brightness of the beam is high enough to destroy the structure of any form of interacting matter. While the electron trajectories are confined by an external electro-magnetic field which forces the electrons accordingly on helix paths with certain gyroradii, this gyration is heavily increased under the influence of the electric field of the beam. Smaller beam sizes, which go hand in hand with increased bunch electric fields, lead to larger gyroradii of the ionized electrons, which results in strongly distorted profiles. In addition, this distortion becomes more visible for smaller beam sizes as the extent of gyration grows compared to the actual beam size. Depending on the initial momentum distribution of the electrons, emerging from the ionization process wit...

  12. Quantitation of structural distortion with gradient-echo imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, R.D.; Schwaighofer, B.W.; Hesselink, J.R.; Chu, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the structural distortion and measurement error associated with fast MR imaging of the spinal neural foramina. Dry skeletal specimens and a thin cadaveric sagittal section through the neural foramina were placed in a water bath. MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T unit in different planes and with various pulse sequences. The size and shape of each neural foramen were carefully measured on the images and on the skeletal specimens. Gradient-echo (GRE) techniques (gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state, MPGR, three-dimensional volume acquisition) resulted in structural distortion in up to 10% on the fresh skeleton and 30% of the dry skeleton specimens when a small TE was used (the foramina appear narrower on the images)

  13. Simulation of Welding Distortions in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin; Kierkegaard, Henning

    1997-01-01

    by an optimised welding order. Welding test samples prove that the constraint of the sample and the time between each pass in a multipass weld affect the magnitude of distortion. Experiments with welding specimens in the form of butt-and fillet welds have been carried out. They show angular deflections as well......In the last few years the use of robot welding processes has increased significatnly. The programming of the robots has until now mainly focused on high efficiency, i.e.high torch rate time, and hence, minimising the inefficient "travelling" time. Together with developing high-performance welding...... due to cutting and welding and parlty in the form of dimensional variation due to human factors. Measurements have been made of the production line for assemblies. The measurements show that distortions related to the multirobot welding are a factor which can rather easily be controlled...

  14. Can components in distortion-product otoacoustic emissions be separated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; W. Purcell, David; Christensen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions are signals emitted from the cochlea, either spontaneously or evoked by stimuli. Measured with an acoustic probe sealed in the ear-canal, they reveal information about a part of the mechanism of hearing that is otherwise inaccessible. Outer hair cells in the cochlea work...... to improve hearing sensitivity by means of nonlinear amplification, which produces distortion. In the measurement of otoacoustic emissions, two tones can be delivered to the cochlea to invoke this nonlinearity and elicit the distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). DPOAEs arise mainly from two...... spatially separated generation mechanisms, thus making interpretation of DPOAE measurements complicated. In this study, we test whether or not source separation by group delays is equivalent to separation by time delays – either result is equally interesting to understand given the complexity of the cochlea...

  15. The Dark Side of Context: Context Reinstatement Can Distort Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Manoj K; Picart, Jamila K; Gallo, David A

    2018-04-01

    It is widely assumed that context reinstatement benefits memory, but our experiments revealed that context reinstatement can systematically distort memory. Participants viewed pictures of objects superimposed over scenes, and we later tested their ability to differentiate these old objects from similar new objects. Context reinstatement was manipulated by presenting objects on the reinstated or switched scene at test. Not only did context reinstatement increase correct recognition of old objects, but it also consistently increased incorrect recognition of similar objects as old ones. This false recognition effect was robust, as it was found in several experiments, occurred after both immediate and delayed testing, and persisted with high confidence even after participants were warned to avoid the distorting effects of context. To explain this memory illusion, we propose that context reinstatement increases the likelihood of confusing conceptual and perceptual information, potentially in medial temporal brain regions that integrate this information.

  16. In situ visualization of thermal distortions of synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, P.; Kazimirov, A.; Bazarov, I.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new in situ method to measure heating-induced distortions of the surface of the first monochromator crystal exposed to high-power white synchrotron radiation beam. The method is based on recording the image of a stationary grid of dots captured by a CCD camera as reflected from the surface of a crystal with and without a heat load. The three-dimensional surface profile (heat bump) is then reconstructed from the distortions of the original pattern. In experiments performed at the CHESS A2 wiggler beam line we measured the heat bumps with the heights of up to 600 nm produced by a wiggler beam with total power in the range of 15-60 W incident on the (1 1 1) Si crystal at various angles between 3 deg. and 15 deg

  17. Internal process: what is abstraction and distortion process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiantika, F. R.; Budayasa, I. K.; Lukito, A.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is one of the branch of mathematics that plays a major role in the development of science and technology. Thus, knowing the geometry concept is needed for students from their early basic level of thinking. A preliminary study showed that the elementary students have difficulty in perceiving parallelogram shape in a 2-dimention of a cube drawing as a square shape. This difficulty makes the students can not solve geometrical problems correctly. This problem is related to the internal thinking process in geometry. We conducted the exploration of students’ internal thinking processes in geometry particularly in distinguishing the square and parallelogram shape. How the students process their internal thinking through distortion and abstraction is the main aim of this study. Analysis of the geometrical test and deep interview are used in this study to obtain the data. The result of this study is there are two types of distortion and abstraction respectively in which the student used in their internal thinking processes.

  18. Distortional Mechanics of Thin-Walled Structural Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim

    In several industries such as civil, mechanical, and aerospace, thin-walled structures are often used due to the high strength and effective use of the materials. Because of the increased consumption there has been increasing focus on optimizing and more detailed calculations. However, finely...... number of degrees of freedom. This means that the classical Vlasov thin-walled beam theory for open and closed cross sections is generalized as part of a semi-discretization process by including distortional displacement fields. A novel finite-element-based displacement approach is used in combination...... by discretization of the cross section are now solved analytically and the formulation is valid without special attention and approximation also for closed single or multi-cell cross sections. Furthermore, the found eigenvalues have clear mechanical meaning, since they represent the attenuation of the distortional...

  19. Harmonic Distortion of Rectifier Topologies for Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffan

    This thesis deals with the harmonic distortion of the diode rectifier and a number of alternative rectifier topologies for adjustable speed drives. The main intention of this thesis is to provide models and tools that allow easy prediction of the harmonic distortion of ASD’s in a given system...... rectifier are presented. The first level is an ideal model where the diode rectifier basically is treated as an independent (harmonic) current source. The second level is an empirical model, where simulated (or measured) values of the harmonic currents of the diode rectifier for different parameters......-angle of the individual harmonic currents of different diode rectifier types is analyzed. Four selected rectifier topologies with a high input power factor are presented. It is shown that using ac- or dc-coils is a very simple and efficient method to reduce the harmonic currents compared to the basic diode rectifier...

  20. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  1. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using mu-distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2014-01-01

    the perturbations which produce the $\\mu$-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of $\\langle B^2\\zeta\\rangle$, which is naturally parameterized by $b_{\\text{NL}}$ (a parameter defined analogously to $f_{\\text......{NL}}$). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise $S/N\\approx 1.0 \\times b_{\\text{NL}} (\\tilde B_\\mu/10\\text{ nG})^2$, where $\\tilde B_\\mu$ is the magnetic field's strength on $\\mu$-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with $b_{\\text...

  2. Labor Market Distortions in Côte d'Ivoire:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Verner, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent and nature of distortions in the labor market in the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire by using quantile regression analysis on employer-employee data from the manufacturing sector. We found that the labor markets in Côte d'Ivoire do not seem to be much distorted. Unions...... may influence employment through tenure but do not seem to influence wages directly except for vulnerable minorities that seem protected by unions. Establishment-size wage effects are pronounced and highest for white-collar workers. This may be explained by the efficiency wage theory, so that, even...... in the absence of unions, segmentation and inefficiencies will still be present as long as firms seek to retain their employees by paying wages above the market clearing level. The inefficiency arising from establishment-size wage effects can be mitigated by education....

  3. Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O'Sullivan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from −60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s−1 in increments of 0.5 m s−1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.

  4. Predicting Harmonic Distortion of Multiple Converters in a Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Ivry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various uncertainties arise in the operation and management of power systems containing Renewable Energy Sources (RES that affect the systems power quality. These uncertainties may arise due to system parameter changes or design parameter choice. In this work, the impact of uncertainties on the prediction of harmonics in a power system containing multiple Voltage Source Converters (VSCs is investigated. The study focuses on the prediction of harmonic distortion level in multiple VSCs when some system or design parameters are only known within certain constraints. The Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR method was utilized in this study as an efficient predictive tool for the level of harmonic distortion of the VSCs measured at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC to the grid. Two case studies were considered and the UDR technique was also experimentally validated. The obtained results were compared with that of the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS results.

  5. Numerical implementation of a model with directional distortional hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, René; Plešek, Jiří; Hrubý, Zbyněk; Parma, Slavomír; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 12 (2015), 04015048-04015048 ISSN 0733-9399 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14018; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20666S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : plasticity * directional distortional hardening * finite-element procedures Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.346, year: 2015 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EM.1943-7889.0000954

  6. Distortion risk measures for sums of dependent losses | Brahimi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of losses and possible correlations between risk components. Resume. Nous discutons deux approches distinctes, de distortion des mesures de risque de la somme de variables al´eatoires d´ependantes, qui conservent la propri´et´e de coh´erence. La premi`ere, bas´ee sur les esp´erances distordues, agit sur la fonction ...

  7. Potential constants and centrifugal distortion constants of octahedral hexafluoride molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manivannan, G [Government Thirumagal Mill' s Coll., Gudiyattam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    1981-04-01

    The kinetic constants method outlined by Thirugnanasambandham (1964) based on Wilson's (1955) group theory has been adapted in evaluating the potential constants for SF/sub 6/, SeF/sub 6/, WF/sub 6/, IrF/sub 6/, UF/sub 6/, NpF/sub 6/, and PuF/sub 6/ using the experimentally observed vibrational frequency data. These constants are used to calculate the centrifugal distortion constants for the first time.

  8. Distortions Imposed By Inflation on Historical-Cost Depreciation

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.

    1983-01-01

    The use of historical-cost depreciation in periods of persistent inflation decreases the present value of depreciation deductions, thus understating the true economic cost of capital and increasing the real after-tax rate of return required by potential investors. Efforts to correct these problems by adopting depreciation methods that allow for artificially short recovery periods or accelerated rates do not provide an adequate solution. Distortions imposed by inflation on historical-cost depr...

  9. Unstable system with Coulomb interaction distorted near the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.

    1981-01-01

    An unstable system with Coulomb interaction distorted at small distances is considered. The results are applicable to hadronic atoms analysis. A detailed investigation of the model which can be solved exactly is presented. This model contains the separable short-range potential with the Yamaguchi form factor. Closed expressions for the modified effective range function and the Coulomb-modified scattering length ase obtained [ru

  10. The Uruguay Round and Welfare in Some Distorted Agricultural Economies

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    There is widespread concern that the Uruguay Round may reduce the welfare of developing countries through its effect on world agricultural prices. Reduced agricultural price distortions among major supplying nations are predicted to increase basic food prices and decrease some important export prices such as those for coffee and cotton. It appears that raising food prices paid by food importers must be bad for them, while reducing world coffee and cotton prices appears bad for exporters of th...

  11. Topology Optimization for Reducing Additive Manufacturing Processing Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that involves gradual, layer- by-layer building of material... design space—allowing the production of pre- viously unmanufacturable topologically optimized structures—constraints remain. One constraint, for...ARL-TR-8242•DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Topology Optimization for ReducingAdditive Manufacturing ProcessingDistortions by Raymond A Wildman

  12. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania

    1983-01-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  13. Measuring redshift-space distortions using photometric surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Percival, Will; Crocce, M.; Cabre, A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    2011-01-01

    We outline how redshift-space distortions (RSD) can be measured from the angular correlation function w({\\theta}), of galaxies selected from photometric surveys. The natural degeneracy between RSD and galaxy bias can be minimized by comparing results from bins with top-hat galaxy selection in redshift, and bins based on the radial position of galaxy pair centres. This comparison can also be used to test the accuracy of the photometric redshifts. The presence of RSD will be clearly detectable ...

  14. Damage to insula abolishes cognitive distortions during simulated gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke; Studer, Bettina; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-04-22

    Gambling is a naturalistic example of risky decision-making. During gambling, players typically display an array of cognitive biases that create a distorted expectancy of winning. This study investigated brain regions underpinning gambling-related cognitive distortions, contrasting patients with focal brain lesions to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), insula, or amygdala ("target patients") against healthy comparison participants and lesion comparison patients (i.e., with lesions that spare the target regions). A slot machine task was used to deliver near-miss outcomes (i.e., nonwins that fall spatially close to a jackpot), and a roulette game was used to examine the gambler's fallacy (color decisions following outcome runs). Comparison groups displayed a heightened motivation to play following near misses (compared with full misses), and manifested a classic gambler's fallacy effect. Both effects were also observed in patients with vmPFC and amygdala damage, but were absent in patients with insula damage. Our findings indicate that the distorted cognitive processing of near-miss outcomes and event sequences may be ordinarily supported by the recruitment of the insula. Interventions to reduce insula reactivity could show promise in the treatment of disordered gambling.

  15. Vacuum energy density near static distorted black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Sanchez, N.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of massless fields of spins 0, 1/2, and 1 to the vacuum polarization near the event horizon of static Ricci-flat space-times. We do not assume any particular spatial symmetry. Within the Page-Brown ''ansatz'' we calculate 2 >/sup ren/ and /sup ren/ near static distorted black holes, for both the Hartle-Hawking (Vertical Bar>/sub H/) and Boulware (Vertical Bar>/sub B/) vacua. Using Israel's description of static space-times, we express these quantities in an invariant geometric way. We obtain that 2 >/sub H//sup ren/ and /sub H//sup ren/ near the horizon depend only on the two-dimensional geometry of the horizon surface. We find 2 >/sub H//sup ren/ = (1/48π 2 )K 0 , 0 0 >/sub H//sup ren/ = (7α+12β )K 0 2 -α/sup( 2 )ΔK 0 . $K sub 0: is the Gaussian curvature of the horizon, and α and β are numerical coefficients depending on the spin of a field. The term in /sup( 2 )ΔK 0 is characteristic of the distortion of the black hole. When the event horizon is not distorted, K 0 is a constant and this term disappears

  16. Emittance and beam size distortion due to linear coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1993-01-01

    At injection, the presence of linear coupling may result in an increased beam emittance and in increased beam dimensions. Results for the emittance in the presence of linear coupling will be found. These results for the emittance distortion show that the harmonics of the skew quadrupole field close to ν x + ν y are the important harmonics. Results will be found for the important driving terms for the emittance distortion. It will be shown that if these driving terms are corrected, then the total emittance is unchanged, var-epsilon x + var-epsilon y = var-epsilon 1 + var-epsilon 2 . Also, the increase in the beam dimensions will be limited to a factor which is less than 1.414. If the correction is good enough, see below for details, one can achieve var-epsilon 1 = var-epsilon x , var-epsilon 2 = var-epsilon where var-epsilon 1 , var-epsilon 2 are the emittances in the presence of coupling, and the beam dimensions are unchanged. Global correction of the emittance and beam size distortion appears possible

  17. [An improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shi; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Li, Han-Lun; Hu, Shao-Xing; Meng, Xian-Gang; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at the spectral distortion produced in PCA fusion process, the present paper proposes an improved low spectral distortion PCA fusion method. This method uses NCUT (normalized cut) image segmentation algorithm to make a complex hyperspectral remote sensing image into multiple sub-images for increasing the separability of samples, which can weaken the spectral distortions of traditional PCA fusion; Pixels similarity weighting matrix and masks were produced by using graph theory and clustering theory. These masks are used to cut the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image into some sub-region objects. All corresponding sub-region objects between the hyperspectral image and high-resolution image are fused by using PCA method, and all sub-regional integration results are spliced together to produce a new image. In the experiment, Hyperion hyperspectral data and Rapid Eye data were used. And the experiment result shows that the proposed method has the same ability to enhance spatial resolution and greater ability to improve spectral fidelity performance.

  18. Applying image quality in cell phone cameras: lens distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Donald; Goma, Sergio R.; Aleksic, Milivoje

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the framework used in one of the pilot studies run under the I3A CPIQ initiative to quantify overall image quality in cell-phone cameras. The framework is based on a multivariate formalism which tries to predict overall image quality from individual image quality attributes and was validated in a CPIQ pilot program. The pilot study focuses on image quality distortions introduced in the optical path of a cell-phone camera, which may or may not be corrected in the image processing path. The assumption is that the captured image used is JPEG compressed and the cellphone camera is set to 'auto' mode. As the used framework requires that the individual attributes to be relatively perceptually orthogonal, in the pilot study, the attributes used are lens geometric distortion (LGD) and lateral chromatic aberrations (LCA). The goal of this paper is to present the framework of this pilot project starting with the definition of the individual attributes, up to their quantification in JNDs of quality, a requirement of the multivariate formalism, therefore both objective and subjective evaluations were used. A major distinction in the objective part from the 'DSC imaging world' is that the LCA/LGD distortions found in cell-phone cameras, rarely exhibit radial behavior, therefore a radial mapping/modeling cannot be used in this case.

  19. Mesoscopic Elastic Distortions in GaAs Quantum Dot Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateras, Anastasios; Park, Joonkyu; Ahn, Youngjun; Tilka, Jack A; Holt, Martin V; Reichl, Christian; Wegscheider, Werner; Baart, Timothy A; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Mukhopadhyay, Uditendu; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Evans, Paul G

    2018-05-09

    Quantum devices formed in high-electron-mobility semiconductor heterostructures provide a route through which quantum mechanical effects can be exploited on length scales accessible to lithography and integrated electronics. The electrostatic definition of quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructure devices intrinsically involves the lithographic fabrication of intricate patterns of metallic electrodes. The formation of metal/semiconductor interfaces, growth processes associated with polycrystalline metallic layers, and differential thermal expansion produce elastic distortion in the active areas of quantum devices. Understanding and controlling these distortions present a significant challenge in quantum device development. We report synchrotron X-ray nanodiffraction measurements combined with dynamical X-ray diffraction modeling that reveal lattice tilts with a depth-averaged value up to 0.04° and strain on the order of 10 -4 in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Elastic distortions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures modify the potential energy landscape in the 2DEG due to the generation of a deformation potential and an electric field through the piezoelectric effect. The stress induced by metal electrodes directly impacts the ability to control the positions of the potential minima where quantum dots form and the coupling between neighboring quantum dots.

  20. Magnetic anisotropy of a Co-II single ion magnet with distorted trigonal prismatic coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yan; Bodenstein, Tilmann; Fink, Karin

    2016-01-01

    calculations. Though the complex shows a slight deviation from an ideal trigonal prismatic coordination, the zero-field splitting as well as the g-tensor are strongly axial with D = -41 cm(-1) and E ... with a spin Hamiltonian of the form H = D(S-z(2) - S(S + 1)/3) + E(S-x(2) - S-y(2)) + mu(B)gS.B using an effective spin S = 3/2. Calculations on model complexes show the influence of the coordinating atoms and the deviation from the ideal trigonal prismatic coordination. As the distortion is reduced towards...... idealised D-3h, the zero field splitting increases and the g-tensor of the second Kramers doublet also becomes axial....

  1. Electronic structure and local distortions in epitaxial ScGaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, S M; Zhang, S; Rovezzi, M; Joyce, T B; Moram, M A

    2014-01-01

    High energy resolution fluorescence-detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations were used to investigate the local bonding and electronic structure of Sc in epitaxial wurtzite-structure Sc x Ga 1−x N films with x ≤ 0.059. Sc atoms are found to substitute for Ga atoms, accompanied by a local distortion involving an increase in the internal lattice parameter u around the Sc atoms. The local bonding and electronic structure at Sc are not affected strongly by the strain state or the defect microstructure of the films. These data are consistent with theoretical predictions regarding the electronic structure of dilute Sc x Ga 1−x N alloys. (paper)

  2. Dramatic distortion of the 4d giant resonance by the C{sub 60} fullerene shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Baltenkov, A S [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Akademgorodok, 700125 Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)

    2005-05-28

    The photoionization cross section for the endohedral Xe at C{sub 60} atom is investigated within the framework of representing the C{sub 60} by a delta-type potential. Results demonstrate that in Xe at C{sub 60}, the 4d giant resonance is distorted significantly when compared with that of the isolated Xe atom. The reflection of the photoelectron waves by the C{sub 60} causes strong oscillations in the photoionization cross section resulting in the replacement of the Xe 4d giant resonance by four prominent peaks. The approximation of C{sub 60} by an infinitely thin real potential preserves reasonably well the sum rule for the 4d electrons but modifies the dipole polarizability of the 4d shell. (letter to the editor)

  3. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed.

  4. The Monte Carlo simulations of liquid crystal cell with bend distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhidong

    2010-01-01

    Strong anchoring nematic liquid crystal cell with bend distortions is studied, This liquid crystal cell has fast response in application prospects. The continuum theory has given that the surface elastic energy k 13 term causes surface discontinuities of the liquid crystal director. Study based on molecular theory, the pair potential parameters link directly to the surface elastic energy coefficient k 13 . The effect of finite temperature is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The second rank ordering tensor is calculated, the largest eigenvalue gives the order parameter, and its corresponding eigenvector identifies the director in the continuum theory. It is shown that it doesn't present the surface discontinuities based on the molecular theory and the k 13 term in pair potential will increase the fluctuation in the middle of the cell. By inference, the boundary discontinuity caused by k 13 item in continuum theory is resulted from the neglecting of the higher items than the second rank of the elastic energy. (authors)

  5. Constraints on interacting dark energy models from Planck 2015 and redshift-space distortion data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, André A.; Abdalla, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Xu, Xiao-Dong [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Wang, Bin, E-mail: alencar@if.usp.br, E-mail: xiaodong.xu@uct.ac.za, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: eabdalla@usp.br [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China)

    2017-01-01

    We investigate phenomenological interactions between dark matter and dark energy and constrain these models by employing the most recent cosmological data including the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies from Planck 2015, Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, the Hubble constant and redshift-space distortions. We find that the interaction in the dark sector parameterized as an energy transfer from dark matter to dark energy is strongly suppressed by the whole updated cosmological data. On the other hand, an interaction between dark sectors with the energy flow from dark energy to dark matter is proved in better agreement with the available cosmological observations. This coupling between dark sectors is needed to alleviate the coincidence problem.

  6. Field-dependent spin chirality and frustration in V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets in transverse magnetic field. 2. Spin configurations, chirality and intermediate spin magnetization in distorted trimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Distorted spin configurations determine field behavior of the variable chiralities. • Distortions change spin chiralities, intermediate M 12 ± and staggered magnetization. • Magnetizations, distorted vector and scalar chiralities are strongly correlated. • Distorted V 3 , Cu 3 nanomagnets possess large vector chirality in the ground state in B ⊥ . • Chiralities and distortions in EPR, INS and NMR spectra were considered. - Abstract: Correlated spin configurations, magnetizations, frustration, vector κ ¯ z and scalar χ ¯ chiralities are considered for distorted V ‾ 3 , /Cu 3 / anisotropic DM nanomagnets in transverse B x ‖X and longitudinal B‖Z fields. Different planar configurations in the ground and excited states of distorted nanomagnets in B x determine different field behavior of the vector chiralities and the degenerate frustration in these states correlated with the M ~ 12 ± (B x ) intermediate spin (IS) magnetization which describes the S 12 characteristics, χ=0. Distortion results in the reduced κ ¯ z <1 chirality in the ground distorted configuration and in the maximum κ z =±1 in the excited states with the planar 120° configurations at avoided level crossing. In B‖Z, distorted longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the reduced degenerate frustration, out-of-plane staggered and IS M ~ 12 ± (B z ) magnetizations, and in-plane toroidal moments, correlated with the κ ¯ z , χ ¯ chiralities, χ ¯ =±|κ ¯ z |. The chiralities and IS magnetization in EPR, INS and NMR spectra are considered. The quantitative correlations describe variable spin chirality, frustration and field manipulation of chiralities in nanomagnets

  7. Pump-induced optical distortions in disk amplifier modules: holographic and interferometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Chau, H.H.; Glaze, J.A.; Layne, C.B.; Rainer, F.

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric measurements have been made of the optical distortions induced in laser disk amplifiers during the flashlamp pumping pulse. Both conventional interferometric methods and the techniques of double exposure holographic interferometry were used to identify four major sources of pump-induced optical distortions: subsonic intrusion of hot gas (traced to leakage of atmospheric oxygen into the amplifier), microexplosions of dust particles, thermally induced optical distortions in the glass disks, and gaseous optical distortion effects caused by turbulent flow of the purging nitrogen gas supply used within the laser amplifier head. Methods for reducing or eliminating the effects of each of these optical distortions are described

  8. On the relationship between perceptual impact of source and channel distortions in video sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Reiter, Ulrich; You, Junyong

    2010-01-01

    It is known that peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) can be used for assessing the relative qualities of distorted video sequences meaningfully only if the compared sequences contain similar types of distortions. In this paper, we propose a model for rough assessment of the bias in PSNR results, when...... video sequences with both channel and source distortion are compared against video sequences with source distortion only. The proposed method can be used to compare the relative perceptual quality levels of video sequences with different distortion types more reliably than using plain PSNR....

  9. System performance enhancement with pre-distorted OOFDM signal waveforms in DM/DD systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Capmany, J

    2014-03-24

    In this work we propose a pre-distortion technique for the mitigation of the nonlinear distortion present in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems and explore the system performance achieved under varying system parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed pre-distortion technique efficiently mitigates the nonlinear distortion, achieving transmission information rates around 40 Gbits/s and 18.5 Gbits/s over 40 km and 100 km of single mode fiber links, respectively, under optimum operating conditions. Moreover, the proposed pre-distortion technique can potentially provide higher system performance to that obtained with nonlinear equalization at the receiver.

  10. Latency and distortion of electromagnetic trackers for augmented reality systems

    CERN Document Server

    Himberg, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) systems are often used to superimpose virtual objects or information on a scene to improve situational awareness. Delays in the display system or inaccurate registration of objects destroy the sense of immersion a user experiences when using AR systems. AC electromagnetic trackers are ideal for these applications when combined with head orientation prediction to compensate for display system delays. Unfortunately, these trackers do not perform well in environments that contain conductive or ferrous materials due to magnetic field distortion without expensive calibration

  11. MRI, geometric distortion of the image and stereotaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derosier, C.; Delegue, G.; Munier, T.; Pharaboz, C.; Cosnard, G.

    1991-01-01

    The MRI technology may be the starting-point of geometric distortion. The mathematical preciseness of a spatial location may be disturbed and alter the guidance of a MRI interventional act, especially in stereotactic brain biopsy. A review of the literature shows errors of 1 to 1.5 mm. Our results show an error of 0.16±0.66. The control of quality: homogeneity and calibration of magnetic-field gradients, permit an improve of the ballistic preciseness and give permission to realize the guidance of a stereotactic brain biopsy with the alone MRI

  12. Optical distortions in electron/positron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Donald, M.; Servranckx, R.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the optical distortions in the PEP electron/positron storage ring for various optical configurations using the computer programs DIMAT, HARMON, PATRICIA, and TURTLE. The results are shown graphically by tracing several thousand trajectories from one interaction region to the next using TURTLE and by tracing a few selected rays several hundred turns using the programs DIMAT and PATRICIA. The results show an interesting correlation between the calculated optical cleanliness of a particular lattice configuration and the observed operating characteristics of the machine

  13. Spatial affects and imitations in OWS and Distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the notions of affect (Thrift 2008, Ash & Amin 2002, Anderson & Holden 2008) and imitation (Tarde 1903), the paper will discuss recent urban crowd movements. OWS has spread a global social activist movement using affective bodily means of communication, whereas Distortion is a cultural street festival taking...... manner. For instance, both crowds do not merely gather and organize in terms of verbal communication, rather they organize virally, visually and through bodily affects and imitation. In that sense they appropriate urban space and its architectural design ”like viruses that hop between people, thereby...

  14. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission at low frequencies in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig

    -frequency hearing has not yet been characterized by measurement of low-frequency emissions from the cochlea. Low-frequency emissions are expected to be covered in sounds of breathing, blood circulation, and so on, if they exist at all at measurable levels. The present study shows, in essence, that the human ear...... emits distortion at least 1-2 octaves lower in frequency than has previously been shown. The emission is promising for further exploratory and clinical assessment of cochlear activity associated with low-frequency hearing. Anders received his M.Sc. degree in acoustics in 2012 from Aalborg University...

  15. Luminosity Optimization With Offset, Crossing Angle, and Distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of beam jitter due to kicker noise, quadrupole vibration and long-range transverse wakefields will lead to beam offsets and tilts at the Intersection Point (IP). In addition, sources of emittance dilution such as short-range transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will lead to internal beam distortions. When the IP disruption parameter is large, these beam imperfections will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. In this paper, we study the luminosity loss and then the optimization required to cancel the luminosity loss first analytically and then with simulation.

  16. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.

    1992-07-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed

  17. Memory of AMR coded speech distorted by packet loss

    OpenAIRE

    Nykänen, Arne; Lindegren, David; Wruck, Louisa; Ljung, Robert; Odelius, Johan; Möller, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that free recall of spoken word lists is impaired if the speech is presented in background noise, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is kept at a level allowing full word identification. The objective of this study was to examine recall rates for word lists presented in noise and word lists coded by an AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) telephone codec distorted by packet loss. Twenty subjects performed a word recall test. Word lists consisting of ten words were played to th...

  18. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  19. An analytic distorted wave approximation for intermediate energy proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marzio, F.; Amos, K.

    1982-01-01

    An analytic Distorted Wave approximation has been developed for use in analyses of intermediate energy proton inelastic scattering from nuclei. Applications are made to analyse 402 and 800 MeV data from the isoscalar and isovector 1 + and 2 + states in 12 C and to the 800 MeV data from the excitation of the 2 - (8.88MeV) state in 16 O. Comparisons of predictions made using different model two-nucleon t-matrices and different models of nuclear structure are given

  20. Mirror distortion of the levels of a compound system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvalchenko, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of the action of an arbitrary perturbation on a system of two identical atoms in the radiation field is analyzed. For simplicity, only two-level atoms are considered, the field is assumed to be classical, and the spontaneous transitions are ignored. The polarizations are calculated for the open-quotes two atoms + fieldclose quotes and open-quotes two atoms + field + particleclose quotes systems. A comparison of the obtained relationships allows us to clarify the character of the level distortions caused by the external perturbation in the compound system. 10 refs

  1. Distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure of symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) are sounds produced by the healthy inner ear. They can be measured as low-level signals in the ear canal and are used to monitor the functioning of outer hair cells.Several studies indicate that OAE might be a more sensitive measure to detect early noise-induced hearing...... losses than puretone audiometry. The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) fine structure is obtained when the ear is stimulated by dual tone stimuli using a high frequency resolution. It is characterized by quasi-periodic variations across frequency, as it can be observed in the hearing...

  2. Assessing distorted trading incentives of balance responsible parties based on the example of the Swiss power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Marc; Haubensak, Oliver; Staake, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated. - Highlights: • We investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design. • Cross-border trading that undermines electricity balancing principles is evaluated. • Little effort is necessary to make a good profit at the expense of system security. • We examine historical data from the Swiss power system. • We outline remedies to limit the possibilities of profiting from potential loopholes.

  3. Simulation of stresses, residual stresses, and distortion in stepped cylinders of AISI 4140 due to martensitical hardening by immersion cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, M.; Mueller, H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Materials Science and Engineering I

    1999-09-01

    Heat treatment improves mechanical properties of steel parts, but also causes residual stresses and distortion. Stresses and deformation occurring during heat treatment can not be measured in-situ with appropriate temporal and spatial resolution. In order to evaluate the processes occurring in the workpiece during quenching as well as the residual stresses and distortions, numerical methods have to be used. Heat conduction, phase transformations, and mechanical behaviour of the material as well as the couplings between the processes such as transformation plasticity have to be modeled for the simulation of steel hardening. Temperature and phase dependent properties (including TTT-data) have to incorporated into calculations. One of the major factors determining the evolution of stress and deformation is the heat-transfer coefficient between component and quenching medium. For vapourizing liquids, heat transfer depends on temperature and location. But heat transfer is not only influenced by the quenchant but also by part geometry and size. Stepped cylinders of AISI 4140 steel were quenched in water and oil. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations were carried out. The variation of dive-in direction strongly influences the rewetting of the specimen surface and therefore the cooling behaviour, stress and deformation evolution, and resultant residual stresses and distortion. Excellent agreement is obtained between calculated and experimental results. (orig.)

  4. Characterization, prediction, and correction of geometric distortion in 3 T MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Lesley N.; Wachowicz, Keith; Thomas, Steven D.; Rivest, Ryan; Gino Fallone, B.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented herein describes our methods and results for predicting, measuring and correcting geometric distortions in a 3 T clinical magnetic resonance (MR) scanner for the purpose of image guidance in radiation treatment planning. Geometric inaccuracies due to both inhomogeneities in the background field and nonlinearities in the applied gradients were easily visualized on the MR images of a regularly structured three-dimensional (3D) grid phantom. From a computed tomography scan, the locations of just under 10 000 control points within the phantom were accurately determined in three dimensions using a MATLAB-based computer program. MR distortion was then determined by measuring the corresponding locations of the control points when the phantom was imaged using the MR scanner. Using a reversed gradient method, distortions due to gradient nonlinearities were separated from distortions due to inhomogeneities in the background B 0 field. Because the various sources of machine-related distortions can be individually characterized, distortions present in other imaging sequences (for which 3D distortion cannot accurately be measured using phantom methods) can be predicted negating the need for individual distortion calculation for a variety of other imaging sequences. Distortions were found to be primarily caused by gradient nonlinearities and maximum image distortions were reported to be less than those previously found by other researchers at 1.5 T. Finally, the image slices were corrected for distortion in order to provide geometrically accurate phantom images

  5. Perovskite LaPbMSbO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni): Structural distortion, magnetic and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yijia [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 49 Aimin Street, Hohhot 010051 (China); Han, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049 (China); Liu, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxjuan@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); Deng, Xiaolong [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049 (China); Wu, Xiaojie [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); Yao, Chuangang; Liang, Qingshuang; Meng, Junling [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2014-09-15

    The B-site ordered double perovskite oxides LaPbMSbO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni) have been synthesized via the modified Sol–Gel precursor two-step route. Rietveld refinements reveal strong abnormal structural distortion and BO{sub 6} octahedral deformation appearing along the ab plane. Owing to the cooperative Jahn–Teller effect of Co{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions, the Co-related compound exhibits almost complete Co{sup 2+}–Sb{sup 5+} order. For magnetic properties, spin-canted antiferromagnetic state with high extent of magnetic frustration is confirmed. The Ni-related compound presents heavier magnetic frustration for introducing tiny disorder on site occupation accompanied with valence state and further enhancing the complexity of magnetic competition. Dielectric measurements present a considerable temperature dependent dielectric relaxation with great dc-like loss feature in the LaPbCoSbO{sub 6}. For LaPbNiSbO{sub 6}, however, the permittivity with low dielectric loss is shown to be insensitive to either temperature or frequency. The corresponding electronic active energy manifests that the weakly bounded 3d-electron is prone to hop in a more distorted Co–Sb sublattice. - Graphical abstract: XRD Rietveld refinement result of LaPbCoSbO{sub 6} presented a large BO{sub 6} octahedral distortion along the ab plane. Based upon the variations from Co–O–Sb bond angles, a fierce competition from many extended magnetic coupling routes (M–O–O–M) would induce a considerably large magnetic frustration and electron hopping restriction. - Highlights: • Highly ordered LaPbMSbO{sub 6} (M=Co, Ni) were synthesized. • Abnormal structural distortion appeared in the ab plane. • Strong magnetic frustration was confirmed via M{sup 2+}–O–O–M{sup 2+} route. • Dielectric measurements presented a large difference between Co and Ni samples. • 3d-electronic structure determines lattice distortion and physical properties.

  6. Theoretical study on onset of cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencovský, Václav; Vetešník, Aleš

    2018-05-01

    The distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are generated when the cochlea is stimulated by two pure tones with different frequencies f1 and f2. Onset of the DPOAE amplitude may have a nonmonotonic complex shape when the f2 is pulsed during a stationary f1 input. Observed complexities have been explained as (1) due to the secondary source of the DPOAE at the distortion product (DP) characteristic site, and (2) due to the spatial distribution of DP sources with different phases. There is also a third possibility that the complexities are due to the suppression of the f1 basilar membrane (BM) response during the f2 onset. In this study, a hydrodynamic cochlea model is used to examine influence of f1 suppression on the time course of DPOAE onset. In particular, a set of simulations was performed for frequency ratio f2/f1 = 1.26 and various levels of the primary tones (L1 and L2=30-70 dB SPL) to determine the relationship between time dependencies of the DPOAE onset and the suppression of the f1 BM response. The model predicts that suppression of the f1 BM response can cause suppression of DPOAE amplitude during the onset period.

  7. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - II: Suggested solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    In Part I of this report we developed analytical expressions which represent exactly the energy density spectra of ''digitization processes'' that are essentially involved in spectral analysis of continuous signals. Besides, we related the spectral energy density of each digitization process to the parameters of the exact spectral energy density of the corresponding signal. On this basis, we briefly discussed the forms of distortions (or false structures) which are present in normally computed power spectra when the corresponding spectra of the digitization processes are not sufficiently decoupled from or nullified in the computed spectra. The biggest worry with regard to these distortions is not only that they may mask the actual information contained in the original signal, but also they may tempt the researcher to establish false characteristics about the signal involved. It is, in this context, that any reasonable method that could be used (even conditionally) to pinpoint false structures in computed power spectra would be both timely and useful. A simple, handy guidance through which some portions of computed energy density spectra which are dominated by the false structures mentioned above, can be located is presented herein. Equations are presented which give the various frequencies at which false peaks may be located in such ''contaminated'' portions of computed energy density spectra. The occurrence of frequency shifts in computed power spectra is also briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie, E-mail: hamaus@usm.lmu.de, E-mail: cousinou@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pisani@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: maubert@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: escoffier@cppm.in2p3.fr, E-mail: jochen.weller@usm.lmu.de [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, 163 avenue de Luminy, F-13288, Marseille (France)

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h {sup −1}Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599{sup +0.134}{sub −0.124} and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457{sup +0.056}{sub −0.054}, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.

  9. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Weller, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h-1Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β(bar z=0.32)=0.599+0.134-0.124 and β(bar z=0.54)=0.457+0.056-0.054, with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at bar z=0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15

  10. The magnetic-distortion probe: velocimetry in conducting fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Sophie; Verhille, Gautier; Plihon, Nicolas; Pinton, Jean-François

    2011-09-01

    A new type of velocimeter, capable of local velocity measurements in conducting fluids, is introduced. The principle of the "magnetic-distortion probe" is based on the measurement of the induced magnetic field by the flow of a conducting fluid in the vicinity of a localized magnetic field. The new velocimeter has no moving parts, and can be enclosed in a sealed cap, easing the implementation in harsh environments, such as liquid metals. The proposed method allows one to probe both the continuous part and fluctuations of the velocity, the temporal and spatial resolution being linked to the actual geometric configuration of the probe. A prototype probe has been tested in a gallinstan pipe flow and in a fully turbulent flow of liquid gallium generated by the counter rotation of two coaxial impellers in a cylinder. The signals have been compared to a reference potential probe and show very good agreement both for time-averaged velocities and turbulent fluctuations. The prototype is shown to detect motion from a few cm s(-1) to a few m s(-1). Moreover, the use of the magnetic-distortion probe with large-scale applied magnetic field is discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Vertical dispersion produced by random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical dispersion appears even in a machine designed with plane symmetry because of vertical closed orbit distortions, linear coupling and coupling due to sextupoles. This gives rise to several undesirable effects in an electron-positron storage ring such as PEP. Vertical dispersion at the interaction point will increase beam height and reduce luminosity. Vertical dispersion around the ring will modify vertical emittance and partition numbers for synchrotron radiation damping. It will also induce betatron-synchrotron resonance and affect chromaticity correction. Vertical dispersion due to random closed orbit distortions and sextupoles has been studied by Piwinski, and he has indicated that correction of chromaticity and chromatic change of β-function is important. However, he has assumed one error element and evaluated the dispersion at the position of the element. We generalize his argument to a more realistic case and derive more precise criteria for the correction of vertical dispersion. Horizontal dispersion due to perturbations is also studied. Vertical dispersion due to linear coupling is neglected in this note, since it has been studied by other authors. 7 refs

  12. Optical technique to measure distortion on heat treated parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Federico Mariano

    The use of aluminum for structural applications grows with the continual improvement of their physical properties. Through the various amounts of heat treatments that are available, aluminum can vary in properties for all different types of applications. The automotive industry has benefited the most from the use of aluminum and they continue to seek more uses. The heat treatments of these parts are very vital in providing the properties needed for their particular applications. Moreover understanding the effects of heat treatments that may cause distortion to a part is critical. Most of the work carried out in this field is a pre and post measurement after part has experienced its treatment. In this study, we carry out in-situ measurements of the distortions that a heat-treated part undergoes when subjected to temperatures near melting followed by a slow cooling. In order to confirm the experimental measurements we used HOTPOINT to simulate the experiment and compare results. This study will provide much needed insight to the complex occurrences that aluminum parts undergo during heat treatment.

  13. Distortion and regulation characterization of a Mapham inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Richard C.; Brush, Andrew S.; Button, Robert M.; Patterson, Alexander G.

    1989-01-01

    Output voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of a 20kHz, 6kVA Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a function of its switching-to-resonant frequency ratio, f sub s/f sub r, using the EASY5 engineering analysis system. EASY5 circuit simulation results are compared with hardware test results to verify the accuracy of the simulations. The effects of load on the THD versus f sub s/f sub r ratio is investigated for resistive, leading, and lagging power factor load impedances. The effect of the series output capacitor on the Mapham inverter output voltage distortion and inherent load regulation is characterized under loads of various power factors and magnitudes. An optimum series capacitor value which improves the inherent load regulation to better than 3 percent is identified. The optimum series capacitor value is different than the value predicted from a modeled frequency domain analysis. An explanation is proposed which takes into account the conduction overlap in the inductor pairs during steady-state inverter operation, which decreases the effective inductance of a Mapham inverter. A fault protection and current limit method is discussed which allows the Mapham inverter to operate into a short circuit, even when the inverter resonant circuit becomes overdamped.

  14. Multipole analysis of redshift-space distortions around cosmic voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaus, Nico; Weller, Jochen; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Pisani, Alice; Aubert, Marie; Escoffier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive redshift-space distortion analysis based on cosmic voids in the large-scale distribution of galaxies observed with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To this end, we measure multipoles of the void-galaxy cross-correlation function and compare them with standard model predictions in cosmology. Merely considering linear-order theory allows us to accurately describe the data on the entire available range of scales and to probe void-centric distances down to about 2 h −1 Mpc. Common systematics, such as the Fingers-of-God effect, scale-dependent galaxy bias, and nonlinear clustering do not seem to play a significant role in our analysis. We constrain the growth rate of structure via the redshift-space distortion parameter β at two median redshifts, β( z-bar =0.32)=0.599 +0.134 −0.124 and β( z-bar =0.54)=0.457 +0.056 −0.054 , with a precision that is competitive with state-of-the-art galaxy-clustering results. While the high-redshift constraint perfectly agrees with model expectations, we observe a mild 2σ deviation at z-bar =0.32, which increases to 3σ when the data is restricted to the lowest available redshift range of 0.15< z <0.33.

  15. [Distorted cognition of bodily sensations in subtypes of social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.

  16. The UV Plasmonic Behavior of Distorted Rhodium Nanocubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Gutiérrez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For applications of surface-enhanced spectroscopy and photocatalysis, the ultraviolet (UV plasmonic behavior and charge distribution within rhodium nanocubes is explored by a detailed numerical analysis. The strongest plasmonic hot-spots and charge concentrations are located at the corners and edges of the nanocubes, exactly where they are the most spectroscopically and catalytically active. Because intense catalytic activity at corners and edges will reshape these nanoparticles, distortions of the cubical shape, including surface concavity, surface convexity, and rounded corners and edges, are also explored to quantify how significantly these distortions deteriorate their plasmonic and photocatalytic properties. The fact that the highest fields and highest carrier concentrations occur in the corners and edges of Rh nanocubes (NCs confirms their tremendous potential for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy and catalysis. It is shown that this opportunity is fortuitously enhanced by the fact that even higher field and charge concentrations reside at the interface between the metal nanoparticle and a dielectric or semiconductor support, precisely where the most chemically active sites are located.

  17. Interliminal Design: Understanding cognitive heuristics to mitigate design distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCollough

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive heuristics are mental shortcuts adapted over time to enable rapid interpretation of our complex environment. They are intrinsic to human cognition and resist modification. Heuristics applied outside the context to which they are best suited are termed cognitive bias, and are the cause of systematic errors in judgment and reasoning. As both a cognitive and intuitive discipline, design by individuals is vulnerable to context-inappropriate heuristic usage. Designing in groups can act positively to counterbalance these tendencies, but is subject to heuristic misuse and biases particular to social environments. Mismatch between desired and actual outcomes– termed here, design distortion – occurs when such usage goes unnoticed and unaddressed, and can affect multiple dimensions of a system. We propose a methodology, interliminal design, emerging from the Program in Collaborative Design at Pacific Northwest College of Art, to specifically address the influence of cognitive heuristics in design. This adaptive approach involves reflective, dialogic, inquiry-driven practices intended to increase awareness of heuristic usage, and identify aspects of the design process vulnerable to misuse on both individual and group levels. By facilitating the detection and mitigation of potentially costly errors in judgment and decision-making that create distortion, such metacognitive techniques can meaningfully improve design.

  18. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence induced optical wavefront distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Travis Shane

    1999-11-01

    Many creative approaches have been taken in the past for simulating the effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams. Most of the experimental architectures have been complicated and consisted of many optical elements as well as moving components. These techniques have shown a modicum of success; however, they are not completely controllable or predictable. A benchtop technique for experimentally producing one important effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams (phase distortion) is presented here. The system is completely controllable and predictable while accurately representing the statistical nature of the problem. Previous experimentation in optical processing through turbulent media has demonstrated that optical wavefront distortions can be produced via spatial light modulating (SLM) devices, and most turbulence models and experimental results indicate that turbulence can be represented as a phase fluctuation. The amplitude distributions in the resulting far field are primarily due to propagation of the phase. Operating a liquid crystal television (LCTV) in the ``phase- mostly'' mode, a phase fluctuation type model for turbulence is utilized in the present investigation, and a real-time experiment for demonstrating the effects was constructed. For an optical system to simulate optical wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence, the following are required: (1)An optical element that modulates the phasefront of an optical beam (2)A model and a technique for generating spatially correlated turbulence simulating distributions (3)Hardware and software for displaying and manipulating the information addressing the optical phase modulation device The LCTV is ideal for this application. When operated in the ``phase-mostly'' mode some LCTVs can modulate the phasefront of an optical beam by as much as 2π and an algorithm for generating spatially correlated phase screens can be constructed via mathematical modeling software such as

  19. Subcycle dynamics of Coulomb asymmetry in strong elliptical laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Yunquan; Liu, Hong; Ning, Qicheng; Fu, Libin; Liu, Jie; Deng, Yongkai; Wu, Chengyin; Peng, Liang-You; Peng, Liangyou; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-07-12

    We measure photoelectron angular distributions of noble gases in intense elliptically polarized laser fields, which indicate strong structure-dependent Coulomb asymmetry. Using a dedicated semiclassical model, we have disentangled the contribution of direct ionization and multiple forward scattering on Coulomb asymmetry in elliptical laser fields. Our theory quantifies the roles of the ionic potential and initial transverse momentum on Coulomb asymmetry, proving that the small lobes of asymmetry are induced by direct ionization and the strong asymmetry is induced by multiple forward scattering in the ionic potential. Both processes are distorted by the Coulomb force acting on the electrons after tunneling. Lowering the ionization potential, the relative contribution of direct ionization on Coulomb asymmetry substantially decreases and Coulomb focusing on multiple rescattering is more important. We do not observe evident initial longitudinal momentum spread at the tunnel exit according to our simulation.

  20. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  1. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  2. Crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analyses of bis-[N,N-bis-(2-meth-oxy-eth-yl)di-thio-carbamato-κ2S,S']di-n-butyl-tin(IV) and [N-(2-meth-oxy-eth-yl)-N-methyl-dithio-carbamato-κ2S,S']tri-phenyl-tin(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Rapidah; Awang, Normah; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2018-03-01

    The crystal and mol-ecular structures of the two title organotin di-thio-carbamate compounds, [Sn(C 4 H 9 ) 2 (C 7 H 14 NO 2 S 2 ) 2 ], (I), and [Sn(C 6 H 5 ) 3 (C 5 H 10 NOS 2 )], (II), are described. Both structures feature asymmetrically bound di-thio-carbamate ligands leading to a skew-trapezoidal bipyramidal geometry for the metal atom in (I) and a distorted tetra-hedral geometry in (II). The complete mol-ecule of (I) is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis (Sn site symmetry 2). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules self-assemble into a supra-molecular array parallel to (10-1) via methyl-ene-C-H⋯O(meth-oxy) inter-actions. In the crystal of (II), supra-molecular dimers are formed via pairs of weak phenyl-C-H⋯π(phen-yl) contacts. In each of (I) and (II), the specified assemblies connect into a three-dimensional architecture without directional inter-actions between them. Hirshfeld surface analyses confirm the importance of H⋯H contacts in the mol-ecular packing of each of (I) and (II), and in the case of (I), highlight the importance of short meth-oxy-H⋯H(but-yl) contacts between layers.

  3. Does energy-price regulation benefit China's economy and environment? Evidence from energy-price distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Keyi; Su, Bin; Zhou, Dequn; Wu, Junmin

    2017-01-01

    China's energy prices have long been regulated due to the critical role energy plays in economic growth and social development, which leads to energy-price distortion to some extent. To figure out whether energy-price regulations will benefit China's economy (measured by GDP growth) and environment (measured by carbon emissions), we conducted an in-depth simulation using path analysis, where five energy products (natural gas, gasoline, fuel oil, steam coal, and coking coal) are selected and three measurements (absolute, relative, and moving) of energy-price distortions are calculated. The results indicate that, with a series of energy pricing policies, the price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed, while the energy pricing system in China is not fully market-oriented yet. Furthermore, China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions, while the absolute distortions of energy prices have negative impacts on economic growth. Finally, with regard to the environment, carbon emissions call for fewer distortions. - Highlights: • Price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed. • Energy pricing system in China is not yet fully market-oriented. • China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions. • Absolute distortions of energy prices have negative effects on economic growth. • Carbon emissions call for less pricing distortions.

  4. An Iterative Optimization Algorithm for Lens Distortion Correction Using Two-Parameter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santana-Cedrés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for the automatic estimation of two-parameter radial distortion models, considering polynomial as well as division models. The method first detects the longest distorted lines within the image by applying the Hough transform enriched with a radial distortion parameter. From these lines, the first distortion parameter is estimated, then we initialize the second distortion parameter to zero and the two-parameter model is embedded into an iterative nonlinear optimization process to improve the estimation. This optimization aims at reducing the distance from the edge points to the lines, adjusting two distortion parameters as well as the coordinates of the center of distortion. Furthermore, this allows detecting more points belonging to the distorted lines, so that the Hough transform is iteratively repeated to extract a better set of lines until no improvement is achieved. We present some experiments on real images with significant distortion to show the ability of the proposed approach to automatically correct this type of distortion as well as a comparison between the polynomial and division models.

  5. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  6. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - I: General formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    When a continuous signal f(t) is digitized and then spectrally analysed, the resultant energy spectral density R(ω) is given as R(ω) = |F(ω) * D(ω)| 2 , where F(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of f(t), D(ω) is the exact Fourier transform of the digitization process and * denotes convolution operation. A notable practical problem in spectral analysis is how to adequately decouple D(ω) from R(ω) and hence obtain the exact energy spectral density of f(t), i.e. |F(ω)| 2 , since R(ω) → |F(ω)| 2 only if D(ω) → delta(ω) or (under certain conditions) when D(ω) → delta(ω-ω 0 ) or if D(ω) → Σsub(n) delta(ω-ωsub(n)), where the latter is a sufficiently spaced series of delta functions and ωsub(j) is constant for a given j. A solution to this problem requires, among others, thorough understanding of D(ω), how it relates to F(ω) and hence the manner or degree to which D(ω) distorts or contaminates F(ω) to form R(ω). In this paper, we have developed exact analytical expressions of D(ω) that are well related to the corresponding F(ω) in the cases when f(t) is a simple sinusoid as well as when it is in the form of a more complex function. It is established that in either of these cases, D(ω) is a clear function of the salient parameters of both f(t) and F(ω). The contents of this paper are used in Part II to examine the manner and extent to which D(ω) causes distortions in R(ω) under given conditions, and also to establish a procedure by which such distortions may be decoupled from a practically computed R(ω). Other related issues such as frequency shifts in computed power spectra are also discussed therein. (author)

  7. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  8. Effects of Visual Feedback Distortion on Gait Adaptation: Comparison of Implicit Visual Distortion Versus Conscious Modulation on Retention of Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Ogilvie, Mitchell; Shimabukuro, Nathan; Stewart, Trevor; Shin, Joon-Ho

    2015-09-01

    Visual feedback can be used during gait rehabilitation to improve the efficacy of training. We presented a paradigm called visual feedback distortion; the visual representation of step length was manipulated during treadmill walking. Our prior work demonstrated that an implicit distortion of visual feedback of step length entails an unintentional adaptive process in the subjects' spatial gait pattern. Here, we investigated whether the implicit visual feedback distortion, versus conscious correction, promotes efficient locomotor adaptation that relates to greater retention of a task. Thirteen healthy subjects were studied under two conditions: (1) we implicitly distorted the visual representation of their gait symmetry over 14 min, and (2) with help of visual feedback, subjects were told to walk on the treadmill with the intent of attaining the gait asymmetry observed during the first implicit trial. After adaptation, the visual feedback was removed while subjects continued walking normally. Over this 6-min period, retention of preserved asymmetric pattern was assessed. We found that there was a greater retention rate during the implicit distortion trial than that of the visually guided conscious modulation trial. This study highlights the important role of implicit learning in the context of gait rehabilitation by demonstrating that training with implicit visual feedback distortion may produce longer lasting effects. This suggests that using visual feedback distortion could improve the effectiveness of treadmill rehabilitation processes by influencing the retention of motor skills.

  9. Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  10. Spectral distortion due to scattered cold neutrons in beryllium filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yukio; Inoue, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Polycrystalline beryllium filters are used to discriminate the cold neutrons from the thermal neutrons with energies above Bragg cut-off energy. The cold neutron scattering cross section is very small, but the remaining cross section is not zero. Then the neutrons scattered once from the filter in the cold neutron energy region have chance of impinging on the outlet of filter. Those neutrons are almost upscattered and develop into thermal neutrons; thus the discriminated cold neutrons include a small spectral distortion due to the thermal neutrons. In the present work we have evaluated the effect on the cold neutron spectrum due to the repeatedly scattered and transmitted neutrons by using a Monte Carlo calculation method. (author)

  11. Orbit and Optics Distortion in a Nonscaling Muon FFAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    Finite chromaticity in a nonscaling FFAG makes transverse tunes move during acceleration. Particles have to cross many integer and half-integer resonances although all those tunes are imperfection ones. Plausible argument is that the acceleration is so fast that effects of those resonance crossings are marginal. We did a tracking study in a lattice with alignment and gradient errors to see how the orbit and optics distortion is excited. We found that in a time scale of the muon acceleration, namely total tune changes about one unit per turn, the resonance is not a proper way to describe the beam dynamics. Instead, a random walk model, in which we assume that alignment and gradient errors kick a particle randomly in phase space, well explains the tracking results

  12. Distorted wave method in reactions with composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.; Teplov, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    The work deals with the distorbed wave method with a finite radius of interaction (DWBAFR) as applied to quantitative analysis of direct nuclear reactions with composite particles (including heavy ions) considering the reaction mechanisms other than the cluster stripping mechanism, in particular the exchange processes. The accurate equations of the distorbed-wave method in the three-body problem and the general formula dor calculating differential cross-sections of arbitrary binary reactions by DWBAFR are presented. Accurate and approximate methods allowing for finite interaction radius are discussed. Two main versions of exact account of recoil effects: separation of variables in wave functions of relative motion of particles and in interaction potentials and separation of variables in distorted waves are analysed. Given is a characteristic of the known calculated programs approximately and exactly taking account of recoil effects for direct and exchange processes [ru

  13. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M

    2010-01-01

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  14. Process induced residual stresses and distortions in pultrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Nielsen, Michael Wenani

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a coupled 3D transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis together with a 2D plane strain Lagrangian mechanical analysis of the pultrusion process, which has not been considered until now, is carried out. The development of the process induced residual stresses and strains...... together with the distortions are predicted during the pultrusion in which the cure hardening instantaneous linear elastic (CHILE) approach is implemented. At the end of the process, tension stresses prevail for the inner region of the composite since the curing rate is higher here as compared to the outer...... regions where compression stresses are obtained. The separation between the heating die and the part due to shrinkage is also investigated using a mechanical contact formulation at the die-part interface. The proposed approach is found to be efficient and fast for the calculation of the residual stresses...

  15. Image distortion due to refraction by planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arizaga, R; Cap, N; Rabal, H; Trivi, M [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC) and OPTIMO Dto de Ciencias Basicas, Fac. de Ingenieria UNLP, PO Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    The term 'apparent depth' is commonly treated in textbooks as an issue easily understandable from the point of view of paraxial optical geometrical optics. Nevertheless, everyday life tells us that most of the time the observation of objects immersed in water is made under a great range of visual angles where the paraxial approximation is not valid. Here we developed a non-paraxial treatment to calculate the position and shape of the image of objects immersed in liquids of different refractive indices. The approach was focused on the parametric positions of the images of a single point at different viewing angles. Then we calculated how the image of an extended object is distorted. By using the Matlab software, it is possible to visualize the images for different geometrical conditions. We also include the analysis for refractive index with negative values as is the case of metamaterials.

  16. Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.

    1997-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. The correlation algorithm on the basis of hodograph distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Results are given from studying the distortion of seismic temporary fields. From the examined distributions: of the normal, Student-t-distribution with two degrees of freedom and a mix of two normal distributions they are best described as a mix of normal distributions. Starting from this, a more precise criterion of correlating seismic waves is proposed. The effectiveness of this criterion is studied on modal material within the limits of a two-stage method for solving correlation problems consisting of a preliminary trace and search for related correlation variants. Practical use of the criterion makes it possible to increase the reliability of automatic correlation and, subsequently, to increase the accuracy of the final results of the seismic investigations.

  18. Closed orbit distortion and the beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J.; Kozanecki, W.; Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V.

    1992-01-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for the SLAC/LBL/LLNL B factory, PEP-II. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the IP, provide distinct coordinate- or frequency-space signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed

  19. Asymmetric Hardware Distortions in Receive Diversity Systems: Outage Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah; Amin, Osama; Ikki, Salama S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of asymmetric hardware distortion (HWD) on the performance of receive diversity systems using linear and switched combining receivers. The asymmetric attribute of the proposed model motivates the employment of improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme rather than the traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. The achievable rate performance is analyzed for the ideal and non-ideal hardware scenarios using PGS and IGS transmission schemes for different combining receivers. In addition, the IGS statistical characteristics are optimized to maximize the achievable rate performance. Moreover, the outage probability performance of the receive diversity systems is analyzed yielding closed form expressions for both PGS and IGS based transmission schemes. HWD systems that employ IGS is proven to efficiently combat the self interference caused by the HWD. Furthermore, the obtained analytic expressions are validated through Monte-Carlo simulations. Eventually, non-ideal hardware transceivers degradation and IGS scheme acquired compensation are quantified through suitable numerical results.

  20. New Geometric-distortion Solution for STIS FUV-MAMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, S. Tony

    2018-04-01

    We derived a new geometric distortion solution for the STIS FUV-MAMA detector. To do this, positions of stars in 89 FUV-MAMA observations of NGC 6681 were compared to an astrometric standard catalog created using WFC3/UVIS imaging data to derive a fourth-order polynomial solution that transforms raw (x, y) positions to geometrically- corrected (x, y) positions. When compared to astrometric catalog positions, the FUV- MAMA position measurements based on the IDCTAB showed residuals with an RMS of ∼ 30 mas in each coordinate. Using the new IDCTAB, the RMS is reduced to ∼ 4 mas, or 0.16 FUV-MAMA pixels, in each coordinate. The updated IDCTAB is now being used in the HST STIS pipeline to process all STIS FUV-MAMA images.

  1. Financial Indicators of Performance Measurement: Reality, Relevance and Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius-Andrei Guinea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main criticism brought to managers and to managerial accounting systems was the lack of emphasis on the return of the use of invested capital and the excessive focus on the efficiency of production processes. This fact forced the transition to a new view on the way of establishing the strategic objectives measured by financial indicators. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, through case studies, the relevance and possibilities of manipulation of a series of indicators used for assessing performance: return on investment, residual profit, economic added value, commercial profitability. The relativity and the criticized appraisal of performance only through the means of profit were thought to be solved by implementing other indicators that would link several ingredients of profitability. The conclusions highlight that the remedy promoted by the new sets of financial indicators imposes a considerable cost, represented by the temptation of information distortion.

  2. Modeling Macroscopic Shape Distortions during Sintering of Multi-layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    as to help achieve defect free multi-layer components. The initial thickness ratio between the layers making the multi-layer has also significant effect on the extent of camber evolution depending on the material systems. During sintering of tubular bi-layer structures, tangential (hoop) stresses are very...... large compared to radial stresses. The maximum value of hoop stress, which can generate processing defects such as cracks and coating peel-offs, occurs at the beginning of the sintering cycle. Unlike most of the models defining material properties based on porosity and grain size only, the multi...... (firing). However, unintended features like shape instabilities of samples, cracks or delamination of layers may arise during sintering of multi-layer composites. Among these defects, macroscopic shape distortions in the samples can cause problems in the assembly or performance of the final component...

  3. Over-exposure effects on the distortion product otoacoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen

    , however. In the present study it was investigated, whether Distortion Product OtoAcoustic Emission (DPOAE) parameters exist, which indicate the early stage of a hearing loss. DPOAE was obtained with high frequency resolution, and its characteristic spectral fine structure was analyzed. Data of subjects...... belonging to different groups of age and exposure history were obtained and compared. Controlled sound/ noise exposure experiments were performed to observe changes in DPOAE characteristics. The DPOAE of all tested subjects feature the typical fine structure pattern. The fine structure pattern is highly...... individual and stable over time. No unequivocal relation between the characteristics of the DPOAE fine structure and the state of hearing could be found. It is suggested to eliminate the DPOAE fine structure in the DPOAE measurement and to establish a reference zero from a large amount of DPOAE data...

  4. Improvements on Semi-Classical Distorted-Wave model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weili; Watanabe, Y.; Kuwata, R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Kohno, M.; Ogata, K.; Kawai, M.

    1998-03-01

    A method of improving the Semi-Classical Distorted Wave (SCDW) model in terms of the Wigner transform of the one-body density matrix is presented. Finite size effect of atomic nuclei can be taken into account by using the single particle wave functions for harmonic oscillator or Wood-Saxon potential, instead of those based on the local Fermi-gas model which were incorporated into previous SCDW model. We carried out a preliminary SCDW calculation of 160 MeV (p,p`x) reaction on {sup 90}Zr with the Wigner transform of harmonic oscillator wave functions. It is shown that the present calculation of angular distributions increase remarkably at backward angles than the previous ones and the agreement with the experimental data is improved. (author)

  5. Video quality pooling adaptive to perceptual distortion severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jincheol; Seshadrinathan, Kalpana; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2013-02-01

    It is generally recognized that severe video distortions that are transient in space and/or time have a large effect on overall perceived video quality. In order to understand this phenomena, we study the distribution of spatio-temporally local quality scores obtained from several video quality assessment (VQA) algorithms on videos suffering from compression and lossy transmission over communication channels. We propose a content adaptive spatial and temporal pooling strategy based on the observed distribution. Our method adaptively emphasizes "worst" scores along both the spatial and temporal dimensions of a video sequence and also considers the perceptual effect of large-area cohesive motion flow such as egomotion. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method by testing it using three different VQA algorithms on the LIVE Video Quality database and the EPFL-PoliMI video quality database.

  6. Asymmetric Hardware Distortions in Receive Diversity Systems: Outage Performance Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah

    2017-02-22

    This paper studies the impact of asymmetric hardware distortion (HWD) on the performance of receive diversity systems using linear and switched combining receivers. The asymmetric attribute of the proposed model motivates the employment of improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) scheme rather than the traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) scheme. The achievable rate performance is analyzed for the ideal and non-ideal hardware scenarios using PGS and IGS transmission schemes for different combining receivers. In addition, the IGS statistical characteristics are optimized to maximize the achievable rate performance. Moreover, the outage probability performance of the receive diversity systems is analyzed yielding closed form expressions for both PGS and IGS based transmission schemes. HWD systems that employ IGS is proven to efficiently combat the self interference caused by the HWD. Furthermore, the obtained analytic expressions are validated through Monte-Carlo simulations. Eventually, non-ideal hardware transceivers degradation and IGS scheme acquired compensation are quantified through suitable numerical results.

  7. Susceptibility to cognitive distortions: the role of eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Ouellet-Courtois, Catherine; Purdon, Christine; Steiger, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Thought-Shape Fusion (TSF) and Thought-Action Fusion (TAF) are cognitive distortions that are associated with eating and obsessional pathology respectively. Both involve the underlying belief that mere thoughts and mental images can lead to negative outcomes. TSF involves the belief that food-related thoughts lead to weight gain, body dissatisfaction, and perceptions of moral wrong-doing. TAF is more general, and involves the belief that merely thinking about a negative event (e.g., a loved one getting into a car accident) can make this event more likely to happen, and leads to perceptions of moral wrong-doing. However, the shared susceptibility across related cognitive distortions-TAF and TSF-has not yet been studied. The effects of TSF and TAF inductions in women with an eating disorder (n = 21) and a group of healthy control women with no history of an eating disorder (n = 23) were measured. A repeated-measures design was employed, with all participants exposed to a TSF, TAF and neutral induction during three separate experimental sessions. Participants' cognitive and behavioral responses were assessed. Individuals with eating disorders were more susceptible to TSF and TAF than were control participants, demonstrating more neutralization behavior after TSF and TAF inductions (i.e., actions to try to reduce the negative effects of the induction), and reporting higher levels of trait TAF and TSF than did controls. Individuals with eating disorders are particularly susceptible to both TAF and TSF. Clinical implications of these findings will be discussed.

  8. How emission certificate allocations distort fossil investments: The German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, Michael; Fan Lin; Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite political activities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, Germany currently sees a considerable number of new coal power plants being added to its power mix. There are several possible drivers for this 'dash for coal', but it is widely accepted that windfall profits gained through free allocation of ETS certificates play an important role. Yet the quantification of allocation-related investment distortions has been limited to back-of-the envelope calculations and stylized models so far. We close this gap with a numerical model integrating both Germany's particular allocation rules and its specific power generation structure. We find that technology specific new entrant provisions have substantially increased incentives to invest in hard coal plants red to natural gas at the time of the ETS onset. More precisely, disproportionate windfall profits compared more than half the total capital costs of a hard coal plant. Moreover, shorter periods of free allocations would not have turned investors' favours towards the cleaner natural gas technology because of pre-existing economic advantages for coal. In contrast, full auctioning of permits or a single best available technology benchmark would have made natural gas the predominant technology of choice. - Research highlights: → We study how early emission certificate allocations in Germany distort fossil investments. → We examine the role of windfall profits in the overall profitabilities of a new hard coal compared to a natural gas plant. → We find that technology specific grandfathering over any period does not induce a change in preferences away from hard coal. → Natural gas would have been preferred under auctioning or a technology neutral allocation though.

  9. Selecting Map Projections in Minimizing Area Distortions in GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Varioussoftware for Geographical Information Systems (GISs have been developed and used in many different engineering projects. In GIS applications, map coverage is important in terms of performing reliable and meaningful queries. Map projections can be conformal, equal-area and equidistant. The goal of an application plays an important role in choosing one of those projections. Choosing the equal-area projection for an application in which area information is used (forestry, agriculture, ecosystem etc reduces the amount of distortion on the area, but many users using GIS ignore this fact and continue to use applications with present map sheets no matter in what map projection it is. For example, extracting area information from data whose country system’s map sheet is in conformal projection is relatively more distorted, compared to an equal-area projection one. The goal of this study is to make the best decision in choosing the most proper equal-area projection among the choices provided by ArcGIS 9.0, which is a popular GIS software package, and making a comparison on area errors when conformal projection is used. In this study, the area of parcels chosen in three different regions and geographic coordinates and whose sizes vary between 0.01 to 1,000,000 ha are calculated according to Transversal Mercator (TM, 3°, Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM, 6° and 14 different equal-area projections existing in the ArcGIS 9.0 GIS software package. The parcel areas calculated with geographical coordinates are accepted as definite. The difference between the sizes calculated according to projection coordinates and real sizes of the parcels are determined. Consequently, the appropriate projections are decided for the areas smaller and equal than 1,000 ha and greater than 1,000 ha in the GIS software package.

  10. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission growth curves in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alves Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recording of otoacoustic emissions (OAE enabled us to prove that the cochlea is able not only to receive sounds but also to produce acoustic energy. Through the use of distortion-product otoacoustic emission measurements, the growth of the response was seen according to the intensity of the sound stimulus presented (growth curve. Objective: to determine the thresholds for the emergence of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE on frequencies of 2000 and 4000 Hz with a stimulus varying from 20 to 65dB SPL, and to establish the slope values obtained in the growth curves. Methods: 39 neonates aged 5 to 28 days without risk indicators of hearing loss were studied. The DPOAE growth curves were obtained on the frequencies from 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz with a level of intensity ranging from 20 to 65dB SPL divided into two paradigms (20 to 40dB SPL and 40-65dB SPL. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in the thresholds for the emergence of DPOAE depending on the criteria used. The thresholds were on average higher at 4000 Hz than 2000 Hz and the slope was higher on average at 2000 Hz than 4000 Hz, although not statistically significant in either case. Conclusion: the thresholds were on average 30dB SPL at 2000Hz and 35dB SPL at 4000Hz. The slope values varied between 3 and 4 on average, reaching 15 in some cases.

  11. Distortion of liquid film discharging from twin-fluid atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, C.; Sirignano, W. A.

    2001-11-01

    The nonlinear distortion and disintegration of a thin liquid film exiting from a two-dimensional twin-fluid atomizer is analyzed numerically. Pulsed gas jets impacting on both sides of the discharging liquid film at the atomizer exit generate dilational and/or sinuous deformations of the film. Both liquid phase and gas phase are inviscid and incompressible. For the liquid phase the so-called long-wavelength approximation is employed yielding a system of unsteady one-dimensional equations for the planar film. Solution of Laplace's equation for the velocity potential yields the gas-phase velocity field on both sides of the liquid stream. Coupling between both phases is described through kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at the phase interfaces, and includes the solution of the unsteady Bernoulli equation to determine the gas-phase pressure along the interfaces. Both gas- and liquid-phase equations are solved simultaneously. Solution of Laplace's equation for the gas streams is obtained by means of a boundary-element method. Numerical solutions for the liquid phase use the Lax-Wendroff method with Richtmyer splitting. Sheet distortion resulting from the stagnation pressure of the impacting gas jets and subsequent disturbance amplification due to Kelvin-Helmholtz effects are studied for various combinations of gas-pulse timing, gas-jet impact angles, gas-to-liquid-density ratio, liquid-phase Weber number and gas-jet-to-liquid-jet-momentum ratio. Dilational and sinuous oscillations of the liquid are examined and film pinch-off is predicted.

  12. Theoretical investigations of the local distortion and spectral properties for VO{sup 2+} in SiO{sub 2} glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mu-Neng; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Wu, Shao-Yi [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China). School of Physical Electronics

    2017-07-01

    The local distortions and the spin Hamiltonian parameters g factors g {sub parallel}, g {sub perpendicular} {sub to} and the hyperfine structure constants A {sub parallel} and A {sub perpendicular} {sub to} for isolated vanadyl ions VO{sup 2+} doped in SiO{sub 2} glass at 700 C are theoretically investigated from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d{sup 1} ion in tetragonally compressed octahedra. In these formulas, the relationships between local structure of VO{sup 2+} ions center and the tetragonal crystal field parameters are established. As a result, the distortion of the ligand octahedron is attributed to the strong axial crystal-fields associated with the short V{sup 4+}-O{sup 2-} bond due to the strong V=O bonding in the silica matrix. The theoretical spin Hamiltonian parameters obtained in this work show reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Investigation of support vector machine for the detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Q; Shao, J; Ruiz, V

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images using support vector machine. Hausdorff dimension is used to characterise the texture feature of mammographic images. Support vector machine, a learning machine based on statistical learning theory, is trained through supervised learning to detect architectural distortion. Compared to the Radial Basis Function neural networks, SVM produced more accurate classification results in distinguishing architectural distortion abnormality from normal breast parenchyma

  14. Investigation of support vector machine for the detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Q [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom); Shao, J [Department of Electronics, University of Kent at Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom); Ruiz, V [Department of Cybernetics, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AY (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images using support vector machine. Hausdorff dimension is used to characterise the texture feature of mammographic images. Support vector machine, a learning machine based on statistical learning theory, is trained through supervised learning to detect architectural distortion. Compared to the Radial Basis Function neural networks, SVM produced more accurate classification results in distinguishing architectural distortion abnormality from normal breast parenchyma.

  15. Semiquantitative theory for high-field low-temperature properties of a distorted diamond spin chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Derzhko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a distorted diamond chain and use the localized-magnon picture adapted to a distorted geometry to discuss some of its high-field low-temperature properties. More specifically, in our study we assume that the partition function for a slightly distorted geometry has the same form as for ideal geometry, though with slightly dispersive one-magnon energies. We also discuss the relevance of such a description to azurite.

  16. The effect of redshift-space distortions on projected 2-pt clustering measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Nock, Kelly; Percival, Will J.; Ross, Ashley J.

    2010-01-01

    Although redshift-space distortions only affect inferred distances and not angles, they still distort the projected angular clustering of galaxy samples selected using redshift dependent quantities. From an Eulerian view-point, this effect is caused by the apparent movement of galaxies into or out of the sample. From a Lagrangian view-point, we find that projecting the redshift-space overdensity field over a finite radial distance does not remove all the anisotropic distortions. We investigat...

  17. Effect of pion external distortion on low energy pion double-charge-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khankhasaev, M.Kh.; Kurmanov, Zh.B.; Johnson, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the external pion distortion for iso-elastic charge exchange scattering (within the framework of the isospin invariant optical model) is considered. An approximated method of taking into account the distortion based on the separable expansion of the optical potential in momentum space is developed. The result of external distortions for sequential scattering 14 C(π + , π - ) 14 O at 50 MeV is presented. It is shown that this distortion gives a small enhancement to forward and reduced the differential cross sections at large angels. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. Tomosynthesis-detected Architectural Distortion: Management Algorithm with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Wang, Steven; Hooley, Regina J; Raghu, Madhavi; Philpotts, Liane E

    2016-01-01

    As use of digital breast tomosynthesis becomes increasingly widespread, new management challenges are inevitable because tomosynthesis may reveal suspicious lesions not visible at conventional two-dimensional (2D) full-field digital mammography. Architectural distortion is a mammographic finding associated with a high positive predictive value for malignancy. It is detected more frequently at tomosynthesis than at 2D digital mammography and may even be occult at conventional 2D imaging. Few studies have focused on tomosynthesis-detected architectural distortions to date, and optimal management of these distortions has yet to be well defined. Since implementing tomosynthesis at our institution in 2011, we have learned some practical ways to assess architectural distortion. Because distortions may be subtle, tomosynthesis localization tools plus improved visualization of adjacent landmarks are crucial elements in guiding mammographic identification of elusive distortions. These same tools can guide more focused ultrasonography (US) of the breast, which facilitates detection and permits US-guided tissue sampling. Some distortions may be sonographically occult, in which case magnetic resonance imaging may be a reasonable option, both to increase diagnostic confidence and to provide a means for image-guided biopsy. As an alternative, tomosynthesis-guided biopsy, conventional stereotactic biopsy (when possible), or tomosynthesis-guided needle localization may be used to achieve tissue diagnosis. Practical uses for tomosynthesis in evaluation of architectural distortion are highlighted, potential complications are identified, and a working algorithm for management of tomosynthesis-detected architectural distortion is proposed. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  19. Performance and Adaptive Surge-Preventing Acceleration Prediction of a Turboshaft Engine under Inlet Flow Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Dalu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to research the inlet flow distortion influence on overall performance of turboshaft engine and put forward a method called Distortion Factor Item (DFI to improve the fuel supply plan for surge-preventing acceleration when turboshaft engine suddenly encounters inlet flow distortion. Based on the parallel compressor theory, steady-state and transition-state numerical simulation model of turboshaft engine with sub-compressor model were established for researching the influence of inlet flow distortion on turboshaft engine. This paper made a detailed analysis on the compressor operation from the aspects of performance and stability, and then analyzed the overall performance and dynamic response of the whole engine under inlet flow distortion. Improved fuel supply plan with DFI method was applied to control the acceleration process adaptively when encountering different inlet flow distortion. Several simulation examples about extreme natural environments were calculated to testify DFI method’s environmental applicability. The result shows that the inlet flow distortion reduces the air inflow and decreases the surge margin of compressor, and increase the engine exhaust loss. Encountering inlet flow distortion has many adverse influences such as sudden rotor acceleration, turbine inlet temperature rise and power output reduction. By using improved fuel supply plan with DFI, turboshaft engine above-idle acceleration can avoid surge effectively under inlet flow distortion with environmental applicability.

  20. The role of visual similarity and memory in body model distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulton, Aurelie; Longo, Matthew R; Wong, Hong Yu; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have shown that the perception of one's own hand size is distorted in proprioceptive localization tasks. It has been suggested that those distortions mirror somatosensory anisotropies. Recent research suggests that non-corporeal items also show some spatial distortions. In order to investigate the psychological processes underlying the localization task, we investigated the influences of visual similarity and memory on distortions observed on corporeal and non-corporeal items. In experiment 1, participants indicated the location of landmarks on: their own hand, a rubber hand (rated as most similar to the real hand), and a rake (rated as least similar to the real hand). Results show no significant differences between rake and rubber hand distortions but both items were significantly less distorted than the hand. Experiments 2 and 3 explored the role of memory in spatial distance judgments of the hand, the rake and the rubber hand. Spatial representations of items measured in experiments 2 and 3 were also distorted but showed the tendency to be smaller than in localization tasks. While memory and visual similarity seem to contribute to explain qualitative similarities in distortions between the hand and non-corporeal items, those factors cannot explain the larger magnitude observed in hand distortions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Ubiquitous log odds: a common representation of probability and frequency distortion in perception, action and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In decision from experience, the source of probability information affects how probability is distorted in the decision task. Understanding how and why probability is distorted is a key issue in understanding the peculiar character of experience-based decision. We consider how probability information is used not just in decision making but also in a wide variety of cognitive, perceptual and motor tasks. Very similar patterns of distortion of probability/frequency information have been found in visual frequency estimation, frequency estimation based on memory, signal detection theory, and in the use of probability information in decision-making under risk and uncertainty. We show that distortion of probability in all cases is well captured as linear transformations of the log odds of frequency and/or probability, a model with a slope parameter and an intercept parameter. We then consider how task and experience influence these two parameters and the resulting distortion of probability. We review how the probability distortions change in systematic ways with task and report three experiments on frequency distortion where the distortions change systematically in the same task. We found that the slope of frequency distortions decreases with the sample size, which is echoed by findings in decision from experience. We review previous models of the representation of uncertainty and find that none can account for the empirical findings.

  2. High genetic differentiation between an African and a non-African strain of Drosophila simulans revealed by segregation distortion and reduced crossover frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuta, Haruki; Takano-Shimizu, Toshiyuki

    2009-11-01

    Drosophila simulans strains originating from Madagascar and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean often differ from those elsewhere in the number of sex comb teeth and the degree of morphological anomaly in hybrids with D. melanogaster. Here, we report a strong segregation distortion in the F1 intercross between two D. simulans strains originating from Madagascar and the US, possibly at both the gametic and zygotic levels. Strong bias against alleles of the Madagascar strain was observed for all ten marker loci distributed over the entire second chromosome in the F1 intercross, but only a few showed a weak distortion in the isogenic backgrounds of either strains. Significant deviations of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were consistently observed for the second chromosome. By contrast, the X and third chromosomes did not show any strong segregation distortion. Crossover frequency on the second chromosome was uniformly reduced in isogenic backgrounds whereas the map lengths in the F1 intercross were comparable to or larger than that of the standard D. melanogaster map. We discuss these findings in relation to previous studies on other traits and interspecific differences between D. mauritiana, which is endemic to Mauritius Island, and D. simulans.

  3. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  4. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  5. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  7. Effect of lattice distortion on uranium magnetic moments in U4Ru7Ge6 studied by polarized neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vališka, Michal; Klicpera, Milan; Doležal, Petr; Fabelo, Oscar; Stunault, Anne; Diviš, Martin; Sechovský, Vladimír

    2018-03-01

    In a cubic ferromagnet, small spontaneous lattice distortions are expected below the Curie temperature, but the phenomenon is usually neglected. This study focuses on such an effect in the U4Ru7Ge6 compound. Based on DFT calculations, we propose a lattice distortion from the cubic I m -3 m space group to a lower, rhombohedral, symmetry described by the R -3 m space group. The strong spin-orbit coupling of the uranium ions plays an essential role in lowering the symmetry, giving rise to two different U sites (U1 and U2). Using polarized neutron diffraction in applied magnetic fields of 1 and 9 T in the ordered state (1.9 K ) and in the paramagnetic state (20 K ), we bring convincing experimental evidence of this splitting of the U sites, with different magnetic moments. The data have been analyzed both by maximum entropy calculations and by a direct fit in the dipolar approximation. In the ordered phase, the μL/μS ratio of the orbital and spin moments on the U2 site is remarkably lower than for the free U3 + or U4 + ion, which points to a strong hybridization of the U 5 f wave functions with the 4 d wave functions of the surrounding Ru. On the U1 site, the μL/μS ratio exhibits an unexpectedly low value: the orbital moment is almost quenched, like in metallic α -uranium. As a further evidence of the 5 f -4 d hybridization in the U4Ru7Ge6 system, we observe the absence of a magnetic moment on the Ru1 site, but a rather large induced moment on the Ru2 site, which is in closer coordination with both U positions. Very similar results are obtained at 20 K in the ferromagnetic regime induced by the magnetic field of 9 T . This shows that applying a strong magnetic field above the Curie temperature also leads to the splitting of the uranium sites, which further demonstrates the intimate coupling of the magnetic ordering and structural distortion. We propose that the difference between the magnetic moment on the U1 and U2 sites results from the strong spin

  8. Wireless infrared indoor communications: how to combat the multipath distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkova, Svetla T.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2001-02-01

    12 Currently, higher and higher transmission speeds are being pursuit for wireless LANs. The present investigation deals with one of the most prospective candidates for high-speed in-house wireless communications, namely, Multi-Spot Diffusing Configuration (MSDC). Since it uses optical medium for data transmission, it possesses inherent potential for achieving very high capacity level. Channel characteristics in MSDC are simulated and the causes for channel distortion are analyzed. Then, conditions for creation of a virtually ideal channel are derived. It is shown that the 3 dB-channel bandwidth can be extended up to frequencies beyond 2 GHz. The large bandwidth comes at the cost of poor power efficiency. In order to compensate for this, a novel receiver optical front-end design is proposed and its performance is analyzed. Taking advantage of unique properties of holographic optical elements, conventional optical front-end consisting of a concentrator and a filter, is replaced by a single holographic curved mirror. Utilization of such a holographic optical element improves the signal-to-shot noise ratio by up to 18.5 dB.

  9. Distortion-Free Watermarking Approach for Relational Database Integrity Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancine Camara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet is becoming a suitable way of accessing the databases. Such data are exposed to various types of attack with the aim to confuse the ownership proofing or the content protection. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on fragile zero watermarking for the authentication of numeric relational data. Contrary to some previous databases watermarking techniques which cause some distortions in the original database and may not preserve the data usability constraints, our approach simply seeks to generate the watermark from the original database. First, the adopted method partitions the database relation into independent square matrix groups. Then, group-based watermarks are securely generated and registered in a trusted third party. The integrity verification is performed by computing the determinant and the diagonal’s minor for each group. As a result, tampering can be localized up to attribute group level. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is resilient against tuples insertion, tuples deletion, and attributes values modification attacks. Furthermore, comparison with recent related effort shows that our scheme performs better in detecting multifaceted attacks.

  10. Distorted Character Recognition Via An Associative Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Szu, Harold H.

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, it is intended to provide some preliminary results of a character recognition scheme which has foundations in on-going neural network architecture modeling, and secondly, to apply some of the neural network results in a real application area where thirty years of effort has had little effect on providing the machine an ability to recognize distorted objects within the same object class. It is the author's belief that the time is ripe to start applying in ernest the results of over twenty years of effort in neural modeling to some of the more difficult problems which seem so hard to solve by conventional means. The character recognition scheme proposed utilizes a preprocessing stage which performs a 2-dimensional Walsh transform of an input cartesian image field, then sequency filters this spectrum into three feature bands. Various features are then extracted and organized into three sets of feature vectors. These vector patterns that are stored and recalled associatively. Two possible associative neural memory models are proposed for further investigation. The first being an outer-product linear matrix associative memory with a threshold function controlling the strength of the output pattern (similar to Kohonen's crosscorrelation approach [1]). The second approach is based upon a modified version of Grossberg's neural architecture [2] which provides better self-organizing properties due to its adaptive nature. Preliminary results of the sequency filtering and feature extraction preprocessing stage and discussion about the use of the proposed neural architectures is included.

  11. Constraints in distortion-invariant target recognition system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Razzaque, Md A.

    2000-11-01

    Automatic target recognition (ATR) is a mature but active research area. In an earlier paper, we proposed a novel ATR approach for recognition of targets varying in fine details, rotation, and translation using a Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) Neural Network (NN). The proposed approach performed segmentation of multiple objects and the identification of the objects using LVQNN. In this current paper, we extend the previous approach for recognition of targets varying in rotation, translation, scale, and combination of all three distortions. We obtain the analytical results of the system level design to show that the approach performs well with some constraints. The first constraint determines the size of the input images and input filters. The second constraint shows the limits on amount of rotation, translation, and scale of input objects. We present the simulation verification of the constraints using DARPA's Moving and Stationary Target Recognition (MSTAR) images with different depression and pose angles. The simulation results using MSTAR images verify the analytical constraints of the system level design.

  12. Distortion, Messianism, and Apocalyptic Time in The Satanic Verses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Eisinger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Salman Rushdie’s novel The Satanic Verses presents its readers with a striking perspective on apocalypse. Taking place in the context of a modernist, migrant worldview, this apocalypse works to unsettle its participating characters by teaching them how to create a world in which they might someday belong. Though often defined as destructive, the apocalypse as I define it involves a reaching for or gesture towards the impossible, which the Verses achieves through massive temporal distortion. Linear time finds itself subverted; characters’ narratives speed up or slow down, forcing them to question their various adventures in 1980s London. Rushdie’s protagonist Saladin Chamcha re-grasps and reinvents his world; his other protagonist, Gibreel Farishta, does not. For one man, apocalypse becomes a means of empowerment; for another, it develops into a black hole. Unlike real black holes, however, Rushdie’s apocalypse does not kill all who venture into it, but instead stretches its hardiest entrants both emotionally and intellectually before dropping them into a new universe. Apocalypse and the post-apocalyptic are not therefore to be feared but to be reached for: worthy achievements for those individuals who can survive the risk, the compression, and the disorientation to emerge in a ‘post’ that is not a wasteland but a realm of ceaseless energetic creation—a realm which allows migrants to construct for themselves better lives in the 21st century world.

  13. Impacts of satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikage, Chiaki [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro, E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, 739-8526 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    We study the impacts of the satellite galaxies on the redshift-space distortions. In our multipole power spectrum analysis of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) samples of the Sloan digital sky survey (SDSS), we have clearly detected the non-zero signature of the hexadecapole and tetrahexadecapole spectrum, which almost disappears in the power spectrum with the sample of the brightest LRGs only. We thus demonstrate that the satellite LRGs in multiple systems make a significant contribution to the multipole power spectrum though its fraction is small. The behavior can be understood by a simple halo model, in which the one-halo term, describing the Finger of God (FoG) effect from the satellite galaxies, makes the dominant contribution to the higher multipole spectra. We demonstrate that the small-scale information of higher multipole spectrum is useful for calibrating the satellite FoG effect and improves the measurement of the cosmic growth rate dramatically. We further demonstrate that the fiber collision in the galaxy survey influences the one-halo term and the higher multipole spectra, because the number of satellite galaxies in the halo occupation distribution (HOD) is changed. We also discuss about the impact of satellite galaxies on future high-redshift surveys targeting the H-alpha emitters.

  14. Rate-distortion optimization for compressive video sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Vijayanagar, Krishna R.; Kim, Joohee

    2014-05-01

    The recently introduced compressed sensing (CS) framework enables low complexity video acquisition via sub- Nyquist rate sampling. In practice, the resulting CS samples are quantized and indexed by finitely many bits (bit-depth) for transmission. In applications where the bit-budget for video transmission is constrained, rate- distortion optimization (RDO) is essential for quality video reconstruction. In this work, we develop a double-level RDO scheme for compressive video sampling, where frame-level RDO is performed by adaptively allocating the fixed bit-budget per frame to each video block based on block-sparsity, and block-level RDO is performed by modelling the block reconstruction peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a quadratic function of quantization bit-depth. The optimal bit-depth and the number of CS samples are then obtained by setting the first derivative of the function to zero. In the experimental studies the model parameters are initialized with a small set of training data, which are then updated with local information in the model testing stage. Simulation results presented herein show that the proposed double-level RDO significantly enhances the reconstruction quality for a bit-budget constrained CS video transmission system.

  15. Galaxy bispectrum, primordial non-Gaussianity and redshift space distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellarini, Matteo; Ross, Ashley J.; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Tasinato, Gianmassimo, E-mail: matteo.tellarini@port.ac.uk, E-mail: ross.1333@osu.edu, E-mail: g.tasinato@swansea.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Measurements of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field have the power to considerably improve our understanding of the physics of inflation. Indeed, if we can increase the precision of current measurements by an order of magnitude, a null-detection would rule out many classes of scenarios for generating primordial fluctuations. Large-scale galaxy redshift surveys represent experiments that hold the promise to realise this goal. Thus, we model the galaxy bispectrum and forecast the accuracy with which it will probe the parameter f {sub NL}, which represents the degree of primordial local-type non Gaussianity. Specifically, we address the problem of modelling redshift space distortions (RSD) in the tree-level galaxy bispectrum including f {sub NL}. We find novel contributions associated with RSD, with the characteristic large scale amplification induced by local-type non-Gaussianity. These RSD effects must be properly accounted for in order to obtain un-biased measurements of f {sub NL} from the galaxy bispectrum. We propose an analytic template for the monopole which can be used to fit against data on large scales, extending models used in the recent measurements. Finally, we perform idealised forecasts on σ {sub f} {sub N{sub L}}—the accuracy of the determination of local non-linear parameter f {sub NL}—from measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. Our findings suggest that current surveys can in principle provide f {sub NL} constraints competitive with Planck , and future surveys could improve them further.

  16. Galaxy bispectrum, primordial non-Gaussianity and redshift space distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellarini, Matteo; Ross, Ashley J.; Wands, David; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field have the power to considerably improve our understanding of the physics of inflation. Indeed, if we can increase the precision of current measurements by an order of magnitude, a null-detection would rule out many classes of scenarios for generating primordial fluctuations. Large-scale galaxy redshift surveys represent experiments that hold the promise to realise this goal. Thus, we model the galaxy bispectrum and forecast the accuracy with which it will probe the parameter f NL , which represents the degree of primordial local-type non Gaussianity. Specifically, we address the problem of modelling redshift space distortions (RSD) in the tree-level galaxy bispectrum including f NL . We find novel contributions associated with RSD, with the characteristic large scale amplification induced by local-type non-Gaussianity. These RSD effects must be properly accounted for in order to obtain un-biased measurements of f NL from the galaxy bispectrum. We propose an analytic template for the monopole which can be used to fit against data on large scales, extending models used in the recent measurements. Finally, we perform idealised forecasts on σ f NL —the accuracy of the determination of local non-linear parameter f NL —from measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. Our findings suggest that current surveys can in principle provide f NL constraints competitive with Planck , and future surveys could improve them further.

  17. An inventory of bispectrum estimators for redshift space distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Donough

    2017-12-01

    In order to best improve constraints on cosmological parameters and on models of modified gravity using current and future galaxy surveys it is necessary maximally exploit the available data. As redshift-space distortions mean statistical translation invariance is broken for galaxy observations, this will require measurement of the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of not just the galaxy power spectrum, but also the galaxy bispectrum. A recent (2015) paper by Scoccimarro demonstrated how the standard bispectrum estimator may be expressed in terms of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) to afford an extremely efficient algorithm, allowing the bispectrum multipoles on all scales and triangle shapes to be measured in comparable time to those of the power spectrum. In this paper we present a suite of alternative proxies to measure the three-point correlation multipoles. In particular, we describe a modal (or plane wave) decomposition to capture the information in each multipole in a series of basis coefficients, and also describe three compressed estimators formed using the skew-spectrum, the line correlation function and the integrated bispectrum, respectively. As well as each of the estimators offering a different measurement channel, and thereby a robustness check, it is expected that some (especially the modal estimator) will offer a vast data compression, and so a much reduced covariance matrix. This compression may be vital to reduce the computational load involved in extracting the available three-point information.

  18. Cognitive distortions as a component and treatment focus of pathological gambling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Erica E; Goodie, Adam S

    2012-06-01

    The literature on the role of cognitive distortions in the understanding and treatment of pathological gambling (PG) is reviewed, with sections focusing on (a) conceptual underpinnings of cognitive distortions, (b) cognitive distortions related to PG, (c) PG therapies that target cognitive distortions, (d) methodological factors and outcome variations, and (e) conclusions and prescriptive recommendations. The conceptual background for distortions related to PG lies in the program of heuristics and biases (Kahneman & Tversky, 1974) as well as other errors identified in basic psychology. The literature has focused on distortions arising from the representativeness heuristic (gambler's fallacy, overconfidence, and trends in number picking), the availability heuristic (illusory correlation, other individuals' wins, and inherent memory bias), and other sources (the illusion of control and double switching). Some therapies have incorporated cognitive restructuring within broader cognitive-behavioral therapies, with success. Other therapies have focused more narrowly on correcting distorted beliefs, more often with limited success. It is concluded that the literature establishes the role of cognitive distortions in PG and suggests therapies with particularly good promise, but is in need of further enrichment.

  19. Distorted Pattern Recognition and Analysis with the Help of IEf Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sedziwy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for distorted pattern recognition is presented. lt's generalization of M Flasinski results (Pattern Recognition, 27, 1-16, 1992. A new formalism allows to make both qualitative and quantitive distortion analysis. It also enlarges parser flexibility by extending the set of patterns which may be recognized.

  20. Detailed dynamic model for semiconductor optical amplifiers and their crosstalk and intermodulation distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Terji; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1992-01-01

    . The model is used to assess intermodulation distortion and crosstalk. Cascaded amplifiers are considered, and the crosstalk and intermodulation distortion due to cascaded amplifiers are found to accumulate by adding together in amplitude; this may limit the number or cascaded amplifiers in multichannel...

  1. Rate-distortion functions of non-stationary Markoff chains and their block-independent approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    It is proved that the limit of the normalized rate-distortion functions of block independent approximations of an irreducible, aperiodic Markoff chain is independent of the initial distribution of the Markoff chain and thus, is also equal to the rate-distortion function of the Markoff chain.

  2. Shape distortion and dimensional precision in tungsten heavy alloy liquid phase sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuwen Yi; German, R.M.; Lu, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Microstructure effects on densification and shape distortion in liquid phase sintering of tungsten heavy alloy were investigated. Microstructure parameters such as the solid volume fraction, dihedral angle, initial porosity, and pore size were varied to measure densification and distortion behavior during LPS using W-Ni-Cu alloys. Green compacts were formed using ethylene-bis-stearamide as a pore-forming agent with the amount of polymer controlling the initial porosity. Different initial pore sizes were generated by varying the polymer particle size. Dihedral angle was varied by changing the Ni:Cu ratio in the alloys. Finally, the solid volume fraction was adjusted via the tungsten content. Distortion was quantified using profiles determined with a coordinate measuring machine to calculate a distortion parameter. Sintering results showed that solid volume fraction and dihedral angle are the dominant factors on densification and distortion during liquid phase sintering. Distortion decreases with increasing solid volume fraction and dihedral angle, while initial porosity and pore size have no observable effect on distortion at nearly full densification. Various strategies emerge to improve distortion control in liquid phase sintering. (author)

  3. Distortion Correction in Fetal EPI Using Non-Rigid Registration With a Laplacian Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklisova-Murgasova, Maria; Lockwood Estrin, Georgia; Nunes, Rita G; Malik, Shaihan J; Rutherford, Mary A; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V

    2018-01-01

    Geometric distortion induced by the main B0 field disrupts the consistency of fetal echo planar imaging (EPI) data, on which diffusion and functional magnetic resonance imaging is based. In this paper, we present a novel data-driven method for simultaneous motion and distortion correction of fetal EPI. A motion-corrected and reconstructed T2 weighted single shot fast spin echo (ssFSE) volume is used as a model of undistorted fetal brain anatomy. Our algorithm interleaves two registration steps: estimation of fetal motion parameters by aligning EPI slices to the model; and deformable registration of EPI slices to slices simulated from the undistorted model to estimate the distortion field. The deformable registration is regularized by a physically inspired Laplacian constraint, to model distortion induced by a source-free background B0 field. Our experiments show that distortion correction significantly improves consistency of reconstructed EPI volumes with ssFSE volumes. In addition, the estimated distortion fields are consistent with fields calculated from acquired field maps, and the Laplacian constraint is essential for estimation of plausible distortion fields. The EPI volumes reconstructed from different scans of the same subject were more consistent when the proposed method was used in comparison with EPI volumes reconstructed from data distortion corrected using a separately acquired B0 field map.

  4. Models of brachial to finger pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizdulich, P.; Prentza, A.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To model the pulse wave distortion and pressure decrement occurring between brachial and finger arteries. Distortion reversion and decrement correction were also our aims. Methods: Brachial artery pressure was recorded intra-arterially and finger pressure was recorded non-invasively by

  5. Numerical and semi-analytical modelling of the process induced distortions in pultrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Carlone, P.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    , the transient distortions are inferred adopting a semi-analytical procedure, i.e. post processing numerical results by means of analytical methods. The predictions of the process induced distortion development using the aforementioned methods are found to be qualitatively close to each other...

  6. Analyzing Reaction Rates with the Distortion/Interaction-Activation Strain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Houk, Kendall N.

    2017-01-01

    The activation strain or distortion/interaction model is a tool to analyze activation barriers that determine reaction rates. For bimolecular reactions, the activation energies are the sum of the energies to distort the reactants into geometries they have in transition states plus the interaction

  7. Robust Bayes Forecasting For Grouped Binary Data With Known Distortion Interval

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkevich, M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted the problem of robust forecasting for the beta-mixed hierarchical models of grouped binary data in the case of stochastic additive distortions of binary observations. In the case of known lower and upper bounds of the distortion intervals, a new robust minimax Bayes predictor is developed. The performance of the proposed forecasting technique is validated by computer simulationtadata.

  8. Analytical Expressions for Harmonic Distortion at Low Frequencies due to Device Mismatch in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1999-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the mirror transistors. In this brief we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop analytical expressions for the mismatch induced harmonic distortion. ...

  9. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  10. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  11. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  12. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  13. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  14. Studies of field distortions in a time projection chamber for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) will allow to do precision measurements of Standard Model parameter and to search for new physics. The ILD detector concept, which is developed for the ILC, uses a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) as central tracking device. The momentum resolution goal for the ILD TPC is δ(1/p t ) ≅ 10 -4 (GeV/c) -1 at a magnetic field of B=3.5 T. Field distortions of the magnetic or electric field inside the sensitive volume of the TPC distort the momentum measurements. Therefore, one needs to keep them under control and correct them with high precision. In this thesis the main sources of field distortions in the TPC are identified and their effects are determined. Furthermore, possibilities to reduce the identified field distortions are presented. One known source of distortions of the electric field are ions, produced by the gas amplification in the TPC anode, that drift into the sensitive volume of the TPC. In the first part of this work the creation of these ions in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM), which are used for the gas amplification, is studied. It will be shown that the resulting field distortions are not acceptable at the ILD TPC. By tuning the parameters of the gas amplification at the anode the field distortion can be reduced, which is shown in measurements and simulations. In addition measurements using a modified GEM show that it is possible to further reduce the field distortions with such a GEM. In the second part of this work field distortions arising at boundaries between individual readout modules are investigated using simulation studies. It will be shown in simulations, which are verified by measurement results, that these field distortions significantly influence the readout module performance. Based on the simulation results the GEM based readout module developed at DESY is optimised and the field distortions are reduced. These performance improvements could also be verified in measurements. Finally, a laser

  15. Visualization of Hyperconjugation and Subsequent Structural Distortions through 3D Printing of Crystal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, Farha J; Oyola-Reynoso, Stephanie; Thuo, Martin M; Atkinson, Manza Bj

    2016-01-01

    Structural distortions due to hyperconjugation in organic molecules, like norbornenes, are well captured through X-ray crystallographic data, but are sometimes difficult to visualize especially for those applying chemical knowledge and are not chemists. Crystal structure from the Cambridge database were downloaded and converted to .stl format. The structures were then printed at the desired scale using a 3D printer. Replicas of the crystal structures were accurately reproduced in scale and any resulting distortions were clearly visible from the macroscale models. Through space interactions or effect of through space hyperconjugation was illustrated through loss of symmetry or distortions thereof. The norbornene structures exhibits distortion that cannot be observed through conventional ball and stick modelling kits. We show that 3D printed models derived from crystallographic data capture even subtle distortions in molecules. We translate such crystallographic data into scaled-up models through 3D printing.

  16. Carrier Distortion in Hysteretic Self-Oscillating Class-D Audio Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Kofod; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    An important distortion mechanism in hysteretic self-oscillating (SO) class-D (switch mode) power amplifiers-–carrier distortion-–is analyzed and an optimization method is proposed. This mechanism is an issue in any power amplifier application where a high degree of proportionality between input...... and output is required, such as in audio power amplifiers or xDSL drivers. From an average-mode point of view, carrier distortion is shown to be caused by nonlinear variation of the hysteretic comparator input average voltage with the output average voltage. This easily causes total harmonic distortion...... figures in excess of 0.1–0.2%, inadequate for high-quality audio applications. Carrier distortion is shown to be minimized when the feedback system is designed to provide a triangular carrier (sliding) signal at the input of a hysteretic comparator. The proposed optimization method is experimentally...

  17. Evidence of two-channel distortion effects in positronium formation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macri, P A; Miraglia, J E; Hanssen, J; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D

    2004-01-01

    The formation of ground-state positronium in collisions of positrons on hydrogen-like atoms is considered. In previous theoretical works, two-centre distorted wavefunctions were employed to approximate either the initial or the final channel. Here we report results obtained by means of the eikonal final state continuum distorted wave approximation for which asymptotically correct distorted wavefunctions are used for both the initial and final states of the scattering system. Comparison of the present theoretical total cross sections with experimental data reveals that distortion effects become important in both channels as the impact energy decreases. This work also shows that distorted-wave theories may be extended from their usual domain of high impact energies to lower ones. (letter to the editor)

  18. Bending Distortion Analysis of a Steel Shaft Manufacturing Chain from Cold Drawing to Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Vinicius Waechter; da Silva Rocha, Alexandre; Zottis, Juliana; Dong, Juan; Epp, Jérémy; Zoch, Hans Werner

    2017-04-01

    Shafts are usually manufactured from bars that are cold drawn, cut machined, induction hardened, straightened, and finally ground. The main distortion is characterized by bending that appears after induction hardening and is corrected by straightening and/or grinding. In this work, the consequence of the variation of manufacturing parameters on the distortion was analyzed for a complete manufacturing route for production of induction hardened shafts made of Grade 1045 steel. A DoE plan was implemented varying the drawing angle, cutting method, induction hardening layer depth, and grinding penetration depth. The distortion was determined by calculating curvature vectors from dimensional analysis by 3D coordinate measurements. Optical microscopy, microhardness testing, residual stress analysis, and FEM process simulation were used to evaluate and understand effects of the main carriers of distortion potential. The drawing process was identified as the most significant influence on the final distortion of the shafts.

  19. Evidence of two-channel distortion effects in positronium formation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macri, P A [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correo 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Casilla de Correo 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Hanssen, J [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Institute de Physique Rue Arago, Tecnopole 2000, Metz (France); Fojon, O A [Instituto de FIsica de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas-Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rivarola, R D [Instituto de FIsica de Rosario, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientIficas y Tecnicas-Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2004-03-28

    The formation of ground-state positronium in collisions of positrons on hydrogen-like atoms is considered. In previous theoretical works, two-centre distorted wavefunctions were employed to approximate either the initial or the final channel. Here we report results obtained by means of the eikonal final state continuum distorted wave approximation for which asymptotically correct distorted wavefunctions are used for both the initial and final states of the scattering system. Comparison of the present theoretical total cross sections with experimental data reveals that distortion effects become important in both channels as the impact energy decreases. This work also shows that distorted-wave theories may be extended from their usual domain of high impact energies to lower ones. (letter to the editor)

  20. Distortional solutions for loaded semi-discretized thin-walled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    distortional displacement fields which decouple the reduced order differential equations. In this process the cross section is discretized into finite cross-section elements, and the natural distortional modes as well as the related axial variations are found as solutions to the established coupled fourth...... order homogeneous differential equations of GBT.In this paper the non-homogeneous distortional differential equations of GBT are formulated using this novel semi-discretization process. Transforming these non-homogeneous distortional differential equations into the natural eigenmode space by using...... the distortional modal matrix found for the homogeneous system, we get the uncoupled set of differential equations including the distributed loads. This uncoupling is very important in GBT, since the shear stiffness contribution from St. Venant torsional shear stress as well as “Bredt's shear flow” cannot...

  1. Development of distortion measurement system for large deployable antenna via photogrammetry in vacuum and cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengsong; Jiang, Shanping; Yang, Linhua; Zhang, Bolun

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision thermal distortion measurement foraΦ4.2m deployable mesh antenna of satellite in vacuum and cryogenic environment, based on Digital Close-range Photogrammetry and Space Environment Test Technology of Spacecraft, a large scale antenna distortion measurement system under vacuum and cryogenic environment is developed in this paper. The antenna Distortion measurement system (ADMS) is the first domestic independently developed thermal distortion measurement system for large antenna, which has successfully solved non-contact high precision distortion measurement problem in large spacecraft structure under vacuum and cryogenic environment. The measurement accuracy of ADMS is better than 50 μm/5m, which has reached international advanced level. The experimental results show that the measurement system has great advantages in large structural measurement of spacecrafts, and also has broad application prospects in space or other related fields.

  2. Finite element study of growth stress formation in wood and related distortion of sawn timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2009-01-01

    -related stresses in wood (drying distortions) and growth-related stresses (distortions appearing when logs are split up to timber boards by sawing). To get more knowledge on how these distortions can be reduced in wooden products, there is a need for improved understanding of this material behaviour through good...... numerical tools developed from empirical data. A three-dimensional finite element board distortion model developed by Ormarsson (1999) has been extended to include the influence of growth stresses by incorporating a one-dimensional finite element growth stress model developed here. The growth stress model...... is formulated as an axisymmetric general plane strain model where material for all new annual rings is progressively added to the tree during the analysis. The simulation results presented include how stresses are progressively generated during the tree growth, distortions related to the redistribution...

  3. The relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, H; Degeest, S; Dhooge, I

    2017-11-01

    Chronic tinnitus is associated with reduced auditory input, which results in changes in the central auditory system. This study aimed to examine the relationship between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. For audiometry, the parameters represented the edge frequency of hearing loss, the frequency of maximum hearing loss and the frequency range of hearing loss. For distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the parameters were the frequency of lowest distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes and the frequency range of reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Sixty-seven patients (45 males, 22 females) with subjective chronic tinnitus, aged 18 to 73 years, were included. No correlation was found between tinnitus pitch and parameters of audiometry and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. However, tinnitus pitch fell mostly within the frequency range of hearing loss. The current study seems to confirm the relationship between tinnitus pitch and the frequency range of hearing loss, thus supporting the homeostatic plasticity model.

  4. The effect of inlet distorted flow on steady and unsteady performance of a centrifugal compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Shin Hyoung

    2005-01-01

    Effects of inlet distorted flow on performance, stall and surge are experimentally investigated for a high-speed centrifugal compressor. Tested results for the distorted inlet flow cases are compared with the result of the undistorted one. The performance of compressor is slightly deteriorated due to the inlet distortion. The inlet distortion does not affect the number of stall cell and the propagation velocity. It also does not change stall inception flow rate. However, as the distortion increases, stall starts at the higher flow rate for low speed at the lower flow rate for high speed. For 50,000 rpm stall occurs as the flow rate decreases, however disappears for the smaller flow rate. This is due to the interaction of surge and stall. After the stall and surge interact, the number of stall cell decreases

  5. Reproducing Electric Field Observations during Magnetic Storms by means of Rigorous 3-D Modelling and Distortion Matrix Co-estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püthe, Christoph; Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Electric fields induced in the conducting Earth during magnetic storms drive currents in power transmission grids, telecommunication lines or buried pipelines. These geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) can cause severe service disruptions. The prediction of GIC is thus of great importance for public and industry. A key step in the prediction of the hazard to technological systems during magnetic storms is the calculation of the geoelectric field. To address this issue for mid-latitude regions, we developed a method that involves 3-D modelling of induction processes in a heterogeneous Earth and the construction of a model of the magnetospheric source. The latter is described by low-degree spherical harmonics; its temporal evolution is derived from observatory magnetic data. Time series of the electric field can be computed for every location on Earth's surface. The actual electric field however is known to be perturbed by galvanic effects, arising from very local near-surface heterogeneities or topography, which cannot be included in the conductivity model. Galvanic effects are commonly accounted for with a real-valued time-independent distortion matrix, which linearly relates measured and computed electric fields. Using data of various magnetic storms that occurred between 2000 and 2003, we estimated distortion matrices for observatory sites onshore and on the ocean bottom. Strong correlations between modellings and measurements validate our method. The distortion matrix estimates prove to be reliable, as they are accurately reproduced for different magnetic storms. We further show that 3-D modelling is crucial for a correct separation of galvanic and inductive effects and a precise prediction of electric field time series during magnetic storms. Since the required computational resources are negligible, our approach is suitable for a real-time prediction of GIC. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of the source field, e.g. based on data from satellites

  6. Pulse-coupled neural nets: translation, rotation, scale, distortion, and intensity signal invariance for images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L

    1994-09-10

    The linking-field neural network model of Eckhorn et al. [Neural Comput. 2, 293-307 (1990)] was introduced to explain the experimentally observed synchronous activity among neural assemblies in the cat cortex induced by feature-dependent visual activity. The model produces synchronous bursts of pulses from neurons with similar activity, effectively grouping them by phase and pulse frequency. It gives a basic new function: grouping by similarity. The synchronous bursts are obtained in the limit of strong linking strengths. The linking-field model in the limit of moderate-to-weak linking characterized by few if any multiple bursts is investigated. In this limit dynamic, locally periodic traveling waves exist whose time signal encodes the geometrical structure of a two-dimensional input image. The signal can be made insensitive to translation, scale, rotation, distortion, and intensity. The waves transmit information beyond the physical interconnect distance. The model is implemented in an optical hybrid demonstration system. Results of the simulations and the optical system are presented.

  7. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  8. Segregation distortion causes large-scale differences between male and female genomes in hybrid ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, Jonna; Seifert, Bernhard; Pamilo, Pekka

    2010-04-20

    Hybridization in isolated populations can lead either to hybrid breakdown and extinction or in some cases to speciation. The basis of hybrid breakdown lies in genetic incompatibilities between diverged genomes. In social Hymenoptera, the consequences of hybridization can differ from those in other animals because of haplodiploidy and sociality. Selection pressures differ between sexes because males are haploid and females are diploid. Furthermore, sociality and group living may allow survival of hybrid genotypes. We show that hybridization in Formica ants has resulted in a stable situation in which the males form two highly divergent gene pools whereas all the females are hybrids. This causes an exceptional situation with large-scale differences between male and female genomes. The genotype differences indicate strong transmission ratio distortion depending on offspring sex, whereby the mother transmits some alleles exclusively to her daughters and other alleles exclusively to her sons. The genetic differences between the sexes and the apparent lack of multilocus hybrid genotypes in males can be explained by recessive incompatibilities which cause the elimination of hybrid males because of their haploid genome. Alternatively, differentiation between sexes could be created by prezygotic segregation into male-forming and female-forming gametes in diploid females. Differentiation between sexes is stable and maintained throughout generations. The present study shows a unique outcome of hybridization and demonstrates that hybridization has the potential of generating evolutionary novelties in animals.

  9. Counterbalancing hydrodynamic sample distortion effects increases resolution of free-flow zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G; Bauer, J

    1998-06-01

    On fractionation of highly heterogeneous protein mixtures, optimal resolution was achieved by forcing proteins to migrate through a preestablished pH gradient, until they entered a medium with a pH similar but not equal to their pIs. For this purpose, up to seven different media were pumped through the electrophoresis chamber so that they were flowing adjacently to each other, forming a pH gradient declining stepwise from the cathode to the anode. This gradient had a sufficiently strong band-focusing effect to counterbalance sample distortion effects of the flowing medium as proteins approached their isoelectric medium closer than 0.5 pH units. Continuous free-flow zone electrophoresis (FFZE) with high throughput capability was applicable if proteins did not precipitate or aggregate in these media. If components of heterogeneous protein mixtures had already started to precipitate or aggregate, in a medium with a pH exceeding their pI by more than 0.5 pH units, the application of interval modus and media forming flat pH gradients appeared advantageous.

  10. Distribution function approach to redshift space distortions. Part V: perturbation theory applied to dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Okumura, Teppei [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, S. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Desjacques, Vincent, E-mail: zvlah@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: seljak@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: teppei@ewha.ac.kr, E-mail: Vincent.Desjacques@unige.ch [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) Université de Genéve, Genéve (Switzerland)

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations show that redshift space distortions (RSD) introduce strong scale dependence in the power spectra of halos, with ten percent deviations relative to linear theory predictions even on relatively large scales (k < 0.1h/Mpc) and even in the absence of satellites (which induce Fingers-of-God, FoG, effects). If unmodeled these effects prevent one from extracting cosmological information from RSD surveys. In this paper we use Eulerian perturbation theory (PT) and Eulerian halo biasing model and apply it to the distribution function approach to RSD, in which RSD is decomposed into several correlators of density weighted velocity moments. We model each of these correlators using PT and compare the results to simulations over a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. We find that with an introduction of a physically motivated halo biasing, and using dark matter power spectra from simulations, we can reproduce the simulation results at a percent level on scales up to k ∼ 0.15h/Mpc at z = 0, without the need to have free FoG parameters in the model.

  11. Local symmetric distortion boosted photon up-conversion and thermometric sensitivity in lanthanum oxide nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Rui; Wu, Yanfang; Xiang, Jinmeng; Guo, Chongfeng

    2018-05-17

    It is essential to simultaneously boost the luminescence intensity and thermometric sensitivity of up-converted optical thermometers towards potential biomedical sensing applications. Herein, the effects of local site symmetry on the up-conversion (UC) emission and thermal sensing ability in trigonal-phased La2O3:Er3+/Yb3+ nanospheres were qualitatively explored using cubic-phased Lu2O3 and Y2O3 with a similar shape and phonon energy as contrasts. Under 980 nm light excitation, much stronger UC emissions were detected in La2O3 samples than that in cubic Lu2O3 and Y2O3 samples, and the possible mechanisms were elaborately proposed using Eu3+ as a luminescent probe. Thermo-responsive emission intensity from 2H11/2/4S3/2 levels was monitored to evaluate the absolute sensitivity of three samples, which strongly depends on the dopant-induced local site symmetric distortions according to the Judd-Ofelt theory. The potentiality of La2O3:Er3+/Yb3+ for sub-tissue thermometry was also validated by ex vivo experiments. Results open a promising avenue for realizing highly sensitive thermometry with a large signal-to-noise ratio in sub-tissues via finely tailoring the local site symmetry.

  12. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a Chinese isolate of Tobacco vein distorting virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiao-han; Chen, Zheng-bin; Chen, Jian-ping

    2010-12-01

    Tobacco bushy top disease is caused by tobacco bushy top virus (TBTV, a member of the genus Umbravirus) which is dependent on tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV) to act as a helper virus encapsidating TBTV and enabling its transmission by aphids. Isometric virions from diseased tobacco plants were purified and disease symptoms were reproduced after experimental aphid transmission. The complete genome of TVDV was determined from cloned RT-PCR products derived from viral RNA. It was 5,920 nucleotides (nts) long and had the six major open reading frames (ORFs) typical of a member of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence comparisons showed that it differed significantly from any of the other species in the genus and this was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the RdRp and coat protein. SDS-PAGE analysis of purified virions gave two protein bands of about 26 and 59 kDa both of which reacted strongly in Western blots with antiserum produced to prokaryotically expressed TVDV CP showing that the two forms of the TVDV CP were the only protein components of the capsid.

  14. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  15. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  16. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  17. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  18. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  19. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher Education: Reputational Effects, Distorted Signaling and Propitious Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Savitskaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors attempt to underpin the hypothesis that under certain conditions a propitious selection may take place on the higher education market. It is a phenomenon when brand universities automatically reproduce their positive reputation without improving the quality of teaching due to influx of talented entrants. The authors apply econometric modelling and regression analysis based on survey of first-year students from Moscow to demonstrate that graduates with high USE marks really prefer to choose among brand universities; moreover, they appreciate a possibility to obtain a prestigious diploma even more than that of acquiring a particular profession. However, entrants do not possess full information about the quality of teaching in a particular university. The analysis presented in the paper shows that university rankings do not contribute to overcoming of this information asymmetry, since they transmit distorted signals caused by the methodology of ranking. The rankings, first of all, accentuate academic activity of teachers rather than educational process and interaction with students. For this reason, higher schools often adopt such a strategy to meet the ranking criteria as much as possible; they also tend to improve namely these indicators disregarding the other to become a leader. As a result, brand universities may surpass ordinary universities not due to rendering educational services of higher quality but due to selection of best entrants and peer-effects. These factors allow them to have excellent graduates, thus maintain positive reputation in employers’ opinion and simultaneously raise the brand value by advancing in a ranking.

  1. Traveling magnetopause distortion related to a large-scale magnetosheath plasma jet: THEMIS and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Suvorova, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a case study of THEMIS and ground-based observations of the perturbed dayside magnetopause and the geomagnetic field in relation to the interaction of an interplanetary directional discontinuity (DD) with the magnetosphere on 16 June 2007. The interaction resulted in a large-scale local magnetopause distortion of an "expansion - compression - expansion" (ECE) sequence that lasted for ˜15 min. The compression was caused by a very dense, cold, and fast high-βmagnetosheath plasma flow, a so-called plasma jet, whose kinetic energy was approximately three times higher than the energy of the incident solar wind. The plasma jet resulted in the effective penetration of magnetosheath plasma inside the magnetosphere. A strong distortion of the Chapman-Ferraro current in the ECE sequence generated a tripolar magnetic pulse "decrease - peak- decrease" (DPD) that was observed at low and middle latitudes by some ground-based magnetometers of the INTERMAGNET network. The characteristics of the ECE sequence and the spatial-temporal dynamics of the DPD pulse were found to be very different from any reported patterns of DD interactions with the magnetosphere. The observed features only partially resembled structures such as FTE, hot flow anomalies, and transient density events. Thus, it is difficult to explain them in the context of existing models.

  2. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  3. Weld distortion prediction and control of the ITER vacuum vessel manufacturing mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottolini, Marco; Barbensi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication of the ITER Vacuum Vessel Sectors is an unprecedented challenge, due to their dimensions, the close tolerances, the complex 'D' shape. The technological issues were faced by the production of full scale mock ups to confirm the manufacturing feasibility to achieve very tight tolerances and qualify the main manufacturing processes, by a step by step welding distortion control, by the qualification of not conventional NDT inspection techniques and by innovative 3D dimensional inspections. The Supplier is required to fabricate at least two mock ups, inboard and outboard, related to the manufacturing method of the VV Sectors, to demonstrate the control of the welding distortions to achieve tolerances, optimizing welding sequences and calibrating of welding distortions computer simulations. The stages of this preparatory activity are: prediction of welding distortion for fabrication mock ups representative of selected segments; demonstration that distortion predictions are consistent with experimental results from 3D dimensional inspection; understanding of reasons of possible deviations between numerical and experimental results and definition of action to solve these issues; demonstration that possible calculation simplifications, adopted to speed up the analysis process, do not affect significantly the welding distortion prediction. This paper describes the weld distortion prediction and control on the manufacturing mock-ups of ITER Vacuum Vessel Sectors, with particular emphasis to the lessons learned. (authors)

  4. Study of Noise Effects on Rabbit's Hearing Status Using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Salehnia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Noise-induced hearing loss is the most common problem in industrial areas. This study aimed to determine effects of excessive noise exposure on measurable characteristics of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in rabbits.Methods: The study was carried out on 12 adult male New Zealand White rabbits including case group - exposed to 500-8000 Hz broadband white noise with 100 dBA SPL for 8 hours per day in 5 consecutive days - and control group. After three days period of acclimatization to the experimental condition, rabbits hearing status in each group were measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions on days zero means before the study was initiated as a baseline, eight, one hour after the latest exposure to noise, and ten. The recorded results were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Highest mean distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitudes in case group were allocated to frequencies of 5888.50 Hz, 8166.50 Hz, 9855.00 Hz, 3956.00 Hz, and 3098.50 Hz, respectively. However, the lowest mean distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitude was related to frequency of 588.00 Hz (p=0.001.Conclusion: This study revealed that distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitude shifts due to noise occur first in high and then in middle frequencies. Additionally, exposure to noise can decrease distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitudes. We conclude that distortion product otoacoustic emissions can be a reliable test for estimating personal susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

  5. Study Protocol on Intentional Distortion in Personality Assessment: Relationship with Test Format, Culture, and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geert, Eline; Orhon, Altan; Cioca, Iulia A; Mamede, Rui; Golušin, Slobodan; Hubená, Barbora; Morillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Self-report personality questionnaires, traditionally offered in a graded-scale format, are widely used in high-stakes contexts such as job selection. However, job applicants may intentionally distort their answers when filling in these questionnaires, undermining the validity of the test results. Forced-choice questionnaires are allegedly more resistant to intentional distortion compared to graded-scale questionnaires, but they generate ipsative data. Ipsativity violates the assumptions of classical test theory, distorting the reliability and construct validity of the scales, and producing interdependencies among the scores. This limitation is overcome in the current study by using the recently developed Thurstonian item response theory model. As online testing in job selection contexts is increasing, the focus will be on the impact of intentional distortion on personality questionnaire data collected online. The present study intends to examine the effect of three different variables on intentional distortion: (a) test format (graded-scale versus forced-choice); (b) culture, as data will be collected in three countries differing in their attitudes toward intentional distortion (the United Kingdom, Serbia, and Turkey); and (c) cognitive ability, as a possible predictor of the ability to choose the more desirable responses. Furthermore, we aim to integrate the findings using a comprehensive model of intentional distortion. In the Anticipated Results section, three main aspects are considered: (a) the limitations of the manipulation, theoretical approach, and analyses employed; (b) practical implications for job selection and for personality assessment in a broader sense; and (c) suggestions for further research.

  6. Assessing the sensitivity of information distortion to four potential influences in studies of risky choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A. Miller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of a leading alternative during the course of a decision is known to bias the evaluation of new information in a manner that favors that alternative. We report 3 studies that address the sensitivity of predecisional information distortion and its effects in hypothetical risky decisions with regard to 4 potential influences: choice domain, repeated choice, memory requirements, and intermediate progress questions. In Experiment 1 (N = 515, the magnitude of information distortion was similar in 5 choice domains (varied between participants involving monetary gambles, song downloads, frequent-flyer miles, political decisions, or medical decisions. Information distortion mediated the relationship between our manipulation of initial preferences and participants' final choices, with the magnitude of the indirect effect being roughly similar across domains. These results replicate and extend previous findings. Additionally, distortion decreased significantly over 4 similar decision problems (within participants, but remained significant in the fourth problem. In Experiment 2 (N = 214, information distortion increased significantly when previously viewed information remained available, apparently because reiterating that information strengthened emerging preferences. In Experiment 3 (N = 223, the removal of intermediate progress questions that measure information distortion and emerging preferences did not significantly affect final choices, again replicating previous results. We conclude that predecisional information distortion is a relatively stable and robust phenomenon that deserves a prominent role in descriptive theories of choice.

  7. Expression-dependent susceptibility to face distortions in processing of facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Soornack, Yoshi; Settle, Rebecca

    2018-03-05

    Our capability of recognizing facial expressions of emotion under different viewing conditions implies the existence of an invariant expression representation. As natural visual signals are often distorted and our perceptual strategy changes with external noise level, it is essential to understand how expression perception is susceptible to face distortion and whether the same facial cues are used to process high- and low-quality face images. We systematically manipulated face image resolution (experiment 1) and blur (experiment 2), and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. Our analysis revealed a reasonable tolerance to face distortion in expression perception. Reducing image resolution up to 48 × 64 pixels or increasing image blur up to 15 cycles/image had little impact on expression assessment and associated gaze behaviour. Further distortion led to decreased expression categorization accuracy and intensity rating, increased reaction time and fixation duration, and stronger central fixation bias which was not driven by distortion-induced changes in local image saliency. Interestingly, the observed distortion effects were expression-dependent with less deterioration impact on happy and surprise expressions, suggesting this distortion-invariant facial expression perception might be achieved through the categorical model involving a non-linear configural combination of local facial features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  9. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  10. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  11. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  12. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  13. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  14. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  15. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  16. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  17. A method based on moving least squares for XRII image distortion correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shiju; Wang Chengtao; Ye Ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel integrated method to correct geometric distortions of XRII (x-ray image intensifier) images. The method has been compared, in terms of mean-squared residual error measured at control and intermediate points, with two traditional local methods and a traditional global methods. The proposed method is based on the methods of moving least squares (MLS) and polynomial fitting. Extensive experiments were performed on simulated and real XRII images. In simulation, the effect of pincushion distortion, sigmoidal distortion, local distortion, noise, and the number of control points was tested. The traditional local methods were sensitive to pincushion and sigmoidal distortion. The traditional global method was only sensitive to sigmoidal distortion. The proposed method was found neither sensitive to pincushion distortion nor sensitive to sigmoidal distortion. The sensitivity of the proposed method to local distortion was lower than or comparable with that of the traditional global method. The sensitivity of the proposed method to noise was higher than that of all three traditional methods. Nevertheless, provided the standard deviation of noise was not greater than 0.1 pixels, accuracy of the proposed method is still higher than the traditional methods. The sensitivity of the proposed method to the number of control points was greatly lower than that of the traditional methods. Provided that a proper cutoff radius is chosen, accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the traditional methods. Experiments on real images, carried out by using a 9 in. XRII, showed that residual error of the proposed method (0.2544±0.2479 pixels) is lower than that of the traditional global method (0.4223±0.3879 pixels) and local methods (0.4555±0.3518 pixels and 0.3696±0.4019 pixels, respectively)

  18. Characterization of system-related geometric distortions in MR images employed in Gamma Knife radiosurgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, E. P.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Nomikos, P.; Karaiskos, P.

    2016-10-01

    This work provides characterization of system-related geometric distortions present in MRIs used in Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning. A custom-made phantom, compatible with the Leksell stereotactic frame model G and encompassing 947 control points (CPs), was utilized. MR images were obtained with and without the frame, thus allowing discrimination of frame-induced distortions. In the absence of the frame and following compensation for field inhomogeneities, measured average CP disposition owing to gradient nonlinearities was 0.53 mm. In presence of the frame, contrarily, detected distortion was greatly increased (up to about 5 mm) in the vicinity of the frame base due to eddy currents induced in the closed loop of its aluminum material. Frame-related distortion was obliterated at approximately 90 mm from the frame base. Although the region with the maximum observed distortion may not lie within the GK treatable volume, the presence of the frame results in distortion of the order of 1.5 mm at a 7 cm distance from the center of the Leksell space. Additionally, severe distortions observed outside the treatable volume could possibly impinge on the delivery accuracy mainly by adversely affecting the registration process (e.g. the position of the lower part of the N-shaped fiducials used to define the stereotactic space may be miss-registered). Images acquired with a modified version of the frame developed by replacing its front side with an acrylic bar, thus interrupting the closed aluminum loop and reducing the induced eddy currents, were shown to benefit from relatively reduced distortion. System-related distortion was also identified in patient MR images. Using corresponding CT angiography images as a reference, an offset of 1.1 mm was detected for two vessels lying in close proximity to the frame base, while excellent spatial agreement was observed for a vessel far apart from the frame base.

  19. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of passthrough of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  20. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  1. F-15 inlet/engine test techniques and distortion methodologies studies. Volume 2: Time variant data quality analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C. H.; Spong, E. D.; Hammock, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    Time variant data quality analysis plots were used to determine if peak distortion data taken from a subscale inlet model can be used to predict peak distortion levels for a full scale flight test vehicle.

  2. Radial lens distortion correction with sub-pixel accuracy for X-ray micro-tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert C; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-12-14

    Distortion correction or camera calibration for an imaging system which is highly configurable and requires frequent disassembly for maintenance or replacement of parts needs a speedy method for recalibration. Here we present direct techniques for calculating distortion parameters of a non-linear model based on the correct determination of the center of distortion. These techniques are fast, very easy to implement, and accurate at sub-pixel level. The implementation at the X-ray tomography system of the I12 beamline, Diamond Light Source, which strictly requires sub-pixel accuracy, shows excellent performance in the calibration image and in the reconstructed images.

  3. Large crystal structure distortion in DyB{sub 6} studied by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, S.A. E-mail: ser@plms.phys.msu.su; Markosyan, A.S

    2003-03-01

    A large magnetoelastic coupling induces a lattice distortion of a rhombohedral type in DyB{sub 6}. Below the quadrupolar ordering temperature T{sub Q}=31 K the cubic and the distorted phases coexist. The cubic phase disappears at 23 K, which was identified as the magnetic ordering point T{sub N}. In the magnetic phase the distortion (dl/l){sub 111} increases monotonically with decreasing temperature and reaches the value of 9x10{sup -3} at 8 K, which is one of the largest value known for cubic compounds.

  4. Large crystal structure distortion in DyB6 studied by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovsky, S.A.; Markosyan, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    A large magnetoelastic coupling induces a lattice distortion of a rhombohedral type in DyB 6 . Below the quadrupolar ordering temperature T Q =31 K the cubic and the distorted phases coexist. The cubic phase disappears at 23 K, which was identified as the magnetic ordering point T N . In the magnetic phase the distortion (dl/l) 111 increases monotonically with decreasing temperature and reaches the value of 9x10 -3 at 8 K, which is one of the largest value known for cubic compounds

  5. The Influence of Measurement Methodology on the Accuracy of Electrical Waveform Distortion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartman, Jacek; Kwiatkowski, Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    The present paper covers a review of documents that specify measurement methods of voltage waveform distortion. It also presents measurement stages of waveform components that are uncommon in the classic fundamentals of electrotechnics and signal theory, including the creation process of groups and subgroups of harmonics and interharmonics. Moreover, the paper discusses selected distortion factors of periodic waveforms and presents analyses that compare the values of these distortion indices. The measurements were carried out in the cycle per cycle mode and the measurement methodology that was used complies with the IEC 61000-4-7 norm. The studies showed significant discrepancies between the values of analyzed parameters.

  6. Response distortion in personality measurement: born to deceive, yet capable of providing valid self-assessments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPHAN DILCHERT

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article to the special issue of Psychology Science devoted to the subject of “Considering Response Distortion in Personality Measurement for Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology Research and Practice” presents an overview of the issues of response distortion in personality measurement. It also provides a summary of the other articles published as part of this special issue addressing social desirability, impression management, self-presentation, response distortion, and faking in personality measurement in industrial, work, and organizational settings.

  7. Influence of growth stresses and material properties on distortion of sawn timber - numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Marie; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2009-01-01

    The board distortion that occurs during the sawing and the drying process causes major problems in the utilisation of sawn timber. The distortion is highly influenced by parameters such as spiral grain angle, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, growth stresses and sawing pattern. In this study...... a finite element simulation of log sawing and timber drying was performed to study how these parameters interact to affect board distortion. A total of 81 logs with different material combinations were simulated. From each simulated log four boards with different annual ring orientation were studied...

  8. Limitations caused by distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojic, Branko; Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    The significance of a room impulse response implies the requirement that its measurement should have a high level of accuracy in certain applications. One of the common problems in a measurement process is nonlinearity leading to the distortion of a room impulse response. Limitations caused...... domain with or without memory. On the other hand, the distortion in measurements is achieved either by applying the nonlinearity model or by using higher excitation level and a loudspeaker with a highly nonlinear characteristic. The results show that the most of distortion energy is located in the non...

  9. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  10. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen Miller, R.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to

  11. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  12. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  13. Determinants of professional distortion development in medical personnel, teachers and psychologists, working in the industrial disaster zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova, Anna B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents research results regarding the determinants and individual predictors of professional distortions in the medical personnel, teachers, and psychologists who were involved in long-term programs of human relief assistance after a catastrophic accident at the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station. The research aim was to analyze the factors influencing the increase in and the accumulation of occupational stress in the groups investigated. The stress studied was caused by strong emotional tension in 3 months of intensive work after the accident. The extraordinary situation served as a challenge, a kind of “strength test” for individual adaptation, which led to the manifestation of extreme adaptation options (destructive and constructive forms and allowed us to clarify the factors that contributed to their development. The research showed that, in this situation, psychological (in particular, emotional resources and individual coping characteristics played a determinative role in professional adaptation.

  14. Electron Transfer and Geometric Conversion of Co-NO Moiety in Saddled Porphyrins: Implications for Trigger Role of Tetrapyrrole Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Shaowei; Chen, Jiafu; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Zaichun; Liu, Qiuhua

    2018-01-02

    The electrons of NO and Co are strongly delocalized in normal {Co-NO} 8 species. In this work, {Co-NO} 8 complexes are induced to convert from (Co II ) +• -NO • to Co III -NO - by a core contraction of 0.06 Å in saddled cobalt(II) porphyrins. This intramolecular electron transfer mechanism indicates that nonplanarity of porphyrin is involved in driving conversion of the NO units from electrophilic NO • as a bent geometry to nucleophilic NO - as a linear geometry. This implies that distortion acts as a trigger in enzymes containing tetrapyrrole. The electronic behaviors of the Co II ions and Co-NO moieties were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, EPR spectroscopy, theoretical calculation, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy, and electrochemistry.

  15. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  16. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  17. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  18. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  19. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  20. Eliminating Anticompetitive Market Distortions Through The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker Singham

    2013-01-01

    A U.S.-EU trade agreement that truly eliminated these anticompetitive distortions would generate trillions of dollars of new wealth in the global economy. Shanker A. Singham (Squire Sanders & Roundtable on Trade and Competition)

  1. The role of appraisal distortion, contempt, and morality in couple conflict: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B

    2008-01-01

    A common goal of couples' therapy is to help individuals modify their view of each other and the relationship. Distorted views and appraisals contribute to conflict, and these can be manifest by use of rationalization or denial. This study explored appraisal distortion as an evaluative and moral process that occurs during partner conflict, particularly when it becomes contemptuous and aggressive. Using a philosophical base that is grounded in the ethical relationship, a model of appraisal distortion and couple conflict was created using constructivist grounded theory methods. The theoretical concepts derived from the data show relationships between one's relational stance, appraisal distortion, and verbal and physical aggression. This model implies that helping individuals take responsibility for appraisals is important in treating conflict.

  2. A Comparison of Three Methods for Measuring Distortion in Optical Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Skow, Miles

    2015-01-01

    It's important that imagery seen through large-area windows, such as those used on space vehicles, not be substantially distorted. Many approaches are described in the literature for measuring the distortion of an optical window, but most suffer from either poor resolution or processing difficulties. In this paper a new definition of distortion is presented, allowing accurate measurement using an optical interferometer. This new definition is shown to be equivalent to the definitions provided by the military and the standards organizations. In order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach, the distortion of an acrylic window is measured using three different methods: image comparison, moiré interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry.

  3. A Phase-Controlled Optical Parametric Amplifier Pumped by Two Phase-Distorted Laser Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Yan, Ren; Lie-Jia, Qian; Peng, Yuan; He-Yuan, Zhu; Dian-Yuan, Fan

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically study the phase characteristic of optical parametric amplification (OPA) or chirped pulse OPA (OPCPA) pumped by two phase-distorted laser beams. In the two-beam-pumped optical parametric amplification (TBOPA), due to spatial walk-off, both of the pump phase distortions will be partly transferred to signal in a single crystal so as to degrade the signal beam-quality, which will be more serious in high-energy OPCPA. An OPA configuration with a walkoff-compensated crystal pair is demonstrated for reducing the signal phase distortion experienced in the first stage and ensuring the signal phase independent of two pump phase distortions through the second crystal, hence maintaining the signal beam-quality. Such a TBOPA is similar to the conventional quantum laser amplifier by means of eliminating its sensitivity to the phase and number of the pump beams

  4. Distortion of magnetic field lines caused by radial displacements of ITER toroidal field coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoskov, V.M., E-mail: sytch@niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gribov, Y.V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lamzin, E.A.; Sytchevsky, S.E. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    An assessment of distortions of ideal (circle) field lines caused by random radial displacements of the TF coils by |∆R| ≤ 5 mm has been performed from the statistical analysis assuming a uniform probability density function for displacements.

  5. Partial Rarefaction as Way to Reduce Distortion Curve of double-glazed unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Use of Insulated Glass Units (IGU) as glazing on building façades causes optical distortions of mirrored images of neighboring buildings in glazed surfaces. Optical distortions are caused by varying distances between glass panes in IGUs as a result of climate factors. This paper examines available engineering solutions that reduce such distortions: use of more rigid outer glasses, encasing the building in a shell of single glass panes, known as the ‘double façade’, and use of vacuum IGUs. A new way is proposed to reduce optical distortions by installing additional pointed or linear supports and creating pre-stress with partial rarefaction inside the IGU. Overpressure that can cause IGU expansion and glass deformation was calculated. In the urban environment of Moscow, reduction of air pressure with simultaneous increase of air pressure inside the IGU during summer heat waves can be as high as 5%, and this figure determines the level of rarefaction.

  6. The lattice distortion effect for zinc-blende CrAs and CrSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamana, Keita; Geshi, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Uchida, Ichiro; Shirai, Masafumi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the stability of the ferromagnetism of CrAs and CrSb in the zinc-blende structure against the lattice distortion, systematically. A calculation within the generalized gradient approximation using a full potential linearized augmented plane wave method was performed. We compared the ferromagnetic state and the antiferromagnetic state assuming tetragonal distortion with the lattice constants a and c changing independently and determined the spin polarization ratio in the ferromagnetic phase. The result shows that complete spin polarization (half-metallic ferromagnetism) remains stable even in the presence of large tetragonal distortion. On the other hand, our calculation shows that two monolayers of CrAs is enough to produce a half-metallic state in the CrAs/GaAs multilayer. Thus, the present result suggests that the half-metallic nature persists in various atomic-scale superlattices made of distorted CrAs or CrSb

  7. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...... distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and changed generator parameters due to the flux saturation effect, the skin effect, etc. Weighting functions...... are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated...

  8. Anatomy of an Exciton : Vibrational Distortion and Exciton Coherence in H- and J-Aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Roel; Stradomska, Anna; Knoester, Jasper; Spano, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    In organic materials, coupling of electronic excitations to vibrational degrees of freedom results in polaronic excited states. Through numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the vibrational distortion field accompanying such a polaron scales as the product of the excitonic interaction field

  9. Performance of a Low Speed Axial Compressor Rotor Blade Row under Different Inlet Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taghavi Zenouz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Responses of an axial compressor isolated rotor blade row to various inlet distortions have been investigated utilizing computational fluid dynamic technique. Distortions have been imposed by five screens of different geometries, but with the same blockage ratio. These screens were embedded upstream of the rotor blade row. Flow fields are simulated in detail for compressor design point and near stall conditions. Performance curves for distorted cases are extracted and compared to the undisturbed case. Flow simulations and consequent performance characteristics show that the worst cases belong to non-symmetric blockages, i.e., those of partial circumferential configurations. These cases produce the largest wakes which can disturb the flow, considerably. Superior performances correspond to the inner and outer continuous circumferential distortion screens. Since, they produce no significant disturbances to the main flow in comparison to the non-symmetric screens.

  10. Mesh distortion immunity of finite elements and the best-fit paradigm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    relatively (and, sometimes, dramatically) poor results. ... why the unsymmetric parametric-metric formulation is effective is because the stress repre- .... competing requirements of managing continuity and equilibrium under mesh distortion to.

  11. Distorting the ceramic familiar: materiality and non-ceramic intervention, Conference, Keramik Museum, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Invited conference speaker, Westerwald Keramik Museum, August 2009. Paper title: Distorting the ceramic familiar: materiality and non-ceramic intervention.\\ud \\ud This paper will examine the integration of non-ceramic media into the discourse of ceramics.

  12. Modelling of dynamic and quasistatic events with special focus on wood-drying distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Ekevad, Mats

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals mainly with computer simulations of wood-drying distortions, especially twist. The reason for this is that such distortions often appear in dried timber, and the results are quality downgrades and thus value losses in the wood value chain. A computer simulation is a way to theoretically simulate what happens in reality when moisture content in timber changes. If the computer simulation model is appropriate and capable of realistic simulations of real events, then it is possi...

  13. Unfolding of true distributions from experimental data distorted by detectors with finite resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    A new procedure for unfolding the true distribution from experimental data distorted by a detector is proposed. For the given detector a result can be found by the least squares method, hence, without bias and involving minimal statistical errors. Stability of the result is achieved at the expense of its information content and/or using additional information on the shape of the distributions to be measured. The method may be applied for detectors with linear or nonlinear distortions. 8 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Modelling the effects of preheating on angular distortions in one sided fillet welds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sadat Ali; S. Rao; N. Rao

    2012-01-01

    In all fusion welded joints, residual, transverse, lateral, angular and bowing deformations are observed. In fillet joints the angular distortion is the predominant deformation. The distortions and thermal history of a fillet joint can be measured experimentally which is not economically viable all times. It is time consuming and the deformation can be measured only after the completion of the joining process. So prevention is not possible. In the present work a numerical elasto-plastic therm...

  15. Optical conoscopy of distorted uniaxial liquid crystals: computer simulation and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A.Nastishin; O.B.Dovgyi; O.G.Vlokh

    2001-01-01

    We propose an algorithm to compute the conoscopic pattern for distorted uniaxial liquid crystal cells. The computed conoscopic figures for several cells (homeotropic, planar, twist, hybrid, hybrid under an external field) are compared to the corresponding experimental conoscopic patterns. We demonstrate that conoscopy can be used for the characterization of the distorted nematic cells with the director deformations which can not be detected and unambigously characterized by direct microscopy ...

  16. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: a comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, M; Griffiths, MD; Nigro, G; Cosenza, M

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the i...

  17. Neural basis of distorted self-face recognition in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients with SAD have a positive point of view of their own face and experience self-relevance for the attractively transformed self-faces. This distorted cognition may be based on dysfunctions in the frontal and inferior parietal regions. The abnormal engagement of the fronto-parietal attentional network during processing face stimuli in non-social situations may be linked to distorted self-recognition in SAD.

  18. CDW (continuum distorted wave) type approximation for electron capture at large angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojon, O.A.; Maidagan, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A calculation is made for the probability of electron capture in shell K at great angles using a second order symmetrical model used related to the continuum distorted wave (CDW) approximation. The influence of Coulomb distortion of nuclei is studied and compared with OBK and CIS type calculations. Numerical results are compared with experimental results of the collision of H + on C at intermediate energies. (Author). 19 refs., 2 figs

  19. The Impact of Agricultural Policy Distortions on the Productivity Gap: Evidence from the Rice Production

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotoarisoa, Manitra A.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines how production and trade policy distortions affected rice productivity in thirty-three rice-producing countries. A rice-productivity index for each country is constructed, and a model linking the productivity gap with policy distortions is presented. After controlling for the differences in infrastructure, openness, and human capital, this article shows that high subsidies and protection in developed countries combined with taxation of rice farming in poor countries have...

  20. The Relationship Between Religious Orientation, and Gender With a Cognitive Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Amirsardari, Leili; Azari, Shafie; Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between religious orientation (intrinsic?external) and cognitive distortions. Methods: General design of this study considered as a descriptive and correlational method. Universal population in this research consist all students of the Urmia Azad University, which were studying during 2012 and 2013 (n = 250). All respondents filled the Alports religious and cognitive distortions questionnaires. The answers were analyzed ...

  1. Structural Distortion Stabilizing the Antiferromagnetic and Semiconducting Ground State of BaMn2As2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report evidence that the experimentally found antiferromagnetic structure as well as the semiconducting ground state of BaMn 2 As 2 are caused by optimally-localized Wannier states of special symmetry existing at the Fermi level of BaMn 2 As 2 . In addition, we find that a (small tetragonal distortion of the crystal is required to stabilize the antiferromagnetic semiconducting state. To our knowledge, this distortion has not yet been established experimentally.

  2. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...

  3. Modeling of radial asymmetry in lens distortion facilitated by modern optimization techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, Johan P

    2010-01-18

    Full Text Available when applied to low order models. A new tool has been created which can provide extremely accurate distortion characterization. This allows high-end photogrammetric applications to improve their accuracy even if they already use complex models... distortion with a closed form solution and inverse function, Master’s thesis ], University of Pretoria, Pretoria, RSA (2008). [4] Conrady, A., \\Decentered lens systems," Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 79, 384{390 (1919). [5] Brown, D...

  4. Numerical convergence in simulations of multiaxial ratcheting with directional distortional hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Welling, CH.A.; Marek, René; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.; Plešek, Jiří; Hrubý, Zbyněk; Parma, Slavomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, November (2017), s. 105-121 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493; GA MŠk LH14018 Keywords : plastic ity * yield * ratcheting * yield surface distortion * directional distortional hardening Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768317303499

  5. The distortion of social identity structure as a result of social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Suvorova I.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the mechanism of human’s interaction with social system through the analysis of its distortion as a result of social exclusion. It was assumed that the impossibility to satisfy basic social needs destroys symbolic links between an individual and a social system. It causes the distortion of the structure of social identity and control over social reality. Third year students of Ecological faculty of People’s Friendship University of Rus- sia participated in the experiment...

  6. Review and comparison of geometric distortion correction schemes in MR images used in stereotactic radiosurgery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, E. P.; Dellios, D.; Seimenis, I.; Moutsatsos, A.; Georgiou, E.; Karaiskos, P.

    2017-11-01

    In Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS), MR-images are widely used for target localization and delineation in order to take advantage of the superior soft tissue contrast they exhibit. However, spatial dose delivery accuracy may be deteriorated due to geometric distortions which are partly attributed to static magnetic field inhomogeneity and patient/object-induced chemical shift and susceptibility related artifacts, known as sequence-dependent distortions. Several post-imaging sequence-dependent distortion correction schemes have been proposed which mainly employ the reversal of read gradient polarity. The scope of this work is to review, evaluate and compare the efficacy of two proposed correction approaches. A specially designed phantom which incorporates 947 control points (CPs) for distortion detection was utilized. The phantom was MR scanned at 1.5T using the head coil and the clinically employed pulse sequence for SRS treatment planning. An additional scan was performed with identical imaging parameters except for reversal of read gradient polarity. In-house MATLAB routines were developed for implementation of the signal integration and average-image distortion correction techniques. The mean CP locations of the two MR scans were regarded as the reference CP distribution. Residual distortion was assessed by comparing the corrected CP locations with corresponding reference positions. Mean absolute distortion on frequency encoding direction was reduced from 0.34mm (original images) to 0.15mm and 0.14mm following application of signal integration and average-image methods, respectively. However, a maximum residual distortion of 0.7mm was still observed for both techniques. The signal integration method relies on the accuracy of edge detection and requires 3-4 hours of post-imaging computational time. The average-image technique is a more efficient (processing time of the order of seconds) and easier to implement method to improve geometric accuracy in such

  7. Strong nonlinear harmonic generation in a PZT/Aluminum resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parenthoine, D; Haumesser, L; Meulen, F Vander; Tran-Huu-Hue, L-P, E-mail: parenthoine@univ-tours.f [University Francois Rabelais of Tours, U 930 Imagerie et Cerveau, CNRS 2448, ENIVL, rue de la Chocolaterie, BP 3410, 41034 Blois (France)

    2009-11-01

    In this work, the extentional vibration mode of a coupled PZT/ Aluminum rod resonator is studied experimentally. Geometrical characteristics of the PZT are its 27 mm length and its 4x4 mm{sup 2} cross section area. The excitation voltage consists in sinusoidal bursts in the frequency range (20-80 kHz). Velocity measurements are performed at both ends of this system, using a laser probe. Strong harmonic distortions in the mechanical response (up to -20 dB with respect to the primary wave amplitude) have been observed. The corresponding input levels are far lower than those which are necessary to observe quadratic second harmonic generation in a free PZT resonator. The strong nonlinear effect can be explained as a super-harmonic resonance of the system due to a specific ratio between the eigen frequencies of the two parts of the resonator. Evolution of fundamental and harmonic responses are observed as a function of input levels, highlighting hysteretic behavior.

  8. Distortion Analysis Toolkit—A Software Tool for Easy Analysis of Nonlinear Audio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyri Pakarinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several audio effects devices deliberately add nonlinear distortion to the processed signal in order to create a desired sound. When creating virtual analog models of nonlinearly distorting devices, it would be very useful to carefully analyze the type of distortion, so that the model could be made as realistic as possible. While traditional system analysis tools such as the frequency response give detailed information on the operation of linear and time-invariant systems, they are less useful for analyzing nonlinear devices. Furthermore, although there do exist separate algorithms for nonlinear distortion analysis, there is currently no unified, easy-to-use tool for rapid analysis of distorting audio systems. This paper offers a remedy by introducing a new software tool for easy analysis of distorting effects. A comparison between a well-known guitar tube amplifier and two commercial software simulations is presented as a case study. This freely available software is written in Matlab language, but the analysis tool can also run as a standalone program, so the user does not need to have Matlab installed in order to perform the analysis.

  9. Gambling Motives: Do They Explain Cognitive Distortions in Male Poker Gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sasha; Barrault, Servane; Brunault, Paul; Varescon, Isabelle

    2018-03-01

    Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players. The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial and the Gambling-Related Cognition Scale. This study was conducted on 259 male poker gamblers (aged 18-69 years, 14.3% probable pathological gamblers). Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives (34.8%) and problem gambling (22.4%) (p gambling problems, showing a close inter-relationship between gambling motives, cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling. These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling. This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. For example, a coupled motivational and cognitive intervention focused on gambling motives/cognitive distortions could be beneficial for individuals with gambling problems.

  10. Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2018-01-03

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

  11. New technique for real-time distortion-invariant multiobject recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rutong; Li, Xiaoshun; Hong, En; Wang, Zuyi; Wei, Hongan

    2001-04-01

    A real-time hybrid distortion-invariant OPR system was established to make 3D multiobject distortion-invariant automatic pattern recognition. Wavelet transform technique was used to make digital preprocessing of the input scene, to depress the noisy background and enhance the recognized object. A three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network was used in correlation signal post-processing to perform multiobject distortion-invariant recognition and classification. The C-80 and NOA real-time processing ability and the multithread programming technology were used to perform high speed parallel multitask processing and speed up the post processing rate to ROIs. The reference filter library was constructed for the distortion version of 3D object model images based on the distortion parameter tolerance measuring as rotation, azimuth and scale. The real-time optical correlation recognition testing of this OPR system demonstrates that using the preprocessing, post- processing, the nonlinear algorithm os optimum filtering, RFL construction technique and the multithread programming technology, a high possibility of recognition and recognition rate ere obtained for the real-time multiobject distortion-invariant OPR system. The recognition reliability and rate was improved greatly. These techniques are very useful to automatic target recognition.

  12. A content-based digital image watermarking scheme resistant to local geometric distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong-ying; Chen, Li-li; Wang, Xiang-yang

    2011-01-01

    Geometric distortion is known as one of the most difficult attacks to resist, as it can desynchronize the location of the watermark and hence cause incorrect watermark detection. Geometric distortion can be decomposed into two classes: global affine transforms and local geometric distortions. Most countermeasures proposed in the literature only address the problem of global affine transforms. It is a challenging problem to design a robust image watermarking scheme against local geometric distortions. In this paper, we propose a new content-based digital image watermarking scheme with good visual quality and reasonable resistance against local geometric distortions. Firstly, the robust feature points, which can survive various common image processing and global affine transforms, are extracted by using a multi-scale SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) detector. Then, the affine covariant local feature regions (LFRs) are constructed adaptively according to the feature scale and local invariant centroid. Finally, the digital watermark is embedded into the affine covariant LFRs by modulating the magnitudes of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients. By binding the watermark with the affine covariant LFRs, the watermark detection can be done without synchronization error. Experimental results show that the proposed image watermarking is not only invisible and robust against common image processing operations such as sharpening, noise addition, and JPEG compression, etc, but also robust against global affine transforms and local geometric distortions

  13. Analysis of welding distortion due to narrow-gap welding of upper port plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Pankaj; Mandal, N.R.; Vasu, Parameswaran; Padasalag, Shrishail B.

    2010-01-01

    Narrow-gap welding is a low distortion welding process. This process allows very thick plates to be joined using fewer weld passes as compared to conventional V-groove or double V-groove welding. In case of narrow-gap arc welding as the heat input and weld volume is low, it reduces thermal stress leading to reduction of both residual stress and distortion. In this present study the effect of narrow-gap welding was studied on fabrication of a scaled down port plug in the form of a trapezoidal box made of 10 mm thick mild steel (MS) plates using gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Inherent strain method was used for numerical prediction of resulting distortions. The numerical results compared well with that of the experimentally measured distortion. The validated numerical scheme was used for prediction of weld induced distortion due to narrow-gap welding of full scale upper port plug made of 60 mm thick SS316LN material as is proposed for use in ITER project. It was observed that it is feasible to fabricate the said port plug keeping the distortions minimum within about 7 mm using GTAW for root pass welding followed by SMAW for filler runs.

  14. Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints using WELD PLANNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Shahar; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Rahim, Mohammad Ridzwan Abdul Mohd; Redza, Ridhwan; Lidam, Robert Ngendang Ak.; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib; Haruman, Esa; Chau, Chan Yin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the capability of linear thermal elastic numerical analysis to predict the welding distortion that occurs due to GMAW process. Distortion is considered as the major stumbling block that can adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and thus lead to expensive corrective work. Hence, forecast of distortion is crucially needed and ought to be determined in advance in order to minimize the negative effects, improve the quality of welded parts and finally to reduce the production costs. In this study, the welding deformation was simulated by using relatively new FEM software WELD PLANNER developed by ESI Group. This novel Welding Simulation Solution was employed to predict welding distortion induced in butt and T-joints with thickness of 4 mm. Low carbon steel material was used for the simulation and experimental study. A series of experiments using fully automated welding process were conducted for verification purpose to measure the distortion. By comparing between the simulation and experimental results, it was found out that this program code offered fast solution analysis time in estimating weld induced distortion within acceptable accuracy

  15. Objective video quality assessment method for freeze distortion based on freeze aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keishiro; Okamoto, Jun; Kurita, Takaaki

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the broadband network, video communications such as videophone, video distribution, and IPTV services are beginning to become common. In order to provide these services appropriately, we must manage them based on subjective video quality, in addition to designing a network system based on it. Currently, subjective quality assessment is the main method used to quantify video quality. However, it is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we need an objective quality assessment technology that can estimate video quality from video characteristics effectively. Video degradation can be categorized into two types: spatial and temporal. Objective quality assessment methods for spatial degradation have been studied extensively, but methods for temporal degradation have hardly been examined even though it occurs frequently due to network degradation and has a large impact on subjective quality. In this paper, we propose an objective quality assessment method for temporal degradation. Our approach is to aggregate multiple freeze distortions into an equivalent freeze distortion and then derive the objective video quality from the equivalent freeze distortion. Specifically, our method considers the total length of all freeze distortions in a video sequence as the length of the equivalent single freeze distortion. In addition, we propose a method using the perceptual characteristics of short freeze distortions. We verified that our method can estimate the objective video quality well within the deviation of subjective video quality.

  16. The role of self-serving cognitive distortions in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostermeijer, Sanne; Smeets, Kirsten C; Jansen, Lucres M C; Jambroes, Tijs; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Scheepers, Floor E; Buitelaar, Jan K; Popma, Arne

    2017-12-01

    Aggression is often divided into reactive and proactive forms. Reactive aggression is typically thought to encompass 'blaming others' and 'assuming the worst', while proactive aggression relates to 'self-centeredness' and 'minimising/mislabelling'. Our aim was to evaluate relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and cognitive distortions and to test whether changes in these cognitions relate to changes in aggression. A total of 151 adolescents (60% boys; mean age 15.05 years, standard deviation 1.28) were enrolled in an evidence-based intervention to reduce aggression. Due to attrition and anomalous responses, the post-intervention sample involved 80 adolescents. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and aggression. Blaming others was related to reactive aggression before the intervention, while all cognitive distortions were related to proactive aggression both pre- and post-intervention. Changes in reactive aggression were uniquely predicted by blaming others, while changes in proactive aggression were predicted by changes in cognitive distortions overall. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show a relationship between changes in cognitive distortions and changes in aggression. Treatment of reactive aggression may benefit from focusing primarily on reducing cognitive distortions involving misattribution of blame to others. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Simulation and experimental study on distortion of butt and T-joints using WELD PLANNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, Mohd Shahar; Manurung, Yupiter HP; Rahim, Mohammad Ridzwan Abdul Mohd; Redza, Ridhwan; Lidam, Robert Ngendang Ak.; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Tham, Ghalib [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haruman, Esa [Bakrie University, Jakarta (Indonesia); Chau, Chan Yin [ESI Group, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-10-15

    This paper investigates the capability of linear thermal elastic numerical analysis to predict the welding distortion that occurs due to GMAW process. Distortion is considered as the major stumbling block that can adversely affect the dimensional accuracy and thus lead to expensive corrective work. Hence, forecast of distortion is crucially needed and ought to be determined in advance in order to minimize the negative effects, improve the quality of welded parts and finally to reduce the production costs. In this study, the welding deformation was simulated by using relatively new FEM software WELD PLANNER developed by ESI Group. This novel Welding Simulation Solution was employed to predict welding distortion induced in butt and T-joints with thickness of 4 mm. Low carbon steel material was used for the simulation and experimental study. A series of experiments using fully automated welding process were conducted for verification purpose to measure the distortion. By comparing between the simulation and experimental results, it was found out that this program code offered fast solution analysis time in estimating weld induced distortion within acceptable accuracy.

  18. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Investigation of a Forward Swept Rotor in a Multistage Fan with Inlet Distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspi R. Wadia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of transonic swept rotors in single stage fans have demonstrated the potential of significant improvements in both efficiency and stall margin with forward swept blading. This paper extends the assessment of the payoff derived from forward sweep to multistage configurations. The experimental investigation compare two builds of an advanced two-stage fan configuration tested alternately with a radial and a forward swept stage 1 blade. In the two-stage evaluations, the testing was extended to include the effect on inlet flow distortion. While the common second stage among the two builds prevented the overall fan from showing clean inlet performance and stability benefits with the forward swept rotor 1, this configuration did demonstrate superior front stage efficiency and tolerance to inlet distortion. Having obtained already low distortion sensitivity with the radial rotor 1 configuration relative to current production military fan standards, the sensitivity to inlet distortion was halved with the forward swept rotor 1 configuration. In the case of the 180-degree one-per-rev distortion pattern, the two-stage configuration was evaluated both with and without inlet guide vanes (IGVs. The presence of the inlet guide vanes had a profound impact in lowering the two-stage fan's sensitivity with inlet distortion.

  20. Real-time distortion correction for visual inspection systems based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danhua; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Chen, Xiaodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-03-01

    Visual inspection is a kind of new technology based on the research of computer vision, which focuses on the measurement of the object's geometry and location. It can be widely used in online measurement, and other real-time measurement process. Because of the defects of the traditional visual inspection, a new visual detection mode -all-digital intelligent acquisition and transmission is presented. The image processing, including filtering, image compression, binarization, edge detection and distortion correction, can be completed in the programmable devices -FPGA. As the wide-field angle lens is adopted in the system, the output images have serious distortion. Limited by the calculating speed of computer, software can only correct the distortion of static images but not the distortion of dynamic images. To reach the real-time need, we design a distortion correction system based on FPGA. The method of hardware distortion correction is that the spatial correction data are calculated first under software circumstance, then converted into the address of hardware storage and stored in the hardware look-up table, through which data can be read out to correct gray level. The major benefit using FPGA is that the same circuit can be used for other circularly symmetric wide-angle lenses without being modified.