The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)
Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.
2014-01-01
Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.
STRONG LENS TIME DELAY CHALLENGE. I. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Rumbaugh, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, Tommaso; Liao, Kai [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Marshall, Phil [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Hojjati, Alireza [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Linder, Eric, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-02-01
The time delays between point-like images in gravitational lens systems can be used to measure cosmological parameters. The number of lenses with measured time delays is growing rapidly; the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will monitor ∼10{sup 3} strongly lensed quasars. In an effort to assess the present capabilities of the community, to accurately measure the time delays, and to provide input to dedicated monitoring campaigns and future LSST cosmology feasibility studies, we have invited the community to take part in a ''Time Delay Challenge'' (TDC). The challenge is organized as a set of ''ladders'', each containing a group of simulated data sets to be analyzed blindly by participating teams. Each rung on a ladder consists of a set of realistic mock observed lensed quasar light curves, with the rungs' data sets increasing in complexity and realism. The initial challenge described here has two ladders, TDC0 and TDC1. TDC0 has a small number of data sets, and is designed to be used as a practice set by the participating teams. The (non-mandatory) deadline for completion of TDC0 was the TDC1 launch date, 2013 December 1. The TDC1 deadline was 2014 July 1. Here we give an overview of the challenge, we introduce a set of metrics that will be used to quantify the goodness of fit, efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the algorithms, and we present the results of TDC0. Thirteen teams participated in TDC0 using 47 different methods. Seven of those teams qualified for TDC1, which is described in the companion paper.
Strong delayed interactive effects of metal exposure and warming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong Van; Stoks, Robby
2017-01-01
’ ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and lowlatitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms...... into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis...... was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies...
Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.
2005-01-01
Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly
Probability distribution of wave packet delay time for strong overlapping of resonance levels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyuboshits, V.L.
1983-01-01
Time behaviour of nuclear reactions in the case of high level densities is investigated basing on the theory of overlapping resonances. In the framework of a model of n equivalent channels an analytical expression is obtained for the probability distribution function for wave packet delay time at the compound nucleus production. It is shown that at strong overlapping of the resonance levels the relative fluctuation of the delay time is small at the stage of compound nucleus production. A possible increase in the duration of nuclear reactions with the excitation energy rise is discussed
Li, Guang-Hui; Wang, An-Bang; Feng, Ye; Wang, Yang
2010-07-01
This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guang-Hui, Li; An-Bang, Wang; Ye, Feng; Yang, Wang
2010-01-01
This paper numerically demonstrates synchronization and bidirectional communication without delay line by using two semiconductor lasers with strong mutual injection in a face-to-face configuration. These results show that both of the two lasers' outputs synchronize with their input chaotic carriers. In addition, simulations demonstrate that this kind of synchronization can be used to realize bidirectional communications without delay line. Further studies indicate that within a small deviation in message amplitudes of two sides (±6%), the message can be extracted with signal-noise-ratio more than 10 dB; and the signal-noise-ratio is extremely sensitive to the message rates mismatch of two sides, which may be used as a key of bidirectional communication. (general)
Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby
2017-02-21
As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Kai [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan, Xi-Long, E-mail: liaokai@whut.edu.cn, E-mail: xilong.fan@glasgow.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan 430205 (China)
2017-04-20
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Kai; Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Fan, Xi-Long
2017-01-01
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongtao Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel strong tracking filter (STF, which is suitable for dealing with the filtering problem of nonlinear systems when the following cases occur: that is, the constructed model does not match the actual system, the measurements have the one-step random delay, and the process and measurement noises are correlated at the same epoch. Firstly, a framework of decoupling filter (DF based on equivalent model transformation is derived. Further, according to the framework of DF, a new extended Kalman filtering (EKF algorithm via using first-order linearization approximation is developed. Secondly, the computational process of the suboptimal fading factor is derived on the basis of the extended orthogonality principle (EOP. Thirdly, the ultimate form of the proposed STF is obtained by introducing the suboptimal fading factor into the above EKF algorithm. The proposed STF can automatically tune the suboptimal fading factor on the basis of the residuals between available and predicted measurements and further the gain matrices of the proposed STF tune online to improve the filtering performance. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed STF has been proved through numerical simulation experiments.
Strong-field Breit–Wheeler pair production in two consecutive laser pulses with variable time delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin J.A. Jansen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Photoproduction of electron–positron pairs by the strong-field Breit–Wheeler process in an intense laser field is studied. The laser field is assumed to consist of two consecutive short pulses, with a variable time delay in between. By numerical calculations within the framework of scalar quantum electrodynamics, we demonstrate that the time delay exerts a strong impact on the pair-creation probability. For the case when both pulses are identical, the effect is traced back to the relative quantum phase of the interfering S-matrix amplitudes and explained within a simplified analytical model. Conversely, when the two laser pulses differ from each other, the pair-creation probability depends not only on the time delay but, in general, also on the temporal order of the pulses.
The mass-sheet degeneracy and time-delay cosmography: analysis of the strong lens RXJ1131-1231
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre
2016-01-01
We present extended modelling of the strong lens system RXJ1131-1231 with archival data in two HST bands in combination with existing line-of-sight contribution and velocity dispersion estimates. Our focus is on source size and its influence on time-delay cosmography. We therefore examine the impact of mass-sheet degeneracy and especially the degeneracy pointed out by Schneider and Sluse (2013) [1] using the source reconstruction scale. We also extend on previous work by further exploring the effects of priors on the kinematics of the lens and the external convergence in the environment of the lensing system. Our results coming from RXJ1131-1231 are given in a simple analytic form so that they can be easily combined with constraints coming from other cosmological probes. We find that the choice of priors on lens model parameters and source size are subdominant for the statistical errors for H 0 measurements of this systems. The choice of prior for the source is sub-dominant at present (2% uncertainty on H 0 ) but may be relevant for future studies. More importantly, we find that the priors on the kinematic anisotropy of the lens galaxy have a significant impact on our cosmological inference. When incorporating all the above modeling uncertainties, we find H 0 = 86.6 +6.8 -6.9 km s -1 Mpc -1 , when using kinematic priors similar to other studies. When we use a different kinematic prior motivated by Barnabè et al. (2012) [2] but covering the same anisotropic range, we find H 0 = 74.5 +8.0 -7.8 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This means that the choice of kinematic modeling and priors have a significant impact on cosmographic inferences. The way forward is either to get better velocity dispersion measures which would down weight the impact of the priors or to construct physically motivated priors for the velocity dispersion model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyuboshitz, V.L.
1982-01-01
The time development of nuclear reactions at a large density of levels is investigated using the theory of overlapping resonances. The analytical expression for the function describing the time delay probability distribution of a wave packet is obtained in the framework of the model of n equi - valent channels. It is shown that a relative fluctuation of the time delay at the stage of the compound nucleus is snall. The possibility is discussed of increasing the duration of nuclear raactions with rising excitation energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Suyu, Sherry H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lee, Chien-Hsiu, E-mail: anupreeta.more@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2017-02-01
We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the Hubble Space Telescope F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hr reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. However, the observed total magnification of iPTF16geu is larger than expected, given its redshift. This may be a further indication of ongoing microlensing in this system.
Yanagisawa, Hirofumi; Schnepp, Sascha; Hafner, Christian; Hengsberger, Matthias; Kim, Dong Eon; Kling, Matthias F.; Landsman, Alexandra; Gallmann, Lukas; Osterwalder, Jürg
2016-01-01
Illuminating a nano-sized metallic tip with ultrashort laser pulses leads to the emission of electrons due to multiphoton excitations. As optical fields become stronger, tunnelling emission directly from the Fermi level becomes prevalent. This can generate coherent electron waves in vacuum leading to a variety of attosecond phenomena. Working at high emission currents where multi-electron effects are significant, we were able to characterize the transition from one regime to the other. Specifically, we found that the onset of laser-driven tunnelling emission is heralded by the appearance of a peculiar delayed emission channel. In this channel, the electrons emitted via laser-driven tunnelling emission are driven back into the metal, and some of the electrons reappear in the vacuum with some delay time after undergoing inelastic scattering and cascading processes inside the metal. Our understanding of these processes gives insights on attosecond tunnelling emission from solids and should prove useful in designing new types of pulsed electron sources. PMID:27786287
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1997-07-01
Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)
... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...
... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders
2017-01-01
. The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaniv Shani
2012-11-01
Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.
... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...
... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
de Vries, S. C
2005-01-01
.... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...
Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.
2015-01-01
Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.
Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P
2015-11-01
Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.
This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Behavioral effects of delayed timeouts from reinforcement.
Byrne, Tom; Poling, Alan
2017-03-01
Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined. Delayed timeouts often, but not always, substantially reduced the number of responses emitted on the lever that produced timeouts relative to the number emitted on the lever that did not produce timeouts. In general, greater sensitivity was observed to delayed timeouts when they were signaled. These results demonstrate that delayed timeouts, like other delayed consequences, can affect behavior, albeit less strongly than immediate consequences. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.
1999-01-01
Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
2015-01-01
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
Neutron delayed choice experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein, H.J.
1986-01-01
Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.
1986-04-01
Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs
Schmitt, David R.
2001-01-01
Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pierce, W.B.
1984-10-01
This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns
Quad precision delay generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.
1997-01-01
A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs
Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.
1990-01-01
Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs
Strongly interacting Fermi gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakr W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks
Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han
2013-01-01
Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
Assessing delay discounting in mice
Mitchell, Suzanne H.
2014-01-01
Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...
Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling
1994-01-01
Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yung-Fu Huang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, T.
1988-01-01
Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.
2011-01-01
Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Strongly disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muttalib, K.A.
1982-01-01
We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Antonella Del Rosso
2016-01-01
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Strongly interacting Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.
1980-01-01
The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed
Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.
1987-01-01
The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs
Topological Acoustic Delay Line
Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan
2018-03-01
Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.
Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomita, Hiroki
1984-01-01
CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimo Tinto
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.
Strong-interaction nonuniversality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
1989-01-01
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Wickens, F
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne
2012-01-01
To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely
Vehicle barrier with access delay
Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason
2013-09-03
An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.
Schmitt, D R
2001-01-01
Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.
Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.
1985-01-01
A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr
Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)
1985-01-01
A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.
Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models
Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.
2018-04-01
Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.
Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.
Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua
2016-08-01
This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.
Delayed breast implant reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne
2012-01-01
We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....
Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H
2015-01-01
This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.
Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus
1998-01-01
When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William
2014-05-28
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2014-05-28
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir
2014-01-01
Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay
Systematic of delayed neutron parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.
2000-01-01
The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru
Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi
2015-01-01
Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773
Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement
Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone
2011-01-01
It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…
2013-01-01
Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.
Picosecond resolution programmable delay line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suchenek, Mariusz
2009-01-01
The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)
Project delay analysis of HRSG
Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo
2017-08-01
Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.
2015-01-01
examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This article...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Toole, Andrew A.
examines the relationship between industry sponsorship and restrictions on disclosure using individual-level data on German academic researchers. Accounting for self-selection into extramural sponsorship, our evidence strongly supports the perspective that industry sponsorship jeopardizes public disclosure......The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. Aggregate data from the OECD show a broad shift in the institutional financing structure that supports academic research from public to private sponsorship. This paper...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))
1981-07-01
A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro
1981-01-01
A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.
Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2016-08-26
We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.
Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfister, Patrik L; Stocker, Thomas F
2016-01-01
As long as global CO 2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max ) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3–7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7–25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%–80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%–18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015–2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes. (letter)
Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magueijo, João; Mozaffari, Ali
2013-01-01
Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a sub-class of these models, this translates into diverging time delays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the time-delay effect within metres of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the Jupiter–Sun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be well-hidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system. (fast track communication)
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeSantis, G.N.
1995-01-01
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch
Delays and networked control systems
Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl
2016-01-01
This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .
Linear rotary optical delay lines
Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim
2016-03-01
We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.
Systematics in delayed neutron yields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.
1998-03-01
An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)
Analytical applications for delayed neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eccleston, G.W.
1983-01-01
Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes
On the performance of data receivers with a restricted detection delay
Bergmans, J.W.M.; Willems, F.M.J.; Kerpen, G.S.M.
1994-01-01
It is well known that the performance of a data receiver for an intersymbol interference (ISI) channel can depend strongly on the detection delay d. For a discrete-time communication system, this paper derives a lower bound on the bit-error probability as a function of d. This "restricted delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)
On the linearity of cross-correlation delay times
Mercerat, E. D.; Nolet, G.
2012-12-01
major contributor to deviation from linearity. The strong velocity contrast of 10% and the regularity of the anomalous structure generate strong reverberations. The test thus provides a worst-case scenario. The results scale up to regional (upper mantle) seismology if times and distances are multiplied by 10(4) . We conclude that in all but the most extreme cases, P-wave delay times depend quasi-linearly on the model perturbations.
Strong interactions at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.
1995-01-01
Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Strong-field dissociation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.
1993-01-01
The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs
Cracking chaos-based encryption systems ruled by nonlinear time delay differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Udaltsov, Vladimir S.; Goedgebuer, Jean-Pierre; Larger, Laurent; Cuenot, Jean-Baptiste; Levy, Pascal; Rhodes, William T.
2003-01-01
We report that signal encoding with high-dimensional chaos produced by delayed feedback systems with a strong nonlinearity can be broken. We describe the procedure and illustrate the method with chaotic waveforms obtained from a strongly nonlinear optical system that we used previously to demonstrate signal encryption/decryption with chaos in wavelength. The method can be extended to any systems ruled by nonlinear time-delayed differential equations
UWB delay and multiply receiver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.
2013-09-10
An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.
Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
The colours of strong interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)
Postraumatic delayed loss of vision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.
1989-01-01
The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma
Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method
An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry
Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.
Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolak, A.
1987-01-01
Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...
Beta-delayed neutron decay of $^{33}$Na
Radivojevic, Z; Caurier, E; Cederkäll, J; Courtin, S; Dessagne, P; Jokinen, A; Knipper, A; Le Scornet, G; Lyapin, V G; Miehé, C; Nowacki, F; Nummela, S; Oinonen, M; Poirier, E; Ramdhane, M; Trzaska, W H; Walter, G; Äystö, J
2002-01-01
Beta-delayed neutron decay of /sup 33/Na has been studied using the on-line mass separator ISOLDE. The delayed neutron spectra were measured by time-of-flight technique using fast scintillators. Two main neutron groups at 800(60) and 1020(80) keV were assigned to the /sup 33/Na decay, showing evidence for strong feeding of states at about 4 MeV in /sup 33/Mg. By simultaneous beta - gamma -n counting the delayed neutron emission probabilities P/sub 1n/ = 47(6)% and P /sub 2n/ = 13(3)% were determined. The half-life value for /sup 33 /Na, T/sub 1/2/ = 8.0(3) ms, was measured by three different techniques, one employing identifying gamma transitions and two employing beta and neutron counting. (21 refs).
Importance of delayed neutron data in transmutation system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujimoto, Kazufumi
1999-01-01
The accelerator-driven transmutation system has been studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This system is a hybrid system which consists of a high intensity accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core region. The subcritical core is driven by neutrons generated by spallation reaction in the target region. There is no control rod in this system, so the power is controlled only by proton beam current. The beam current to keep constant power change with effective multiplication factor of subcritical core. So, the evaluation of delayed neutron fraction which is strongly connected to the measurement of subcritical level is important factor in operation of accelerator-driven system. In this paper, important nuclides for the delayed neutron fraction of ADS will be discussed, moreover, present state of delayed neutron data in evaluated nuclear data library is presented. (author)
Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.
1982-01-01
A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)
Another definition for time delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narnhofer, H.
1980-01-01
Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)
Weather delay costs to trucking.
2012-11-01
Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...
Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...
Design flaw could delay collider
Cho, Adrian
2007-01-01
"A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)
Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile
the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...
Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder
Smid, G
2011-01-01
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the
Livermore blasted for project delay
1999-01-01
In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).
Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth
Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.
2003-01-01
Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.
Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods
Avella, Adolfo
2012-01-01
The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...
Strongly correlated systems numerical methods
Mancini, Ferdinando
2013-01-01
This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...
Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques
Mancini, Ferdinando
2015-01-01
The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...
Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification
Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven
1998-01-01
We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.
String dynamics at strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)
PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.
2012-07-01
This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which
Patient delay and associated factors among breast cancer patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, M.A.; Khan, M.I.; Andleeb, U.
2015-01-01
Objectives: To stratify patients into various stages, calculate average patient delay and study various causes of delay to presentation. Methodology: This was a one year hospital based cross sectional study at Khyber Teaching Hospital, using non probability consecutive sampling. A simplified staging was used for this study; Early (Stage I), Intermediate (Stage II, III), and Late (Stage IV). A patient was labelled delay when >3 months had elapsed between first symptom perception and first doctor consultation. Results: 80 patients were included with age 21-80 years (mean 45.28+-13.15). 80% of the patients were married, 76.3% (n=61/80) were poor with annual income of <500 US $, 85% of patients were illiterate. The participants from Rural and Urban areas were similar (37 % vs 31%); 15% were from Afghanistan. 80% patients presented with a delay of >3 months. Most common cause of delay was false symptom interpretation in 25.3% (n=17) patients. Conclusion: Late clinical presentation is because of lack of health education, unawareness, misconceptions about treatment and strong belief in traditional medicine resulting in advanced disease. This is worsened by poverty and unavailability of health care services especially in rural areas. (author)
Delays in initiation of acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis.
Hughes, Peter S; Jackson, Alan C
2012-09-01
Diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is based on clinical findings, MRI, and detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using polymerase chain reaction amplification. Delays in starting treatment are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. We assessed the timing of initiation of acyclovir therapy in HSE. Inpatient databases from seven hospitals in Winnipeg, Manitoba were used to identify individuals diagnosed with encephalitis and HSE from 2004 to 2009. The time taken to initiate therapy with acyclovir and the reasons for delays were determined. Seventy-seven patients were identified; 69 (90%) received acyclovir; in the others a non-HSV infection was strongly suspected. Thirteen patients were subsequently confirmed to have HSE. Acyclovir was initiated a median of 21 hours (3-407) after presentation in encephalitis cases, and a median of 11 hours (3-118) in HSE. The most common reason for delay was a failure to consider HSE in the differential diagnosis, despite suggestive clinical features. Where therapy was delayed in HSE patients, the decision to begin acyclovir was prompted by transfer of the patient to a different service (55%), recommendations by consultants (18%), imaging results (18%), and CSF pleocytosis (9%). Delays in initiating acyclovir for HSE are common, and are most often due to a failure to consider HSE in a timely fashion on presentation. In order to improve patient outcomes, physicians should be more vigilant for HSE, and begin acyclovir therapy expeditiously on the basis of clinical suspicion rather than waiting for confirmatory tests.
Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays
Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.
1989-09-01
An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, A.
2002-01-01
When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)
Airport Flight Departure Delay Model on Improved BN Structure Learning
Cao, Weidong; Fang, Xiangnong
An high score prior genetic simulated annealing Bayesian network structure learning algorithm (HSPGSA) by combining genetic algorithm(GA) with simulated annealing algorithm(SAA) is developed. The new algorithm provides not only with strong global search capability of GA, but also with strong local hill climb search capability of SAA. The structure with the highest score is prior selected. In the mean time, structures with lower score are also could be choice. It can avoid efficiently prematurity problem by higher score individual wrong direct growing population. Algorithm is applied to flight departure delays analysis in a large hub airport. Based on the flight data a BN model is created. Experiments show that parameters learning can reflect departure delay.
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Strong versions of Bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1994-01-01
Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption
Strongly interacting light dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-07-01
In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.
Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Robles
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))
1992-07-09
We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Estimation of strong ground motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Makoto
1993-01-01
Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event
Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)
2011-10-29
We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.
Response to Competitive Entry: A Rationale for Delayed Defensive Reaction
Ajay Kalra; Surendra Rajiv; Kannan Srinivasan
1998-01-01
Empirical studies examining responses to new product entries come to the puzzling conclusion that, in general, an incumbent reacts to a new entrant after a significant delay. Even easy-to-implement price cuts are observed after significant lag following entry. These findings seem to contradict the existing literature that either implicitly assumes or strongly advocates immediate defensive responses to limit competitive encroachment. When a competing firm enters the market, consumers may be un...
Delayed Rebleeding of Cerebral Aneurysm Misdiagnosed as Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Song, Seung-Yoon; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Sung-Don
2016-01-01
An intracranial saccular aneurysm is uncommonly diagnosed in a patient with closed head trauma. We herein present a patient with delayed rebleeding of a cerebral aneurysm misdiagnosed as traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 26-year-old female visited our emergency department because of headache after a motorcycle accident. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a right-side dominant SAH in Sylvian fissure. Although traumatic SAH was strongly suggested because of the history of head traum...
Effective lagrangian for strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.
1988-01-01
We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model
EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian
2011-03-01
Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed
Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.
Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael
2015-06-09
A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-11-09
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.
Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil
2002-12-01
If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.
Air congestion delay: a review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Alberto Pamplona
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-01-08
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh
2017-01-01
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nirosshan Thiruchelvam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.
Assembly delay line pulse generators
CERN PhotoLab
1971-01-01
Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-05-14
This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Development of delayed radiation necrosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.
1983-01-01
The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)
Strong growth for Queensland mining
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-10-01
The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
Strongly interacting W's and Z's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1984-01-01
The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data
Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XIU-LAN
2012-01-01
A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.
Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.
Barany, Sandor
2009-01-01
Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a
Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays
Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor
2018-01-01
Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.
Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil
2008-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.
2006-01-01
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...
Remnants of strong tidal interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mcglynn, T.A.
1990-01-01
This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs
Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells
Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram
2016-06-01
Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.
Strong seismic ground motion propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.
1988-10-01
At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials
Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.
2005-01-01
We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes
Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)
2017-05-15
A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)
A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2017-01-01
Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...
Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filip Rezac
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.
Strongly interacting photons and atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alge, W.
1999-05-01
This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)
Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.
1981-01-01
This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)
Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills
Narayanan, M.
2015-12-01
The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987
Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.
Examining the psychosocial determinants of women's decisions to delay childbearing.
Kearney, Allison L; White, Katherine M
2016-08-01
What are the psychosocial determinants of women's intentions to delay childbearing until after 35 years? Attitudes, pressure from important others, perceived self-confidence and anticipated regret all influence the decision-making process of women aged 18-30 years to defer their attempts to conceive their first child until 35+ years. Research has consistently demonstrated that, for many women, the decision to delay childbearing can lead to 'unintentional childlessness' due to a failure to consider the impact of age-related fertility decline. A large body of literature has also found strong links between age-related involuntary infertility and negative psychological impacts, including an increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, guilt, stigma and poor mental health. The study initially conducted focus groups designed to ascertain important beliefs informing participants' intentions to delay childbearing. A subsequent larger-scale quantitative questionnaire followed. Participants (n = 358) were female, aged between 18 and 30 years, lived in Australia, identified as being open to the idea of having children, were heterosexual, had not already had children, were not already pregnant, and had not received a diagnosis of medical infertility prior to participating. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed strong support for psychosocial predictors of attitude, pressure from others and perceived self-confidence as predictors of women's intentions to delay childbearing, accounting for 59% of total variance. The extended model that included anticipated regret, accounted for a significant additional 4.4% variance in intention to delay childbearing past the age of 35 years. Proportionally more participants were younger, Caucasian, and were university students, thus limiting the generalizability of results to the wider Australian community. Future research in this domain is recommended to adopt a prospective design and incorporate a measure of behaviour to
Delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S.; Ma, Z.; Tang, Z.
2000-01-01
In recent years, the use of ultrasonography (US), X-CT and MRI has reduced the employment of isotopic explorations in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But sometime the results of US, X-CT or MRI were different and diagnosis was very difficult. This present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of HCC in these patients. Forty-eight patients consisting of 33 males and 15 females were entered into the research protocol. The mean age was 46 yr old (range 12-71 yr old). All of the patients were performed by surgery and verified histologically after nuclear examination. The subject was in a supine position under a gamma camera (Elscint, Apex Ap-6) and 555 MBq of Tc-99m-PMT were injected intravenously. The initial scinphotos obtained within 1 min after injection were used to image the blood pool phase. Subsequently, hepatic scans were obtained at 5 min, 1,2 and 5 hr. Anterior, right lateral and posterior hepatic images were recorded. According to the radioactive uptake by the lesion in delayed phase, the negative (no or minor uptake), positive (equal or greater uptake) or very strong positive (almost equal to the activity, of gallbladder) were judged. The positive were considered as diagnostic of HCC. And the very strong positive, were considered as diagnostic of benign hepatoma, such as adenoma or FNH. Thirty-seven of the forty-eight patients were HCC based on histology. Delayed imaging revealed increased or equilibrated uptake of radioactivity by the tumors in 22 of 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity was 59.5%. One patient final diagnosis based on histology was focal nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and only the diagnosis with delayed hepatobiliary imaging before surgery was correct. Compared with US, X-CT and MRI, delayed hepatobiliary imaging had the highest specificity for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent group, the specificity of Tc-99m-PMT delayed
Suppression of cocaine self-administration in monkeys: effects of delayed punishment.
Woolverton, William L; Freeman, Kevin B; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard
2012-04-01
Delaying presentation of a drug can decrease its effectiveness as a reinforcer, but the effect of delaying punishment of drug self-administration is unknown. This study examined whether a histamine injection could punish cocaine self-administration in a drug-drug choice, whether delaying histamine would decrease its effectiveness, and whether the effects of delay could be described within a delay discounting framework. Monkeys were implanted with double-lumen catheters to allow separate injection of cocaine and histamine. In discrete trials, subjects first chose between cocaine (50 or 100 μg/kg/inj) alone and an injection of the same dose of cocaine followed immediately by an injection of histamine (0.37-50 μg/kg). Next, they chose between cocaine followed immediately by histamine and cocaine followed by an equal but delayed dose of histamine. When choosing between cocaine alone and cocaine followed immediately by histamine, preference increased with histamine dose from indifference to >80% choice of cocaine alone. When choosing between cocaine followed by immediate histamine and cocaine followed by delayed histamine, monkeys showed strong position preferences. When delayed histamine was associated with the nonpreferred position, preference for that option increased with delay from ≤30% to >85%. The corresponding decrease in choice of the preferred position was well described by a hyperboloid discounting function. Histamine can function as a punisher in the choice between injections of cocaine and delay can decrease its effectiveness as a punisher. The effects of delaying punishment of drug self-administration can be conceptualized within the delay discounting framework.
Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic
Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.
Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob
2011-01-01
(≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...
Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto
2011-01-01
Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...
Elite athletes and pubertal delay.
Kapczuk, Karina
2017-10-01
Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.
Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph
2008-01-01
Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.
Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Jacquet
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.
Imitation of contrastive lexical stress in children with speech delay
Vick, Jennell C.; Moore, Christopher A.
2005-09-01
This study examined the relationship between acoustic correlates of stress in trochaic (strong-weak), spondaic (strong-strong), and iambic (weak-strong) nonword bisyllables produced by children (30-50) with normal speech acquisition and children with speech delay. Ratios comparing the acoustic measures (vowel duration, rms, and f0) of the first syllable to the second syllable were calculated to evaluate the extent to which each phonetic parameter was used to mark stress. In addition, a calculation of the variability of jaw movement in each bisyllable was made. Finally, perceptual judgments of accuracy of stress production were made. Analysis of perceptual judgments indicated a robust difference between groups: While both groups of children produced errors in imitating the contrastive lexical stress models (~40%), the children with normal speech acquisition tended to produce trochaic forms in substitution for other stress types, whereas children with speech delay showed no preference for trochees. The relationship between segmental acoustic parameters, kinematic variability, and the ratings of stress by trained listeners will be presented.
Stevens, Laura; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Roeyers, Herbert; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Vanderplasschen, Wouter
2015-01-01
Recent studies consistently indicate high rates of delay discounting in drug users, which refers to a strong tendency to devaluate delayed rewards. Many addiction treatment programs however, place high demands on the ability to postpone immediate gratification. Therefore, these programs may be
Russia needs a strong counterpart
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.
2008-01-01
In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom
Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi, E-mail: clefairy035@163.com, E-mail: yixie@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2016-07-01
Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of these observables for the closest supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The strong field lensing observables of the charged Galileon black hole can be close to those of a tidal Reissner-Nordström black hole or those of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. It will be helpful to distinguish these black holes if we can separate the outermost relativistic images and determine their angular separation, brightness difference and time delay, although it requires techniques beyond the current limit.
Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database
Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.
2014-12-01
We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.
Analytical approximate solutions for a general class of nonlinear delay differential equations.
Căruntu, Bogdan; Bota, Constantin
2014-01-01
We use the polynomial least squares method (PLSM), which allows us to compute analytical approximate polynomial solutions for a very general class of strongly nonlinear delay differential equations. The method is tested by computing approximate solutions for several applications including the pantograph equations and a nonlinear time-delay model from biology. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by a comparison with approximate solutions previously computed using other methods.
Chen, Xiankai; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Ishikawa, Yuma; Zhong, Cheng; Adachi, Chihaya; Bredas, Jean-Luc
2017-01-01
In the traditional molecular design of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters composed of electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties, achieving a small singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔEST ) in strongly twisted structures usually
Wigner-Smith delay times and the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian for the HOCl molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, A.M.; Reichl, L.E.
2013-01-01
We construct the scattering matrix for a two-dimensional model of a Cl atom scattering from an OH dimer. We show that the scattering matrix can be written in terms of a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian whose complex energy eigenvalues can be used to compute Wigner-Smith delay times for the Cl-OH scattering process. We compute the delay times for a range of energies, and show that the scattering states with the longest delay times are strongly influenced by unstable periodic orbits in the classical dynamics. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Fractal analysis of intraflow unidirectional delay over w-lan and w-wan environments
Pezaros, D. P.; Sifalakis, M.; Mathy, Laurent
2007-01-01
We have analysed unidirectional delay traces of a diverse set of IPv6 microflows routed over W-LAN and W-WAN environments. Using a number of time-domain and frequency-domain estimators we have examined the existence and intensity of long-range dependence in packet delay when viewed as time-series data. The correlation structures of packet delay on bulk TCP data path and UDP flows follow asymptotic decay while Hurst exponent estimates suggest from moderate to strong intensity(H->1).
Fission delay and GDR γ-ray from very heavy system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, W.Q.; Wang, J.S.; Ye, W.; Cai, Y.H.; Ma, Y.G.; Feng, J.; Fang, D.Q.; Cai, X.Z.
1999-01-01
The study of the fission delay in reaction of 84 Kr+ 27 Al at 10.6 Mev/u and the systematics of fission delay are described. Authors also discussed the possibility to study the GDR γ rays emitted from the super-heavy compound system on the basis of the strong increasing of the GDR γ rays duo to the fission delay. The calculation results of the GDR γ rays from the super-heavy compound system via microscopic semi-classical Vlasov equation and the experimental data analysis for searching the super-heavy compound system via GDR γ were given
Relativistic effects in photoionization time delay near the Cooper minimum of noble-gas atoms
Saha, Soumyajit; Mandal, Ankur; Jose, Jobin; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.
2014-11-01
Time delay of photoemission from valence n s , n p3 /2 , and n p1 /2 subshells of noble-gas atoms is theoretically scrutinized within the framework of the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. The focus is on the variation of time delay in the vicinity of the Cooper minima in photoionization of the outer subshells of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, where the corresponding dipole matrix element changes its sign while passing through a node. It is revealed that the presence of the Cooper minimum in one photoionization channel has a strong effect on time delay in other channels. This is shown to be due to interchannel coupling.
Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions
Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.
2016-03-01
Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.
Rubber hand illusion under delayed visual feedback.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sotaro Shimada
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rubber hand illusion (RHI is a subject's illusion of the self-ownership of a rubber hand that was touched synchronously with their own hand. Although previous studies have confirmed that this illusion disappears when the rubber hand was touched asynchronously with the subject's hand, the minimum temporal discrepancy of these two events for attenuation of RHI has not been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, various temporal discrepancies between visual and tactile stimulations were introduced by using a visual feedback delay experimental setup, and RHI effects in each temporal discrepancy condition were systematically tested. The results showed that subjects felt significantly greater RHI effects with temporal discrepancies of less than 300 ms compared with longer temporal discrepancies. The RHI effects on reaching performance (proprioceptive drift showed similar conditional differences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results first demonstrated that a temporal discrepancy of less than 300 ms between visual stimulation of the rubber hand and tactile stimulation to the subject's own hand is preferable to induce strong sensation of RHI. We suggest that the time window of less than 300 ms is critical for multi-sensory integration processes constituting the self-body image.
Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samar Husain
Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.
Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.
Husain, Samar; Vasishth, Shravan; Srinivasan, Narayanan
2014-01-01
Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008) and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.
van Weerdenburg, J.J.A.; Antonio-Lopez, J.E.; Alvarado-Zacarias, J.; Molin, D.; Bigot-Astruc, M.; van Uden, R.; de Waardt, H.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Amezcua-Correa, R.; Sillard, P.; Okonkwo, C.M.
2016-01-01
By exploiting strong coupling in higher-order modes, we experimentally demonstrate reduced differential mode group delay by a factor of 3. Comparing LP02+LP21 with respect to LP01+LP11 3-mode transmission, a 27% reduction in equalizer length is shown after 53.4km MMF transmission.
Radio and Gamma-Ray Monitoring of Strongly Lensed Quasars and Blazars
Rumbaugh, Nick; Fassnacht, Chris; McKean, John; Koopmans, Leon; Auger, Matthew; Suyu, Sherry; Marshall, Philip J.
2015-01-01
We observed six strongly lensed, radio-loud quasars (MG 0414+0534, CLASS B0712+472, JVAS B1030+074, CLASS B1127+385, CLASS B1152+199, and JVAS B1938+666) in order to identify systems suitable for measuring cosmological parameters using time delays between their multiple images. Two separate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yimer Solomon
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB results in severe disease and a higher mortality. It also leads to an increased period of infectivity in the community. The objective of this study was to determine the length of delays, and analyze the factors affecting the delay from onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB until the commencement of treatment. Methods In randomly selected TB management units (TBMUs, i.e. government health institutions which have diagnosing and treatment facilities for TB in Amhara Region, we conducted a cross sectional study from September 1-December 31/2003. Delay was analyzed from two perspectives, 1. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to any health provider (health seeking period, and from the first health provider visit to initiation of treatment (health providers' delay, and 2. Period between onset of TB symptoms to first visit to a medical provider (patients' delay, and from this visit to commencement of anti-TB treatment (health systems' delay. Patients were interviewed on the same date of diagnosis using a semi-structured questionnaire. Logistics regression analysis was applied to analyze the risk factors of delays. Results A total of 384 new smear positive PTB patients participated in the study. The median total delay was 80 days. The median health-seeking period and health providers' delays were 15 and 61 days, respectively. Conversely, the median patients' and health systems' delays were 30 and 21 days, respectively. Taking medical providers as a reference point, we found that forty eight percent of the subjects delayed for more than one month. Patients' delays were strongly associated with first visit to non-formal health providers and self treatment (P Conclusion Delay in the diagnosis and treatment of PTB is unacceptably high in Amhara region. Health providers' and health systems' delays represent the major portion of the total delay. Accessing a
Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems
Lakshmanan, Muthusamy
2010-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...
Group Delay of High Q Antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2013-01-01
Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....
Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays
Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.
2017-12-01
Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.
Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie
2010-01-01
Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... delays caused by primary health care, local hospitals, or procedures at the sarcoma centre. Results. Complete data were available from 33 patients and demonstrated a median patient delay of 23¿days (0-17¿months) and median health care delay of 94¿days (1-40¿months) with delays of median 15¿days...
Time Delay Estimation Algoritms for Echo Cancellation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kirill Sakhnov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The following case study describes how to eliminate echo in a VoIP network using delay estimation algorithms. It is known that echo with long transmission delays becomes more noticeable to users. Thus, time delay estimation, as a part of echo cancellation, is an important topic during transmission of voice signals over packetswitching telecommunication systems. An echo delay problem associated with IP-based transport networks is discussed in the following text. The paper introduces the comparative study of time delay estimation algorithm, used for estimation of the true time delay between two speech signals. Experimental results of MATLab simulations that describe the performance of several methods based on cross-correlation, normalized crosscorrelation and generalized cross-correlation are also presented in the paper.
CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image
Mcfarland, R. E.
1986-01-01
Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.
Memorized discrete systems and time-delay
Luo, Albert C J
2017-01-01
This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.
When good pigeons make bad decisions: Choice with probabilistic delays and outcomes.
Pisklak, Jeffrey M; McDevitt, Margaret A; Dunn, Roger M; Spetch, Marcia L
2015-11-01
Pigeons chose between an (optimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after a 10-s delay and other times after a 40-s delay and another (suboptimal) alternative that sometimes provided food after 10 s but other times no food after 40 s. When outcomes were not signaled during the delays, pigeons strongly preferred the optimal alternative. When outcomes were signaled, choices of the suboptimal alternative increased and most pigeons preferred the alternative that provided no food after the long delay despite the cost in terms of obtained food. The pattern of results was similar whether the short delays occurred on 25% or 50% of the trials. Shortening the 40-s delay to food sharply reduced suboptimal choices, but shortening the delay to no food had little effect. The results suggest that a signaled delay to no food does not punish responding in probabilistic choice procedures. The findings are discussed in terms of conditioned reinforcement by signals for good news. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Does delaying the first mowing date benefit biodiversity in meadowland?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Humbert Jean-Yves
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Meadows are regularly mown in order to provide fodder or litter for livestock and to prevent vegetation succession. However, the time of year at which meadows should be first mown in order to maximize biological diversity remains controversial and may vary with respect to context and focal taxa. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of delaying the first mowing date upon plants and invertebrates in European meadowlands. Methods Following a CEE protocol, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, JSTOR, Google and Google Scholar were searched. We recorded all studies that compared the species richness of plants, or the species richness or abundance of invertebrates, between grassland plots mown at a postponed date (treatment vs plots mown earlier (control. In order to be included in the meta-analysis, compared plots had to be similar in all management respects, except the date of the first cut that was (mostly experimentally manipulated. They were also to be located in the same meadow type. Meta-analyses applying Hedges’d statistic were performed. Results Plant species richness responded differently to the date to which mowing was postponed. Delaying mowing from spring to summer had a positive effect, while delaying either from spring to fall, or from early summer to later in the season had a negative effect. Invertebrates were expected to show a strong response to delayed mowing due to their dependence on sward structure, but only species richness showed a clearly significant positive response. Invertebrate abundance was positively influenced in only a few studies. Conclusions The present meta-analysis shows that in general delaying the first mowing date in European meadowlands has either positive or neutral effects on plant and invertebrate biodiversity (except for plant species richness when delaying from spring to fall or from early summer to later. Overall, there was also strong between
Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng
2002-01-01
This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small
Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?
Amy L Atkinson
2016-01-01
It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...
Delayed enhanced MRI in intraparenchymal tumors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eguchi, Takahiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Toshikazu
1991-01-01
Delayed enhanced MRI was performed on 20 intraparenchymal tumors, and these findings were compared with those of early enhanced MRI. Using the spin-echo technique (SE: 400-500/20 msec), early scans were obtained 5 minutes, and delayed scans were obtained 60 minutes, after the intravenous injection of 0.1 nmol of gadolinium-DTPA/Kg. We discussed the changes in the delayed scan with regard to the change in the pattern of enhancement and the boundary of enhancement. In these twenty intraparenchymal tumors, there were three low-grade astrocytomas, two anaplastic astrocytomas, seven glioblastomas, and eight metastatic tumors. The changes in the enhanced pattern showed three types as follows: Type I: heterogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans; Type II: heterogeneous enhancement in early scan and homogeneous enhancement in delayed scan; Type III: homogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans. Most malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas (6/8), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/2), and metastatic tumors (7/8), revealed Type I, although low-grade astrocytomas showed Type II (3/2) and Type III (1/3). The heterogeneous enhancement in delayed scan was found in malignant tumors and in low-grade astrocytoma; even if the early scan revealed heterogeneous enhancement, the delayed scan showed homogeneous enhancement. In the delayed scan, most enhanced boundaries spread out of the boundaries in the early scan. Glioblastomas spread markedly in the delayed scan, although none of the low-grade astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or metastases revealed marked spreading. We called these marked increases in the delayed scan a 'spreading sign' and thought that this sign was specific to glioblastomas. Recently some authors have emphasized the usefulness of serial scans. Delayed enhanced MRI 60 minutes after the administration of a contrast medium was here found also to be useful for the accurate diagnosis for brain tumors. (author)
Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.
1987-01-01
From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)
Karmeshu; Gupta, Varun; Kadambari, K V
2011-06-01
A single neuronal model incorporating distributed delay (memory)is proposed. The stochastic model has been formulated as a Stochastic Integro-Differential Equation (SIDE) which results in the underlying process being non-Markovian. A detailed analysis of the model when the distributed delay kernel has exponential form (weak delay) has been carried out. The selection of exponential kernel has enabled the transformation of the non-Markovian model to a Markovian model in an extended state space. For the study of First Passage Time (FPT) with exponential delay kernel, the model has been transformed to a system of coupled Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) in two-dimensional state space. Simulation studies of the SDEs provide insight into the effect of weak delay kernel on the Inter-Spike Interval(ISI) distribution. A measure based on Jensen-Shannon divergence is proposed which can be used to make a choice between two competing models viz. distributed delay model vis-á-vis LIF model. An interesting feature of the model is that the behavior of (CV(t))((ISI)) (Coefficient of Variation) of the ISI distribution with respect to memory kernel time constant parameter η reveals that neuron can switch from a bursting state to non-bursting state as the noise intensity parameter changes. The membrane potential exhibits decaying auto-correlation structure with or without damped oscillatory behavior depending on the choice of parameters. This behavior is in agreement with empirically observed pattern of spike count in a fixed time window. The power spectral density derived from the auto-correlation function is found to exhibit single and double peaks. The model is also examined for the case of strong delay with memory kernel having the form of Gamma distribution. In contrast to fast decay of damped oscillations of the ISI distribution for the model with weak delay kernel, the decay of damped oscillations is found to be slower for the model with strong delay kernel.
Delayed habituation in Behcet's disease.
Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse
2008-01-01
The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.
Time delays, population, and economic development
Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2018-05-01
This research develops an augmented Solow model with population dynamics and time delays. The model produces either a single stationary state or multiple stationary states (able to characterise different development regimes). The existence of time delays may cause persistent fluctuations in both economic and demographic variables. In addition, the work identifies in a simple way the reasons why economics affects demographics and vice versa.
On Delay and Security in Network Coding
Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.
2013-01-01
In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…
Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs
Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric
2004-01-01
This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…
ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr Kharchenko
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed
Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed M. Marzouk
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.
Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations
Viallet, Claude M.
2014-01-01
We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.
A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2017-01-01
Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...
Test Anxiety and Academic Delay of Gratification
Bembenutty, Hefer
2009-01-01
The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…
Delaying gratification depends on social trust
Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko
2013-01-01
Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977
Delaying gratification depends on social trust
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura eMichaelson
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then chose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity.
Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.
1991-01-01
A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs
Allee effects on population dynamics with delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celik, C.; Merdan, H.; Duman, O.; Akin, O.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study the stability analysis of equilibrium points of population dynamics with delay when the Allee effect occurs at low population density. Mainly, our mathematical results and numerical simulations point to the stabilizing effect of the Allee effects on population dynamics with delay
Nonlinear delay monopoly with bounded rationality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a monopolistic firm in a continuous-time framework. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to experience time delays in obtaining and implementing information on output. The dynamic adjustment process is based on the gradient of the expected profit. The paper is divided into three parts: we examine delay effects on dynamics caused by one-time delay and two-time delays in the first two parts. Global dynamics and analytical results on local dynamics are numerically confirmed in the third part. Four main results are demonstrated. First, the stability switch from stability to instability occurs only once in the case of a single delay. Second, the alternation of stability and instability can continue if two time delays are involved. Third, the occurence of Hopf bifurcation is analytically shown if stability is lost. Finally, in a bifurcation process, there are a period-doubling cascade to chaos and a period-halving cascade to the equilibrium point in the case of two time delays if the difference between the two delays is large.
Strong-Field Control of Laser Filamentation Mechanisms
Levis, Robert; Romanov, Dmitri; Filin, Aleskey; Compton, Ryan
2008-05-01
The propagation of short strong-file laser pulses in gas and solution phases often result in formation of filaments. This phenomenon involves many nonlinear processes including Kerr lensing, group velocity dispersion, multi-photon ionization, plasma defocusing, intensity clamping, and self-steepening. Of these, formation and dynamics of pencil-shape plasma areas plays a crucial role. The fundamental understanding of these laser-induced plasmas requires additional effort, because the process is highly nonlinear and complex. We studied the ultrafast laser-generated plasma dynamics both experimentally and theoretically. Ultrafast plasma dynamics was probed using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering. The measurements were made in a room temperature gas maintained at 1 atm in a flowing cell. The time dependent scattering was measured by delaying the CARS probe with respect to the intense laser excitation pulse. A general trend is observed between the spacing of the ground state and the first allowed excited state with the rise time for the noble gas series and the molecular gases. This trend is consistent with our theoretical model, which considers the ultrafast dynamics of the strong field generated plasma as a three-step process; (i) strong-field ionization followed by the electron gaining considerable kinetic energy during the pulse; (ii) immediate post-pulse dynamics: fast thermalization, impact-ionization-driven electron multiplication and cooling; (iii) ensuing relaxation: evolution to electron-ion equilibrium and eventual recombination.
Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design .... To find the quality of non-robust tests, a fuzzy delay ..... Dubois D and Prade H 1989 Processing Fuzzy temporal knowledge. IEEE Transactions ...
Delay-dependent exponential stability of cellular neural networks with time-varying delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin
2005-01-01
The global exponential stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) with time-varying delays is analyzed. Two new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability for delayed CNNs are obtained. The conditions presented here are related to the size of delay. The stability results improve the earlier publications. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results
Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Myung-Woon; Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai
2004-01-01
We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed
Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Biggs
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.
Controllability of nonlinear delay oscillating systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengbin Liang
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the controllability of a system governed by second order delay differential equations. We introduce a delay Gramian matrix involving the delayed matrix sine, which is used to establish sufficient and necessary conditions of controllability for the linear problem. In addition, we also construct a specific control function for controllability. For the nonlinear problem, we construct a control function and transfer the controllability problem to a fixed point problem for a suitable operator. We give a sufficient condition to guarantee the nonlinear delay system is controllable. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results by calculating a specific control function and inverse of a delay Gramian matrix.
Dynamics of microbubble oscillators with delay coupling
Heckman, C. R.; Sah, S. M.; Rand, R. H.
2010-10-01
We investigate the stability of the in-phase mode in a system of two delay-coupled bubble oscillators. The bubble oscillator model is based on a 1956 paper by Keller and Kolodner. Delay coupling is due to the time it takes for a signal to travel from one bubble to another through the liquid medium that surrounds them. Using techniques from the theory of differential-delay equations as well as perturbation theory, we show that the equilibrium of the in-phase mode can be made unstable if the delay is long enough and if the coupling strength is large enough, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation. We then employ Lindstedt's method to compute the amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the time delay. This work is motivated by medical applications involving noninvasive localized drug delivery via microbubbles.
Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Srba, Jirí
2003-01-01
We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...
Wittmann, Marc; Leland, David S; Paulus, Martin P
2007-06-01
Delay discounting refers to the fact that an immediate reward is valued more than the same reward if it occurs some time in the future. To examine the neural substrates underlying this process, we studied 13 healthy volunteers who repeatedly had to decide between an immediate and parametrically varied delayed hypothetical reward using a delay discounting task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subject's preference judgments resulted in different discounting slopes for shorter ( or =1 year) delays. Neural activation associated with the shorter delays relative to the longer delays was associated with increased activation in the head of the left caudate nucleus and putamen. When individuals selected the delayed relative to the immediate reward, a strong activation was found in bilateral posterior insular cortex. Several brain areas including the left caudate nucleus showed a correlation between the behaviorally determined discounting and brain activation for the contrast of intervals with delays or =1 year. These results suggest that (1) the posterior insula, which is a critical component of the decision-making neural network, is involved in delaying gratification and (2) the degree of neural activation in the striatum, which plays a fundamental role in reward prediction and in time estimation, may code for the time delay.
Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terada, Kikuo
1977-01-01
Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)
A strong viscous–inviscid interaction model for rotating airfoils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-three dimensional (3D), steady and unsteady, viscous–inviscid interactive codes capable of predicting the aerodynamic behavior of wind turbine airfoils are presented. The model is based on a viscous–inviscid interaction technique using strong coupling between...... a boundary-layer trip or computed using an en envelope transition method. Validation of the incompressible 2D version of the code is carried out against measurements and other numerical codes for different airfoil geometries at various Reynolds numbers, ranging from 0.9 ⋅ 106 to 8.2 ⋅ 106. In the quasi-3D...... version, a parametric study on rotational effects induced by the Coriolis and centrifugal forces in the boundary-layer equations shows that the effects of rotation are to decrease the growth of the boundary-layer and delay the onset of separation, hence increasing the lift coefficient slightly while...
Mitochondrial respiratory complex I probed by delayed luminescence spectroscopy
Baran, Irina; Ionescu, Diana; Privitera, Simona; Scordino, Agata; Mocanu, Maria Magdalena; Musumeci, Francesco; Grasso, Rosaria; Gulino, Marisa; Iftime, Adrian; Tofolean, Ioana Teodora; Garaiman, Alexandru; Goicea, Alexandru; Irimia, Ruxandra; Dimancea, Alexandru; Ganea, Constanta
2013-12-01
The role of mitochondrial complex I in ultraweak photon-induced delayed photon emission [delayed luminescence (DL)] of human leukemia Jurkat T cells was probed by using complex I targeting agents like rotenone, menadione, and quercetin. Rotenone, a complex I-specific inhibitor, dose-dependently increased the mitochondrial level of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), decreased clonogenic survival, and induced apoptosis. A strong correlation was found between the mitochondrial levels of NADH and oxidized flavin mononucleotide (FMNox) in rotenone-, menadione- and quercetin-treated cells. Rotenone enhanced DL dose-dependently, whereas quercetin and menadione inhibited DL as well as NADH or FMNox. Collectively, the data suggest that DL of Jurkat cells originates mainly from mitochondrial complex I, which functions predominantly as a dimer and less frequently as a tetramer. In individual monomers, both pairs of pyridine nucleotide (NADH/reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) sites and flavin (FMN-a/FMN-b) sites appear to bind cooperatively their specific ligands. Enhancement of delayed red-light emission by rotenone suggests that the mean time for one-electron reduction of ubiquinone or FMN-a by the terminal Fe/S center (N2) is 20 or 284 μs, respectively. All these findings suggest that DL spectroscopy could be used as a reliable, sensitive, and robust technique to probe electron flow within complex I in situ.
Detection of coupling delay: A problem not yet solved
Coufal, David; Jakubík, Jozef; Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Krakovská, Anna; Paluš, Milan
2017-08-01
Nonparametric detection of coupling delay in unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled nonlinear dynamical systems is examined. Both continuous and discrete-time systems are considered. Two methods of detection are assessed—the method based on conditional mutual information—the CMI method (also known as the transfer entropy method) and the method of convergent cross mapping—the CCM method. Computer simulations show that neither method is generally reliable in the detection of coupling delays. For continuous-time chaotic systems, the CMI method appears to be more sensitive and applicable in a broader range of coupling parameters than the CCM method. In the case of tested discrete-time dynamical systems, the CCM method has been found to be more sensitive, while the CMI method required much stronger coupling strength in order to bring correct results. However, when studied systems contain a strong oscillatory component in their dynamics, results of both methods become ambiguous. The presented study suggests that results of the tested algorithms should be interpreted with utmost care and the nonparametric detection of coupling delay, in general, is a problem not yet solved.
Microscopic Control Delay Modeling at Signalized Arterials Using Bluetooth Technology
Rajasekhar, Lakshmi
2011-01-01
Real-time control delay estimation is an important performance measure for any intersection to improve the signal timing plans dynamically in real-time and hence improve the overall system performance. Control delay estimates helps to determine the level-of-service (LOS) characteristics of various approaches at an intersection and takes into account deceleration delay, stopped delay and acceleration delay. All kinds of traffic delay calculation especially control delay calculation has always ...
On the cost/delay tradeoff of wireless delay tolerant geographic routing
Tasiopoulos, Argyrios; Tsiaras, Christos; Toumpis, Stavros
2012-01-01
In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), there is a fundamental tradeoff between the aggregate transport cost of a packet and the delay in its delivery. We study this tradeoff in the context of geographical routing in wireless DTNs.We ?rst specify the optimal cost/delay tradeoff, i.e., the tradeoff under optimal network operation, using a dynamic network construction termed the Cost/Delay Evolving Graph (C/DEG) and the Optimal Cost/Delay Curve (OC/DC), a function that gives the minimum possible agg...
Toward heterogeneity in feedforward network with synaptic delays based on FitzHugh-Nagumo model
Qin, Ying-Mei; Men, Cong; Zhao, Jia; Han, Chun-Xiao; Che, Yan-Qiu
2018-01-01
We focus on the role of heterogeneity on the propagation of firing patterns in feedforward network (FFN). Effects of heterogeneities both in parameters of neuronal excitability and synaptic delays are investigated systematically. Neuronal heterogeneity is found to modulate firing rates and spiking regularity by changing the excitability of the network. Synaptic delays are strongly related with desynchronized and synchronized firing patterns of the FFN, which indicate that synaptic delays may play a significant role in bridging rate coding and temporal coding. Furthermore, quasi-coherence resonance (quasi-CR) phenomenon is observed in the parameter domain of connection probability and delay-heterogeneity. All these phenomena above enable a detailed characterization of neuronal heterogeneity in FFN, which may play an indispensable role in reproducing the important properties of in vivo experiments.
Anomalous delayed loss of trapped D-D fusion products in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Mynick, H.E.
1993-02-01
A new anomalous delayed loss of D-D fusion products has been measured at the bottom of the TFRR vessel. This loss is delayed by ∼ 0.2 sec with respect to the usual prompt first-orbit loss, and has a correspondingly lower energy, i.e. about half the fusion product birth energy. This loss process dominates the total fusion product loss measured 90 degrees below the midplane for plasma currents. I≥ 1.8 MA and major radii near R=2.45 m, e.g. for recent TFTR supershots. This delayed feature can occur without large coherent MED activity, although it can be strongly modulated by such activity. Several possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed, but no clear explanation for this delayed loss has yet been found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jianlong; Zeng Lingzao
2010-01-01
We discuss in detail the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback driven by an aperiodic signal on the output of a stochastic resonance (SR) system. The effective potential function and dynamical probability density function (PDF) are derived. To measure the performance of the SR system in the presence of a binary random signal, the bit error rate (BER) defined by the dynamical PDF is employed, as is commonly used in digital communications. We find that the delay time, strength of the feedback, and number of time-delayed terms can change the effective potential function and the effective amplitude of the signal, and then affect the BER of the SR system. The numerical simulations strongly support the theoretical results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the effects of the multi-time-delayed feedback on SR and give a guidance to nonlinear systems in the application of information processing.
The influences of delay time on the stability of a market model with stochastic volatility
Li, Jiang-Cheng; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2013-02-01
The effects of the delay time on the stability of a market model are investigated, by using a modified Heston model with a cubic nonlinearity and cross-correlated noise sources. These results indicate that: (i) There is an optimal delay time τo which maximally enhances the stability of the stock price under strong demand elasticity of stock price, and maximally reduces the stability of the stock price under weak demand elasticity of stock price; (ii) The cross correlation coefficient of noises and the delay time play an opposite role on the stability for the case of the delay time τo. Moreover, the probability density function of the escape time of stock price returns, the probability density function of the returns and the correlation function of the returns are compared with other literatures.
Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa
2016-01-01
Purpose The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by midelementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method Children receiving unilateral CIs at young ages (12–38 months) were tested longitudinally and classified with normal language emergence (n = 19), late language emergence (n = 22), or persistent language delay (n = 19) on the basis of their test scores at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Relative effects of demographic, audiological, linguistic, and academic characteristics on language emergence were determined. Results Age at CI was associated with normal language emergence but did not differentiate late emergence from persistent delay. Children with persistent delay were more likely to use left-ear implants and older speech processor technology. They experienced higher aided thresholds and lower speech perception scores. Persistent delay was foreshadowed by low morphosyntactic and phonological diversity in preschool. Logistic regression analysis predicted normal language emergence with 84% accuracy and persistent language delay with 74% accuracy. Conclusion CI characteristics had a strong effect on persistent versus resolving language delay, suggesting that right-ear (or bilateral) devices, technology upgrades, and improved audibility may positively influence long-term language outcomes. PMID:26501740
Trading Later Rewards for Current Pleasure: Pornography Consumption and Delay Discounting.
Negash, Sesen; Sheppard, Nicole Van Ness; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Fincham, Frank D
2016-01-01
Internet pornography is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has grown increasingly accessible. Delay discounting involves devaluing larger, later rewards in favor of smaller, more immediate rewards. The constant novelty and primacy of sexual stimuli as particularly strong natural rewards make Internet pornography a unique activator of the brain's reward system, thereby having implications for decision-making processes. Based on theoretical studies of evolutionary psychology and neuroeconomics, two studies tested the hypothesis that consuming Internet pornography would relate to higher rates of delay discounting. Study 1 used a longitudinal design. Participants completed a pornography use questionnaire and a delay discounting task at Time 1 and then again four weeks later. Participants reporting higher initial pornography use demonstrated a higher delay discounting rate at Time 2, controlling for initial delay discounting. Study 2 tested for causality with an experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to abstain from either their favorite food or pornography for three weeks. Participants who abstained from pornography use demonstrated lower delay discounting than participants who abstained from their favorite food. The finding suggests that Internet pornography is a sexual reward that contributes to delay discounting differently than other natural rewards. Theoretical and clinical implications of these studies are highlighted.
Dynamics of Time Delay-Induced Multiple Synchronous Behaviors in Inhibitory Coupled Neurons
Gu, Huaguang; Zhao, Zhiguo
2015-01-01
The inhibitory synapse can induce synchronous behaviors different from the anti-phase synchronous behaviors, which have been reported in recent studies. In the present paper, synchronous behaviors are investigated in the motif model composed of reciprocal inhibitory coupled neurons with endogenous bursting and time delay. When coupling strength is weak, synchronous behavior appears at a single interval of time delay within a bursting period. When coupling strength is strong, multiple synchronous behaviors appear at different intervals of time delay within a bursting period. The different bursting patterns of synchronous behaviors, and time delays and coupling strengths that can induce the synchronous bursting patterns can be well interpreted by the dynamics of the endogenous bursting pattern of isolated neuron, which is acquired by the fast-slow dissection method, combined with the inhibitory coupling current. For an isolated neuron, when a negative impulsive current with suitable strength is applied at different phases of the bursting, multiple different bursting patterns can be induced. For a neuron in the motif, the inhibitory coupling current, of which the application time and strength is modulated by time delay and coupling strength, can cause single or multiple synchronous firing patterns like the negative impulsive current when time delay and coupling strength is suitable. The difference compared to the previously reported multiple synchronous behaviors that appear at time delays wider than a period of the endogenous firing is discussed. The results present novel examples of synchronous behaviors in the neuronal network with inhibitory synapses and provide a reasonable explanation. PMID:26394224
Rats bred for high alcohol drinking are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes.
Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H
2008-10-01
Alcoholics and heavy drinkers score higher on measures of impulsivity than nonalcoholics and light drinkers. This may be because of factors that predate drug exposure (e.g. genetics). This study examined the role of genetics by comparing impulsivity measures in ethanol-naive rats selectively bred based on their high [high alcohol drinking (HAD)] or low [low alcohol drinking (LAD)] consumption of ethanol. Replicates 1 and 2 of the HAD and LAD rats, developed by the University of Indiana Alcohol Research Center, completed two different discounting tasks. Delay discounting examines sensitivity to rewards that are delayed in time and is commonly used to assess 'choice' impulsivity. Probability discounting examines sensitivity to the uncertain delivery of rewards and has been used to assess risk taking and risk assessment. High alcohol drinking rats discounted delayed and probabilistic rewards more steeply than LAD rats. Discount rates associated with probabilistic and delayed rewards were weakly correlated, while bias was strongly correlated with discount rate in both delay and probability discounting. The results suggest that selective breeding for high alcohol consumption selects for animals that are more sensitive to delayed and probabilistic outcomes. Sensitivity to delayed or probabilistic outcomes may be predictive of future drinking in genetically predisposed individuals.
Reward acts as a signal to control delay-period activity in delayed-response tasks.
Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Funahashi, Shintaro
2010-03-31
Prefrontal delay-period activity represents a neural mechanism for the active maintenance of information and needs to be controlled by some signal to appropriately operate working memory. To examine whether reward-delivery acts as this signal, the effects of delay-period activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery were examined by analyzing single-neuron activity recorded in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Among neurons that showed delay-period activity, 34% showed inhibition of this activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery. The delay-period activity of these neurons was affected by the expectation of reward-delivery. The strength of the reward signal in controlling the delay-period activity is related to the strength of the effect of reward information on the delay-period activity. These results indicate that reward-delivery acts as a signal to control delay-period activity.
Chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with parameter mismatches and variable delay times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahverdiev, E.M.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimov, R.H.; Shore, K.A.
2004-06-01
We investigate synchronization between two undirectionally linearly coupled chaotic nonidentical time-delayed systems and show that parameter mismatches are of crucial importance to achieve synchronization. We establish that independent of the relation between the delay time in the coupled systems and the coupling delay time, only retarded synchronization with the coupling delay time is obtained. We show that with parameter mismatch or without it neither complete nor anticipating synchronization occurs. We derive existence and stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold. We demonstrate our approach using examples of the Ikeda and Mackey Glass models. Also for the first time we investigate chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with variable delay time and find both existence and sufficient stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold with the coupling-delay lag time. (author)
Loaiza, Vanessa M; McCabe, David P
2012-02-01
Three experiments are reported that addressed the nature of processing in working memory by investigating patterns of delayed cued recall and free recall of items initially studied during complex and simple span tasks. In Experiment 1, items initially studied during a complex span task (i.e., operation span) were more likely to be recalled after a delay in response to temporal-contextual cues, relative to items from subspan and supraspan list lengths in a simple span task (i.e., word span). In Experiment 2, items initially studied during operation span were more likely to be recalled from neighboring serial positions during delayed free recall than were items studied during word span trials. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the number of attentional refreshing opportunities strongly predicts episodic memory performance, regardless of whether the information is presented in a spaced or massed format in a modified operation span task. The results indicate that the content-context bindings created during complex span trials reflect attentional refreshing opportunities that are used to maintain items in working memory.
Delays in Building Construction Projects in Ghana
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adwoa B Agyakwah-Baah
2010-07-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of delay of building construction projects in Ghana to determine the most important according to the key project participants; clients, consultants, and contractors. Thirty-two possible causes of delay were identified from the literature and semi-structured interviews of 15 key players in the implementation process. These delay factors were further categorised into nine major groups. The list of delay causes was subjected to a questionnaire survey for the identification of the most important causes of delay. The field survey included 130 respondents made up of 39 contractors, 37 clients and 54 consultants. The relative importance of the individual causes and the groups were calculated and ranked by their relative importance index. The overall results of the study indicate that the respondents generally agree that financial group factors ranked highest among the major factors causing delay in construction projects in Ghana. The financial group factors were delay in honouring payment certificates, difficulty in accessing credit and fluctuation in prices. Materials group factors are second followed by scheduling and controlling factors.
Representing delayed force feedback as a combination of current and delayed states.
Avraham, Guy; Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior; Donchin, Opher; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Nisky, Ilana
2017-10-01
To adapt to deterministic force perturbations that depend on the current state of the hand, internal representations are formed to capture the relationships between forces experienced and motion. However, information from multiple modalities travels at different rates, resulting in intermodal delays that require compensation for these internal representations to develop. To understand how these delays are represented by the brain, we presented participants with delayed velocity-dependent force fields, i.e., forces that depend on hand velocity either 70 or 100 ms beforehand. We probed the internal representation of these delayed forces by examining the forces the participants applied to cope with the perturbations. The findings showed that for both delayed forces, the best model of internal representation consisted of a delayed velocity and current position and velocity. We show that participants relied initially on the current state, but with adaptation, the contribution of the delayed representation to adaptation increased. After adaptation, when the participants were asked to make movements with a higher velocity for which they had not previously experienced with the delayed force field, they applied forces that were consistent with current position and velocity as well as delayed velocity representations. This suggests that the sensorimotor system represents delayed force feedback using current and delayed state information and that it uses this representation when generalizing to faster movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain compensates for forces in the body and the environment to control movements, but it is unclear how it does so given the inherent delays in information transmission and processing. We examined how participants cope with delayed forces that depend on their arm velocity 70 or 100 ms beforehand. After adaptation, participants applied opposing forces that revealed a partially correct representation of the perturbation using the current and the
Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization
Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.
1988-01-01
Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.
A continuous time Cournot duopoly with delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro
2015-01-01
This paper extends the classical repeated duopoly model with quantity-setting firms of Bischi et al. (1998) by assuming that production of goods is subject to some gestation lags but exchanges take place continuously in the market. The model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. By using some recent mathematical techniques and numerical experiments, results show some dynamic phenomena that cannot be observed when delays are absent. In addition, depending on the extent of time delays and inertia, synchronisation failure can arise even in the event of homogeneous firms.
Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet İbrahim Turan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.
Bubbling in delay-coupled lasers.
Flunkert, V; D'Huys, O; Danckaert, J; Fischer, I; Schöll, E
2009-06-01
We theoretically study chaos synchronization of two lasers which are delay coupled via an active or a passive relay. While the lasers are synchronized, their dynamics is identical to a single laser with delayed feedback for a passive relay and identical to two delay-coupled lasers for an active relay. Depending on the coupling parameters the system exhibits bubbling, i.e., noise-induced desynchronization, or on-off intermittency. We associate the desynchronization dynamics in the coherence collapse and low-frequency fluctuation regimes with the transverse instability of some of the compound cavity's antimodes. Finally, we demonstrate how, by using an active relay, bubbling can be suppressed.
Travelling wave solutions in delayed cooperative systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Bingtuan; Zhang, Liang
2011-01-01
We establish the existence of travelling wave solutions for delayed cooperative recursions that are allowed to have more than two equilibria. We define an important extended real number that is used to determine the speeds of travelling wave solutions. The results can be applied to a large class of delayed cooperative reaction–diffusion models. We show that for a delayed Lotka–Volterra reaction–diffusion competition model, there exists a finite positive number c * + that can be characterized as the slowest speed of travelling wave solutions connecting two mono-culture equilibria or connecting a mono-culture with the coexistence equilibrium
Transcriptional delay stabilizes bistable gene networks.
Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R
2013-08-02
Transcriptional delay can significantly impact the dynamics of gene networks. Here we examine how such delay affects bistable systems. We investigate several stochastic models of bistable gene networks and find that increasing delay dramatically increases the mean residence times near stable states. To explain this, we introduce a non-Markovian, analytically tractable reduced model. The model shows that stabilization is the consequence of an increased number of failed transitions between stable states. Each of the bistable systems that we simulate behaves in this manner.
Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes
Fill, James Allen; Lyzinski, Vince
2014-01-01
We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...
Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs
Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2010-01-01
This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...
Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed
OSCILLATION OF NONLINEAR DELAY DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This paper deals with the oscillatory properties of a class of nonlinear difference equations with several delays. Sufficient criteria in the form of infinite sum for the equations to be oscillatory are obtained.
Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.
Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I
2017-07-01
Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.
Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall
Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.
1973-01-01
If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)
A simple chaotic delay differential equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprott, J.C.
2007-01-01
The simplest chaotic delay differential equation with a sinusoidal nonlinearity is described, including the route to chaos, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and chaotic diffusion. It is prototypical of many other high-dimensional chaotic systems
Time delay of quantum scattering processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, P.A.
1981-01-01
The author presents various aspects of the theory of the time delay of scattering processes. The author mainly studies non-relativistic two-body scattering processes, first summarizing briefly the theory of simple scattering systems. (Auth.)
Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amy L Atkinson
2016-08-01
Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.
Rich dynamics of discrete delay ecological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Mingshu
2005-01-01
We study multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior of a discrete delay ecological model. New form of chaos for the 2-D map is observed: the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling leads to cascading bubbles
Four-channel delay generator model 5740
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumatz, D.; Milner, M.
1978-01-01
The 4-channel delay generator model 5740 generates 4-pulse groups in independent channels. The device offers the possibility of controlling both the time intervals between the pulses of a group and the rate of generation of groups
Lauch of CERN particle accelerator delayed
2007-01-01
"Scientists seeking to uncover the secrets of the universe will have to wait a little longer after the CERN laboratory inSwitzerland yesterday confirmed a delay in tests of its massive new particle accelerator." (1 page)
Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.
2004-01-01
Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)
Variable Delay in port-Hamiltonian Telemanipulation
Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.
2006-01-01
In several applications involving bilateral telemanipulation, master and slave act at different power scales. In this paper a strategy for passively dealing with variable communication delay in scaled port-Hamiltonian based telemanipulation over packet switched networks is proposed.
Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen eCanavier
2013-12-01
Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.
The rates and time-delay distribution of multiply imaged supernovae behind lensing clusters
Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens; Richard, Johan
2012-11-01
Time delays of gravitationally lensed sources can be used to constrain the mass model of a deflector and determine cosmological parameters. We here present an analysis of the time-delay distribution of multiply imaged sources behind 17 strong lensing galaxy clusters with well-calibrated mass models. We find that for time delays less than 1000 days, at z = 3.0, their logarithmic probability distribution functions are well represented by P(log Δt) = 5.3 × 10-4Δttilde beta/M2502tilde beta, with tilde beta = 0.77, where M250 is the projected cluster mass inside 250 kpc (in 1014M⊙), and tilde beta is the power-law slope of the distribution. The resultant probability distribution function enables us to estimate the time-delay distribution in a lensing cluster of known mass. For a cluster with M250 = 2 × 1014M⊙, the fraction of time delays less than 1000 days is approximately 3%. Taking Abell 1689 as an example, its dark halo and brightest galaxies, with central velocity dispersions σ>=500kms-1, mainly produce large time delays, while galaxy-scale mass clumps are responsible for generating smaller time delays. We estimate the probability of observing multiple images of a supernova in the known images of Abell 1689. A two-component model of estimating the supernova rate is applied in this work. For a magnitude threshold of mAB = 26.5, the yearly rate of Type Ia (core-collapse) supernovae with time delays less than 1000 days is 0.004±0.002 (0.029±0.001). If the magnitude threshold is lowered to mAB ~ 27.0, the rate of core-collapse supernovae suitable for time delay observation is 0.044±0.015 per year.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, T. de; Gray, P.; Sobriera, A.C.F.; Xavier, C.C.; Schwela, U.
2016-01-01
Despite the strong safety and security record for shipments of Radioactive Material (RAM), Class 7 goods, transportation often continues to provide challenges as many carriers and ports (air and sea) choose not to engage in RAM product transportation. This paper discusses factors impacting the availability of regular air and sea transport routes for RAM, including: negative perception about radiation due to a lack of awareness and information about the industry; concerns about the cost and extent of training required of those who handle radioactive materials; multiplicity and diversity of regulations governing the handling, use and transport of these products; lack of harmonisation between governments in applying international regulations; and, a lack of outreach and public awareness about the needs and applications of radioactive materials. The particular issues involved in sea transport of: relatively small trade volumes; additional requirements or bans on port access, both for transit and trans-shipment; and scheduling difficulties due to commercial carrier routing decisions are also discussed. Initiatives being taken internationally, regionally and nationally to overcome these issues and examples of success are described. (author)
On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture
McCullough, Jason
2009-01-01
In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, S.D.
1992-01-01
The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, S.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)
1992-12-31
The study of strong interactions is now a mature field for which scientist now know that the correct underlying theory is QCD. Here, an overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.
Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).
The strong reflecting property and Harrington's Principle
Cheng, Yong
2015-01-01
In this paper we characterize the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals for all $\\omega_n$, characterize Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$ and its generalization and discuss the relationship between the strong reflecting property for $L$-cardinals and Harrington's Principle $HP(L)$.
Strong Nash Equilibria and the Potential Maimizer
van Megen, F.J.C.; Facchini, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; Tijs, S.H.
1996-01-01
A class of non cooperative games characterized by a `congestion e ect' is studied, in which there exists a strong Nash equilibrium, and the set of Nash equilibria, the set of strong Nash equilibria and the set of strategy pro les maximizing the potential function coincide.The structure of the class
Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1984-01-01
It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)
The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus, ...
Optimization of strong and weak coordinates
Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.
2006-01-01
We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation
78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance
2013-03-12
... the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science...'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding how CPSC staff would assess whether a substance and/or...
Nonlinear Cournot duopoly with implementation delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc
2015-01-01
We study the effects of two delays on the local as well as on global stability of nonlinear Cournot duopoly dynamics. The two major findings are an analytical construction of the stability switching curve on which stability is lost and the numerical confirmation of the birth of aperiodic global dynamics when the stationary state is locally unstable. The delays matters and can generate various dynamics ranging from simple to complicated dynamics.
Delay in polling systems in heavy traffic
van der Mei, Robert D.
1998-10-01
We study the delay in asymmetric cyclic polling systems with general mixtures of gated and exhaustive service, with generally distributed service times and switch-over times, in heavy traffic. We obtain closed-form expressions for all moments of the delay incurred at each of the queues. The expressions are strikingly simple and can even be expressed as finite products of known factors. The results provide new insights into the heavy-traffic behavior of polling systems.
Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo
2011-01-01
as well as three potential effect factors: the transition type, the test environment and the audiovisual content. The results show that delays longer than 5.7 seconds annoyed test participants, and that the transition type had a significant impact on the rating of channel switching delays. However......, neither the test environment nor the audiovisual content influenced the ratings significantly. Finally, a discussion of these results and directions for future research are proposed....
Inverse Problems for Nonlinear Delay Systems
2011-03-15
population dynamics. We consider the delay between birth and adulthood for neonate pea aphids and present a mathematical model that treats this delay as...which there is currently no known cure. For HIV, the core of the virus is composed of single-stranded viral RNA and protein components. As depicted in...at a CD4 receptor site and the viral core is injected into the cell. Once inside, the protein components enable transcription and integration of the
The Strategic Perils of Delayed Differentiation
Krishnan S. Anand; Karan Girotra
2007-01-01
The value of delayed differentiation (also known as postponement) for a monopolist has been extensively studied in the operations literature. We analyze the case of (imperfectly) competitive markets with demand uncertainty, wherein the choice of supply chain configuration (i.e., early or delayed differentiation) is endogenous to the competing firms. We characterize firms' choices in equilibrium and analyze the effects of these choices on quantities sold, profits, consumer surplus, and welfare...
Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ermiah Eramah
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing
Time delay in a multichannel formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haberzettl, Helmut; Workman, Ron
2007-01-01
We reexamine the time-delay formalism of Wigner, Eisenbud, and Smith, which was developed to analyze both elastic and inelastic resonances. An error in the paper of Smith has propagated through the literature. We correct this error and show how the results of Eisenbud and Smith are related. We also comment on some recent time-delay studies, based on Smith's erroneous interpretation of the Eisenbud result
Seismic switch for strong motion measurement
Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.
1995-05-30
A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.
Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.
Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S
2016-06-10
Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.
Strong reflector-based beamforming in ultrasound medical imaging.
Szasz, Teodora; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis
2016-03-01
This paper investigates the use of sparse priors in creating original two-dimensional beamforming methods for ultrasound imaging. The proposed approaches detect the strong reflectors from the scanned medium based on the well known Bayesian Information Criteria used in statistical modeling. Moreover, they allow a parametric selection of the level of speckle in the final beamformed image. These methods are applied on simulated data and on recorded experimental data. Their performance is evaluated considering the standard image quality metrics: contrast ratio (CR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A comparison is made with the classical delay-and-sum and minimum variance beamforming methods to confirm the ability of the proposed methods to precisely detect the number and the position of the strong reflectors in a sparse medium and to accurately reduce the speckle and highly enhance the contrast in a non-sparse medium. We confirm that our methods improve the contrast of the final image for both simulated and experimental data. In all experiments, the proposed approaches tend to preserve the speckle, which can be of major interest in clinical examinations, as it can contain useful information. In sparse mediums we achieve a highly improvement in contrast compared with the classical methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The reasons for delay lumbar puncture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MH. Lotfi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Early diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy is vital and any delay will lead to high mortality and serious and permanent morbidity. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of 220 patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS infections (meningitis and encephalitis to determine the percentage of patients’ suspected CNS infection undergo lumbar puncture in acceptable time (in accordance with conventional algorithms. In this descriptive study, patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to Bu-Ali and Qods hospitals, in the period July 2013 to December 2015 were studied. Information of 220 patients was collected. Continuous variables were summarized as means ± standard deviation and categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. Lumbar puncture (LP in patients was delayed in 200 cases (91%. Most common causes of delay in performing LP were prolongation of the process of determining patient needs to puncture, satisfying patients, CT scan delay and the delay in allowing LP by neurologist. In this study, delaying LP rate was higher than other studies. It seems certain pattern in assistants’ visits for counseling. CT requests and neurologic consultation before LP performed for all adult patients.
Nuclear size and cell division delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bird, R.P.
1986-01-01
Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time
The Limitations to Delay-Insensitivity in Asynchronous Circuits
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Martin, Alain J
1990-01-01
... produced are delay-insensitive (DI). A digital circuit is DI when its correct operation is independent of the delays in operators and in the wires connecting the operators, except that the delays are finite and positive...
Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...
Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
/processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...
Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Qian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.
Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food choice?
Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Olinger, Tamara; Bogucki, Michael; Janssen, Imke; Avery-Mamer, Elizabeth F; Powell, Lisa M
2018-03-15
Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02359916. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petrosyan, David; Molmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg exci...... for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.......We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg...
The microbial safety of surface waters is an ongoing issue which is threatened by the transport of manure-borne bacteria to water sources used for irrigation or recreation. Predictive modeling has become an effective tool to forecast the microbial quality of water duringprecipitation events, however...
Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.
Allen, Edward J
2014-06-01
Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods.
Global synchronization criteria with channel time-delay for chaotic time-delay system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Jitao
2004-01-01
Based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory, matrix measure, and linear matrix inequality (LMIs), this paper studies the chaos synchronization of time-delay system using the unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. Some generic conditions of chaos synchronization with time-delay in the transmission channel is established. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criteria under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved
Prehospital delay in acute coronary syndrome--an analysis of the components of delay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
2004-01-01
BACKGROUND: Prompt hospital admission is essential when treating acute coronary syndrome. Delay prior to admission is unnecessarily long. Therefore, a thorough scrutiny of the influence of characteristics, circumstantial and subjective variables on elements of prehospital delay among patients...... admitted with acute coronary syndrome is warranted. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted on 250 consecutive patients admitted alive with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: Median prehospital, decision, physician and transportation delays were 107, 74, 25 and 22 min, respectively. Women (n=77) had...... of acute coronary syndrome among women, and thereby contributes to unnecessary long delay to treatment. The patient's prior experience and interpretation has a significant influence on behaviour....
RATES AND DELAY TIMES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris
2009-01-01
We analyze the evolution of binary stars to calculate synthetic rates and delay times of the most promising Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors. We present and discuss evolutionary scenarios in which a white dwarf (WD) reaches the Chandrasekhar mass and potentially explodes in a SNe Ia. We consider Double Degenerate (DDS; merger of two WDs), Single Degenerate (SDS; WD accreting from H-rich companion), and AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn; WD accreting from He-rich companion) scenarios. The results are presented for two different star formation histories: burst (elliptical-like galaxies) and continuous (spiral-like galaxies). It is found that delay times for the DDS in our standard model (with common envelope efficiency α CE = 1) follow a power-law distribution. For the SDS we note a wide range of delay times, while AM CVn progenitors produce a short burst of SNe Ia at early times. The DDS median delay time falls between ∼0.5 and 1 Gyr; the SDS between ∼2 and 3 Gyr; and the AM CVn between ∼0.8 and 0.6 Gyr depending on the assumed α CE . For a Milky-Way-like (MW-like) galaxy, we estimate the rates of SNe Ia arising from different progenitors as: ∼10 -4 yr -1 for the SDS and AM CVn, and ∼10 -3 yr -1 for the DDS. We point out that only the rates for two merging carbon-oxygen WDs, the only systems found in the DDS, are consistent with the observed rates for typical MW-like spirals. We also note that DDS progenitors are the dominant population in elliptical galaxies. The fact that the delay time distribution for the DDS follows a power law implies more SNe Ia (per unit mass) in young rather than in aged populations. Our results do not exclude other scenarios, but strongly indicate that the DDS is the dominant channel generating SNe Ia in spiral galaxies, at least in the framework of our adopted evolutionary models. Since it is believed that WD mergers cannot produce a thermonuclear explosion given the current understanding of accreting WDs, either the
Dual field theory of strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akers, D.
1987-01-01
A dual field theory of strong interactions is derived from a Lagrangian of the Yang-Mills and Higgs fields. The existence of a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e is incorporated into the theory. Unification of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces is shown to converge at the mass of the intermediate vector boson W/sup +/-/. The coupling constants of the strong and weak interactions are derived in terms of the fine-structure constant α = 1/137
Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation
Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I
2014-01-01
Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.
Semi-strong split domination in graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwar Alwardi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Jitao; Han Qinglong; Jiang Xiefu
2008-01-01
This Letter is concerned with impulsive control of a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. Some uniform stability criteria for the closed-loop time-delay system under delayed impulsive control are derived by using piecewise Lyapunov functions. Then the criteria are applied to impulsive master-slave synchronization of some secure communication systems with transmission delays and sample delays under delayed impulsive control. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived results
Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize
Durrani, Matin
2004-01-01
Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)
Strong-coupling theory of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rainer, D.; Sauls, J.A.
1995-01-01
The electronic properties of correlated metals with a strong electron-phonon coupling may be understood in terms of a combination of Landau''s Fermi liquid theory and the strong-coupling theory of Migdal and Eliashberg. In these lecture notes we discuss the microscopic foundations of this phenomenological Fermi-liquid model of correlated, strong-coupling metals. We formulate the basic equations of the model, which are quasiclassical transport equations that describe both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena for the normal and superconducting states of a metal. Our emphasis is on superconductors close to equilibrium, for which we derive the general linear response theory. As an application we calculate the dynamical conductivity of strong-coupling superconductors. (author)
Nuclear physics from strong coupling QCD
Fromm, Michael
2009-01-01
The strong coupling limit (beta_gauge = 0) of QCD offers a number of remarkable research possibilities, of course at the price of large lattice artifacts. Here, we determine the complete phase diagram as a function of temperature T and baryon chemical potential mu_B, for one flavor of staggered fermions in the chiral limit, with emphasis on the determination of a tricritical point and on the T ~ 0 transition to nuclear matter. The latter is known to happen for mu_B substantially below the baryon mass, indicating strong nuclear interactions in QCD at infinite gauge coupling. This leads us to studying the properties of nuclear matter from first principles. We determine the nucleon-nucleon potential in the strong coupling limit, as well as masses m_A of nuclei as a function of their atomic number A. Finally, we clarify the origin of nuclear interactions at strong coupling, which turns out to be a steric effect.
Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There have been many developments in modeling techniques, and ... damage life and property in a city or region. How- ... quake of 26 January 2001 as a case study. 2. ...... quake derived from a dense strong-motion network; Bull. Seismol.
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, S.D.
1991-01-01
An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990`s is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, S.D.
1991-01-01
An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders
Strong interaction effects in hadronic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaufmann, W.B.
1977-01-01
The WKB method is applied to the calculation of strong interaction-induced level widths and shifts of hadronic atoms. The calculation, while elementary enough for undergraduate quantum mechanics students, gives a good account of kaonic and antiprotonic atom data
Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1982-10-01
Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)
Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pennington, M.R.
1996-01-01
This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)
Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics
Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.
2018-03-01
Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.
The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions
El-Bennich, Bruno
2018-01-01
We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.
Interaction of strong electromagnetic fields with atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.
1982-06-01
Several non-linear processes involvoing the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields are discussed, with particular emphasis on the ionization problem. Non-perturbative methods which have been proposed to tackle this problem are analysed, and shown to correspond to an expansion in the intra-atomic potential. The relation between tunneling and multiphoton absorption as ionization mechanisms, and the generalization of Einstein's photoelectric equation to the strong-field case are discussed. (Author) [pt
Building strong brands – does it matter?
Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik
2014-01-01
Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...
Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.
2004-01-01
The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru
Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notomi, Masaya
2010-01-01
Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.
Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1997-01-01
The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.
Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A
2000-01-01
Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.
Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.
2003-01-01
The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW
Data Assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging
Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Carrassi, Alberto
2016-04-01
A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures.
Television viewing associates with delayed language development.
Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita
2008-07-01
To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.
Theory of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization.
Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2017-03-28
We present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization. It is shown how delays relevant to one-photon-ionization, also known as Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith delays, can be obtained from the complex dipole matrix elements provided by molecular quantum scattering theory. These results are used to derive formulae for the delays measured by two-photon attosecond interferometry based on an attosecond pulse train and a dressing femtosecond infrared pulse. These effective delays are first expressed in the molecular frame where maximal information about the molecular photoionization dynamics is available. The effects of averaging over the emission direction of the electron and the molecular orientation are introduced analytically. We illustrate this general formalism for the case of two polyatomic molecules. N 2 O serves as an example of a polar linear molecule characterized by complex photoionization dynamics resulting from the presence of molecular shape resonances. H 2 O illustrates the case of a non-linear molecule with comparably simple photoionization dynamics resulting from a flat continuum. Our theory establishes the foundation for interpreting measurements of the photoionization dynamics of all molecules by attosecond metrology.
Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.
2004-01-01
Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac
Investigation of delayed fission gas release
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cayet, Nicolas
1996-05-01
The study of the fission gas release process in the high burnup rig IFA-562 has revealed a particular fuel behaviour: a delay in the fission gas release process. It appeared that an important release of gas was measured by the pressure transducers once the power had decreased, whereas, during steady-state operation, the pressure did not increase very much. After examinations, the gap size has been concluded to be the main parameter involving this delay. However the burnup could have been a potential factor, its role is mainly to close the gap by swelling. The observations of low burnup rods have shown the same delayed fission gas release, the gap being small by design and closed essentially by thermal expansion. The study of the kinetics has demonstrated the time-independency of the phenomenon. Thus the proposed mechanism driving this delayed fission gas release would involve three consecutives stages. During steady-state, the gas is released into the interlinkage network of grain boundary bubbles and cracks. Due to the closed gap, the gas is trapped in some void volumes, unable to escape the pellet. During power reduction, the gap and some old/new cracks open, immediately providing a path for the gas to the pressure transducers and explaining this delay in the fission gas release. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diem Dang Huan
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The current paper is concerned with the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps in Hilbert spaces. Using the theory of a strongly continuous cosine family of bounded linear operators, stochastic analysis theory and with the help of the Banach fixed point theorem, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions for the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps. Finally, an application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with infinite delay and Poisson jumps is given.
Fractal analysis of intraflow unidirectional\\ud delay over W-LAN and W-WAN environments
Pezaros, D.; Sifalakis, M.; Mathy, L.
2007-01-01
We have analysed unidirectional delay traces of a diverse\\ud set of IPv6 microflows routed over W-LAN and W-WAN\\ud environments. Using a number of time-domain and frequency-domain estimators we have examined the existence and intensity of long-range dependence in packet delay when viewed as time-series data. The correlation structures of packet delay on bulk TCP data path and UDP flows follow asymptotic decay while Hurst exponent estimates suggest from moderate to strong intensity(H->1).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianghao Hao
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we consider a one-dimensional Timoshenko system of thermoelasticity of type III with past history and distributive delay. It is known that an arbitrarily small delay may be the source of instability. We establish the well-posedness and the stability of the system for the cases of equal and nonequal speeds of wave propagation respectively. Our results show that the damping effect is strong enough to uniformly stabilize the system even in the presence of time delay under suitable conditions and improve the related results.
Bipartite consensus for multi-agent systems with antagonistic interactions and communication delays
Guo, Xing; Lu, Jianquan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E.
2018-04-01
This paper studies the consensus problems over signed digraphs with arbitrary finite communication delays. For the considered system, the information flow is directed and only locally delayed information can be used for each node. We derive that bipartite consensus of this system can be realized when the associated signed digraph is strongly connected. Furthermore, for structurally balanced networks, this paper studies the pinning partite consensus for the considered system. we design a pinning scheme to pin any one agent in the signed network, and obtain that the network achieves pinning bipartite consensus with any initial conditions. Finally, two examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our main results.
Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, Adrian N.; Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias; Keller, Ursula
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The attoclock measures time by electron streaking with elliptically polarized light. ► Precision measurements reveal details about the laser-induced tunneling current flow. ► Multielectron effects play an important role when the polarizability is large. ► Double ionization experiments show evidence of novel electron correlation mechanisms. - Abstract: The attoclock is a powerful, new, and unconventional experimental tool to study fundamental attosecond dynamics on an atomic scale. We have demonstrated the first attoclock with the goal to measure the tunneling delay time in laser-induced ionization of helium and argon atoms, with surprising results. It was found that the time delay in tunneling is zero for helium and argon atoms within the experimental uncertainties of a few 10’s of attoseconds. Furthermore we showed that the single active electron approximation is not sufficient even for atoms such as argon and the parent-ion interaction is much more complex than normally assumed. For double ionization of argon we found again surprising results because the ionization time of the first electron is in good agreement with the predictions, whereas the ionization of the second electron occurs significantly earlier than predicted and the two electrons exhibit some unexpected correlation
Recent attoclock measurements of strong field ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfeiffer, Adrian N., E-mail: apfeiff@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Cirelli, Claudio; Smolarski, Mathias; Keller, Ursula [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)
2013-03-12
Highlights: ► The attoclock measures time by electron streaking with elliptically polarized light. ► Precision measurements reveal details about the laser-induced tunneling current flow. ► Multielectron effects play an important role when the polarizability is large. ► Double ionization experiments show evidence of novel electron correlation mechanisms. - Abstract: The attoclock is a powerful, new, and unconventional experimental tool to study fundamental attosecond dynamics on an atomic scale. We have demonstrated the first attoclock with the goal to measure the tunneling delay time in laser-induced ionization of helium and argon atoms, with surprising results. It was found that the time delay in tunneling is zero for helium and argon atoms within the experimental uncertainties of a few 10’s of attoseconds. Furthermore we showed that the single active electron approximation is not sufficient even for atoms such as argon and the parent-ion interaction is much more complex than normally assumed. For double ionization of argon we found again surprising results because the ionization time of the first electron is in good agreement with the predictions, whereas the ionization of the second electron occurs significantly earlier than predicted and the two electrons exhibit some unexpected correlation.
Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...
Communication key using delay times in time-delayed chaos synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chil-Min; Kye, Won-Ho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Soo-Young
2004-01-01
We propose an efficient key scheme, which can generate a great number of communication keys, for communication using chaos synchronization. We have attained the keys from delay times of time-delay coupled chaotic systems. We explain the scheme and the efficiency by coupling Henon and logistic maps and illustrate them by coupling Navier-Stokes and Lorenz equations as a continuous system
The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.
Kurokawa, Shun
2017-05-21
The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with
The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays
Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.
2014-03-01
Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.
Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control.
Biggs, James D; Bennet, Derek J; Dadzie, S Kokou
2012-01-01
In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations.
Positive mood effects on delay discounting.
Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B
2010-10-01
Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie
2010-01-01
Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... at the general practitioner, 36 days at local hospitals, and 55 days at the sarcoma centre. Conclusion. Centralization per se is not sufficient for optimized and efficient management. Our findings suggest that delays can be minimized by direct referral of patients from primary health care to sarcoma centers...
On stochastic differential equations with random delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krapivsky, P L; Luck, J M; Mallick, K
2011-01-01
We consider stochastic dynamical systems defined by differential equations with a uniform random time delay. The latter equations are shown to be equivalent to deterministic higher-order differential equations: for an nth-order equation with random delay, the corresponding deterministic equation has order n + 1. We analyze various examples of dynamical systems of this kind, and find a number of unusual behaviors. For instance, for the harmonic oscillator with random delay, the energy grows as exp((3/2) t 2/3 ) in reduced units. We then investigate the effect of introducing a discrete time step ε. At variance with the continuous situation, the discrete random recursion relations thus obtained have intrinsic fluctuations. The crossover between the fluctuating discrete problem and the deterministic continuous one as ε goes to zero is studied in detail on the example of a first-order linear differential equation
Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge
2002-01-01
Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time
Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan [Future Computing Group, School of Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Helian Na [School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Wu Sining [Xyratex, Havant (United Kingdom); Guo Yike [Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rashid, Md Mamunur [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2012-04-01
Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.
Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan; Helian Na; Wu Sining; Guo Yike; Rashid, Md Mamunur
2012-01-01
Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.
Delayed feedback control in quantum transport.
Emary, Clive
2013-09-28
Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, among them quantum state stabilization and the realization of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system are affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution, I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. I investigate the consequences of delay for the state stabilization and Maxwell's daemon schemes. Furthermore, I describe how delay can be used as a tool to probe coherent oscillations of electrons within a transport system and how this formalism can be used to model finite detector bandwidth.
Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmol, P. del
1968-01-01
Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)
Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmol, P. del
1968-01-01
Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot-atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope-separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)
Abdominal CT findings of delayed postoperative complications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A. [Sapir Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Kfar Saba (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Gayer, G. [Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Zrifin (Israel)
2007-10-15
Despite progress in surgical techniques and modern medical treatment, postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to type of surgery, clinical setting, and time elapsed since surgery. In general, they can be divided into early and delayed complications. Delayed postoperative complications can be classified as specific and nonspecific. The common nonspecific delayed complications are incisional hernia and postoperative bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be further categorized as obstruction related to benign or neoplastic etiology, the latter occurring in oncology patients in whom the primary surgery was related to an underlying abdominal neoplasm. Gossypiboma is another, fortunately rare, postoperative complication. Specific complications appear after specific operations and include the following: Splenosis - following splenectomy. Retained gallstones and spilled gallstones - following cholecystectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Dropped appendicolith and stump appendicitis - following appendectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Obturation obstruction by a bezoar - following gastric surgery. Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) - following Bilroth II gastrectomy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yao; Wang Zidong; Liang Jinling
2008-01-01
In this Letter, the synchronization problem is investigated for a class of stochastic complex networks with time delays. By utilizing a new Lyapunov functional form based on the idea of 'delay fractioning', we employ the stochastic analysis techniques and the properties of Kronecker product to establish delay-dependent synchronization criteria that guarantee the globally asymptotically mean-square synchronization of the addressed delayed networks with stochastic disturbances. These sufficient conditions, which are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), can be solved efficiently by the LMI toolbox in Matlab. The main results are proved to be much less conservative and the conservatism could be reduced further as the number of delay fractioning gets bigger. A simulation example is exploited to demonstrate the advantage and applicability of the proposed result
Classic conditioning in aged rabbits: delay, trace, and long-delay conditioning.
Solomon, P R; Groccia-Ellison, M E
1996-06-01
Young (0.5 years) and aged (2+, 3+, and 4+ years) rabbits underwent acquisition of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in a delay (500-ms conditioned stimulus [CS], 400-ms interstimulus interval [ISI]), long-delay (1,000-ms CS, 900-ms ISI), or trace (500-ms CS, 400-ms stimulus-free period) paradigm. Collapsing across age groups, there is a general tendency for animals to acquire trace conditioning more slowly than delay conditioning. Collapsing across conditioning paradigms, there is a general tendency for aged animals to acquire more slowly than younger animals. Of greater significance, however, are the age differences in the different conditioning paradigms. In the delay and long-delay paradigms, significant conditioning deficits first appeared in the 4(+)-year-old group. In the trace conditioning paradigm, significant conditioning deficits became apparent in the 2(+)-year-old animals.
Modeling of delays in PKPD: classical approaches and a tutorial for delay differential equations.
Koch, Gilbert; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Pérez-Ruixo, Juan Jose; Schropp, Johannes
2014-08-01
In pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKPD) the measured response is often delayed relative to drug administration, individuals in a population have a certain lifespan until they maturate or the change of biomarkers does not immediately affects the primary endpoint. The classical approach in PKPD is to apply transit compartment models (TCM) based on ordinary differential equations to handle such delays. However, an alternative approach to deal with delays are delay differential equations (DDE). DDEs feature additional flexibility and properties, realize more complex dynamics and can complementary be used together with TCMs. We introduce several delay based PKPD models and investigate mathematical properties of general DDE based models, which serve as subunits in order to build larger PKPD models. Finally, we review current PKPD software with respect to the implementation of DDEs for PKPD analysis.
Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2012-08-20
A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.
Delayed minocycline but not delayed mild hypothermia protects against embolic stroke
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noor Raza
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study, effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia on focal embolic cerebral ischemia have been examined. Methods Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Infarction volume was measured at 48 h after the injury. Mortality was also recorded. Results Delayed administration of minocycline alone or delayed minocycline plus delayed mild hypothermia reduced the infarction volume significantly. However, delayed mild hypothermia alone was not protective and delayed mild hypothermia in combination with minocycline did not show any additive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that minocycline is beneficial in focal ischemic brain injury, and the lack of the enhanced neuroprotection may be due to the brief exposure to hypothermia.
Atmospheric Phase Delay in Sentinel SAR Interferometry
Krishnakumar, V.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Crippa, B.
2018-04-01
The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth's surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere) are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR). To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation
ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY IN SENTINEL SAR INTERFEROMETRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Krishnakumar
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR Interferometry (InSAR has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth’s surface, especially for mapping the Earth’s topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth’s atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR. To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate
Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.
Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A
2011-06-01
Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.
The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, T.
1989-01-01
The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs
Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.
1988-01-01
A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs
Delay line MWPC hazard signals inspector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, D.B.; Kirsten, F.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Schilling, R.
1976-01-01
The Hazard Inspector is a CAMAC module which divides a MWPC delay line into 8 independent signal monitor and control segments. Independent control effectively reduces delay line occupation time and cuts the number of background and non-trigger particles accepted by the 4XQT charge-time-pulse-width digitizer, a device presented in a separate communication. Only segments containing legitimate information are digitized. Non-trigger related events are gated out at the digitizer, and contaminating hits are noted for computer correction
Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arathi R
2006-05-01
Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.
Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1999-09-01
According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve
Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-09-01
According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve
Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...
The Consequences of Delaying Entrance into University
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foley, Kelly; Groes, Fane
Because the returns to education depend on the nite horizon of individuals' working lives, human capital models predict that if an individual is going to attend university, she should do so as soon as possible. Delaying university can also mean individuals have fewer years in which to accumulate...... post-schooling experience. In this paper, we use Danish administrative data to estimate the wage losses experienced by individuals who accumulate less post-schooling experience because they postponed entry into university following high school. All else equal, experience-related costs of delaying...
Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redouane Qesmi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.
4-channel time delayed pulse generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.
1987-02-01
It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt
Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer.
Ermiah, Eramah; Abdalla, Fathi; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Larbesh, Entesar; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö
2012-08-21
To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3-6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV.Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast
Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slovak, A J; Payne, A R
1984-07-01
A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.
Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven
Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...
Congenital rubella syndrome and delayed manifestations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
2010-01-01
Objective: Several hypotheses of different medical and psychological delayed manifestations among people who have congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) have been discussed. This study tests some of these hypotheses of delayed manifestations. Methods: Gathering information about 35 individuals who hav...... which people with CRS face must primarily be understood in relation to congenital deafblindness and dual sensory and communicative deprivation....... CRS and who are congenitally deafblind. Results: None of the hypotheses could be confirmed when individuals with CRS were compared to a control group of individuals who were congenital deafblind with different aetiology than CRS. Conclusions: This study concludes that those health related problems...
Delayed airway stenosis after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuta, Atsushi; Tatematsu, Masanori; Ishinaga, Hajime; Harada, Teruhiko; Majima, Yuichi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine
2002-03-01
Seven cases of delayed airway stenosis after radiotherapy for early staged head and neck cancers during 1989 and 1999 were evaluated (aged 54-77 yrs, 6 male and a female). The cases included five glottic laryngeal cancers (T1a, T1b, and three T2), a subglottic laryngeal cancer, and an unknown origin, but strongly suspected laryngeal cancer, with neck metastasis. Radio injury was found from 3 months to 47 months after radiotherapy. {sup 60}Co for radiotherapy was used in all seven cases, although {sup 60}Co radionuclide was changed to Liniac in 1997. The total dose was 60 Gy for 3 cases, and 70 Gy for 4 cases. Tracheostomy was performed in 3 cases due to bilateral vocal cord impairment. Background, treatment, and response to radiotherapy were compared to those of 90 patients of a control group with early staged laryngeal cancer who did not fail radiation injury during the same period. As a result, radionuclide ({sup 60}Co), total dose, cervical surgery, antiinflammatory drugs, laryngeal edema during radiotherapy were risk factors. The intensity and the period of mucositis by radiotherapy was important for indicating delayed airway stenosis. (author)
Delayed airway stenosis after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuta, Atsushi; Tatematsu, Masanori; Ishinaga, Hajime; Harada, Teruhiko; Majima, Yuichi
2002-01-01
Seven cases of delayed airway stenosis after radiotherapy for early staged head and neck cancers during 1989 and 1999 were evaluated (aged 54-77 yrs, 6 male and a female). The cases included five glottic laryngeal cancers (T1a, T1b, and three T2), a subglottic laryngeal cancer, and an unknown origin, but strongly suspected laryngeal cancer, with neck metastasis. Radio injury was found from 3 months to 47 months after radiotherapy. 60 Co for radiotherapy was used in all seven cases, although 60 Co radionuclide was changed to Liniac in 1997. The total dose was 60 Gy for 3 cases, and 70 Gy for 4 cases. Tracheostomy was performed in 3 cases due to bilateral vocal cord impairment. Background, treatment, and response to radiotherapy were compared to those of 90 patients of a control group with early staged laryngeal cancer who did not fail radiation injury during the same period. As a result, radionuclide ( 60 Co), total dose, cervical surgery, antiinflammatory drugs, laryngeal edema during radiotherapy were risk factors. The intensity and the period of mucositis by radiotherapy was important for indicating delayed airway stenosis. (author)
Sequential effects in pigeon delayed matching-to-sample performance.
Roitblat, H L; Scopatz, R A
1983-04-01
Pigeons were tested in a three-alternative delayed matching-to-sample task in which second-choices were permitted following first-choice errors. Sequences of responses both within and between trials were examined in three experiments. The first experiment demonstrates that the sample information contained in first-choice errors is not sufficient to account for the observed pattern of second choices. This result implies that second-choices following first-choice errors are based on a second examination of the contents of working memory. Proactive interference was found in the second experiment in the form of a dependency, beyond that expected on the basis of trial independent response bias, of first-choices from one trial on the first-choice emitted on the previous trial. Samples from the previous trial were not found to exert a significant influence on later trials. The magnitude of the intertrial association (Experiment 3) did not depend on the duration of the intertrial interval. In contrast, longer intertrial intervals and longer sample durations did facilitate choice accuracy, by strengthening the association between current samples and choices. These results are incompatible with a trace-decay and competition model; they suggest strongly that multiple influences act simultaneously and independently to control delayed matching-to-sample responding. These multiple influences include memory for the choice occurring on the previous trial, memory for the sample, and general effects of trial spacing.
Simulation of activation and propagation delay during tripolar neural stimulation
Goodall, E.V.; Goodall, Eleanor V.; Kosterman, L. Martin; Struijk, Johannes J.; Struijk, J.J.; Holsheimer, J.
1993-01-01
Computer simulations were perfonned to investigate the influence of stimulus amplitude on cathodal activation delay, propagation delay and blocking during stimulation with a bipolar cuff electrode. Activation and propagation delays were combined in a total delay term which was minimized between the
Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields
2007-01-01
We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.
Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2011-01-01
Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using ''first principles'' molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.
Coherent Vortices in Strongly Coupled Liquids
Ashwin, J.; Ganesh, R.
2011-04-01
Strongly coupled liquids are ubiquitous in both nature and laboratory plasma experiments. They are unique in the sense that their average potential energy per particle dominates over the average kinetic energy. Using “first principles” molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report for the first time the emergence of isolated coherent tripolar vortices from the evolution of axisymmetric flows in a prototype two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled liquid, namely, the Yukawa liquid. Linear growth rates directly obtained from MD simulations are compared with a generalized hydrodynamic model. Our MD simulations reveal that the tripolar vortices persist over several turn over times and hence may be observed in strongly coupled liquids such as complex plasma, liquid metals and astrophysical systems such as white dwarfs and giant planetary interiors, thereby making the phenomenon universal.
Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Bellessa
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.
Institutionalizing Strong Sustainability: A Rawlsian Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konrad Ott
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The article aims to provide some ethical orientation on how sustainability might be actualized by institutions. Since institutionalization is about rules and organization, it presupposes ideas and concepts by which institutions can be substantiated. After outlining terminology, the article deals with underlying ethical and conceptual problems which are highly relevant for any suggestions concerning institutionalization. These problems are: (a the ethical scope of the sustainability perspective (natural capital, poverty, sentient animals, (b the theory of justice on which ideas about sustainability are built (capability approach, Rawlsianism, and (c the favored concept of sustainability (weak, intermediate, and strong sustainability. These problems are analyzed in turn. As a result, a Rawlsian concept of rule-based strong sustainability is proposed. The specific problems of institutionalization are addressed by applying Rawls’s concept of branches. The article concludes with arguments in favor of three transnational duties which hold for states that have adopted Rawlsian strong sustainability.
A theory of the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1979-01-01
The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)
Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials
Anisimov, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.
Strongly interacting matter in magnetic fields
Landsteiner, Karl; Schmitt, Andreas; Yee, Ho-Ung
2013-01-01
The physics of strongly interacting matter in an external magnetic field is presently emerging as a topic of great cross-disciplinary interest for particle, nuclear, astro- and condensed matter physicists. It is known that strong magnetic fields are created in heavy ion collisions, an insight that has made it possible to study a variety of surprising and intriguing phenomena that emerge from the interplay of quantum anomalies, the topology of non-Abelian gauge fields, and the magnetic field. In particular, the non-trivial topological configurations of the gluon field induce a non-dissipative electric current in the presence of a magnetic field. These phenomena have led to an extended formulation of relativistic hydrodynamics, called chiral magnetohydrodynamics. Hitherto unexpected applications in condensed matter physics include graphene and topological insulators. Other fields of application include astrophysics, where strong magnetic fields exist in magnetars and pulsars. Last but not least, an important ne...
Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence
Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya
2018-04-01
Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars M. Göllner
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The delay of gratification (DoG in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the “marshmallow test,” whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP and episodic future thinking (EFT] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9–14, 18–25, 35–55, 65–80, 80+ participated in the study (N = 96. While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.
Göllner, Lars M; Ballhausen, Nicola; Kliegel, Matthias; Forstmeier, Simon
2017-01-01
The delay of gratification (DoG) in children is widely investigated with an experimental procedure originally called the "marshmallow test," whereas the studies on self-regulation (SR) in adolescents and adults usually use self-report questionnaires. Delay discounting (DD) measures simplify the DoG procedure and focus on monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to investigate age differences in DoG and DD from childhood to old age using a test that is suitable for both children and adults. Furthermore, investigations were conducted on the association between DoG/DD and two future orientation constructs [future time perspective (FTP) and episodic future thinking (EFT)] as well as age differences in these constructs. Participants from five age groups (9-14, 18-25, 35-55, 65-80, 80+) participated in the study ( N = 96). While we found no age difference for DoG, DD was the lowest [i.e., self-control (SC) was the highest] in young/middle adults; however, it was the highest (i.e., SC was the lowest) in children and old/oldest adults. Furthermore, we found significant age differences for DD and FTP. As predicted, there were strong correlations between DoG and FTP and between DD and FTP, but not between DoG/DD and EFT. These results indicate that age differences in SR vary across the measures used. Individuals who generally think and act in a future-oriented manner have a stronger ability to delay gratification.
Uwemedimo, Omolara Thomas; Howlader, Afrin; Pierret, Giselina
According to the World Health Organization, >200 million children in low- and middle-income countries experience developmental delays. However, household structure and parenting practices have been minimally explored as potential correlates of developmental delay in low- and middle-income countries, despite potential as areas for intervention. The objective of the study was to examine associations of developmental delays with use of World Health Organization-recommended parenting practices among a clinic-based cohort of children aged 6-60 months attending in La Romana, Dominican Republic. This study was conducted among 74 caregiver-child pairs attending the growth-monitoring clinic at Hospital Francisco Gonzalvo in June 2015. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool was adapted and performed on each child to assess socioadaptive, fine motor, gross motor, and language development. The IMCI Household Level Survey Questionnaire was used to assess parenting practices. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations significant at P children had a delay in at least 1 developmental domain. Most caregivers used scolding (43.2%) or spanking (44%) for child discipline. Children who were disciplined by spanking and scolding were more likely to have language delay (P = .007) and socioadaptive delay (P = .077), respectively. On regression analysis, children with younger primary caregivers had 7 times higher odds of language delay (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 7.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-35.61) and 4 times greater odds of any delay (AOR: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.01-22.22). In addition, children punished by spanking had 5 times higher odds of having language delay (AOR: 5.04, 95% CI: 1.13-22.39). Parenting practices such as harsh punishment and lack of positive parental reinforcement were found to have strong associations with language and socioadaptive delays. Likewise, delays were also more common among children with younger caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Icahn
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21...
Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators
El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...
Strong WW scattering at photon linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, M.S.
1994-06-01
We investigate the possibility of observing strong interactions of longitudinally polarized weak vector bosons in the process γγ → ZZ at a photon linear collider. We make use of polarization of the photon beams and cuts on the decay products of the Z bosons to enhance the signal relative to the background of transversely polarized ZZ pairs. We find that the background overwhelms the signal unless there are strong resonant effects, as for instance from a technicolor analogue of the hadronic f 2 (1270) meson
Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1980-01-01
Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...... dynamics in the analysis is also demonstrated. As a particular case the authors investigate nonlinear waves in a strongly magnetized plasma filled wave-guide, where the effects of finite geometry are important. The relevance of this problem to laboratory experiments is discussed....
Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)
2007-06-30
This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)
Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G
2007-01-01
This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)
De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)
2017-03-22
We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.
Optical spectral weight anomalies and strong correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toschi, A.; Capone, M.; Ortolani, M.; Calvani, P.; Lupi, S.; Castellani, C.
2007-01-01
The anomalous behavior observed in the optical spectral weight (W) of the cuprates provides valuable information about the physics of these compounds. Both the doping and the temperature dependences of W are hardly explained through conventional estimates based on the f-sum rule. By computing the optical conductivity of the doped Hubbard model with the Dynamical Mean Field Theory, we point out that the strong correlation plays a key role in determining the basic features of the observed anomalies: the proximity to a Mott insulating phase accounts simultaneously for the strong temperature dependence of W and for its zero temperature value
Strong cosmic censorship in de Sitter space
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Eperon, Felicity C.; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.
2018-05-01
Recent work indicates that the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis is violated by nearly extremal Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. It was argued that perturbations of such a black hole decay sufficiently rapidly that the perturbed spacetime can be extended across the Cauchy horizon as a weak solution of the equations of motion. In this paper we consider the case of Kerr-de Sitter black holes. We find that, for any nonextremal value of the black hole parameters, there are quasinormal modes which decay sufficiently slowly to ensure that strong cosmic censorship is respected. Our analysis covers both scalar field and linearized gravitational perturbations.
Delay Tolerance: A Therapeutic Possibility for AD/HD?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke
2004-01-01
on these two insights to explore the possibility that the motivational alterations underpinning delay aversion can be modified through specific training regimes in a way equivalent to that found with executive and attentional training. The requirements for such an approach are set out. Delay fading is proposed as a possible basis for reorganizing delay experience, altering the incentive value of delay (e.g., increasing tolerance for delay, thereby reducing AD/HD symptoms.
ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions
Delgado, L.; Prats, X.
2012-01-01
Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that g...
Prediction of biodiesel ignition delay in a diesel engine using artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piloto-Rodríguez, Ramón; Sánchez-Borroto, Yisel
2017-01-01
Ignition delay is one of the most important parameters of the combustion process and have a strong influence in exhaust emissions and engines performance. In the present work, the results of the mathematical modeling of ignition delay through artificial neural networks are shown. The modeling starts from input values that cover thermodynamic variables, engines parameters and biodiesel properties. The model obtained is only useful for biodiesel samples and several neural network algorithms were applied in order to predict the ignition delay. From its correlation coefficient, prediction capability and lowest absolute error, the best model was selected. Among other network’s input parameters, the cetane number was taken into account, also previously predicted by the use of ANN. (author)
Attosecond Time Delay in Photoionization of Noble-Gas and Halogen Atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang-Wen Pi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Ultrafast processes are now accessible on the attosecond time scale due to the availability of ultrashort XUV laser pulses. Noble-gas and halogen atoms remain important targets due to their giant dipole resonance and Cooper minimum. Here, we calculate photoionization cross section, asymmetry parameter and Wigner time delay using the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA, which includes the electron correlation effects. Our results are consistent with experimental data and other theoretical calculations. The asymmetry parameter provides an extra layer of access to the phase information of the photoionization processes. We find that halogen atoms bear a strong resemblance on cross section, asymmetry parameter and time delay to their noble-gas neighbors. Our predicted time delay should provide a guidance for future experiments on those atoms and related molecules.
Performance Evaluation of Blind Tropospheric Delay correction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
lekky
and Temperature 2 wet (GPT2w) models) for tropospheric delay correction, ... In practice, a user often employs a certain troposphere model based on the popularity ... comparisons between some of the models have been carried out in the past for .... prediction of meteorological parameter values, which are then used to ...
STEMI time delays: A clinical perspective
M.J. de Boer (Menko Jan); F. Zijlstra (Felix)
2015-01-01
textabstractSTEMI time delays have been introduced as a performance indicator or marker of quality of care. As they are only one part of a very complex medical process, one should be aware of concomitant issues that may be overlooked or even be more important with regard to clinical outcome of STEMI
Third order differential equations with delay
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petr Liška
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the oscillation and asymptotic properties of solutions of certain nonlinear third order differential equations with delay. In particular, we extend results of I. Mojsej (Nonlinear Analysis 68, 2008 and we improve conditions on the property B of N. Parhi and S. Padhi (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 33, 2002.
Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.
1978-01-01
An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures
Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates
Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.
2017-01-01
Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414
Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Gallmann
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.
Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Cellular Immune Responses. ... The tuberculin skin test (TST) and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) culture were conducted using PPD. The cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Results: The mean TST was 24.6 ±8.0 ...
Delay differential systems for tick population dynamics.
Fan, Guihong; Thieme, Horst R; Zhu, Huaiping
2015-11-01
Ticks play a critical role as vectors in the transmission and spread of Lyme disease, an emerging infectious disease which can cause severe illness in humans or animals. To understand the transmission dynamics of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to investigate the population dynamics of ticks. Here, we formulate a system of delay differential equations which models the stage structure of the tick population. Temperature can alter the length of time delays in each developmental stage, and so the time delays can vary geographically (and seasonally which we do not consider). We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of stage structured tick populations. The tick population is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text] and dies out if [Formula: see text]. We present sufficient conditions under which the unique positive equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. In general, the positive equilibrium can be unstable and the system show oscillatory behavior. These oscillations are primarily due to negative feedback within the tick system, but can be enhanced by the time delays of the different developmental stages.
Moments of the Wigner delay times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkolaiko, Gregory; Kuipers, Jack
2010-01-01
The Wigner time delay is a measure of the time spent by a particle inside the scattering region of an open system. For chaotic systems, the statistics of the individual delay times (whose average is the Wigner time delay) are thought to be well described by random matrix theory. Here we present a semiclassical derivation showing the validity of random matrix results. In order to simplify the semiclassical treatment, we express the moments of the delay times in terms of correlation functions of scattering matrices at different energies. In the semiclassical approximation, the elements of the scattering matrix are given in terms of the classical scattering trajectories, requiring one to study correlations between sets of such trajectories. We describe the structure of correlated sets of trajectories and formulate the rules for their evaluation to the leading order in inverse channel number. This allows us to derive a polynomial equation satisfied by the generating function of the moments. Along with showing the agreement of our semiclassical results with the moments predicted by random matrix theory, we infer that the scattering matrix is unitary to all orders in the semiclassical approximation.
Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef
2006-01-01
. In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...
A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination
Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.
2009-01-01
Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…
Optimal Control for Stochastic Delay Evolution Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Qingxin, E-mail: mqx@hutc.zj.cn [Huzhou University, Department of Mathematical Sciences (China); Shen, Yang, E-mail: skyshen87@gmail.com [York University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)
2016-08-15
In this paper, we investigate a class of infinite-dimensional optimal control problems, where the state equation is given by a stochastic delay evolution equation with random coefficients, and the corresponding adjoint equation is given by an anticipated backward stochastic evolution equation. We first prove the continuous dependence theorems for stochastic delay evolution equations and anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations, and show the existence and uniqueness of solutions to anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations. Then we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of the control problem in the form of Pontryagin’s maximum principles. To illustrate the theoretical results, we apply stochastic maximum principles to study two examples, an infinite-dimensional linear-quadratic control problem with delay and an optimal control of a Dirichlet problem for a stochastic partial differential equation with delay. Further applications of the two examples to a Cauchy problem for a controlled linear stochastic partial differential equation and an optimal harvesting problem are also considered.
Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.
1984-11-01
Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma.
early versus delayed induction of labour
African Journals Online (AJOL)
during labour versus 18 patients (52%) in the group that was induced .... (AMG) or a delayed induction group (DIG). Sealed .... Of the 7 CSs in the DIG, 3 were for fetal heart rate .... in mind that labour was never induced later than 48 hours.
Infants' Delayed Recognition Memory and Forgetting
Fagan, Joseph F., III
1973-01-01
Infants 21- to 25-weeks-old devoted more visual fixation to novel than familiar stimuli on immediate and delayed recognition tests. The experiments confirm the existence of long-term recognition memory for pictorial stimuli in the early months of life. (DP)
Voluntary suppression of defecation delays gastric emptying
Tjeerdsma, H. C.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.
1993-01-01
We wished to test the hypothesis that colonic loading with fecal material leads to delayed gastric emptying. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied. Each of these subjects went through two randomized study periods of four days. In one of these, the subjects defecated upon urge, in the other
Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation
Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.
1984-01-01
Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma. (orig.)
Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup
2004-01-01
Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.
Exact, almost and delayed fault detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.
1999-01-01
Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems....... The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....
Natural strong CP conservation in flipped physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frampton, P.H. (Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Kephart, T.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (USA))
1990-08-13
A natural axion-free solution of the strong {ital CP} problem {ital at} {ital tree} {ital level} is noted within an E(6) grand unified theory. Using this as a springboard, it is shown that several flipped SU(5) theories which occur in superstring phenomenology contain within them a mechanism which enforces {bar {theta}}=0 at high accuracy.
Riesz basis for strongly continuous groups.
Zwart, Heiko J.
Given a Hilbert space and the generator of a strongly continuous group on this Hilbert space. If the eigenvalues of the generator have a uniform gap, and if the span of the corresponding eigenvectors is dense, then these eigenvectors form a Riesz basis (or unconditional basis) of the Hilbert space.
Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...
Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paraficz, Danuta
value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...
Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senjanovic, G.
1993-05-01
Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs
Phase transition from strong-coupling expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polonyi, J.; Szlachanyi, K.
1982-01-01
Starting with quarkless SU(2) lattice gauge theory and using the strong-coupling expansion we calculate the action of the effective field theory which corresponds to the thermal Wilson loop. This effective action makes evident that the quark liberating phase transition traces back to the spontaneous breaking of a global Z(2) symmetry group. It furthermore describes both phases qualitatively. (orig.)
The stability of the strong gravity solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, S.A.
1978-01-01
The perturbation of the classical solution to a strong gravity model given by Salam and Strathdee is investigated. Using the Hamiltonian formalism it is shown that this static and spherically symmetric solution is stable under the odd parity perturbations provided some parameters in the solution are suitably restricted
Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng
2007-01-01
The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed
Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.
1992-06-01
Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions
Strong imploding shock, the representative curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishkin, E.A.; Alejaldre, C.
1981-01-01
The representative curve of the ideal gas behind the front of a spherically, or cylindrically, symmetric strong imploding shock is shown to pass through the point where the reduced pressure is maximum, P(xisub(m)) = Psub(m)sub(a)sub(x). (orig.)
Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Aristizábal
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.
Physics challenges in the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, S.D.
1991-01-01
An overview of the challenges to be faced in the area of the strong interactions during the 1990's is presented. As an illustrative example special attention is given to the analysis of jets as studied at hadron colliders.
Strongly \\'etale difference algebras and Babbitt's decomposition
Tomašić, Ivan; Wibmer, Michael
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of strongly \\'{e}tale difference algebras, whose role in the study of difference equations is analogous to the role of \\'{e}tale algebras in the study of algebraic equations. We deduce an improved version of Babbitt's decomposition theorem and we present applications to difference algebraic groups and the compatibility problem.
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.
Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.
2009-01-01
Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.
Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1980-01-01
An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production......-cathode reflex arc, Stellarator, Zeta discharge, ionospheric plasmas, and auroral plasma turbulence....
Strong industrial base vital for economic revival
2001-01-01
At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).
Strong field control of predissociation dynamics.
Corrales, María E; Balerdi, Garikoitz; Loriot, Vincent; de Nalda, Rebeca; Bañares, Luis
2013-01-01
Strong field control scenarios are investigated in the CH3I predissociation dynamics at the origin of the second absorption B-band, in which state-selective electronic predissociation occurs through the crossing with a valence dissociative state. Dynamic Stark control (DSC) and pump-dump strategies are shown capable of altering both the predissociation lifetime and the product branching ratio.
Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santopinto E.
2014-05-01
Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.
Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization
Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc
2010-01-01
Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The
Steering neutral atoms in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U
2014-01-01
The seminal strong-field tunnelling theory introduced by L V Keldysh plays a pivotal role. It has shaped our understanding of atomic strong-field processes, where it represents the first step in complex ionisation dynamics and provides reliable tunnelling rates. Tunnelling rates, however, cannot be necessarily equated with ionisation rates. Taking into account the electron dynamics in the Coulomb potential following the tunnelling process, the process of frustrated tunnelling ionisation has been found to lead to excited Rydberg atoms. Here, we excite He atoms in the strong-field tunnelling regime into Rydberg states. A high percentage of these Rydberg atoms survive in high intensity laser fields. We exploit this fact together with their high polarisability to kinematically manipulate the Rydberg atoms with a second elliptically polarised focused strong laser field. By varying the spatial overlap of the two laser foci, we are able to selectively control the deflection of the Rydberg atoms. The results of semi-classical calculations, which are based on the frustrated tunnelling model and on the ponderomotive acceleration, are in accord with our experimental data. (paper)
Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#
Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...
Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolak, A.
1984-01-01
The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)
Patterns of strong coupling for LHC searches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Da [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of (China); Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pomarol, Alex [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dept. de Física and IFAE-BIST,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Theoretical Particle Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics,EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2016-11-23
Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. We believe our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several LHC searches in Higgs physics, diboson production, or WW scattering. Perhaps surprisingly, the interplay between weak coupling, strong coupling and derivatives, which is controlled by symmetries, can override the naive expansion in operator dimension, providing instances where dimension-8 dominates dimension-6, well within the domain of validity of the low energy effective theory. This result reveals the limitations of an analysis that is both ambitiously general and restricted to dimension-6 operators.
Strong drifts effects on neoclassical transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tessarotto, M.; Gregoratto, D.; White, R.B.
1996-01-01
It is well known that strong drifts play an important role in plasma equilibrium, stability and confinement A significant example concerns, in particular for tokamak plasmas, the case of strong toroidal differential rotation produced by E x B drift which is currently regarded as potentially important for its influence in equilibrium, stability and transport. In fact, theoretically, it has been found that shear flow can substantially affect the stability of microinstabilities as well modify substantially transport. Recent experimental observations of enhanced confinement and transport regimes in Tokamaks, show, however, evidence of the existence of strong drifts in the plasma core. These are produced not only by the radial electric field [which gives rise to the E x B drift], but also by density [N s ], temperature [T s ] and mass flow [V = ωRe var-phi , with e var-phi the toroidal unit vector, R the distance for the symmetry axis of the torus and ω being the toroidal angular rotation velocity] profiles which are suitably steep. This implies that, in a significant part of the plasma core, the relevant scale lengths of the gradients [of N s , T s , ω], i.e., respectively L N , L T and L ω can be as large as the radial scale length characterizing the banana orbits, L b . Interestingly enough, the transport estimates obtained appear close or even lower than the predictions based on the simplest neoclassical model. However, as is well known, the latter applies, in a strict sense only in the case of weak drifts and also ignoring even the contribution of shear flow related to strong E x B drift. Thus a fundamental problem appears the extension of neoclassical transport theory to include the effect of strong drifts in Tokamak confinement systems. The goal of this investigation is to develop a general formulation of neoclassical transport embodying such important feature
Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.
2010-01-01
For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)
Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shinawy, R.M.K.
2011-01-01
delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Song
2012-01-01
In this paper, the exponential synchronization between two nonlinearly coupled complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling is investigated with Lyapunov-Krasovskii-type functionals. Based on the stability analysis of the impulsive differential equation and the linear matrix inequality, sufficient delay-dependent conditions for exponential synchronization are derived, and a linear impulsive controller and simple updated laws are also designed. Furthermore, the coupling matrices need not be symmetric or irreducible. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the synchronization criteria obtained.
Strong dynamics and lattice gauge theory
Schaich, David
In this dissertation I use lattice gauge theory to study models of electroweak symmetry breaking that involve new strong dynamics. Electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) is the process by which elementary particles acquire mass. First proposed in the 1960s, this process has been clearly established by experiments, and can now be considered a law of nature. However, the physics underlying EWSB is still unknown, and understanding it remains a central challenge in particle physics today. A natural possibility is that EWSB is driven by the dynamics of some new, strongly-interacting force. Strong interactions invalidate the standard analytical approach of perturbation theory, making these models difficult to study. Lattice gauge theory is the premier method for obtaining quantitatively-reliable, nonperturbative predictions from strongly-interacting theories. In this approach, we replace spacetime by a regular, finite grid of discrete sites connected by links. The fields and interactions described by the theory are likewise discretized, and defined on the lattice so that we recover the original theory in continuous spacetime on an infinitely large lattice with sites infinitesimally close together. The finite number of degrees of freedom in the discretized system lets us simulate the lattice theory using high-performance computing. Lattice gauge theory has long been applied to quantum chromodynamics, the theory of strong nuclear interactions. Using lattice gauge theory to study dynamical EWSB, as I do in this dissertation, is a new and exciting application of these methods. Of particular interest is non-perturbative lattice calculation of the electroweak S parameter. Experimentally S ≈ -0.15(10), which tightly constrains dynamical EWSB. On the lattice, I extract S from the momentum-dependence of vector and axial-vector current correlators. I created and applied computer programs to calculate these correlators and analyze them to determine S. I also calculated the masses
Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.
Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-03-03
We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4} s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.
A mathematical model of a crocodilian population using delay-differential equations.
Gallegos, Angela; Plummer, Tenecia; Uminsky, David; Vega, Cinthia; Wickman, Clare; Zawoiski, Michael
2008-11-01
The crocodilia have multiple interesting characteristics that affect their population dynamics. They are among several reptile species which exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) in which the temperature of egg incubation determines the sex of the hatchlings. Their life parameters, specifically birth and death rates, exhibit strong age-dependence. We develop delay-differential equation (DDE) models describing the evolution of a crocodilian population. In using the delay formulation, we are able to account for both the TSD and the age-dependence of the life parameters while maintaining some analytical tractability. In our single-delay model we also find an equilibrium point and prove its local asymptotic stability. We numerically solve the different models and investigate the effects of multiple delays on the age structure of the population as well as the sex ratio of the population. For all models we obtain very strong agreement with the age structure of crocodilian population data as reported in Smith and Webb (Aust. Wild. Res. 12, 541-554, 1985). We also obtain reasonable values for the sex ratio of the simulated population.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Dovzhenok
Full Text Available Suppression of excessively synchronous beta-band oscillatory activity in the brain is believed to suppress hypokinetic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Recently, a lot of interest has been devoted to desynchronizing delayed feedback deep brain stimulation (DBS. This type of synchrony control was shown to destabilize the synchronized state in networks of simple model oscillators as well as in networks of coupled model neurons. However, the dynamics of the neural activity in Parkinson's disease exhibits complex intermittent synchronous patterns, far from the idealized synchronous dynamics used to study the delayed feedback stimulation. This study explores the action of delayed feedback stimulation on partially synchronized oscillatory dynamics, similar to what one observes experimentally in parkinsonian patients. We employ a computational model of the basal ganglia networks which reproduces experimentally observed fine temporal structure of the synchronous dynamics. When the parameters of our model are such that the synchrony is unphysiologically strong, the feedback exerts a desynchronizing action. However, when the network is tuned to reproduce the highly variable temporal patterns observed experimentally, the same kind of delayed feedback may actually increase the synchrony. As network parameters are changed from the range which produces complete synchrony to those favoring less synchronous dynamics, desynchronizing delayed feedback may gradually turn into synchronizing stimulation. This suggests that delayed feedback DBS in Parkinson's disease may boost rather than suppress synchronization and is unlikely to be clinically successful. The study also indicates that delayed feedback stimulation may not necessarily exhibit a desynchronization effect when acting on a physiologically realistic partially synchronous dynamics, and provides an example of how to estimate the stimulation effect.
Delayed recall, hippocampal volume and Alzheimer neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.
Mortimer, J A; Gosche, K M; Riley, K P; Markesbery, W R; Snowdon, D A
2004-02-10
To examine the associations of hippocampal volume and the severity of neurofibrillary lesions determined at autopsy with delayed verbal recall performance evaluated an average of 1 year prior to death. Hippocampal volumes were computed using postmortem brain MRI from the first 56 scanned participants of the Nun Study. Quantitative neuropathologic studies included lesion counts, Braak staging, and determination of whether neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) were met. Multiple regression was used to assess the association of hippocampal volume and neuropathologic lesions with the number of words (out of 10) recalled on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Delayed Word Recall Test administered an average of 1 year prior to death. When entered separately, hippocampal volume, Braak stage, and the mean neurofibrillary tangle counts in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus and the subiculum were strongly associated with the number of words recalled after a delay, adjusting for age and education. When hippocampal volume was entered together with each neuropathologic index, only hippocampal volume retained a significant association with the delayed recall measure. The association between hippocampal volume and the number of words recalled was present in both demented and nondemented individuals as well as in those with and without substantial AD neurofibrillary pathology. The association of neurofibrillary tangles with delayed verbal recall may reflect associated hippocampal atrophy.
A review of literature on delays in seeking care for tuberculosis in different Indian states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janmejaya Samal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The passive case-finding approach of Revised National Tuberculosis (TB Control Programme in India strongly affects the health-seeking behavior of TB patients, the timing of help seeking as well as the subsequent delays associated with the same. Studies carried out in different parts of India reveal a host of several factors for delay in seeking help and the reasons for not seeking help at all. Important reasons for delayed health-seeking behavior include financial constraint, symptoms are not severe (as perceived by the patients, work pressure, lack of awareness, first consulted nonpublic sector, inaccessibility to health facility, home remedy, social stigma, self-medication, transport problem, and dissatisfaction with health facility. Similarly, the median patient delay ranged from 7 to 56 days as reported by various studies. Health-seeking behavior and related delays are of utmost importance in TB care from two important perspectives; first, TB requires timely treatment, and second, it requires protracted treatment. Required level of knowledge and a positive health behavior helps the patients in taking timely help from an appropriate health facility. Moreover, timely help-seeking prevents further spread of the disease and helps in establishing a TB-free society.
A behavioral economic analysis of texting while driving: Delay discounting processes.
Hayashi, Yusuke; Miller, Kimberly; Foreman, Anne M; Wirth, Oliver
2016-12-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine an impulsive decision-making process underlying texting while driving from a behavioral economic perspective. A sample of 108 college students completed a novel discounting task that presented participants with a hypothetical scenario in which, after receiving a text message while driving, they rated the likelihood of replying to a text message immediately versus waiting to reply for a specific period of time. Participants also completed a delay discounting task in which they made repeated hypothetical choices between obtaining a larger amount of money available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the duration of the delay is a critical variable that strongly determines whether participants choose to wait to reply to a text message, and that the decrease in the likelihood of waiting as a function of delay is best described by a hyperbolic delay discounting function. The results also show that participants who self-reported higher frequency of texting while driving discounted the opportunity to reply to a text message at greater rates, whereas there was no relation between the rates of discounting of hypothetical monetary rewards and the frequency of texting while driving. The results support the conclusion that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun; Tong, Peiqing
2013-01-01
We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jianxin; Zhang, Zhenjun [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)
2013-07-15
We investigate the spreading of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci (GF) lattices by solving numerically the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) with a delayed cubic nonlinear term. It is found that for short delay time, the wave packet is self-trapping in first class of GF lattices, that is, the second moment grows with time, but the corresponding participation number does not grow. However, both the second moment and the participation number grow with time for large delay time. This illuminates that the wave packet is delocalized. For the second class of GF lattices, the dynamic behaviors of wave packet depend on the strength of on-site potential. For a weak on-site potential, the results are similar to the case of the first class. For a strong on-site potential, both the second moment and the participation number does not grow with time in the regime of short delay time. In the regime of large delay time, both the second moment and the participation number exhibit stair-like growth.
Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas
Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.
2015-04-01
Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.
Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, R.R. dos.
1975-07-01
The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt
Strongly not relatives Kähler manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zedda Michela
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study Kähler manifolds that are strongly not relative to any projective Kähler manifold, i.e. those Kähler manifolds that do not share a Kähler submanifold with any projective Kähler manifold even when their metric is rescaled by the multiplication by a positive constant. We prove two results which highlight some relations between this property and the existence of a full Kähler immersion into the infinite dimensional complex projective space. As application we get that the 1-parameter families of Bergman-Hartogs and Fock-Bargmann-Hartogs domains are strongly not relative to projective Kähler manifolds.
Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.
Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C
2014-01-24
Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.
Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.M. El-Naggar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.
Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
van Vliet Arjen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.
New strong interactions above the electroweak scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, A.R.
1994-01-01
Theoretical arguments for a new higher-color quark sector, based on Pomeron physics in QCD, are briefly described. The electroweak symmetry-breaking, Strong CP conservation, and electroweak scale CP violation, that is naturally produced by this sector is also outlined. A further consequence is that above the electroweak scale there will be a radical change in the strong interaction. Electroweak states, in particular multiple W's and Z's, and new, semi-stable, very massive, baryons, will be commonly produced. The possible correlation of expected phenomena with a wide range of observed Cosmic Ray effects at and above the primary spectrum knee is described. Related phenomena that might be seen in the highest energy hard scattering events at the Fermilab Tevatron, some of which could be confused with top production, are also briefly discussed
Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita
2015-01-01
Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...
Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Dan
2007-01-01
the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using...
Equilibrium and stability in strongly inhomogeneous plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mynick, H.E.
1978-10-01
The equilibrium of strongly inhomogeneous, collisionless, slab plasmas, is studied using a generalized version of a formalism previously developed, which permits the generation of self-consistent equilibria, for plasmas with arbitrary magnetic shear, and variation of magnetic field strength. A systematic procedure is developed for deriving the form of the guiding-center Hamiltonian K, for finite eta, in an axisymmetric geometry. In the process of obtaining K, an expression for the first adiabatic invariant (the gyroaction) is obtained, which generalizes the usual expression 1/2 mv/sub perpendicular/ 2 /Ω/sub c/ (Ω/sub c/ = eB/mc), to finite eta and magnetic shear. A formalism is developed for the study of the stability of strongly-inhomogeneous, magnetized slab plasmas; it is then applied to the ion-drift-cyclotron instability
Orbits in weak and strong bars
Contopoulos, George
1980-01-01
The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).
Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.
Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra
2017-12-01
The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon
Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2018-03-01
Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.
Electrons in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itzykson, C.
1985-05-01
We first describe the average one-particle spectrum in the presence of a strong magnetic field together with random impurities for a Gaussian distribution, and generalized using a supersymmetric method. We then study the effect of Coulomb interactions on an electron gas in a strong field, within the approximation of a projection on the lowest Landau level. At maximal density (or filling fraction ν equal to unity) the quantum mechanical problem is equivalent to a soluble classical model for a two-dimensional plasma. As ν decreases, more states come into play. Laughlin has guessed the structure of the ground state and its low lying excitations for certain rational values of the filling fraction. A complete proof is however missing, nor is it clear what happens as ν becomes so small that a ''crystalline'' structure becomes favoured. Our presentation shows a link with functions occurring in combinatorics and analytic number theory, which seems not to have been fully exploited
van de Ven, Niels; Gilovich, Thomas; Zeelenberg, Marcel
2010-04-01
To help explain a regularity in democratic elections, we examined whether choosing to delay making a choice between a focal option and an alternative tends to make people subsequently less likely to choose what they would otherwise have chosen. The results of two experiments demonstrated that participants who were induced to delay making a decision were indeed less likely to choose the descriptively normative option. An additional experiment that primed a sense of doubt in participants provided support for a self-perception account of this result. Electing to delay making a choice is interpreted as an indication of doubt--doubt that tends to be attributed to the most prominent option. Delay-induced doubt about the normative option makes it less likely to be selected.
Delay-range-dependent exponential H∞ synchronization of a class of delayed neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karimi, Hamid Reza; Maass, Peter
2009-01-01
This article aims to present a multiple delayed state-feedback control design for exponential H ∞ synchronization problem of a class of delayed neural networks with multiple time-varying discrete delays. On the basis of the drive-response concept and by introducing a descriptor technique and using Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, new delay-range-dependent sufficient conditions for exponential H ∞ synchronization of the drive-response structure of neural networks are driven in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The explicit expression of the controller gain matrices are parameterized based on the solvability conditions such that the drive system and the response system can be exponentially synchronized. A numerical example is included to illustrate the applicability of the proposed design method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cao Jinde
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an integral sliding mode control approach is presented to investigate synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays as well as leakage delay. By considering a proper sliding surface and constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as employing a combination of the free-weighting matrix method, Newton-Leibniz formulation and inequality technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the asymptotical synchronization of the addressed nonidentical neural networks. Moreover, a sliding mode control law is also synthesized to guarantee the reachability of the specified sliding surface. The provided conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and are dependent on the discrete and distributed time delays as well as leakage delay. A simulation example is given to verify the theoretical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.
2011-01-01
We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.
Hu, Shuhua; Dunlavey, Michael; Guzy, Serge; Teuscher, Nathan
2018-04-01
A distributed delay approach was proposed in this paper to model delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies. This approach was shown to be general enough to incorporate a wide array of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models as special cases including transit compartment models, effect compartment models, typical absorption models (either zero-order or first-order absorption), and a number of atypical (or irregular) absorption models (e.g., parallel first-order, mixed first-order and zero-order, inverse Gaussian, and Weibull absorption models). Real-life examples were given to demonstrate how to implement distributed delays in Phoenix ® NLME™ 8.0, and to numerically show the advantages of the distributed delay approach over the traditional methods.
Stochastic two-delay differential model of delayed visual feedback effects on postural dynamics.
Boulet, Jason; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Longtin, André
2010-01-28
We report on experiments and modelling involving the 'visuo-postural control loop' in the upright stance. We experimentally manipulated an artificial delay to the visual feedback during standing, presented at delays ranging from 0 to 1 s in increments of 250 ms. Using stochastic delay differential equations, we explicitly modelled the centre-of-pressure (COP) and centre-of-mass (COM) dynamics with two independent delay terms for vision and proprioception. A novel 'drifting fixed point' hypothesis was used to describe the fluctuations of the COM with the COP being modelled as a faster, corrective process of the COM. The model was in good agreement with the data in terms of probability density functions, power spectral densities, short- and long-term correlations (Hurst exponents) as well the critical time between the two ranges. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society
Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.
1988-01-01
We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)