Near-field strong coupling of single quantum dots.
Groß, Heiko; Hamm, Joachim M; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Hess, Ortwin; Hecht, Bert
2018-03-01
Strong coupling and the resultant mixing of light and matter states is an important asset for future quantum technologies. We demonstrate deterministic room temperature strong coupling of a mesoscopic colloidal quantum dot to a plasmonic nanoresonator at the apex of a scanning probe. Enormous Rabi splittings of up to 110 meV are accomplished by nanometer-precise positioning of the quantum dot with respect to the nanoresonator probe. We find that, in addition to a small mode volume of the nanoresonator, collective coherent coupling of quantum dot band-edge states and near-field proximity interaction are vital ingredients for the realization of near-field strong coupling of mesoscopic quantum dots. The broadband nature of the interaction paves the road toward ultrafast coherent manipulation of the coupled quantum dot-plasmon system under ambient conditions.
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-06-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, finding them to be very similar. In both regimes, the angular distribution of the radiated power is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ. To an observer far away from the quark, the emitted radiation appears as a short periodic burst, just like the light from a lighthouse does to a ship at sea. Our strong coupling results are valid for any strongly coupled conformal field theory with a dual classical gravity description.
Mamo, Kiminad A.
2013-08-01
We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.
Synchrotron radiation in strongly coupled conformal field theories
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-01-01
Using gauge/gravity duality, we compute the energy density and angular distribution of the power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We compare the strong coupling results to those at weak coupling, and find the same angular distribution of radiated power, up to an overall prefactor. In both regimes, the angular distribution is in fact similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circula...
Strongly coupled chameleon fields: Possible test with a neutron Lloyd's mirror interferometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pokotilovski, Yu.N., E-mail: pokot@nf.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2013-02-26
The consideration of possible neutron Lloyd's mirror interferometer experiment to search for strongly coupled chameleon fields is presented. The chameleon scalar fields were proposed to explain the acceleration of expansion of the Universe. The presence of a chameleon field results in a change of a particle's potential energy in vicinity of a massive body. This interaction causes a phase shift of neutron waves in the interferometer. The sensitivity of the method is estimated.
The Bekenstein bound in strongly coupled O(N) scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magalhaes, T. Santos; Svaiter, N.F.; Menezes, G.
2009-09-01
We discuss the O(N) self-interacting scalar field theory, in the strong-coupling regime and also in the limit of large N. Considering that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature β -1 , we assume the presence of macroscopic boundaries conning the field in a hypercube of side L. Using the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, we generalize previous results, i.e., we obtain the renormalized mean energy E and entropy S for the system in rst order of the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, presenting an analytical proof that the specific entropy also satisfies in some situations a quantum bound. When considering the low temperature behavior of the specific entropy, the sign of the renormalized zero-point energy can invalidate this quantum bound. If the renormalized zero point-energy is a positive quantity, at intermediate temperatures and in the low temperature limit, there is a quantum bound. (author)
Imaginary potential in strongly coupled N = 4 SYM plasma in a magnetic field
Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu
2018-03-01
We study the effect of a constant magnetic field on the imaginary part of a quarkonia potential in a strongly-coupled N = 4 SYM plasma. We consider the pair axis to be aligned perpendicularly and parallel to the magnetic field, respectively. For both cases, we find that the presence of the magnetic field tends to enhance the imaginary potential thus decreasing the thermal width. In addition, the magnetic field has a stronger effect on the imaginary potential when the pair axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field rather than parallel.
Strong-coupling approximations
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Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
ac Stark shift and dephasing of a superconducting qubit strongly coupled to a cavity field.
Schuster, D I; Wallraff, A; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Huang, R-S; Majer, J; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2005-04-01
We have performed spectroscopy of a superconducting charge qubit coupled nonresonantly to a single mode of an on-chip resonator. The strong coupling induces a large ac Stark shift in the energy levels of both the qubit and the resonator. The dispersive shift of the resonator frequency is used to nondestructively determine the qubit state. Photon shot noise in the measurement field induces qubit level fluctuations leading to dephasing which is characteristic for the measurement backaction. A crossover in line shape with measurement power is observed and theoretically explained. For weak measurement a long intrinsic dephasing time of T2>200 ns of the qubit is found.
Feng, Yan; Lin, Wei; Murillo, M S
2017-11-01
Transport properties of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasmas have been investigated in detail, but never for viscosity with a strong perpendicular magnetic field; here, we examine this scenario using Langevin dynamics simulations of 2D liquids with a binary Yukawa interparticle interaction. The shear viscosity η of 2D liquid dusty plasma is estimated from the simulation data using the Green-Kubo relation, which is the integration of the shear stress autocorrelation function. It is found that, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, the shear viscosity of 2D liquid dusty plasma is modified substantially. When the magnetic field is increased, its viscosity increases at low temperatures, while at high temperatures its viscosity diminishes. It is determined that these different variational trends of η arise from the different behaviors of the kinetic and potential parts of the shear stress under external magnetic fields.
Drag force in strongly coupled { N }=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills plasma in a magnetic field
Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Ke; Hou, De-fu
2018-02-01
Applying AdS/CFT correspondence, we study the effect of a constant magnetic field { B } on the drag force associated with a heavy quark moving through a strongly-coupled { N }=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills plasma. The quark is considered moving transverse and parallel to { B }. It is shown that for transverse case, the drag force is linearly dependent on { B } in all regions, while for parallel case, the drag force increases monotonously with increasing { B } and also reveals a linear behavior in the regions of strong { B }. In addition, we find that { B } has a more important effect in the transverse case than for the parallel.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelis, Francois; Venugopalan, Raju
2006-01-01
We develop a formalism for particle production in a field theory coupled to a strong time-dependent external source. An example of such a theory is the color glass condensate. We derive a formula, in terms of cut vacuum-vacuum Feynman graphs, for the probability of producing a given number of particles. This formula is valid to all orders in the coupling constant. The distribution of multiplicities is non-Poissonian, even in the classical approximation. We investigate an alternative method of calculating the mean multiplicity. At leading order, the average multiplicity can be expressed in terms of retarded solutions of classical equations of motion. We demonstrate that the average multiplicity at next-to-leading order can be formulated as an initial value problem by solving equations of motion for small fluctuation fields with retarded boundary conditions. The variance of the distribution can be calculated in a similar fashion. Our formalism therefore provides a framework to compute from first principles particle production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions beyond leading order in the coupling constant and to all orders in the source density. We also provide a transparent interpretation (in conventional field theory language) of the well-known Abramovsky-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cancellations. Explicit connections are made between the framework for multi-particle production developed here and the framework of reggeon field theory
Field-theoretic Methods in Strongly-Coupled Models of General Gauge Mediation
Fortin, Jean-Francois
2013-01-01
An often-exploited feature of the operator product expansion (OPE) is that it incorporates a splitting of ultraviolet and infrared physics. In this paper we use this feature of the OPE to perform simple, approximate computations of soft masses in gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The approximation amounts to truncating the OPEs for hidden-sector current-current operator products. Our method yields visible-sector superpartner spectra in terms of vacuum expectation values of a few hidden-sector IR elementary fields. We manage to obtain reasonable approximations to soft masses, even when the hidden sector is strongly coupled. We demonstrate our techniques in several examples, including a new framework where supersymmetry-breaking arises both from a hidden sector and dynamically.
The strong-weak coupling symmetry in 2D Φ4 field models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B.N.Shalaev
2005-01-01
Full Text Available It is found that the exact beta-function β(g of the continuous 2D gΦ4 model possesses two types of dual symmetries, these being the Kramers-Wannier (KW duality symmetry and the strong-weak (SW coupling symmetry f(g, or S-duality. All these transformations are explicitly constructed. The S-duality transformation f(g is shown to connect domains of weak and strong couplings, i.e. above and below g*. Basically it means that there is a tempting possibility to compute multiloop Feynman diagrams for the β-function using high-temperature lattice expansions. The regular scheme developed is found to be strongly unstable. Approximate values of the renormalized coupling constant g* found from duality symmetry equations are in an agreement with available numerical results.
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)
Strong coupling operation of a free-electron-laser amplifier with an axial magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rullier, J.L.; Devin, A.; Gardelle, J.; Labrouche, J.; Le Taillandier, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique, Boite Postale 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Donohue, J.T. [Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Boite Postale 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)
1996-03-01
We present the results of a free-electron-laser (FEL) experiment at 35 GHz, using a strongly relativistic electron beam ({ital T}=1.75 MeV). The electron pulse length is 30 ns full width at half maximum with a peak current of 400 A. The FEL is designed to operate in the high-gain Compton regime, with a negative coupling parameter ({Phi}{lt}0) leading to a strong growth rate. More than 50 MW of rf power in the TE{sub 1}{sub 1} mode (43 dB gain) has been obtained with good reproducibility. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions made using the three-dimensional stationary simulation code solitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Effect of the strong coupling on the exchange bias field in IrMn/Py/Ru/Co spin valves
Tarazona, H. S.; Alayo, W.; Landauro, C. V.; Quispe-Marcatoma, J.
2018-01-01
The IrMn/Py/Ru/Co (Py = Ni81Fe19) spin valves have been produced by sputtering deposition and analyzed by magnetization measurements and a theoretical modelling of their exchange interactions, based on the macro-spin model. The Ru thickness was grown between 6 and 22 Å, which is small enough to promote strong indirect coupling between Py and Co. Results of measurements showed a large and gradual change in the shape of hysteresis loops when the Ru thickness was varied. The theoretical analysis, using numerical calculations based on the gradient conjugate method, provides the exchange coupling constants (bilinear and biquadratic), the exchange anisotropy fields and the magnetic anisotropy fields (uniaxial and rotatable). The exchange bias fields of spin valves were compared to that of a IrMn/Py bilayer. We found that the difference between these fields oscillates with Ru thickness in the same manner as the bilinear coupling constants.
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahmen, Bernd
1994-01-01
A systematic method to obtain strong coupling expansions for scattering quantities in hamiltonian lattice field theories is presented. I develop the conceptual ideas for the case of the hamiltonian field theory analogue of the Ising model, in d space and one time dimension. The main result is a convergent series representation for the scattering states and the transition matrix. To be explicit, the special cases of d=1 and d=3 spatial dimensions are discussed in detail. I compute the next-to-leading order approximation for the phase shifts. The application of the method to investigate low-energy scattering phenomena in lattice gauge theory and QCD is proposed. ((orig.))
Myasnikova, A. E.; Zhileeva, E. A.; Moseykin, D. V.
2018-03-01
An approach to considering systems with a high concentration of correlated carriers and strong long-range electron–phonon interaction and to calculating the high-energy part of the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) spectra of such systems is suggested. Joint relaxation of strongly coupled fields—a field of correlated electrons and phonon field—after photoemission is studied to clarify the nature of characteristic features observed in the high-energy part of the ARPES spectra of cuprate superconductors. Such relaxation occurs in systems with strong predominantly long-range electron–phonon interaction at sufficiently high carrier concentration due to the coexistence of autolocalized and delocalized carriers. A simple method to calculate analytically a high-energy part of the ARPES spectrum arising is proposed. It takes advantage of using the coherent states basis for the phonon field in the polaron and bipolaron states. The approach suggested yields all the high-energy spectral features like broad Gaussian band and regions of ‘vertical dispersion’ being in good quantitative agreement with the experiments on cuprates at any doping with both types of carriers. Demonstrated coexistence of autolocalized and delocalized carriers in superconducting cuprates changes the idea about their ground state above the superconducting transition temperature that is important for understanding transport and magnetic properties. High density of large-radius autolocalized carriers revealed may be a key to the explanation of charge ordering in doped cuprates.
Chesler, Paul M.
We study dynamics in conformal field theories with gravitational duals. Attention is focused on heavy and light quark jets as well as far-from-equilibrium dynamics. The stress-energy tensor of a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma is evaluated using gauge/gravity duality. The accuracy with which the resulting wake, in position space, is reproduced by hydrodynamics is examined. Remarkable agreement is found between hydrodynamics and the complete result down to distances less than 2/ T away from the quark. We also compute the penetration depth of a light quark moving through a N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. We find that the maximum distance a quark with energy E can travel through a plasma is given by Dxmax E= C/T E/Tl 1/3 with C ≈ 0.5. For the study of dynamics far-from-equilibrium, we consider the creation and evolution of boost invariant anisotropic, strongly coupled conformal plasma. In the dual gravitational description, this corresponds to horizon formation in a geometry driven to be anisotropic by a time-dependent change in boundary conditions.
Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma
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Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)
2007-07-15
Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and
Wu, Ning; Feist, Johannes; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.
2016-11-01
We present a microscopic semianalytical theory for the description of organic molecules interacting strongly with a cavity mode. Exciton-vibration coupling within the molecule and exciton-cavity interaction are treated on an equal footing by employing a temperature-dependent variational approach. The interplay between strong exciton-vibration coupling and strong exciton-cavity coupling gives rise to a hybrid ground state, which we refer to as the lower polaron polariton. Explicit expressions for the ground-state wave function, the zero-temperature quasiparticle weight of the lower polaron polariton, the photoluminescence line strength, and the mean number of vibrational quanta are obtained in terms of the optimal variational parameters. The dependence of these quantities upon the exciton-cavity coupling strength reveals that strong cavity coupling leads to an enhanced vibrational dressing of the cavity mode, and at the same time a vibrational decoupling of the dark excitons, which in turn results in a lower polaron polariton resembling a single-mode dressed bare lower polariton in the strong-coupling regime. Thermal effects on several observables are briefly discussed.
Ghosh, Samiran
2014-09-01
The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.
Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Bellessa
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.
Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin
1999-01-01
The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing
Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.
Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K
2018-03-09
Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches
Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco
2016-11-23
Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...
2008-01-01
Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske
2010-01-01
We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.
Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakita, B.
1984-01-01
It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)
Usman, Muhammad
2015-10-21
Strongly-coupled quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are widely employed in the design of a variety of optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and quantum information devices. An efficient and optimized performance of these devices demands engineering of the electronic and optical properties of the underlying QDMs. The application of electric fields offers a way to realise such a control over the QDM characteristics for a desired device operation. We performed multi-million-atom atomistic tight-binding calculations to study the influence of electric fields on the electron and hole wave function confinements and symmetries, the ground-state transition energies, the band-gap wavelengths, and the optical transition modes. Electrical fields parallel (Ep) and anti-parallel (Ea) to the growth direction were investigated to provide a comprehensive guide for understanding the electric field effects. The strain-induced asymmetry of the hybridized electron states is found to be weak and can be balanced by applying a small Ea electric field, of the order of 1 kV cm(-1). The strong interdot couplings completely break down at large electric fields, leading to single QD states confined at the opposite edges of the QDM. This mimics a transformation from a type-I band structure to a type-II band structure for the QDMs, which is a critical requirement for the design of intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs). The analysis of the field-dependent ground-state transition energies reveals that the QDM can be operated both as a high dipole moment device by applying large electric fields and as a high polarizability device under the application of small electric field magnitudes. The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) red shifts the band-gap wavelength to 1.3 μm at the 15 kV cm(-1) electric field; however the reduced electron-hole wave function overlaps lead to a decrease in the interband optical transition strengths by roughly three orders of magnitude. The study of the polarisation-resolved optical
Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics
Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.
2018-03-01
Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.
Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems
Kyrkos, S
2003-01-01
We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brower, Richard C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Physics and ECE Depts.
2016-11-08
This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brower, Richard C.
2016-01-01
This proposal is to develop the software and algorithmic infrastructure needed for the numerical study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and of theories that have been proposed to describe physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of high energy physics, on current and future computers. This infrastructure will enable users (1) to improve the accuracy of QCD calculations to the point where they no longer limit what can be learned from high-precision experiments that seek to test the Standard Model, and (2) to determine the predictions of BSM theories in order to understand which of them are consistent with the data that will soon be available from the LHC. Work will include the extension and optimizations of community codes for the next generation of leadership class computers, the IBM Blue Gene/Q and the Cray XE/XK, and for the dedicated hardware funded for our field by the Department of Energy. Members of our collaboration at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Columbia University worked on the design of the Blue Gene/Q, and have begun to develop software for it. Under this grant we will build upon their experience to produce high-efficiency production codes for this machine. Cray XE/XK computers with many thousands of GPU accelerators will soon be available, and the dedicated commodity clusters we obtain with DOE funding include growing numbers of GPUs. We will work with our partners in NVIDIA's Emerging Technology group to scale our existing software to thousands of GPUs, and to produce highly efficient production codes for these machines. Work under this grant will also include the development of new algorithms for the effective use of heterogeneous computers, and their integration into our codes. It will include improvements of Krylov solvers and the development of new multigrid methods in collaboration with members of the FASTMath SciDAC Institute, using their HYPRE framework, as well as work on improved symplectic integrators.
Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2007-06-15
We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, A.
2002-01-01
When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)
Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions
Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong
A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).
A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2004-08-01
Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.
Scattering on a nonrelativistic particle in strong coupling theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Razumov, A.V.
1977-01-01
Interaction of a nonrelativistic particle with a scalar quantum field has been studied in one-dimensional space in the framework of the Bogolyubov's method. An energy spectrum and scattering amplitude on a dressed particle have been obtained for the case of strong coupling up to the zero order over the coupling constant
Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng
2007-01-01
The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefﬁcient is proposed. A schematic model ...
Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.
2009-01-01
Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.
Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA
Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.
2011-01-01
Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or
Compensating strong coupling with large charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis [Theory Department - CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY-11794-3636 (United States); Loukas, Orestis; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)
2017-04-11
We study some (conformal) field theories with global symmetries in the sector where the value of the global charge Q is large. We find (as expected) that the low energy excitations of this sector are described by the general form of Goldstone’s theorem in the non-relativistic regime. We also derive the unexpected result, first presented in https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)071, that the effective field theory describing such sector of fixed Q contains effective couplings λ{sub eff}∼λ{sup b}/Q{sup a}, where λ is the original coupling. Hence, large charge leads to weak coupling. In the last section of the paper we present an outline of how to compute anomalous dimensions of the O(n) model in this limit.
Compensating strong coupling with large charge
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne
2017-04-11
We study (conformal) field theories with global symmetries in the sector where the value of the global charge $Q$ is large. We find (as expected) that the low energy excitations of this sector are described by the general form of Goldstone's theorem in the non-relativistic regime. We also derive the unexpected result, first presented in [Hellerman:2015], that the effective field theory describing such sector of fixed $Q$ contains effective couplings $\\lambda_{\\text{eff}}\\sim \\lambda^b /Q^{a}$, where $\\lambda$ is the original coupling. Hence, large charge leads to weak coupling. In the last section of the paper we present an outline of how to compute anomalous dimensions in this limit.
Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey
2018-01-01
The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.
Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, K.C.
1990-11-01
We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.
Strong coupling analogue of the Born series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolinszky, T.
1989-10-01
In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai, Yang; Borisov, Alexey B.; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K.
2000-01-01
The construction of inverse states in a finite field F P α enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P α and g α ) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of approximately27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant α* = (34.26) -1 that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10 18 GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P α , which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness (Omega = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype
Integrating out resonances in strongly-coupled electroweak scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosell Ignasi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Accepting that there is a mass gap above the electroweak scale, the Electroweak Effective Theory (EWET is an appropriate tool to describe this situation. Since the EWET couplings contain information on the unknown high-energy dynamics, we consider a generic strongly-coupled scenario of electroweak symmetry breaking, where the known particle fields are coupled to heavier states. Then, and by integrating out these heavy fields, we study the tracks of the lightest resonances into the couplings. The determination of the low-energy couplings (LECs in terms of resonance parameters can be made more precise by considering a proper short-distance behaviour on the Lagrangian with heavy states, since the number of resonance couplings is then reduced. Notice that we adopt a generic non-linear realization of the electroweak symmetry breaking with a singlet Higgs.
The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, Christoforos
2008-01-01
We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...
Ultrafast control of strong light–matter coupling
Lange, Christoph; Cancellieri, Emiliano; Panna, Dmitry; Whittaker, David M.; Steger, Mark; Snoke, David W.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Kenneth W.; Hayat, Alex
2018-01-01
We dynamically modulate strong light–matter coupling in a GaAs/AlGaAs microcavity using intense ultrashort laser pulses tuned below the interband exciton energy, which induce a transient Stark shift of the cavity polaritons. For 225-fs pulses, shorter than the cavity Rabi cycle period of 1000 fs, this shift decouples excitons and cavity photons for the duration of the pulse, interrupting the periodic energy exchange between photonic and electronic states. For 1500-fs pulses, longer than the Rabi cycle period, however, the Stark shift does not affect the strong coupling. The two regimes are marked by distinctly different line shapes in ultrafast reflectivity measurements—regardless of the Stark field intensity. The crossover marks the transition from adiabatic to diabatic switching of strong light–matter coupling.
From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemczyk, Thomas
2011-01-01
The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)
Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields
Marchenko, T.
2008-01-01
This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.
Strong coupling from the Hubbard model
Minahan, Joseph A.
2006-10-01
It was recently observed that the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model reproduces the known part of the perturbative spectrum of planar {\\cal N}=4 super Yang Mills in the SU(2) sector. Assuming that this identification is valid beyond perturbation theory, we investigate the behaviour of this spectrum as the 't Hooft parameter λ becomes large. We show that the full dimension Δ of the Konishi superpartner is the solution of a sixth-order polynomial while Δ for a bare dimension 5 operator is the solution of a cubic. In both cases, the equations can be solved easily as a series expansion for both small and large λ and the equations can be inverted to express λ as an explicit function of Δ. We then consider more general operators and show how Δ depends on λ in the strong coupling limit. We are also able to distinguish those states in the Hubbard model which correspond to the gauge-invariant operators for all values of λ. Finally, we compare our results with known results for strings on AdS5 × S5, where we find agreement for a range of R-charges.
Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Fortov, Vladimir
2005-07-01
The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.
Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation
Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I
2014-01-01
Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.
From strong to ultrastrong coupling in circuit QED architectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemczyk, Thomas
2011-08-10
The field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) studies the interaction between light and matter on a fundamental level: a single atom interacts with a single photon. If the atom-photon coupling is larger than any dissipative effects, the system enters the strong-coupling limit. A peculiarity of this regime is the possibility to form coherent superpositions of light and matter excitations - a kind of 'molecule' consisting of an atomic and a photonic contribution. The novel research field of circuit QED extends cavity QED concepts to solid-state based system. Here, a superconducting quantum bit is coupled to an on-chip superconducting one-dimensional waveguide resonator. Owing to the small mode-volume of the resonant cavity, the large dipole moment of the 'artificial atom' and the enormous engineering potential inherent to superconducting quantum circuits, remarkable atom-photon coupling strengths can be realized. This thesis describes the theoretical framework, the development of fabrication techniques and the implementation of experimental characterization techniques for superconducting quantum circuits for circuit QED applications. In particular, we study the interaction between superconducting flux quantum bits and high-quality coplanar waveguide resonators in the strong-coupling limit. Furthermore, we report on the first experimental realization of a circuit QED system operating in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the atom-photon coupling rate reaches a considerable fraction of the relevant system frequencies. In these experiments we could observe phenomena that can not be explained within the renowned Jaynes-Cummings model. (orig.)
Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed
QCD and strongly coupled gauge theories: challenges and perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Eidelman, S. [SB RAS, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Foka, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gardner, S. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Kronfeld, A.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States); Alford, M.G.; Schwenzer, K. [Washington University, Department of Physics, St Louis, MO (United States); Alkofer, R. [University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Butenschoen, M. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Wien (Austria); Cohen, T.D. [University of Maryland, Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics and Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Erdmenger, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Fabbietti, L. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Faber, M.; Hoellwieser, R. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Goity, J.L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Ketzer, B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Lin, H.W. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, WA (United States); Llanes-Estrada, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Department Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain); Meyer, H.B.; Wittig, H.; Hippel, G.M. von [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Pakhlov, P.; Polikarpov, M.I. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Pallante, E.; Papadodimas, K. [University of Groningen, Centre for Theoretical Physics, Groningen (Netherlands); Sazdjian, H. [Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Schmitt, A. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Vienna (Austria); Snow, W.M. [Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter and Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Vogt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Physics Division, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Physics Department, Davis, CA (United States); Vuorinen, A. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Arnold, P. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Christakoglou, P. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Nezza, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Frascati (Italy); Fodor, Z. [Wuppertal University, Wuppertal (Germany); Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Garcia i Tormo, X. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Janik, M.A. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Kalweit, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Keane, D. [Kent State University, Department of Physics, Kent, OH (United States); Kiritsis, E. [University of Crete, Crete Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Universite Paris Diderot, Laboratoire APC, Sorbonne Paris-Cite (France); CERN, Theory Group, Physics Department, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Science, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mizuk, R. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Physical Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Odyniec, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pich, A. [Universitat de Valencia, CSIC, IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Pittau, R. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos y CAFPE, Granada (Spain); Qiu, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook University, C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ricciardi, G. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Salgado, C.A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas y IGFAE, Galicia (ES); Stefanis, N.G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (DE); Zakharov, V.I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (DE); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (RU); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Vladivostok (RU)
2014-10-15
We highlight the progress, current status, and open challenges of QCD-driven physics, in theory and in experiment. We discuss how the strong interaction is intimately connected to a broad sweep of physical problems, in settings ranging from astrophysics and cosmology to strongly coupled, complex systems in particle and condensed-matter physics, as well as to searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. We also discuss how success in describing the strong interaction impacts other fields, and, in turn, how such subjects can impact studies of the strong interaction. In the course of the work we offer a perspective on the many research streams which flow into and out of QCD, as well as a vision for future developments. (orig.)
Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled
Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome
2016-10-01
Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.
Jet quenching parameters in strongly coupled nonconformal gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchel, Alex
2006-01-01
Recently Liu, Rajagopal, and Wiedemann (LRW) [H. Liu, K. Rajagopal, and U. A. Wiedemann, hep-ph/0605178.] proposed a first principle, nonperturbative quantum field theoretic definition of 'jet quenching parameter' q-circumflex used in models of medium-induced radiative parton energy loss in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC. Relating q-circumflex to a short-distance behavior of a certain lightlike Wilson loop, they used gauge theory-string theory correspondence to evaluate q-circumflex for the strongly coupled N=4 SU(N c ) gauge theory plasma. We generalize analysis of LRW to strongly coupled nonconformal gauge theory plasma. We find that a jet quenching parameter is gauge theory specific (not universal). Furthermore, it appears its value increases as the number of effective adjoint degrees of freedom of a gauge theory plasma increases
Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Pignol, Guillaume
2011-01-01
We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultracold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, β > or approx. 10 8 , we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of the order of 1% of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling β > or approx. 10 11 would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2 μm, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, β 11 , is already 3 orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, β 14 , from precision tests of atomic spectra.
Development of strongly coupled FSI technology involving thin walled structures
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Suliman, Ridhwaan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available the most desirable results and is coupled with an in-house fluid-flow solver. The developed technology is evaluated on representative strongly coupled fluid-structure interaction test problems....
Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas
Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.
1999-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.
Correlated Fluctuations in Strongly Coupled Binary Networks Beyond Equilibrium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Dahmen
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Randomly coupled Ising spins constitute the classical model of collective phenomena in disordered systems, with applications covering glassy magnetism and frustration, combinatorial optimization, protein folding, stock market dynamics, and social dynamics. The phase diagram of these systems is obtained in the thermodynamic limit by averaging over the quenched randomness of the couplings. However, many applications require the statistics of activity for a single realization of the possibly asymmetric couplings in finite-sized networks. Examples include reconstruction of couplings from the observed dynamics, representation of probability distributions for sampling-based inference, and learning in the central nervous system based on the dynamic and correlation-dependent modification of synaptic connections. The systematic cumulant expansion for kinetic binary (Ising threshold units with strong, random, and asymmetric couplings presented here goes beyond mean-field theory and is applicable outside thermodynamic equilibrium; a system of approximate nonlinear equations predicts average activities and pairwise covariances in quantitative agreement with full simulations down to hundreds of units. The linearized theory yields an expansion of the correlation and response functions in collective eigenmodes, leads to an efficient algorithm solving the inverse problem, and shows that correlations are invariant under scaling of the interaction strengths.
Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields
Chen, Y. J.
2017-03-01
The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.
Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots
Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi
2018-01-01
Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.
Strongly coupled band in 140Gd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.
2005-01-01
Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd
Experimental investigation of strong field trident production
Esberg, J.; Kirsebom, K.; Knudsen, H.; Thomsen, H.D.; Uggerhøj, E.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ketel, T.J.; Ditzdar, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S.H.
2010-01-01
We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single
Holographic Floquet states I: a strongly coupled Weyl semimetal
Hashimoto, Koji; Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Murata, Keiju; Oka, Takashi
2017-05-01
Floquet states can be realized in quantum systems driven by continuous time-periodic perturbations. It is known that a state known as the Floquet Weyl semimetal can be realized when free Dirac fermions are placed in a rotating electric field. What will happen if strong interaction is introduced to this system? Will the interaction wash out the characteristic features of Weyl semimetals such as the Hall response? Is there a steady state and what is its thermodynamic behavior? We answer these questions using AdS/CFT correspondence in the N = 2 supersymmetric massless QCD in a rotating electric field in the large N c limit realizing the first example of a "holographic Floquet state". In this limit, gluons not only mediate interaction, but also act as an energy reservoir and stabilize the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). We obtain the electric current induced by a rotating electric field: in the high frequency region, the Ohm's law is satisfied, while we recover the DC nonlinear conductivity at low frequency, which was obtained holographically in a previous work. The thermodynamic properties of the NESS, e.g., fluctuation-dissipation relation, is characterized by the effective Hawking temperature that is defined from the effective horizon giving a holographic meaning to the "periodic thermodynamic" concept. In addition to the strong (pump) rotating electric field, we apply an additional weak (probe) electric field in the spirit of the pump-probe experiments done in condensed matter experiments. Weak DC and AC probe analysis in the background rotating electric field shows Hall currents as a linear response, therefore the Hall response of Floquet Weyl semimetals survives at the strong coupling limit. We also find frequency mixed response currents, i.e., a heterodyning effect, characteristic to periodically driven Floquet systems.
Experimental investigation of strong field trident production
Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H
2010-01-01
We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.
Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)
2005-07-01
Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.
Shear viscosities of photons in strongly coupled plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di-Lun Yang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the shear viscosity of thermalized photons in the quark gluon plasma (QGP at weak coupling and N=4 super Yang–Mills plasma (SYMP at both strong and weak couplings. We find that the shear viscosity due to the photon–parton scattering up to the leading order of electromagnetic coupling is suppressed when the coupling of the QGP/SYMP is increased, which stems from the blue-shift of the thermal-photon spectrum at strong coupling. In addition, the shear viscosity rapidly increases near the deconfinement transition in a phenomenological model analogous to the QGP.
Last, T.; van Adrichem, P.; de Winter, L.; Hsu, S.; Finders, J.; Wittebrood, F.; van de Kerkhof, M.
2017-03-01
We report a study into intensity-driven mask 3D effects for N7 dark field two-bars in EUVL. For these features, traditional pupil optimization "rules" are advising to center a symmetric leaf shape illumination at the pupil plane location σY = (-0.64, 0.64). Experimentally determined critical dimension Bossungs for this exposure condition however yield an extreme best focus separation due to an additional Bossung tilt appearing at defocus values beyond 20 nm for the bottom trench. The Bossung tilts are caused by a strong coupling between the primary image of the two-bar and its first local pitch-induced self-image. The coupling to the self-image can be suppressed and, hence, the overlapping process window can be enhanced by the application of asymmetric sources, or by using standard dipole 90Y or leaf shape illuminations in combination with optimally placed sub-resolution assist features.
Interaction of neutral particles with strong laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-07-01
Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s the experimentally available field strengths have continuously increased. The current peak intensity record is 2 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} and next generation facilities such as ELI, HiPER and XCELS plan to reach even intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Thus, modern laser facilities are a clean source for very strong external electromagnetic fields and promise new and interesting high-energy physics experiments. In particular, strong laser fields could be used to test non-linear effects in quantum field theory. Earlier we have investigated how radiative corrections modify the coupling of a charged particle inside a strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field. However, a charged particle couples already at tree level to electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we have now analyzed how the coupling between neutral particles and radiation is affected by a very strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field, when loop corrections are taken into account. In particular, the case of neutrinos is discussed.
Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields
2007-01-01
We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.
Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields
2007-01-01
We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.
Chameleons with Field Dependent Couplings
Brax, Philippe; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Winther, Hans A
2010-01-01
Certain scalar-tensor theories exhibit the so-called chameleon mechanism, whereby observational signatures of scalar fields are hidden by a combination of self-interactions and interactions with ambient matter. Not all scalar-tensor theories exhibit such a chameleon mechanism, which has been originally found in models with inverse power run-away potentials and field independent couplings to matter. In this paper we investigate field-theories with field-dependent couplings and a power-law potential for the scalar field. We show that the theory indeed is a chameleon field theory. We find the thin-shell solution for a spherical body and investigate the consequences for E\\"ot-Wash experiments, fifth-force searches and Casimir force experiments. Requiring that the scalar-field evades gravitational tests, we find that the coupling is sensitive to a mass-scale which is of order of the Hubble scale today.
Thermal DBI action for the D3-brane at weak and strong coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grignani, Gianluca; Harmark, Troels; Marini, Andrea
2014-01-01
We study the effective action for finite-temperature D3-branes with an electromagnetic field at weak and strong coupling. We call this action the thermal DBI action. Comparing at low temperature the leading T4 correction for the thermal DBI action at weak and strong coupling we find that the 3/4 ...
Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, R.R. dos.
1975-07-01
The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt
Thomson scattering in strong external fields
Varró, S.; Ehlotzky, F.
1992-09-01
In the present paper we shall investigate relativistic Thomson scattering in two external fields. A free classical electron will be embedded in a strong, constant and homogeneous magnetic field and in a powerful electromagnetic field. Both fields will be considered in the Redmond configuration, in which case the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized and propagates in the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. The electron will be allowed to have arbitrary initial conditions and the electromagnetic wave will be switched on either suddenly or adiabatically. We shall present the exact solution of the Lorentz equation of motion in the above external field configuration and we shall evaluate the spectrum and cross sections of the scattered radiation. In particular, we shall consider scattering close to resonance and we shall compare our results with the findings of earlier work.
Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields
Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.
2008-01-01
We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a
Bound states in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.
2013-01-01
We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.
Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.
1981-05-01
We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)
The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tekin, Fatih
2010-11-01
In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)
Quantum Thermodynamics in Strong Coupling: Heat Transport and Refrigeration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gil Katz
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The performance characteristics of a heat rectifier and a heat pump are studied in a non-Markovian framework. The device is constructed from a molecule connected to a hot and cold reservoir. The heat baths are modelled using the stochastic surrogate Hamiltonian method. The molecule is modelled by an asymmetric double-well potential. Each well is semi-locally connected to a heat bath composed of spins. The dynamics are driven by a combined system–bath Hamiltonian. The temperature of the baths is regulated by a secondary spin bath composed of identical spins in thermal equilibrium. A random swap operation exchange spins between the primary and secondary baths. The combined system is studied in various system–bath coupling strengths. In all cases, the average heat current always flows from the hot towards the cold bath in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The asymmetry of the double well generates a rectifying effect, meaning that when the left and right baths are exchanged the heat current follows the hot-to-cold direction. The heat current is larger when the high frequency is coupled to the hot bath. Adding an external driving field can reverse the transport direction. Such a refrigeration effect is modelled by a periodic driving field in resonance with the frequency difference of the two potential wells. A minimal driving amplitude is required to overcome the heat leak effect. In the strong driving regime the cooling power is non-monotonic with the system–bath coupling.
Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
1997-01-01
A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...
Driven transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, P.; Prasad, G.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P.K.
2008-01-01
The linear dispersion properties of transverse shear waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma are experimentally studied in a DC discharge device by exciting them in a controlled manner with a variable frequency external source. The dusty plasma is maintained in the strongly coupled fluid regime with (1 c ) where Γ is the Coulomb coupling parameter and Γ c is the crystallization limit. A dispersion relation for the transverse waves is experimentally obtained over a frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz and found to show good agreement with viscoelastic theoretical results
Strong-field-ionization suppression by light-field control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Räsänen, Esa; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2012-01-01
in the intensity and thus preventing tunneling. In contrast, at high frequencies in the extreme ultraviolet regime the optimized pulses strongly couple with the (de)-excitations of the system, which leads to different pulse characteristics. Finally, we show that the applied target functional works, to some extent...
On the flavor problem in strongly coupled theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Martin
2012-11-28
This thesis is on the flavor problem of Randall Sundrum models and their strongly coupled dual theories. These models are particularly well motivated extensions of the Standard Model, because they simultaneously address the gauge hierarchy problem and the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings. In order to put this into context, special attention is given to concepts underlying the theories which can explain the hierarchy problem and the flavor structure of the Standard Model (SM). The AdS/CFT duality is introduced and its implications for the Randall Sundrum model with fermions in the bulk and general bulk gauge groups is investigated. It is shown that the different terms in the general 5D propagator of a bulk gauge field can be related to the corresponding diagrams of the strongly coupled dual, which allows for a deeper understanding of the origin of flavor changing neutral currents generated by the exchange of the Kaluza Klein excitations of these bulk fields. In the numerical analysis, different observables which are sensitive to corrections from the tree-level exchange of these resonances will be presented on the basis of updated experimental data from the Tevatron and LHC experiments. This includes electroweak precision observables, namely corrections to the S and T parameters followed by corrections to the Zb anti b vertex, flavor changing observables with flavor changes at one vertex, viz. B(B{sub d}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and B(B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), and two vertices, viz. S{sub {psi}{phi}} and vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, as well as bounds from direct detection experiments. The analysis will show that all of these bounds can be brought in agreement with a new physics scale {Lambda}{sub NP} in the TeV range, except for the CP violating quantity vertical stroke {epsilon}{sub K} vertical stroke, which requires {Lambda}{sub NP}=O(10) TeV in the absence of fine-tuning. The numerous modifications of the
Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.
1994-07-01
Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs
Thermalization and confinement in strongly coupled gauge theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishii Takaaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum field theories of strongly interacting matter sometimes have a useful holographic description in terms of the variables of a gravitational theory in higher dimensions. This duality maps time dependent physics in the gauge theory to time dependent solutions of the Einstein equations in the gravity theory. In order to better understand the process by which “real world” theories such as QCD behave out of thermodynamic equilibrium, we study time dependent perturbations to states in a model of a confining, strongly coupled gauge theory via holography. Operationally, this involves solving a set of non-linear Einstein equations supplemented with specific time dependent boundary conditions. The resulting solutions allow one to comment on the timescale by which the perturbed states thermalize, as well as to quantify the properties of the final state as a function of the perturbation parameters. We comment on the influence of the dual gauge theory’s confinement scale on these results, as well as the appearance of a previously anticipated universal scaling regime in the “abrupt quench” limit.
Stable states in a strong IR field
Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis
2015-05-01
It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.
Radiative electron-atom collision in a strong laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faisal, F.H.M.
1984-01-01
The comment is concerned with certain current problems and prospects in the theory of electron-atom collision in a strong radiation field. High energy off-shell electron-photon excitation of atoms; low-energy e-atom radiative scattering; steady state input distribution; typical distribution; low energy phenomena; and extensions of the close coupling and the algebraic methods, are all discussed. (U.K.)
Broadband room temperature strong coupling between quantum dots and metamaterials.
Indukuri, Chaitanya; Yadav, Ravindra Kumar; Basu, J K
2017-08-17
Herein, we report the first demonstration of room temperature enhanced light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials using cooperative coupled quasi two dimensional quantum dot assemblies located at precise distances from the hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) templates. The non-monotonic variation of the magnitude of strong coupling, manifested in terms of strong splitting of the photoluminescence of quantum dots, can be explained in terms of enhanced LDOS near the surface of such metamaterials as well as the plasmon mediated super-radiance of closely spaced quantum dots (QDs). Our methodology of enhancing broadband, room temperature, light-matter coupling in the visible regime for metamaterials opens up new possibilities of utilising these materials for a wide range of applications including QD based thresholdless nanolasers and novel metamaterial based integrated photonic devices.
A Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Approach to Jet Quenching
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2014-01-01
We propose and explore a new hybrid approach to jet quenching in a strongly coupled medium. The basis of this phenomenological approach is to treat physics processes at different energy scales differently. The high-$Q^2$ processes associated with the QCD evolution of the jet from production as a single hard parton through its fragmentation, up to but not including hadronization, are treated perturbatively. The interactions between the partons in the shower and the deconfined matter within which they find themselves lead to energy loss. The momentum scales associated with the medium (of the order of the temperature) and with typical interactions between partons in the shower and the medium are sufficiently soft that strongly coupled physics plays an important role in energy loss. We model these interactions using qualitative insights from holographic calculations of the energy loss of energetic light quarks and gluons in a strongly coupled plasma, obtained via gauge/gravity duality. We embed this hybrid model ...
Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.
Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry
2013-07-05
In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
Boito, Diogo; Golterman, Maarten; Jamin, Matthias; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago
2014-08-01
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling αs from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that αs (mτ2)= 0.325 ± 0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and αs (mτ2)= 0.347 ± 0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
The strong coupling from tau decays without prejudice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boito, Diogo [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Golterman, Maarten [Institut de Física d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Jamin, Matthias [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), IFAE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Mahdavi, Andisheh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Maltman, Kim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON Canada M3J 1P3 (Canada); CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia (Australia); Osborne, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Peris, Santiago [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)
2014-08-15
We review our recent determination of the strong coupling α{sub s} from the OPAL data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. We find that α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.325±0.018 using fixed-order perturbation theory, and α{sub s}(m{sub τ}{sup 2})=0.347±0.025 using contour-improved perturbation theory. At present, these values supersede any earlier determinations of the strong coupling from hadronic tau decays, including those from ALEPH data.
Beyond strong coupling in a massively multimode cavity
Sundaresan, Neereja; Liu, Yanbing; Sadri, Darius; Szocs, Laszlo; Underwood, Devin; Malekakhlagh, Moein; Tureci, Hakan; Houck, Andrew
2015-03-01
We present experiments in a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), the multimode strong coupling regime, in which the qubit-cavity coupling is comparable to the free spectral range, thus requiring the collective treatment of all modes along with the qubit. Here we show that this regime is accessible in circuit QED by coupling a 90MHz microwave cavity with a transmon qubit, resonant with the 75th harmonic with a coupling strength exceeding 30MHz. When driving this system, we observe multimode fluorescence consistent with cavity-enhanced sideband emission, with unexpected multi-photon processes and the emergence of ultra-narrow linewidths. This multimode coupling opens the door for a wide range of potential experiments, including studying the manifestation of complex many-body phenomena, the breakdown of the rotating wave approximation, and the bridge between discrete and continuous Hilbert spaces.
Large mass hierarchies from strongly-coupled dynamics
Athenodorou, Andreas; Bennett, Ed; Bergner, Georg; Elander, Daniel; Lin, C.-J. David; Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio
2016-06-01
Besides the Higgs particle discovered in 2012, with mass 125 GeV, recent LHC data show tentative signals for new resonances in diboson as well as diphoton searches at high center-of-mass energies (2 TeV and 750 GeV, respectively). If these signals are confirmed (or other new resonances are discovered at the TeV scale), the large hierarchies between masses of new bosons require a dynamical explanation. Motivated by these tentative signals of new physics, we investigate the theoretical possibility that large hierarchies in the masses of glueballs could arise dynamically in new strongly-coupled gauge theories extending the standard model of particle physics. We study lattice data on non-Abelian gauge theories in the (near-)conformal regime as well as a simple toy model in the context of gauge/gravity dualities. We focus our attention on the ratio R between the mass of the lightest spin-2 and spin-0 resonances, that for technical reasons is a particularly convenient and clean observable to study. For models in which (non-perturbative) large anomalous dimensions arise dynamically, we show indications that this mass ratio can be large, with R>5. Moreover,our results suggest that R might be related to universal properties of the IR fixed point. Our findings provide an interesting step towards understanding large mass ratios in the non-perturbative regime of quantum field theories with (near) IR conformal behaviour.
Raman scattering with strongly coupled vibron-polaritons
Strashko, Artem; Keeling, Jonathan
2016-08-01
Strong coupling between cavity photons and molecular vibrations can lead to the formation of vibron-polaritons. In a recent experiment with PVAc molecules in a metal-metal microcavity [Shalabney et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 54, 7971 (2015), 10.1002/anie.201502979], such a coupling was observed to enhance the Raman scattering probability by several orders of magnitude. Inspired by this, we theoretically analyze the effect of strong photon-vibron coupling on the Raman scattering amplitude of organic molecules. This problem has recently been addressed by del Pino, Feist, and Garcia-Vidal [J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 29132 (2015), 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11654] using exact numerics for a small number of molecules. In this paper we derive compact analytic results for any number of molecules, also including the ultrastrong-coupling regime. Our calculations predict a division of the Raman signal into upper and lower polariton modes, with some enhancement to the lower polariton Raman amplitude due to the mode softening under strong coupling.
Radial Distribution Functions of Strongly Coupled Two-Temperature Plasmas
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.
2017-10-01
We present tests of three theoretical models for the radial distribution functions (RDFs) in two-temperature strongly coupled plasmas. RDFs are useful in extending plasma thermodynamics and kinetic theory to strong coupling, but they are usually known only for thermal equilibrium or for approximate one-component model plasmas. Accurate two-component modeling is necessary to understand the impact of strong coupling on inter-species transport, e.g., ambipolar diffusion and electron-ion temperature relaxation. We demonstrate that the Seuferling-Vogel-Toeppfer (SVT) extension of the hypernetted chain equations not only gives accurate RDFs (as compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations), but also has a simple connection with the Yukawa OCP model. This connection gives a practical means to recover the structure of the electron background from knowledge of the ion-ion RDF alone. Using the model RDFs in Effective Potential Theory, we report the first predictions of inter-species transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas far from equilibrium. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1453736, AFSOR Award No. FA9550-16-1-0221, and used XSEDE computational resources.
Numerical experiments on 2D strongly coupled complex plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hou Lujing; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E
2010-01-01
The Brownian Dynamics simulation method is briefly reviewed at first and then applied to study some non-equilibrium phenomena in strongly coupled complex plasmas, such as heat transfer processes, shock wave excitation/propagation and particle trapping, by directly mimicking the real experiments.
Dust acoustic solitary and shock waves in strongly coupled dusty ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mal vortex-like ion distribution and strongly correlated grains in a liquid-like state and discussed about the properties of shock ... shock waves in coupled dusty plasma with Boltzmann distribution of ions. Ghosh et al have studied the effect of ... ues of parameters where the nonlinear term is zero. Also new kind of shock wave.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keegan, Liam [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Kurkela, Aleksi [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger,4036 Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul [Department of Physics, 390 UCB, University of Colorado at Boulder,Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado,Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, MIT,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)
2016-04-06
We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories
Keegan, Liam; Romatschke, Paul; van der Schee, Wilke; Zhu, Yan
2016-01-01
We present a direct comparison studying equilibration through kinetic theory at weak coupling and through holography at strong coupling in the same set-up. The set-up starts with a homogeneous thermal state, which then smoothly transitions through an out-of-equilibrium phase to an expanding system undergoing boost-invariant flow. This first apples-to-apples comparison of equilibration provides a benchmark for similar equilibration processes in heavy-ion collisions, where the equilibration mechanism is still under debate. We find that results at weak and strong coupling can be smoothly connected by simple, empirical power-laws for the viscosity, equilibration time and entropy production of the system.
Equilibration and hydrodynamics at strong and weak coupling
van der Schee, Wilke
2017-11-01
We give an updated overview of both weak and strong coupling methods to describe the approach to a plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics, a process now called hydrodynamisation. At weak coupling the very first moments after a heavy ion collision is described by the colour-glass condensate framework, but quickly thereafter the mean free path is long enough for kinetic theory to become applicable. Recent simulations indicate thermalization in a time t ∼ 40(η / s) 4 / 3 / T [L. Keegan, A. Kurkela, P. Romatschke, W. van der Schee, Y. Zhu, Weak and strong coupling equilibration in nonabelian gauge theories, JHEP 04 (2016) 031. arxiv:arXiv:1512.05347, doi:10.1007/JHEP04(2016)031], with T the temperature at that time and η / s the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density. At (infinitely) strong coupling it is possible to mimic heavy ion collisions by using holography, which leads to a dual description of colliding gravitational shock waves. The plasma formed hydrodynamises within a time of 0.41/T recent extension found corrections to this result for finite values of the coupling, when η / s is bigger than the canonical value of 1/4π, which leads to t ∼ (0.41 + 1.6 (η / s - 1 / 4 π)) / T [S. Grozdanov, W. van der Schee, Coupling constant corrections in holographic heavy ion collisions, arxiv:arXiv:1610.08976]. Future improvements include the inclusion of the effects of the running coupling constant in QCD.
Hydrodynamics of strongly coupled gauge theories from gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benincasa, P.
2007-01-01
In this talk we review some recent developments in the analysis of gauge theories from a holographic perspective. We focus on the transport properties of strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we discuss the results for two specific non-conformal models: the N=2* supersymmetric SU(N c ) Yang-Mills theory and the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Finally, we discuss the hydrodynamic picture for the N=4SU(N c ) SYM theory when the leading correction in the inverse 't Hooft coupling is taken into account
Superconducting proximity effect in the strong-coupling limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilvert, W.
1975-01-01
A generalization of the theory of the superconducting proximity effect is presented which takes into account strong-coupling in the superconductors. The results are found to agree with a model of weak-coupled superconductors with differing Debye frequencies which are in proximity. It is found that logarithmic averaging of phonon frequencies is an improvement on the original McMillan theory (1968). Comparison of the theory with data on thin films and on eutectic alloys is found to give good agreement. 19 references
Strongly coupled, low noise DC-SQUID amplifiers
Pleikies, J.
2009-01-01
The dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (dc-SQUID) is one of the most sensitive magnetic field sensors available. In this thesis we concentrate on its application as an amplifier. In this configuration, an input circuit of interest can be connected by means of a coupling coil. The
Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrovski, Darko; Martiny, Christian P. J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2010-01-01
We extend the molecular strong-field approximation for ionization, in the tunneling limit, to include systematically the linear and quadratic static Stark shifts of the ionizing molecular orbital. This approach, simple to implement, is capable of describing the essential physics of the process of...
Strongly coupled gauge theories: What can lattice calculations teach us?
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Electroweak symmetry breaking and the dynamical origin of the Higgs boson are central questions today. Strongly coupled systems predicting the Higgs boson as a bound state of a new gauge-fermion interaction are candidates to describe beyond Standard Model physics. The phenomenologically viable models are strongly coupled, near the conformal boundary, requiring non-perturbative studies to reveal their properties. Lattice studies show that many of the beyond-Standard Model candidates have a relatively light isosinglet scalar state that is well separated from the rest of the spectrum. When the scale is set via the vev of electroweak symmetry breaking, a 2 TeV vector resonance appears to be a general feature of many of these models with several other resonances that are not much heavier.
Measurement of the strong coupling constant using τ decays
Buskulic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration
1993-06-01
The strong coupling constant is determined from the leptonic branching ratios, the lifetime, and the invariant mass distribution of the hadronic final state of the τ lepton, using data accumulated at LEP with the ALEPH detector. The strong coupling constant measurement, αs( mτ2) = 0.330±0.046, evolved to the Z mass yields αs( MZ2) = 0.188±0.005. The error includes experimental and theoretical uncertainties, the latter evaluated in the framework of the Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov (SVZ) approach. The method allows the non-perturbative contribution to the hadronic decay rate to be determined to be 0.3±0.5%.
Equation of state of strongly coupled plasma mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt, H.E.
1984-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled (high density) plasmas of mixtures of light elements have been obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. For an assumed uniform charge background the equation of state of ionic mixtures is a simple extension of the one-component plasma EOS. More realistic electron screening effects are treated in linear response theory and with an appropriate electron dielectric function. Results have been obtained for the ionic pair distribution functions, and for the electric microfield distribution
Anisotropic shear viscosity of a strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma from magnetic branes
Critelli, R.; Finazzo, S. I.; Zaniboni, M.; Noronha, J.
2014-09-01
Recent estimates for the electromagnetic fields produced in the early stages of noncentral ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions indicate the presence of magnetic fields B ˜O(0.1-15mπ2), where mπ is the pion mass. It is then of special interest to study the effects of strong (Abelian) magnetic fields on the transport coefficients of strongly coupled non-Abelian plasmas, such as the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy ion collisions. In this paper we study the anisotropy in the shear viscosity induced by an external magnetic field in a strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma. Due to the spatial anisotropy created by the magnetic field, the most general viscosity tensor of a magnetized plasma has five shear viscosity coefficients and two bulk viscosities. We use the holographic correspondence to evaluate two of the shear viscosities, η⊥≡ηxyxy (perpendicular to the magnetic field) and η∥≡ηxzxz=ηyzyz (parallel to the field). When B ≠0 the shear viscosity perpendicular to the field saturates the viscosity bound η⊥/s=1/(4π), while in the direction parallel to the field the bound is violated since η∥/s<1/(4π). However, the violation of the bound in the case of strongly coupled SYM is minimal even for the largest value of B that can be reached in heavy ion collisions.
Strongly Coupled Models with a Higgs-like Boson*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pich Antonio
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Considering the one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters, we have presented a study of the viability of strongly-coupled scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking with a light Higgs-like boson. The calculation has been done by using an effective Lagrangian, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the estimation. Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models with massive resonances are not in conflict with experimentalconstraints on these parameters and the recently observed Higgs-like resonance. So there is room for these models, but they are stringently constrained. The vector and axial-vector states should be heavy enough (with masses above the TeV scale, the mass splitting between them is highly preferred to be small and the Higgs-like scalar should have a WW coupling close to the Standard Model one. It is important to stress that these conclusions do not depend critically on the inclusion of the second Weinberg sum rule.
Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-09-01
Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hensen, Matthias [Institut; Heilpern, Tal [Center; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Pfeiffer, Walter [Fakultät
2017-10-12
Establishing strong coupling between spatially separated and thus selectively addressable quantum emitters is a key ingredient to complex quantum optical schemes in future technologies. Insofar as many plasmonic nanostructures are concerned, however, the energy transfer and mutual interaction strength between distant quantum emitters can fail to provide strong coupling. Here, based on mode hybridization, the longevity and waveguide character of an elliptical plasmon cavity are combined with intense and highly localized field modes of suitably designed nanoantennas. Based on FDTD simulations a quantum emitter-plasmon coupling strength hg = 16.7 meV is reached while simultaneously keeping a small plasmon resonance line width h gamma(s) = 33 meV. This facilitates strong coupling, and quantum dynamical simulations reveal an oscillatory exchange of excited state population arid a notable degree of entanglement between the quantum emitters spatially separated by 1.8 mu m, i.e., about twice the operating wavelength.
Enhancement of low-temperature thermometry by strong coupling
Correa, Luis A.; Perarnau-Llobet, Martí; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.; Hernández-Santana, Senaida; Mehboudi, Mohammad; Sanpera, Anna
2017-12-01
We consider the problem of estimating the temperature T of a very cold equilibrium sample. The temperature estimates are drawn from measurements performed on a quantum Brownian probe strongly coupled to it. We model this scenario by resorting to the canonical Caldeira-Leggett Hamiltonian and find analytically the exact stationary state of the probe for arbitrary coupling strength. In general, the probe does not reach thermal equilibrium with the sample, due to their nonperturbative interaction. We argue that this is advantageous for low-temperature thermometry, as we show in our model that (i) the thermometric precision at low T can be significantly enhanced by strengthening the probe-sampling coupling, (ii) the variance of a suitable quadrature of our Brownian thermometer can yield temperature estimates with nearly minimal statistical uncertainty, and (iii) the spectral density of the probe-sample coupling may be engineered to further improve thermometric performance. These observations may find applications in practical nanoscale thermometry at low temperatures—a regime which is particularly relevant to quantum technologies.
Strongly coupled dusty plasmas: crystals, liquids, clusters and waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeng-Mei Liu; Wen-Tau Juan; Ju-Wang Hsu; Zen-Hong Huang; Lin I
1999-01-01
The dusty plasma is a system that consists of many strongly-charged fine dust particles suspended in a plasma background. The slow dynamics and strong coupling due to the large mass and charges lead to the formation of highly-ordered dust crystal structures suspended in the plasma background, which can be directly observed. The dusty plasma forms a link to the area of condensed matter physics for the study of many interesting microscopic phenomena from order to disorder. In this paper, we introduce the special properties of this system from the viewpoint of conventional plasma physics, then we briefly review past works on the structure and dynamical behaviour from the highly-ordered state, through the melting and liquid states with associated vortex-type excitation and anomalous diffusion, to the state with self-organized macroscopic dust waves after losing microscopic order. The first observation of strongly-coupled dust Coulomb clusters with small numbers of particles from a few to a few hundred, which resemble classical atoms, is also demonstrated. (author)
Inflationary dynamics of kinetically-coupled gauge fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, Ricardo J. Z.; Ganc, Jonathan
2015-01-01
We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless U(1) gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can be quant......We investigate the inflationary dynamics of two kinetically-coupled massless U(1) gauge fields with time-varying kinetic-term coefficients. Ensuring that the system does not have strongly coupled regimes shrinks the parameter space. Also, we further restrict ourselves to systems that can...
D-brane physics. From weak to strong coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira Lopes, Daniel Ordine
2013-01-10
In this thesis we discuss two aspects of branes relevant to high-energy phenomenology. First, we consider a single D6-brane wrapping a special Lagrangian cycle and the background space compactified in a Calabi-Yau orientifold the conditions needed to obtain a four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric theory. We calculate the bosonic part of the effective action by performing a Kaluza-Klein reduction of the brane seven-dimensional action, and obtain the N=1 characteristic data. To discuss the moduli, we first fix the moduli from deformations of the background Calabi-Yau and study the D-brane deformation moduli space. We next allow for Calabi-Yau deformations, and show that the moduli space for complex structure deformations is corrected by the fields living on the D6-brane. We also calculate the scalar potential from D- and F-terms generated from brane and background configurations that would break the supersymmetry condition. We then, via Mirror Symmetry, relate the spectrum obtained in our work to the spectrum in Type IIB effective theory with D3- D5- and D7-branes, and we propose a Kaehler potential for the moduli space of brane deformations in Type IIB theories. In the second part of the thesis we discuss effects of brane intersections when the string coupling can become strong, and we work in the framework of F-theory. After reviewing the basics of F-theory constructions and a particular SU(5) model already discussed in the literature, we construct a model which contains a point of E{sub 8} singularity, and curves of E{sub 6} singularity. By explicitly resolving the space, we show that the resolution requires the introduction of higher dimensional fibers, and argue how we can circumvent this problem for the E{sub 6} curve, leading to the expected resolution that generate an E{sub 6} group, while at the E{sub 8} point we cannot make the resolution lead to an expected E{sub 8} structure.
Strong coupling QCD at finite baryon-number density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karsch, F.; Muetter, K.H.
1989-01-01
We present a new representation of the partition function for strong-coupling QCD which is suitable also for finite baryon-number-density simulations. This enables us to study the phase structure in the canonical formulation (with fixed baryon number B) as well as the grand canonical one (with fixed chemical potential μ). We find a clear signal for a first-order chiral phase transition at μ c a=0.63. The critical baryon-number density n c a 3 =0.045 is only slightly higher than the density of nuclear matter. (orig.)
Topological Zak phase in strongly coupled LC circuits
Goren, Tal; Plekhanov, Kirill; Appas, Félicien; Le Hur, Karyn
2018-01-01
We show the emergence of topological Bogoliubov bosonic excitations in the relatively strong coupling limit of an LC (inductance-capacitance) one-dimensional quantum circuit. This dimerized chain model reveals a Z2 local symmetry as a result of the counter-rotating wave (pairing) terms. The topology is protected by the sublattice symmetry, represented by an antiunitary transformation. We present a method to measure the winding of the topological Zak phase across the Brillouin zone by a reflection measurement of (microwave) light. Our method probes bulk quantities and can be implemented even in small systems. We study the robustness of edge modes toward disorder.
Black hole thermodynamics from calculations in strongly coupled gauge theory.
Kabat, D; Lifschytz, G; Lowe, D A
2001-02-19
We develop an approximation scheme for the quantum mechanics of N D0-branes at finite temperature in the 't Hooft large- N limit. The entropy of the quantum mechanics calculated using this approximation agrees well with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a ten-dimensional nonextremal black hole with 0-brane charge. This result is in accordance with the duality conjectured by Itzhaki, Maldacena, Sonnenschein, and Yankielowicz [Phys. Rev. D 58, 046004 (1998)]. Our approximation scheme provides a model for the density matrix which describes a black hole in the strongly coupled quantum mechanics.
Strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin amplification in pump-ionizing plasma
Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zuo, Y. L.; Zhou, K. N.; Wang, X. D.; Li, Q.; Zhu, H. Y.; Su, J. Q.
2018-02-01
Laser amplification based on strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma is investigated. The pump and seed are at the same wavelength of 800 nm and the same duration of 3.5 ps, but with a different intensity. The plasma is produced by the front part of the pump via tunnel ionization from hydrogen. The hydrogen is fully ionized to eliminate small-scale density fluctuations in the plasma, so the transmission level of the seed is enhanced to 22%, and a relative amplification factor of 6 is obtained.
Strong-coupling approach to nematicity in the cuprates
Orth, Peter Philipp; Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Schmalian, Joerg; Fernandes, Rafael
The underdoped cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ is known to exhibit an electronic nematic phase in proximity to antiferromagnetism. While nematicity sets in at large temperatures of T ~ 150 K, static spin density wave order only emerges at much lower temperatures. The magnetic response shows a strong in-plane anisotropy, displaying incommensurate Bragg peaks along one of the crystalline directions and a commensurate peak along the other one. Such an anisotropy persists even in the absence of long-range magnetic order at higher temperatures, marking the onset of nematic order. Here we theoretically investigate this situation using a strong-coupling method that takes into account both the localized Cu spins and the holes doped into the oxygen orbitals. We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian and show that charge fluctuations promote an enhancement of the nematic susceptibility near the antiferromagnetic transition temperature.
Double perovskites with strong spin-orbit coupling
Cook, Ashley M.
We first present theoretical analysis of powder inelastic neutron scattering experiments in Ba2FeReO6 performed by our experimental collaborators. Ba2FeReO6, a member of the double perovskite family of materials, exhibits half-metallic behavior and high Curie temperatures Tc, making it of interest for spintronics applications. To interpret the experimental data, we develop a local moment model, which incorporates the interaction of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked magnetic moments on Re, and show that it captures the experimental observations. We then develop a tight-binding model of the double perovskite Ba 2FeReO6, a room temperature ferrimagnet with correlated and spin-orbit coupled Re t2g electrons moving in the background of Fe moments stabilized by Hund's coupling. We show that for such 3d/5d double perovskites, strong correlations on the 5d-element (Re) are essential in driving a half-metallic ground state. Incorporating both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Hubbard repulsion on Re leads to a band structure consistent with ab initio calculations. The uncovered interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit coupling lends partial support to our previous work, which used a local moment description to capture the spin wave dispersion found in neutron scattering measurements. We then adapt this tight-binding model to study {111}-grown bilayers of half-metallic double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO6. The combination of spin-orbit coupling, inter-orbital hybridization and symmetry-allowed trigonal distortion leads to a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological C= +/-1, +/-2 Chern bands, and a C = +/-2 quantum anomalous Hall insulator regime. We have also performed theoretical analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments to investigate the magnetic excitations in the weakly distorted face-centered-cubic (fcc) iridate double perovskites La2ZnIrO 6 and La2MgIrO6. Models with dominant Kitaev exchange seem to most naturally
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-01
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalaydzhyan, Tigran
2013-04-15
One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.
Coupled transport in field-reversed configurations
Steinhauer, L. C.; Berk, H. L.; TAE Team
2018-02-01
Coupled transport is the close interconnection between the cross-field and parallel fluxes in different regions due to topological changes in the magnetic field. This occurs because perpendicular transport is necessary for particles or energy to leave closed field-line regions, while parallel transport strongly affects evolution of open field-line regions. In most toroidal confinement systems, the periphery, namely, the portion with open magnetic surfaces, is small in thickness and volume compared to the core plasma, the portion with closed surfaces. In field-reversed configurations (FRCs), the periphery plays an outsized role in overall confinement. This effect is addressed by an FRC-relevant model of coupled particle transport that is well suited for immediate interpretation of experiments. The focus here is particle confinement rather than energy confinement since the two track together in FRCs. The interpretive tool yields both the particle transport rate χn and the end-loss time τǁ. The results indicate that particle confinement depends on both χn across magnetic surfaces throughout the plasma and τǁ along open surfaces and that they provide roughly equal transport barriers, inhibiting particle loss. The interpretation of traditional FRCs shows Bohm-like χn and inertial (free-streaming) τǁ. However, in recent advanced beam-driven FRC experiments, χn approaches the classical rate and τǁ is comparable to classic empty-loss-cone mirrors.
Strong wave/mean-flow coupling in baroclinic acoustic streaming
Chini, Greg; Michel, Guillaume
2017-11-01
Recently, Chini et al. demonstrated the potential for large-amplitude acoustic streaming in compressible channel flows subjected to strong background cross-channel density variations. In contrast with classic Rayleigh streaming, standing acoustic waves of O (ɛ) amplitude acquire vorticity owing to baroclinic torques acting throughout the domain rather than via viscous torques acting in Stokes boundary layers. More significantly, these baroclinically-driven streaming flows have a magnitude that also is O (ɛ) , i.e. comparable to that of the sound waves. In the present study, the consequent potential for fully two-way coupling between the waves and streaming flows is investigated using a novel WKBJ analysis. The analysis confirms that the wave-driven streaming flows are sufficiently strong to modify the background density gradient, thereby modifying the leading-order acoustic wave structure. Simulations of the wave/mean-flow system enabled by the WKBJ analysis are performed to illustrate the nature of the two-way coupling, which contrasts sharply with classic Rayleigh streaming, for which the waves can first be determined and the streaming flows subsequently computed.
Strongly Coupled Magnetic and Electronic Transitions in Multivalent Strontium Cobaltites.
Lee, J H; Choi, Woo Seok; Jeen, H; Lee, H-J; Seo, J H; Nam, J; Yeom, M S; Lee, H N
2017-11-22
The topotactic phase transition in SrCoO x (x = 2.5-3.0) makes it possible to reversibly transit between the two distinct phases, i.e. the brownmillerite SrCoO 2.5 that is a room-temperature antiferromagnetic insulator (AFM-I) and the perovskite SrCoO 3 that is a ferromagnetic metal (FM-M), owing to their multiple valence states. For the intermediate x values, the two distinct phases are expected to strongly compete with each other. With oxidation of SrCoO 2.5 , however, it has been conjectured that the magnetic transition is decoupled to the electronic phase transition, i.e., the AFM-to-FM transition occurs before the insulator-to-metal transition (IMT), which is still controversial. Here, we bridge the gap between the two-phase transitions by density-functional theory calculations combined with optical spectroscopy. We confirm that the IMT actually occurs concomitantly with the FM transition near the oxygen content x = 2.75. Strong charge-spin coupling drives the concurrent IMT and AFM-to-FM transition, which fosters the near room-T magnetic transition characteristic. Ultimately, our study demonstrates that SrCoO x is an intriguingly rare candidate for inducing coupled magnetic and electronic transition via fast and reversible redox reactions.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics of strongly coupled plasmas by numerical simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt, H.E.
1977-01-01
Numerical experiments using the Monte Carlo method have led to systematic and accurate results for the thermodynamic properties of strongly coupled one-component plasmas and mixtures of two nuclear components. These talks are intended to summarize the results of Monte Carlo simulations from Paris and from Livermore. Simple analytic expressions for the equation of state and other thermodynamic functions have been obtained in which there is a clear distinction between a lattice-like static portion and a thermal portion. The thermal energy for the one-component plasma has a simple power dependence on temperature, (kT)/sup 3 / 4 /, that is identical to Monte Carlo results obtained for strongly coupled fluids governed by repulsive l/r/sup n/ potentials. For two-component plasmas the ion-sphere model is shown to accurately represent the static portion of the energy. Electron screening is included in the Monte Carlo simulations using linear response theory and the Lindhard dielectric function. Free energy expressions have been constructed for one and two component plasmas that allow easy computation of all thermodynamic functions
Pair correlation functions of strongly coupled two-temperature plasma
Shaffer, Nathaniel R.; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar; Baalrud, Scott D.
2017-09-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we perform the first direct tests of three proposed models for the pair correlation functions of strongly coupled plasmas with species of unequal temperature. The models are all extensions of the Ornstein-Zernike/hypernetted-chain theory used to good success for equilibrium plasmas. Each theory is evaluated at several coupling strengths, temperature ratios, and mass ratios for a model plasma in which the electrons are positively charged. We show that the model proposed by Seuferling et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 323 (1989)] agrees well with molecular dynamics over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, as well as over a range of coupling strength similar to that of the equilibrium hypernetted-chain (HNC) theory. The SVT model also correctly predicts the strength of interspecies correlations and exhibits physically reasonable long-wavelength limits of the static structure factors. Comparisons of the SVT model with the Yukawa one-component plasma (YOCP) model are used to show that ion-ion pair correlations are well described by the YOCP model up to Γe≈1 , beyond which it rapidly breaks down.
Strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials for advanced electrocatalysis.
Liang, Yongye; Li, Yanguang; Wang, Hailiang; Dai, Hongjie
2013-02-13
Electrochemical systems, such as fuel cell and water splitting devices, represent some of the most efficient and environmentally friendly technologies for energy conversion and storage. Electrocatalysts play key roles in the chemical processes but often limit the performance of the entire systems due to insufficient activity, lifetime, or high cost. It has been a long-standing challenge to develop efficient and durable electrocatalysts at low cost. In this Perspective, we present our recent efforts in developing strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid materials to improve the electrocatalytic activities and stability of inorganic metal oxides, hydroxides, sulfides, and metal-nitrogen complexes. The hybrid materials are synthesized by direct nucleation, growth, and anchoring of inorganic nanomaterials on the functional groups of oxidized nanocarbon substrates including graphene and carbon nanotubes. This approach affords strong chemical attachment and electrical coupling between the electrocatalytic nanoparticles and nanocarbon, leading to nonprecious metal-based electrocatalysts with improved activity and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells and chlor-alkali catalysis, oxygen evolution reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the hybrids materials and reveal the coupling effects between inorganic nanomaterials and nanocarbon substrates. Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at single atom level are performed to investigate the nature of catalytic sites on ultrathin graphene sheets. Nanocarbon-based hybrid materials may present new opportunities for the development of electrocatalysts meeting the requirements of activity, durability, and cost for large-scale electrochemical applications.
Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas
Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.
2015-04-01
Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.
Perspective: Coulomb fluids--weak coupling, strong coupling, in between and beyond.
Naji, Ali; Kanduc, Matej; Forsman, Jan; Podgornik, Rudolf
2013-10-21
We present a personal view on the current state of statistical mechanics of Coulomb fluids with special emphasis on the interactions between macromolecular surfaces, concentrating on the weak and the strong coupling limits. Both are introduced for a (primitive) counterion-only system in the presence of macroscopic, uniformly charged boundaries, where they can be derived systematically. Later we show how this formalism can be generalized to the cases with additional characteristic length scales that introduce new coupling parameters into the problem. These cases most notably include asymmetric ionic mixtures with mono- and multivalent ions that couple differently to charged surfaces, ions with internal charge (multipolar) structure and finite static polarizability, where weak and strong coupling limits can be constructed by analogy with the counterion-only case and lead to important new insights into their properties that cannot be derived by any other means.
Strongly Interacting Matter in Magnetic Field
Mao, Shijun; Wu, Youjia; Zhuang, Pengfei
Inverse magnetic catalysis effect on the chiral phase transition is investigated in the frame of SU(2) NJL model with Pauli-Villars regularization scheme. We consider two scenarios, the chiral chemical potential μ5 caused by sphalerons and magnetic inhibition of mesons π0. With different chiral chemical potential, we always obtain magnetic catalysis in the mean field calculation, due to the enhancement of Fermi surface of the pairing fermions by μ5. On the other hand, when going beyond the mean field approximation by including the feed-down from mesons to quarks, the competition between the magnetic catalysis effect of quarks and magnetic inhibition effect of mesons leads to the transition from inverse magnetic catalysis to delayed magnetic catalysis with increasing magnetic field.
Three-loop Standard Model effective potential at leading order in strong and top Yukawa couplings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, Stephen P. [Santa Barbara, KITP
2014-01-08
I find the three-loop contribution to the effective potential for the Standard Model Higgs field, in the approximation that the strong and top Yukawa couplings are large compared to all other couplings, using dimensional regularization with modified minimal subtraction. Checks follow from gauge invariance and renormalization group invariance. I also briefly comment on the special problems posed by Goldstone boson contributions to the effective potential, and on the numerical impact of the result on the relations between the Higgs vacuum expectation value, mass, and self-interaction coupling.
Sharma, Ramkishor; Jagannathan, Sandhya; Seshadri, T. R.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2017-10-01
Models of inflationary magnetogenesis with a coupling to the electromagnetic action of the form f2Fμ νFμ ν , are known to suffer from several problems. These include the strong coupling problem, the backreaction problem and also strong constraints due to the Schwinger effect. We propose a model which resolves all these issues. In our model, the coupling function, f , grows during inflation and transits to a decaying phase post-inflation. This evolutionary behavior is chosen so as to avoid the problem of strong coupling. By assuming a suitable power-law form of the coupling function, we can also neglect backreaction effects during inflation. To avoid backreaction post-inflation, we find that the reheating temperature is restricted to be below ≈1.7 ×104 GeV . The magnetic energy spectrum is predicted to be nonhelical and generically blue. The estimated present day magnetic field strength and the corresponding coherence length taking reheating at the QCD epoch (150 MeV) are 1.4 ×10-12 G and 6.1 ×10-4 Mpc , respectively. This is obtained after taking account of nonlinear processing over and above the flux-freezing evolution after reheating. If we consider also the possibility of a nonhelical inverse transfer, as indicated in direct numerical simulations, the coherence length and the magnetic field strength are even larger. In all cases mentioned above, the magnetic fields generated in our models satisfy the γ -ray bound below a certain reheating temperature.
Mathematical structure of Rabi oscillations in the strong coupling regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Kazuyuki
2003-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian by making use of some operators based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2), and study a mathematical structure of Rabi floppings of these models in the strong coupling regime. We show that Rabi frequencies are given by matrix elements of generalized coherent operators (Fujii K 2002 Preprint quant-ph/0202081) under the rotating-wave approximation. In the first half, we make a general review of coherent operators and generalized coherent ones based on Lie algebras su(1, 1) and su(2). In the latter half, we carry out a detailed examination of Frasca (Frasca M 2001 Preprint quant-ph/0111134) and generalize his method, and moreover present some related problems. We also apply our results to the construction of controlled unitary gates in quantum computation. Lastly, we make a brief comment on application to holonomic quantum computation
Charge pumping in strongly coupled molecular quantum dots
Haughian, Patrick; Yap, Han Hoe; Gong, Jiangbin; Schmidt, Thomas L.
2017-11-01
The interaction between electrons and the vibrational degrees of freedom of a molecular quantum dot can lead to an exponential suppression of the conductance, an effect which is commonly termed Franck-Condon blockade. Here, we investigate this effect in a quantum dot driven by time-periodic gate voltages and tunneling amplitudes using nonequilibrium Green's functions and a Floquet expansion. Building on previous results showing that driving can lift the Franck-Condon blockade, we investigate driving protocols which can be used to pump charge across the quantum dot. In particular, we show that due to the strongly coupled nature of the system, the pump current at resonance is an exponential function of the drive strength.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angerer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.angerer@tuwien.ac.at; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel; Majer, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.majer@tuwien.ac.at [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Sumiya, Hitoshi [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., Itami 664-001 (Japan); Onoda, Shinobu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, Junichi [Research Centre for Knowledge Communities, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Putz, Stefan [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
2016-07-18
We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 10{sup 17} nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve a collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.
Peptide-microgel interactions in the strong coupling regime.
Hansson, Per; Bysell, Helena; Månsson, Ronja; Malmsten, Martin
2012-09-06
The interaction between lightly cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) microgels and oppositely charged peptides was investigated as a function of peptide length, charge density, pH, and salt concentration, with emphasis on the strong coupling regime at high charge contrast. By micromanipulator-assisted light microscopy, the equilibrium volume response of single microgel particles upon oligolysine and oligo(lysine/alanine) absorption could be monitored in a controlled fashion. Results show that microgel deswelling, caused by peptide binding and network neutralization, increases with peptide length (3 attraction between the network chains is described using an exponential force law, and the network elasticity by the inverse Langevin theory. The model was used to calculate the composition of microgels in contact with reservoir solutions of peptides and simple electrolytes. At high electrostatic coupling, the calculated swelling curves were found to display first-order phase transition behavior. The model was demonstrated to capture pH- and electrolyte-dependent microgel swelling, as well as effects of peptide length and charge density on microgel deswelling. The analysis demonstrated that the peptide charge (length), rather than the peptide charge density, determines microgel deswelling. Furthermore, a transition between continuous and discrete network collapse was identified, consistent with experimental results in the present investigations, as well as with results from the literature on microgel deswelling caused by multivalent cations.
Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2016-05-22
This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.
Strong terahertz field generation, detection, and application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ki-Yong [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2016-05-15
This report describes the generation and detection of high-power, broadband terahertz (THz) radiation with using femtosecond terawatt (TW) laser systems. In particular, this focuses on two-color laser mixing in gases as a scalable THz source, addressing both microscopic and macroscopic effects governing its output THz yield and radiation profile. This also includes the characterization of extremely broad THz spectra extending from microwaves to infrared frequencies. Experimentally, my group has generated high-energy (tens of microjoule), intense (>8 MV/cm), and broadband (0.01~60 THz) THz radiation in two-color laser mixing in air. Such an intense THz field can be utilized to study THz-driven extremely nonlinear phenomena in a university laboratory.
Strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between the coupled systems
Grácio, Clara; Fernandes, Sara; Mário Lopes, Luís
2018-03-01
The question of the chaotic synchronization of two coupled dynamical systems is an issue that interests researchers in many fields, from biology to psychology, through economics, chemistry, physics, and many others. The different forms of couplings and the different types of synchronization, give rise to many problems, most of them little studied. In this paper we deal with general couplings of two dynamical systems and we study strong generalized synchronization with a particular relationship R between them. Our results include the definition of a window in the domain of the coupling strength, where there is an exponentially stable solution, and the explicit determination of this window. In the case of unidirectional or symmetric couplings, this window is presented in terms of the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the systems. Examples of applications to chaotic systems of dimension one and two are presented.
Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields
Uggerhoj, U I; Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Lund, M; Møller, S P; Sørensen, A H; Thomsen, A H; Uggerhøj, U I; Geissel, H; Scheidenberger, C; Weick, H; Winfield, J; Sona, P; Connell S; Ballestrero, S; Ketel, T; Dizdar, A; Mangiarotti, A
2009-01-01
As an addendum to the NA63 proposal cite{Ande05}, we propose to measure 1) the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect in low-$Z$ targets, 2) Magnetic suppression of incoherent bremsstrahlung resulting from exposure to an external field during the emission event, and 3) the bremsstrahlung emission from relativistic ($gamma=170$), fully stripped Pb nuclei penetrating various amorphous targets. Concerning the LPM effect, both the 'traditional' Migdal approach and the modern treatment by Baier and Katkov display inaccuracies, i.e. a possible lack of applicability in low-$Z$ targets. Moreover, the LPM effect has been shown to have a significant impact on giant air showers for energies in the EeV range - evidently processes in a low-$Z$ material. A measurement of magnetic suppression is demanding in terms of necessary accuracy (an expected $lesssim$15% effect), but would prove the existence of a basic interplay between coherent and incoherent processes, also believed to be significant in beamstrahlung emission. For...
Multi-mode ultra-strong coupling in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Bosman, Sal J.; Gely, Mario F.; Singh, Vibhor; Bruno, Alessandro; Bothner, Daniel; Steele, Gary A.
2017-10-01
With the introduction of superconducting circuits into the field of quantum optics, many experimental demonstrations of the quantum physics of an artificial atom coupled to a single-mode light field have been realized. Engineering such quantum systems offers the opportunity to explore extreme regimes of light-matter interaction that are inaccessible with natural systems. For instance the coupling strength g can be increased until it is comparable with the atomic or mode frequency ωa,m and the atom can be coupled to multiple modes which has always challenged our understanding of light-matter interaction. Here, we experimentally realize a transmon qubit in the ultra-strong coupling regime, reaching coupling ratios of g/ωm = 0.19 and we measure multi-mode interactions through a hybridization of the qubit up to the fifth mode of the resonator. This is enabled by a qubit with 88% of its capacitance formed by a vacuum-gap capacitance with the center conductor of a coplanar waveguide resonator. In addition to potential applications in quantum information technologies due to its small size, this architecture offers the potential to further explore the regime of multi-mode ultra-strong coupling.
Dynamics of coupled phantom and tachyon fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Pathak, S.D.; Li, Shiyuan [Shandong University, School of Physics, Jinan (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, Department of Physics, GCAP-CASPER, Waco, TX (United States)
2017-10-15
In this paper, we apply the dynamical analysis to a coupled phantom field with scaling potential taking particular forms of the coupling (linear and combination of linear), and present phase space analysis. We investigate if there exists a late time accelerated scaling attractor that has the ratio of dark energy and dark matter densities of the order one. We observe that the scrutinized couplings cannot alleviate the coincidence problem, however, they acquire stable late time accelerated solutions. We also discuss a coupled tachyon field with inverse square potential assuming linear coupling. (orig.)
Electron Dynamics in Nanostructures in Strong Laser Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kling, Matthias
2014-09-11
The goal of our research was to gain deeper insight into the collective electron dynamics in nanosystems in strong, ultrashort laser fields. The laser field strengths will be strong enough to extract and accelerate electrons from the nanoparticles and to transiently modify the materials electronic properties. We aimed to observe, with sub-cycle resolution reaching the attosecond time domain, how collective electronic excitations in nanoparticles are formed, how the strong field influences the optical and electrical properties of the nanomaterial, and how the excitations in the presence of strong fields decay.
Simensen, Haakon T.; Linder, Jacob
2018-02-01
We present a theoretical description and numerical simulations of the superconducting transition in hybrid structures including strong spin-orbit interactions. The spin-orbit coupling is taken to be of Rashba type for concreteness, and we allow for an arbitrary magnitude of the spin-orbit strength as well as an arbitrary thickness of the spin-orbit coupled layer. This allows us to make contact with the experimentally relevant case of enhanced interfacial spin-orbit coupling via atomically thin heavy metal layers. We consider both interfacial spin-orbit coupling induced by inversion asymmetry in an S/F junction, as well as in-plane spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnetic region of an S/F/S and an S/F structure. Both the pair amplitudes, local density of states, and critical temperature show dependency on the Rashba strength and, importantly, the orientation of the exchange field. In general, spin-orbit coupling increases the critical temperature of a proximity system where a magnetic field is present, and enhances the superconducting gap in the density of states. We perform a theoretical derivation which explains these results by the appearance of long-ranged singlet correlations. Our results suggest that Tc in ballistic spin-orbit coupled superconducting structures may be tuned by using only a single ferromagnetic layer.
Stochastic and Macroscopic Thermodynamics of Strongly Coupled Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Jarzynski
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We develop a thermodynamic framework that describes a classical system of interest S that is strongly coupled to its thermal environment E. Within this framework, seven key thermodynamic quantities—internal energy, entropy, volume, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, heat, and work—are defined microscopically. These quantities obey thermodynamic relations including both the first and second law, and they satisfy nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. We additionally impose a macroscopic consistency condition: When S is large, the quantities defined within our framework scale up to their macroscopic counterparts. By satisfying this condition, we demonstrate that a unifying framework can be developed, which encompasses both stochastic thermodynamics at one end, and macroscopic thermodynamics at the other. A central element in our approach is a thermodynamic definition of the volume of the system of interest, which converges to the usual geometric definition when S is large. We also sketch an alternative framework that satisfies the same consistency conditions. The dynamics of the system and environment are modeled using Hamilton’s equations in the full phase space.
Effect of random charge fluctuation on strongly coupled dusty Plasma
Issaad, M.; Rouiguia, L.; Djebli, M.
2008-09-01
Modeling the interaction between particles is an open issue in dusty plasma. We dealt with strongly coupled dust particles in two dimensional confined system. For small number of clusters, we investigate the effect of random charge fluctuation on background configuration. The study is conducted for a short rang as well as a long rang potential interaction. Numerical simulation is performed using Monte-Carlo simulation in the presence of parabolic confinement and at low temperature. We have studied the background configurations for a dust particles with constant charge and in the presence of random charge fluctuation due to the discrete nature of charge carriers. The latter is studied for a positively charged dust when the dominant charging process is due to photo-emission from the dust surface. It is found, for small classical cluster consisting of small number of particles, short rang potential gives the same result as long rang one. It is also found that the random charge fluctuation affect the background configurations.
Weak-coupling superconductivity in a strongly correlated iron pnictide.
Charnukha, A; Post, K W; Thirupathaiah, S; Pröpper, D; Wurmehl, S; Roslova, M; Morozov, I; Büchner, B; Yaresko, A N; Boris, A V; Borisenko, S V; Basov, D N
2016-01-05
Iron-based superconductors have been found to exhibit an intimate interplay of orbital, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom, dramatically affecting their low-energy electronic properties, including superconductivity. Albeit the precise pairing mechanism remains unidentified, several candidate interactions have been suggested to mediate the superconducting pairing, both in the orbital and in the spin channel. Here, we employ optical spectroscopy (OS), angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), ab initio band-structure, and Eliashberg calculations to show that nearly optimally doped NaFe0.978Co0.022As exhibits some of the strongest orbitally selective electronic correlations in the family of iron pnictides. Unexpectedly, we find that the mass enhancement of itinerant charge carriers in the strongly correlated band is dramatically reduced near the Γ point and attribute this effect to orbital mixing induced by pronounced spin-orbit coupling. Embracing the true band structure allows us to describe all low-energy electronic properties obtained in our experiments with remarkable consistency and demonstrate that superconductivity in this material is rather weak and mediated by spin fluctuations.
Strongly coupled gauge theories: What can lattice calculations teach us?
Hasenfratz, A.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Weinberg, E.; Witzel, O.
2017-12-01
The dynamical origin of electroweak symmetry breaking is an open question with many possible theoretical explanations. Strongly coupled systems predicting the Higgs boson as a bound state of a new gauge-fermion interaction form one class of candidate models. Due to increased statistics, LHC run II will further constrain the phenomenologically viable models in the near future. In the meanwhile it is important to understand the general properties and specific features of the different competing models. In this work we discuss many-flavor gauge-fermion systems that contain both massless (light) and massive fermions. The former provide Goldstone bosons and trigger electroweak symmetry breaking, while the latter indirectly influence the infrared dynamics. Numerical results reveal that such systems can exhibit a light 0++ isosinglet scalar, well separated from the rest of the spectrum. Further, when we set the scale via the vev of electroweak symmetry breaking, we predict a 2 TeV vector resonance which could be a generic feature of SU(3) gauge theories.
Ising models of strongly coupled biological networks with multivariate interactions
Merchan, Lina; Nemenman, Ilya
2013-03-01
Biological networks consist of a large number of variables that can be coupled by complex multivariate interactions. However, several neuroscience and cell biology experiments have reported that observed statistics of network states can be approximated surprisingly well by maximum entropy models that constrain correlations only within pairs of variables. We would like to verify if this reduction in complexity results from intricacies of biological organization, or if it is a more general attribute of these networks. We generate random networks with p-spin (p > 2) interactions, with N spins and M interaction terms. The probability distribution of the network states is then calculated and approximated with a maximum entropy model based on constraining pairwise spin correlations. Depending on the M/N ratio and the strength of the interaction terms, we observe a transition where the pairwise approximation is very good to a region where it fails. This resembles the sat-unsat transition in constraint satisfaction problems. We argue that the pairwise model works when the number of highly probable states is small. We argue that many biological systems must operate in a strongly constrained regime, and hence we expect the pairwise approximation to be accurate for a wide class of problems. This research has been partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No.220020321.
Strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows; Ecoulements diphasiques disperses fortement couples
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zun, I.; Lance, M.; Ekiel-Jezewska, M.L.; Petrosyan, A.; Lecoq, N.; Anthore, R.; Bostel, F.; Feuillebois, F.; Nott, P.; Zenit, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Brennen, C.E.; Campbell, C.S.; Tong, P.; Lei, X.; Ackerson, B.J.; Asmolov, E.S.; Abade, G.; da Cunha, F.R.; Lhuillier, D.; Cartellier, A.; Ruzicka, M.C.; Drahos, J.; Thomas, N.H.; Talini, L.; Leblond, J.; Leshansky, A.M.; Lavrenteva, O.M.; Nir, A.; Teshukov, V.; Risso, F.; Ellinsen, K.; Crispel, S.; Dahlkild, A.; Vynnycky, M.; Davila, J.; Matas, J.P.; Guazelli, L.; Morris, J.; Ooms, G.; Poelma, C.; van Wijngaarden, L.; de Vries, A.; Elghobashi, S.; Huilier, D.; Peirano, E.; Minier, J.P.; Gavrilyuk, S.; Saurel, R.; Kashinsky, O.; Randin, V.; Colin, C.; Larue de Tournemine, A.; Roig, V.; Suzanne, C.; Bounhoure, C.; Brunet, Y.; Tanaka, A.T.; Noma, K.; Tsuji, Y.; Pascal-Ribot, S.; Le Gall, F.; Aliseda, A.; Hainaux, F.; Lasheras, J.; Didwania, A.; Costa, A.; Vallerin, W.; Mudde, R.F.; Van Den Akker, H.E.A.; Jaumouillie, P.; Larrarte, F.; Burgisser, A.; Bergantz, G.; Necker, F.; Hartel, C.; Kleiser, L.; Meiburg, E.; Michallet, H.; Mory, M.; Hutter, M.; Markov, A.A.; Dumoulin, F.X.; Suard, S.; Borghi, R.; Hong, M.; Hopfinger, E.; Laforgia, A.; Lawrence, C.J.; Hewitt, G.F.; Osiptsov, A.N.; Tsirkunov, Yu. M.; Volkov, A.N.
2003-07-01
This document gathers the abstracts of the Euromech 421 colloquium about strongly coupled dispersed two-phase flows. Behaviors specifically due to the two-phase character of the flow have been categorized as: suspensions, particle-induced agitation, microstructure and screening mechanisms; hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution; turbulence modulation by particles, droplets or bubbles in dense systems; collective effects in dispersed two-phase flows, clustering and phase distribution; large-scale instabilities and gravity driven dispersed flows; strongly coupled two-phase flows involving reacting flows or phase change. Topic l: suspensions particle-induced agitation microstructure and screening mechanisms hydrodynamic interactions between two very close spheres; normal stresses in sheared suspensions; a critical look at the rheological experiments of R.A. Bagnold; non-equilibrium particle configuration in sedimentation; unsteady screening of the long-range hydrodynamic interactions of settling particles; computer simulations of hydrodynamic interactions among a large collection of sedimenting poly-disperse particles; velocity fluctuations in a dilute suspension of rigid spheres sedimenting between vertical plates: the role of boundaries; screening and induced-agitation in dilute uniform bubbly flows at small and moderate particle Reynolds numbers: some experimental results. Topic 2: hydrodynamic interactions, dispersion and phase distribution: hydrodynamic interactions in a bubble array; A 'NMR scattering technique' for the determination of the structure in a dispersion of non-brownian settling particles; segregation and clustering during thermo-capillary migration of bubbles; kinetic modelling of bubbly flows; velocity fluctuations in a homogeneous dilute dispersion of high-Reynolds-number rising bubbles; an attempt to simulate screening effects at moderate particle Reynolds numbers using an hybrid formulation; modelling the two
Self-induced steps in a small Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multimode resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, A.; Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
coupled systems. Based on a single-resonator model, we explain the exceptional size of the steps by the large content of higher harmonics of the Josephson oscillation sustained by the multiple modes of the resonator. The parameters of the junction and the loaded resonator—measured in situ by using......An equally spaced series of very large and nearly constant-voltage self-induced singularities has been observed in the dc I-V characteristics of a small Josephson tunnel junction strongly coupled to a resonant section of a superconducting transmission line. The system allows extremely high values...... of the coupling parameter. The current steps are due to subharmonic parametric excitation of the fundamental mode of the resonator loaded by the junction admittance. Using an applied magnetic field to vary the coupling parameter, we traced out half-integer steps as well as the mode steps known from more weakly...
Electrodynamics of a hydrogenlike atom in a strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovarskij, V.A.; Perel'man, N.F.
1974-01-01
The quasienergy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in strong electromagnetic radiation is studied, the luminescence of the atom under these conditions is considered. It is shown that in a strong field the atom, being even in the ground state, radiates a spectrum of frequencies corresponding to transitions from the ground state into excited states, the strong field photons being involved. The intensity of such a luminescence is basically a non-linear function of the strong field. The exposure of the atom to two strong electromagnetic fields Ω and ω (Ω>>ω) is considered, the Ω coinciding with one of the natural frquencies of the atom. The effct of modulation of the resonance shift for an atomic level by the ω-field strength is predicted. The dependence of Ω-absorption in the ω-field on the statistic properties of the latter is investigated. (author)
Strong Coupling of Microwave Photons to Antiferromagnetic Fluctuations in an Organic Magnet
Mergenthaler, Matthias; Liu, Junjie; Le Roy, Jennifer J.; Ares, Natalia; Thompson, Amber L.; Bogani, Lapo; Luis, Fernando; Blundell, Stephen J.; Lancaster, Tom; Ardavan, Arzhang; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Leek, Peter J.; Laird, Edward A.
2017-10-01
Coupling between a crystal of di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium radicals and a superconducting microwave resonator is investigated in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED) architecture. The crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior above 4 K, with antiferromagnetic correlations appearing below this temperature, and we demonstrate strong coupling at base temperature. The magnetic resonance acquires a field angle dependence as the crystal is cooled down, indicating anisotropy of the exchange interactions. These results show that multispin modes in organic crystals are suitable for circuit QED, offering a platform for their coherent manipulation. They also utilize the circuit QED architecture as a way to probe spin correlations at low temperature.
Effective hadronic lagrangian in the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD with Susskind fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azakov, S.I.; Aliev, E.S.
1987-12-01
The effective hadronic action in lattice QCD with U(N) and SU(N) gauge groups and with Susskind fermions is constructed in the framework of the strong coupling approximation. For arbitrary finite (odd) N (in particular N=3) we find an effective potential, vacuum expectation value of the (χ-barχ) and an effective action for the physical meson field π(x). (author). 19 refs
Dynamic properties of one-component strongly coupled plasmas: The sum-rule approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Askaruly, A.; Davletov, A. E.; Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.; Zwicknagel, G.
2010-01-01
The dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled one-component plasmas are studied within the moment approach. Our results on the dynamic structure factor and the dynamic local-field correction satisfy the sum rules and other exact relations automatically. A quantitative agreement is obtained with numerous simulation data on the plasma dynamic properties, including the dispersion and decay of collective modes. Our approach allows us to correct and complement the results previously found with other treatments.
Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.I. Kashirina
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.
Thermal Phase Transitions of Strongly Correlated Bosons with Spin-Orbit Coupling
Hickey, Ciarán; Paramekanti, Arun
2014-12-01
Experiments on ultracold atoms have started to explore lattice effects and thermal fluctuations for two-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Motivated by this, we derive and study a t J model for lattice bosons with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus SOC and strong Hubbard repulsion in a uniform Zeeman magnetic field. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz, we find strongly correlated ground states with stripe superfluid (SF) order. We formulate a finite temperature generalization of the Gutzwiller method, and show that thermal fluctuations in the doped Mott insulator drive a two-step melting of the stripe SF, revealing a wide regime of a stripe normal fluid.
Kundt spacetimes minimally coupled to scalar field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tahamtan, T. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Svitek, O. [Charles University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague 8 (Czech Republic)
2017-06-15
We derive an exact solution belonging to the Kundt class of spacetimes both with and without a cosmological constant that are minimally coupled to a free massless scalar field. We show the algebraic type of these solutions and give interpretation of the results. Subsequently, we look for solutions additionally containing an electromagnetic field satisfying nonlinear field equations. (orig.)
Probing strong field ionization of solids with a Thomson parabola ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-11
Jan 11, 2014 ... large electric field drives the electrons to a very high energy. These hot electrons quickly move out of the solid surface, long before the ions move and the electron drift creates a strong quasistatic charge separation sheath electric field. Ions are then accelerated in this sheath field preferentially along the ...
Electron dynamics in metals and semiconductors in strong THz fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Peter Uhd
2017-01-01
Semiconductors and metals respond to strong electric fields in a highly nonlinear fashion. Using single-cycle THz field transients it is possible to investigate this response in regimes not accessible by transport-based measurements. Extremely high fields can be applied without material damage...
Concentration inequalities for random fields via coupling
Chazottes, J. R.; Collet, P.; Kuelske, C.; Redig, F.
We present a new and simple approach to concentration inequalities in the context of dependent random processes and random fields. Our method is based on coupling and does not use information inequalities. In case one has a uniform control on the coupling, one obtains exponential concentration
Mechanism and Simulation of Generating Pulsed Strong Magnetic Field
Yang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Chuang; Deng, Ai-Dong; Gu, Zhuo-Wei; Luo, Hao
2014-10-01
A strong magnetic field (over 1000 T) was recently experimentally produced at the Academy of Engineering Physics in China. The theoretical methods, which include a simple model and MHD code, are discussed to investigate the physical mechanism and dynamics of generating the strong magnetic field. The analysis and simulation results show that nonlinear magnetic diffusion contributes less as compared to the linear magnetic diffusion. This indicates that the compressible hydrodynamic effect and solid imploding compression may have a large influence on strong magnetic field generation.
Strong coupling of collection of emitters on hyperbolic meta-material
Biehs, Svend-Age; Xu, Chenran; Agarwal, Girish S.
2018-04-01
Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of a strong coupling regime of the radiation matter interaction in the context of an emitter at a meta surface. The strong interaction is well realized in cavity quantum electrodynamics, which also show that strong coupling is much easier to realize using a collection of emitters. Keeping this in mind, we study if emitters on a hyperbolic meta materials can yield a strong coupling regime. We show that strong coupling can be realized for densities of emitters exceeding a critical value. A way to detect strong coupling between emitters and hyperbolic metamaterials is to use the Kretschman-Raether configuration. The strong coupling appears as the splitting of the reflectivity dip. In the weak coupling regime, the dip position shifts. The shift and splitting can be used to sense active molecules at surfaces.
Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meuren, Sebastian
2015-06-24
Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.
Rhie-Chow interpolation in strong centrifugal fields
Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.
2015-10-01
Rhie-Chow interpolation formulas are derived from the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. These formulas are generalized to gas dynamics in strong centrifugal fields (as high as 106 g) occurring in gas centrifuges.
Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fournais, Søren
2007-01-01
e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B
Microscopic theory of photon-correlation spectroscopy in strong-coupling semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneebeli, Lukas
2009-11-27
While many quantum-optical phenomena are already well established in the atomic systems, like the photon antibunching, squeezing, Bose-Einstein condensation, teleportation, the quantum-optical investigations in semiconductors are still at their beginning. The fascinating results observed in the atomic systems inspire physicists to demonstrate similar quantum-optical effects also in the semiconductor systems. In contrast to quantum optics with dilute atomic gases, the semiconductors exhibit a complicated many-body problem which is dominated by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons and holes and by coupling with the semiconductor environment. This makes the experimental observation of similar quantum-optical effects in semiconductors demanding. However, there are already experiments which have verified nonclassical effects in semiconductors. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) can exhibit the single-photon emission and generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs. In fact, both atom and QD systems, embedded within a microcavity, have become versatile platforms where one can perform systematic quantum-optics investigations as well as development work toward quantum-information applications. Another interesting field is the strong-coupling regime in which the light-matter coupling exceeds both the decoherence rate of the atom or QD and the cavity resulting in a reversible dynamics between light and matter excitations. In the strong-coupling regime, the Jaynes-Cummings ladder is predicted and shows a photon-number dependent splitting of the new dressed strong-coupling states which are the polariton states of the coupled light-matter system. Although the semiclassical effect of the vacuum Rabi splitting has already been observed in QDs, the verification of the quantum-mechanical Jaynes-Cummings splitting is still missing mainly due to the dephasing. Clearly, the observation of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder in QDs
Dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapoport, L.P.; Klinskikh, A.F.; Mordvinov, V.V.
1997-01-01
An asymptotic expansion of the dynamic polarizability of a complex atom in a strong circularly polarized light field is found for the case of high frequencies. The self-consistent approximation of the Hartree-Fock type for the ''atom+field'' system is developed, within the framework of which a numerical calculation of the dynamic polarizability of Ne, Kr, and Ar atoms in a strong radiation field is performed. The strong field effect is shown to manifest itself not only in a change of the energy spectrum and the character of behavior of the wave functions of atomic electrons, but also in a modification of the one-electron self-consistent potential for the atom in the field
Colloquium: Strong-field phenomena in periodic systems
Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Krausz, Ferenc; Yakovlev, Vladislav S.
2018-04-01
The advent of visible-infrared laser pulses carrying a substantial fraction of their energy in a single field oscillation cycle has opened a new era in the experimental investigation of ultrafast processes in semiconductors and dielectrics (bulk as well as nanostructured), motivated by the quest for the ultimate frontiers of electron-based signal metrology and processing. Exploring ways to approach those frontiers requires insight into the physics underlying the interaction of strong high-frequency (optical) fields with electrons moving in periodic potentials. This Colloquium aims at providing this insight. Introduction to the foundations of strong-field phenomena defines and compares regimes of field-matter interaction in periodic systems, including (perfect) crystals as well as optical and semiconductor superlattices, followed by a review of recent experimental advances in the study of strong-field dynamics in crystals and nanostructures. Avenues toward measuring and controlling electronic processes up to petahertz frequencies are discussed.
Strongly coupled partitioned FSI using proper orthogonal decomposition
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Bogaers, Alfred EJ
2012-12-01
Full Text Available that this dependence on the number of retained histories is due to a trade-off between increasingly ill-conditioned interface Jacobian, when too many histories are retained and sub-optimal coupling convergence rates due to a loss of information when histories...
Strong Carrier–Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
2017-01-01
We highlight the importance of carrier–phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL band have been identified as due to the Fröhlich interaction. The energy of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons has been determined from the separation of the zero phonon band and phonon replicas. We reason that the observed LO phonon coupling can only be related to an orthorhombically distorted crystal structure of the perovskite nanocrystals. Additionally, the strength of carrier–phonon coupling has been characterized using the ratio between the intensities of the first phonon replica and the zero-phonon band. PL emission from localized versus delocalized carriers has been identified as the source of the observed discrepancies between the LO phonon energy and phonon coupling strength under quasi-resonant and nonresonant excitation conditions, respectively. PMID:29019652
Strong Carrier-Phonon Coupling in Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals
Iaru, Claudiu M; Geuchies, Jaco J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370526090; Koenraad, Paul M; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Silov, Andrei Yu
2017-01-01
We highlight the importance of carrier-phonon coupling in inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. The low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of CsPbBr3 has been investigated under a nonresonant and a nonstandard, quasi-resonant excitation scheme, and phonon replicas of the main PL
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...
Strongly correlated photons generated by coupling a three- or four-level system to a waveguide
Zheng, Huaixiu; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Baranger, Harold U.
2012-04-01
We study the generation of strongly correlated photons by coupling an atom to photonic quantum fields in a one-dimensional waveguide. Specifically, we consider a three-level or four-level system for the atom. Photon-photon bound states emerge as a manifestation of the strong photon-photon correlation mediated by the atom. Effective repulsive or attractive interaction between photons can be produced, causing either suppressed multiphoton transmission (photon blockade) or enhanced multiphoton transmission (photon-induced tunneling). As a result, nonclassical light sources can be generated on demand by sending coherent states into the proposed system. We calculate the second-order correlation function of the transmitted field and observe bunching and antibunching caused by the bound states. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can produce photon pairs with a high degree of spectral entanglement, which have a large capacity for carrying information and are important for large-alphabet quantum communication.
Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic field. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean field theory is taken and ...
Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter
2007-01-01
We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100 a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength...
Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.
2005-01-01
We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes
Vortex-lattice states at strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akera, H.; MacDonald, A.H.; Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Norman, M.R. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois (USA))
1991-10-21
At strong magnetic fields, Landau quantization invalidates the semiclassical approximations which underly the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory of the mixed states of type-II superconductors. We have solved the {ital microscopic} mean-field equations for the case of a two-dimensional electron system in the strong magnetic-field limit. For delta-function attractive interactions there exist {ital n}+1 pairing channels in the {ital n}th Landau level. For {ital n}{gt}0, two channels share the maximum {ital T}{sub {ital c}}, and the order parameter differs markedly from expectations based on GL theory.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields
Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir
1990-01-01
This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso lution laser spectroscop...
Modelling of strongly coupled particle growth and aggregation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruy, F; Touboul, E
2013-01-01
The mathematical modelling of the dynamics of particle suspension is based on the population balance equation (PBE). PBE is an integro-differential equation for the population density that is a function of time t, space coordinates and internal parameters. Usually, the particle is characterized by a unique parameter, e.g. the matter volume v. PBE consists of several terms: for instance, the growth rate and the aggregation rate. So, the growth rate is a function of v and t. In classical modelling, the growth and the aggregation are independently considered, i.e. they are not coupled. However, current applications occur where the growth and the aggregation are coupled, i.e. the change of the particle volume with time is depending on its initial value v 0 , that in turn is related to an aggregation event. As a consequence, the dynamics of the suspension does not obey the classical Von Smoluchowski equation. This paper revisits this problem by proposing a new modelling by using a bivariate PBE (with two internal variables: v and v 0 ) and by solving the PBE by means of a numerical method and Monte Carlo simulations. This is applied to a physicochemical system with a simple growth law and a constant aggregation kernel.
Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling
Ilyas, Saad
2016-07-28
Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically coupled microbeams. The device is composed of two identical clamped-clamped beams, made of polyimide, connected at their middle through a third beam, which acts as a mechanical coupler. Each of the clamped-clamped microbeams and the coupler are designed to be actuated separately, hence providing various possibilities of actuation and sensing. The coupled resonator is driven into resonance near its first resonance mode and its dynamic behavior is explored via frequency sweeps. The results show significant amplification in the resonator amplitude when the signal is measured at the midpoint of the coupler compared with the response of the individual uncoupled beams. The static pull-in characteristics of the resonator are also studied. It is shown that the compliant mechanical coupler can serve as a low-power radio frequency switch actuated at low voltage loads. [2016-0100
Delord, T.; Nicolas, L.; Chassagneux, Y.; Hétet, G.
2017-12-01
A scheme for strong coupling between a single atomic spin and the rotational mode of levitating nanoparticles is proposed. The idea is based on spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in aspherical nanodiamonds levitating in an ion trap. We show that the asymmetry of the diamond induces a rotational confinement in the ion trap. Using a weak homogeneous magnetic field and a strong microwave driving we then demonstrate that the spin of the nitrogen-vacancy center can be strongly coupled to the rotational mode of the diamond.
Atomic and Free Electrons in a Strong Light Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorov, Mikhail V.
1998-02-01
This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated Bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, ave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described oo, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models. An extensive general theoretical introduction gives a good basis for subsequent parts of the book and is an independent and self-sufficient description of the most efficient theoretical methods of the strong-field and multiphoton physics. This book can serve as a textbook for graduate students
Shear viscosity of strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma.
Policastro, G; Son, D T; Starinets, A O
2001-08-20
Using the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence, we relate the shear viscosity eta of the finite-temperature N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the large N, strong-coupling regime with the absorption cross section of low-energy gravitons by a near-extremal black three-brane. We show that in the limit of zero frequency this cross section coincides with the area of the horizon. From this result we find eta = pi / 8N(2)T3. We conjecture that for finite 't Hooft coupling g(2)(YM)N the shear viscosity is eta = f(g(2)(YM)N)N2T3, where f(x) is a monotonic function that decreases from O(x(-2)ln(-1)(1/x)) at small x to pi/8 when x-->infinity.
Hanle Magnetoresistance in Thin Metal Films with Strong Spin-Orbit Coupling.
Vélez, Saül; Golovach, Vitaly N; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Isasa, Miren; Sagasta, Edurne; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Hueso, Luis E; Bergeret, F Sebastian; Casanova, Fèlix
2016-01-08
We report measurements of a new type of magnetoresistance in Pt and Ta thin films. The spin accumulation created at the surfaces of the film by the spin Hall effect decreases in a magnetic field because of the Hanle effect, resulting in an increase of the electrical resistance as predicted by Dyakonov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 126601 (2007)]. The angular dependence of this magnetoresistance resembles the recently discovered spin Hall magnetoresistance in Pt/Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) bilayers, although the presence of a ferromagnetic insulator is not required. We show that this Hanle magnetoresistance is an alternative simple way to quantitatively study the coupling between charge and spin currents in metals with strong spin-orbit coupling.
Thermodynamics and instabilities of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma
Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2011-07-01
We extend our analysis of a IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static, possesses an anisotropic horizon, and is completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an AdS geometry in the ultraviolet to a Lifshitz-like geometry in the infrared. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent θ-term or from a non-zero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e. mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.
Inflationary Magnetogenesis without the Strong Coupling Problem II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
J. Z. Ferreira, Ricardo; Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2014-01-01
Recent observational claims of magnetic fields stronger than $10^{-16}$ G in the extragalactic medium motivate a new look for their origin in the inflationary magnetogenesis models. In this work we shall review the constraints on the simplest gauge invariant model $f^2(\\phi)F_{\\mu \
Clean HMBC: Suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Würtz, Peter; Permi, Perttu; Nielsen, Niels Chr.
2008-01-01
in HMBC spectra, but they have apparently been overlooked, presumably because they have been assigned to inefficiency of low-pass J filters or not noticed because of a coarse digital resolution in the spectra. Clean HMBC is the HMBC technique of choice for molecules notorious for strong coupling among......A new experiment, clean HMBC, is introduced for suppression of strong-coupling induced artifacts in HMBC spectra. The culprits of these artifacts are an inherent shortcoming of low-pass J filters in the presence of strong coupling and the 1H p pulse in the middle of the evolution period aimed...... at suppressing evolution under heteronuclear J couplings and 1H chemical shifts. A p pulse causes coherence transfer in strongly coupled spin systems and, as is well known in e.g., homonuclear J spectra, this leads to peaks that would not be there in the absence of strong coupling. Similar artifacts occur...
Strongly Coupled Magnetic and Electronic Transitions in Multivalent Strontium Cobaltites
Lee, J. H.; Choi, Woo Seok; Jeen, H.; Lee, H.-J.; Seo, J. H.; Nam, J.; Yeom, M. S.; Lee, H. N.
2017-01-01
The topotactic phase transition in SrCoO x (x = 2.5–3.0) makes it possible to reversibly transit between the two distinct phases, i.e. the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 that is a room-temperature antiferromagnetic insulator (AFM-I) and the perovskite SrCoO3 that is a ferromagnetic metal (FM-M), owing to their multiple valence states. For the intermediate x values, the two distinct phases are expected to strongly compete with each other. With oxidation of SrCoO2.5, however, it has been conjectured t...
Quantum theory of strong-field frustrated tunneling
Popruzhenko, S. V.
2018-01-01
We show how the strong-field approximation, widely used for description of multiphoton and tunneling ionization, can be extended to analyse the excitation of bound states in intense low-frequency laser pulses. The proposed theory is based on the formalism of quantum trajectories and fills the gap between the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and classical simulations. In particular, it allows identifying non-adiabatic and interference effects in strong-field excitation of Rydberg states.
Atomic and free electrons in a strong light field
Fedorov, Mikhail V
1997-01-01
This book presents and describes a series of unusual and striking strong-field phenomena concerning atoms and free electrons. Some of these phenomena are: multiphoton stimulated bremsstrahlung, free-electron lasers, wave-packet physics, above-threshold ionization, and strong-field stabilization in Rydberg atoms. The theoretical foundations and causes of the phenomena are described in detail, with all the approximations and derivations discussed. All the known and relevant experiments are described too, and their results are compared with those of the existing theoretical models.An extensive ge
Inelastic electron scattering influence on the strong coupling oxide superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabovich, A.M.; Voitenko, A.I.
1995-01-01
The superconducting order parameters Δ and energy gap Δ g are calculated taking into account the pair-breaking inelastic quasiparticle scattering by thermal Bose-excitations, e.g., phonons. The treatment is self-consistent because the scattering amplitude depends on Δ. The superconducting transition for any strength of the inelastic scattering is the phase transition of the first kind and the dependences Δ (T) and Δ g (T) tend to rectangular curve that agrees well with the experiment for high-Tc oxides. On the basis of the developed theory the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate R s in the superconducting state is calculated. The Hebel-Slichter peak in R s (T) is shown to disappear for strong enough inelastic scattering
Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Schmidt, Jonas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-12-15
In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)
Coupling brane fields to bulk supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parameswaran, Susha L.
2010-12-01
In this note we present a simple, general prescription for coupling brane localized fields to bulk supergravity. We illustrate the procedure by considering 6D N=2 bulk supergravity on a 2D orbifold, with brane fields localized at the fixed points. The resulting action enjoys the full 6D N=2 symmetries in the bulk, and those of 4D N=1 supergravity at the brane positions. (orig.)
Infrared exponents and the strong-coupling limit in lattice Landau gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sternbeck, Andre; Smekal, Lorenz von
2010-01-01
We study the gluon and ghost propagators of lattice Landau gauge in the strong-coupling limit β=0 in pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory to find evidence of the conformal infrared behavior of these propagators as predicted by a variety of functional continuum methods for asymptotically small momenta q 2 QCD 2 . In the strong-coupling limit, this same behavior is obtained for the larger values of a 2 q 2 (in units of the lattice spacing a), where it is otherwise swamped by the gauge-field dynamics. Deviations for a 2 q 2 <1 are well parameterized by a transverse gluon mass ∝1/a. Perhaps unexpectedly, these deviations are thus no finite-volume effect but persist in the infinite-volume limit. They furthermore depend on the definition of gauge fields on the lattice, while the asymptotic conformal behavior does not. We also comment on a misinterpretation of our results by Cucchieri and Mendes (Phys. Rev. D 81:016005, 2010). (orig.)
Discriminative deep inelastic tests of strong interaction field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glueck, M.; Reya, E.
1979-02-01
It is demonstrated that recent measurements of ∫ 0 1 F 2 (x, Q 2 )dx eliminate already all strong interaction field theories except QCD. A detailed study of scaling violations of F 2 (x, Q 2 ) in QCD shows their insensitivity to the gluon content of the hadron at presently measured values of Q 2 . (orig.) [de
Strong coupling constant extraction from high-multiplicity Z +jets observables
Johnson, Mark; Maître, Daniel
2018-03-01
We present a strong coupling constant extraction at next-to-leading order QCD accuracy using ATLAS Z +2 ,3,4 jets data. This is the first extraction using processes with a dependency on high powers of the coupling constant. We obtain values of the strong coupling constant at the Z mass compatible with the world average and with uncertainties commensurate with other next-to-leading order extractions at hadron colliders. Our most conservative result for the strong coupling constant is αS(MZ)=0.117 8-0.0043+0.0051 .
Strong Helioseismic Constraints on Weakly-Coupled Plasmas
Nayfonov, Alan
The extraordinary accuracy of helioseismic data allows detailed theoretical studies of solar plasmas. The necessity to produce solar models matching the experimental results in accuracy imposes strong constrains on the equations of state of solar plasmas. Several discrepancies between the experimental data and models have been successfully identified as the signatures of various non-ideal phenomena. Of a particular interest are questions of the position of the energy levels and the continuum edge and of the effect of the excited states in the solar plasma. Calculations of energy level and continuum shifts, based on the Green function formalism, appeared recently in the literature. These results have been used to examine effects of the shifts on the thermodynamic quantities. A comparison with helioseismic data has shown that the calculations based on lower-level approximations, such as the static screening in the effective two-particle wave equation, agree very well with the experimental data. However, the case of full dynamic screening produces thermodynamic quantities inconsistent with observations. The study of the effect of different internal partition functions on a complete set of thermodynamic quantities has revealed the signature of the excited states in the MHD (Mihalas, Hummer, Dappen) equation of state. The presence of exited states causes a characteristic 'wiggle' in the thermodynamic quantities due to the density-dependent occupation probabilities. This effect is absent if the ACTEX (ACTivity EXpansion) equation of state is used. The wiggle has been found to be most prominent in the quantities sensitive to density. The size of this excited states effect is well within the observational power of helioseismology, and very recent inversion analyses of helioseismic data seem to indicate the presence of the wiggle in the sun. This has a potential importance for the helioseismic determination of the helium abundance of the sun.
Statistical relationship of strong earthquakes with planetary geomagnetic field activity
Pogrebnikov, M. M.; Komarovski, N. I.; Kopytenko, Y. A.; Pushel, A. P.
1984-12-01
Earlier studies reported a significant decrease in the geomagnetic field before strong earthquakes. Possible relationships between earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7 (Soviet scale) and planetary terrestrial magnetic field activity as characterized by the K sub p index were investigated. A total of 100 cases of strong earthquakes on magnetically quiet days in 1965 to 1975 were studied. The K sub p indexes were studied for two days before and two days after the earthquakes. The dispersion curve shows a significant decrease one day before each event. The relationship of the planetary K sub p index with seismic activity indicates that the period of preparation for an earthquake and at the moment of the shock are reflected in the terrestrial magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weymann, Ireneusz, E-mail: weymann@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland)
2015-05-07
We analyze the spin-dependent linear-response transport properties of double quantum dots strongly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. By using the numerical renormalization group method, we determine the dependence of the linear conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance on the degree of spin polarization of the leads and the position of the double dot levels. We focus on the transport regime where the system exhibits the SU(4) Kondo effect. It is shown that the presence of ferromagnets generally leads the suppression of the linear conductance due to the presence of an exchange field. Moreover, the exchange field gives rise to a transition from the SU(4) to the orbital SU(2) Kondo effect. We also analyze the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance on the double dot levels' positions and show that it exhibits a very nontrivial behavior.
Noncommutative gauge fields coupled to noncommutative gravity
Aschieri, Paolo; Castellani, Leonardo
2013-03-01
We present a noncommutative (NC) version of the action for vielbein gravity coupled to gauge fields. Noncommutativity is encoded in a twisted star -product between forms, with a set of commuting background vector fields defining the (abelian) twist. A first order action for the gauge fields avoids the use of the Hodge dual. The NC action is invariant under diffeomorphisms and star -gauge transformations. The Seiberg-Witten map, adapted to our geometric setting and generalized for an arbitrary abelian twist, allows to re-express the NC action in terms of classical fields: the result is a deformed action, invariant under diffeomorphisms and usual gauge transformations. This deformed action is a particular higher derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action coupled to Yang-Mills fields, and to the background vector fields defining the twist. Here noncommutativity of the original NC action dictates the precise form of this extension. We explicitly compute the first order correction in the NC parameter of the deformed action, and find that it is proportional to cubic products of the gauge field strength and to the symmetric anomaly tensor D_{IJK}.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.
2012-01-01
the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced emission spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four...
Matter in strong fields: from molecules to living cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, D
2007-01-01
Strong optical fields induce multiple ionization in irradiated molecules. The ionization dynamics are governed by optical-field-induced distortions of molecular potential energy surfaces and molecular dissociation is the expected by-product. Recent experiments have even shown, quite counter-intuitively, that strong optical fields may even induce bond formation processes in molecules. All such processes are all manifestations of how intense light affects matter. In turn, matter also affects intense light. A visually dramatic manifestation of matter affecting light is obtained when ultrashort pulses of intense light propagate though condensed matter. The temporal and spatial properties of the incident light pulse are modified, and such modifications manifest themselves in an enlarged optical frequency sweep, resulting in the generation of broadband radiation (white light) known as supercontinuum production. Although the physics that governs supercontinuum generation is not properly understood, some recent progress is summarized. Novel applications of strong field phenomena are reported that are of relevance in the biomedical and life sciences
On tidal phenomena in a strong gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashoon, B.
1975-01-01
A simple framework based on the concept of quadrupole tidal potential is presented for the calculation of tidal deformation of an extended test body in a gravitational field. This method is used to study the behavior of an initially faraway nonrotating spherical body that moves close to a Schwarzschild or an extreme Kerr black hole. In general, an extended body moving in an external gravitational field emits gravitational radiation due to its center of mass motion, internal tidal deformation, and the coupling between the internal and center of mass motions. Estimates are given of the amount of tidal radiation emitted by the body in the gravitational fields considered. The results reported in this paper are expected to be of importance in the dynamical evolution of a dense stellar system with a massive black hole in its center
Process γγ → νν-bar in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.V.; Mikheev, N.V.; Rumyantsev, D.A.
2003-01-01
The three-vertex loop amplitude in a strong magnetic field are analyzed in a general form by using the asymptotic behavior of the electron propagator in an external field. The process γγ → νν-bar is studied in terms of the scalar-vector-vector (SVV), pseudoscalar-vector-vector (PVV), vector-vector-vector (VVV), and axial-vector-vector-vector (AVV) combinations of couplings. It is shown that only in the case of the SVV combination does the amplitude grow linearly with increasing magnetic-field strength, the amplitudes evaluated with the other combinations of couplings (PVV, VVV, and AVV) featuring no linearly increasing terms. The process γγ → νν-bar is also studied within the left-right model, which is an extension of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and which may involve an effective scalar ννee coupling. Possible astrophysical manifestations of this process are discussed
Dynamics of valence-shell electrons and nuclei probed by strong-field holography and rescattering
Walt, Samuel G.; Bhargava Ram, Niraghatam; Atala, Marcos; Shvetsov-Shilovski, Nikolay I; von Conta, Aaron; Baykusheva, Denitsa; Lein, Manfred; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2017-01-01
Strong-field photoelectron holography and laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) are two powerful emerging methods for probing the ultrafast dynamics of molecules. However, both of them have remained restricted to static systems and to nuclear dynamics induced by strong-field ionization. Here we extend these promising methods to image purely electronic valence-shell dynamics in molecules using photoelectron holography. In the same experiment, we use LIED and photoelectron holography simultaneously, to observe coupled electronic-rotational dynamics taking place on similar timescales. These results offer perspectives for imaging ultrafast dynamics of molecules on femtosecond to attosecond timescales. PMID:28643771
Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane.
Thompson, J D; Zwickl, B M; Jayich, A M; Marquardt, Florian; Girvin, S M; Harris, J G E
2008-03-06
Macroscopic mechanical objects and electromagnetic degrees of freedom can couple to each other through radiation pressure. Optomechanical systems in which this coupling is sufficiently strong are predicted to show quantum effects and are a topic of considerable interest. Devices in this regime would offer new types of control over the quantum state of both light and matter, and would provide a new arena in which to explore the boundary between quantum and classical physics. Experiments so far have achieved sufficient optomechanical coupling to laser-cool mechanical devices, but have not yet reached the quantum regime. The outstanding technical challenge in this field is integrating sensitive micromechanical elements (which must be small, light and flexible) into high-finesse cavities (which are typically rigid and massive) without compromising the mechanical or optical properties of either. A second, and more fundamental, challenge is to read out the mechanical element's energy eigenstate. Displacement measurements (no matter how sensitive) cannot determine an oscillator's energy eigenstate, and measurements coupling to quantities other than displacement have been difficult to realize in practice. Here we present an optomechanical system that has the potential to resolve both of these challenges. We demonstrate a cavity which is detuned by the motion of a 50-nm-thick dielectric membrane placed between two macroscopic, rigid, high-finesse mirrors. This approach segregates optical and mechanical functionality to physically distinct structures and avoids compromising either. It also allows for direct measurement of the square of the membrane's displacement, and thus in principle the membrane's energy eigenstate. We estimate that it should be practical to use this scheme to observe quantum jumps of a mechanical system, an important goal in the field of quantum measurement.
Nonlinear dynamics of semiconductors in strong THz electric fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarekegne, Abebe Tilahun
weak THz and near infrared pulses as probes. Firstly, an intense THz pulse is used to study THz-induced impact ionization (IMI) dynamics in silicon. Local field enhancement by metallic dipole antenna arrays has been used to generate strong electric fields of several MV/cm in the hot spots near...... uniquely. Finally it is demonstrated for the first time that SiC can be tailored to have extremely fast THz-induced nonlinear behavior in moderate THz electric fields by addition of appropriate dopants. A 4H-SiC sample with high concentrations of nitrogen and boron dopants shows a nonlinear THz......In this thesis, we investigate nonlinear interactions of an intense terahertz (THz) field with semiconductors, in particular the technologically relevant materials silicon and silicon carbide. We reveal the time-resolved dynamics of the nonlinear processes by pump-probe experiments that involve...
Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.
1999-01-01
The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized
Approximation for a Coulomb-Volkov solution in strong fields
Reiss, H. R.; Krainov, V. P.
1994-08-01
A simple analytical approximation is found for the wave function of an electron simultaneously exposed to a strong, circularly polarized plane-wave field and an atomic Coulomb potential. The approximation is valid when α0>>1, where α0 is the classical radius of motion of a free electron in the plane-wave field. This constraint is sufficiently mild at low frequencies that it makes possible a major extension of the lower bound of laser intensities for which Volkov-solution-based approximations are useful.
Two-level atom in a strong polychromatic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, A.Ya.
1991-01-01
The quasienergy spectrium of a two-level atom in a polychromatic electromagnetic field can be expressed in terms of the Floquet indexes of a linear set of ordinary differential equations with periodic coefficients. An analytic expression for the quasienergy spectrum is obtained by the asymptotic technique for the case of a strong polychromatic field. It is shown that on deep modulation of the radiation incident on the atom forbidden bands for the quasilevels may arise. The Stark effect for the physical system under consideration is described
Strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dimitrovski, Darko; Førre, Morten; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2009-01-01
We present a quantitative investigation of strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics in laser-matter interactions. We find excellent agreement between ab initio numerical and analytic results obtained using the Magnus expansion. We show that in the short-pulse limit, ultrafast transfer and cont......We present a quantitative investigation of strong-field short-pulse nondipole dynamics in laser-matter interactions. We find excellent agreement between ab initio numerical and analytic results obtained using the Magnus expansion. We show that in the short-pulse limit, ultrafast transfer...... and control of population can be achieved using nondipole effects. The relative importance of nondipole to dipole effects depends on the displacement imparted to a free classical electron....
Semicalssical quantization of interacting anyons in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levit, S.; Sivan, N.
1992-01-01
We represent a semiclassical theory of charged interacting anyons in strong magnetic fields. We apply this theory to a number of few anyons systems including two interacting anyons in the presence of an impurity and three interacting anyons. We discuss the dependence of their energy levels on the statistical parameter and find regions in which this dependence follows very different patterns. The semiclassical arguments allow to correlate these patterns with the change in the character of the classical motion of the system. (author)
Strong field transient manipulation of electronic states and bands
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Crassee
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the present review, laser fields are so strong that they become part of the electronic potential, and sometimes even dominate the Coulomb contribution. This manipulation of atomic potentials and of the associated states and bands finds fascinating applications in gases and solids, both in the bulk and at the surface. We present some recent spectacular examples obtained within the NCCR MUST in Switzerland.
Experiments on plasma turbulence induced by strong, steady electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamberger, S.M.
1975-01-01
The author discusses the effect of applying a strong electric field to collisionless plasma. In particular are compared what some ideas and prejudices lead one to expect to happen, what computer simulation experiments tell one ought to happen, and what actually does happen in two laboratory experiments which have been designed to allow the relevant instability and turbulent processes to occur unobstructed and which have been studied in sufficient detail. (Auth.)
Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuis, N.
2005-01-01
We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρ r and its conjugate variable, the phase θ r of the pairing order parameter Δ r . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρ r /2, where the bosons have a mass m B =2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude g B =4πa B /m B ,a B =2a (a the s-wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude t B =J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction U B =2Jz, where J=4t 2 /U (t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites)
Effective action for superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit
Dupuis, N.
2005-07-01
We derive the low-energy effective action for three-dimensional superfluid Fermi systems in the strong-coupling limit, where superfluidity originates from Bose-Einstein condensation of composite bosons. Taking into account density and pairing fluctuations on the same footing, we show that the effective action involves only the fermion density ρr and its conjugate variable, the phase θr of the pairing order parameter Δr . We recover the standard action of a Bose superfluid of density ρr/2 , where the bosons have a mass mB=2m and interact via a repulsive contact potential with amplitude gB=4πaB/mB,aB=2a ( a the s -wave scattering length associated to the fermion-fermion interaction in vacuum). For lattice models, the derivation of the effective action is based on the mapping of the attractive Hubbard model onto the Heisenberg model in a uniform magnetic field, and a coherent state path integral representation of the partition function. The effective description of the Fermi superfluid in the strong-coupling limit is a Bose-Hubbard model with an intersite hopping amplitude tB=J/2 and an on-site repulsive interaction UB=2Jz , where J=4t2/U ( t and -U are the intersite hopping amplitude and the on-site attraction in the (fermionic) Hubbard model, z the number of nearest-neighbor sites).
Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Wallraff, A; Schuster, D I; Blais, A; Frunzio, L; Huang, R- S; Majer, J; Kumar, S; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J
2004-09-09
The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.
Munson, C P; Taylor, A J; Trainor, R J; Wood, B P; Wysocki, F J
1999-01-01
Summary form only given. Atlas is a high current (~30 MA peak, with a current risetime ~4.5 mu sec), high energy (E/sub stored/=24 MJ, E /sub load/=3-6 MJ), pulsed power facility which is being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a scheduled completion date in the year 2000. When operational, this facility will provide a platform for experiments in high pressure shocks (>20 Mbar), adiabatic compression ( rho / rho /sub 0/>5, P>10 Mbar), high magnetic fields (~2000 T), high strain and strain rates ( epsilon >200, d epsilon /dt~10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ s/sup -1/), hydrodynamic instabilities of materials in turbulent regimes, magnetized target fusion, equation of state, and strongly coupled plasmas. For the strongly coupled plasma experiments, an auxiliary capacitor bank will be used to generate a moderate density (<0.1 solid), relatively cold (~1 eV) plasma by ohmic heating of a conducting material of interest such as titanium. This target plasma will be compressed against a central column conta...
Chahid, M
2000-01-01
The purpose of the present work is a quantitative study of the spin time relaxation within superweak ferrimagnetic materials exhibiting a paramagnetic-ferrimagnetic transition, when the temperature is changed from an initial value T sub i to a final one T sub f very close to the critical temperature T sub c. From a magnetic point of view, the material under investigation is considered to be made of two strongly coupled paramagnetic sublattices of respective moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi. Calculations are made within a Landau mean-field theory, whose free energy involves, in addition to quadratic and quartic terms in both moments phi (cursive,open) Greek and psi, a lowest-order coupling - Cphi (cursive,open) Greek psi, where C<0 stands for the coupling constant measuring the interaction between the two sublattices. We first determine the time dependence of the shifts of the order parameters delta phi (cursive,open) Greek and delta psi from the equilibrium state. We find that this time dependence ...
Theoretical Femtosecond Physics Atoms and Molecules in Strong Laser Fields
Grossmann, Frank
2008-01-01
Theoretical femtosecond physics is a new field of research. Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers of up to atomic field strengths are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. Laser-matter interaction is treated on a nonperturbative level in the book using approximate and numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically. Physical phenomena, ranging from ionization of atoms to the ionization and dissociation of molecules and the control of chemical reactions are presented and discussed. Theoretical background for experiments with strong and short laser pulses is given. Several exercises are included in the main text. Some detailed calculations are performed in the appendices.
Spin effects in strong-field laser-electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahrens, S; Bauke, H; Müller, T-O; Villalba-Chávez, S; Müller, C
2013-01-01
The electron spin degree of freedom can play a significant role in relativistic scattering processes involving intense laser fields. In this contribution we discuss the influence of the electron spin on (i) Kapitza-Dirac scattering in an x-ray laser field of high intensity, (ii) photo-induced electron-positron pair production in a strong laser wave and (iii) multiphoton electron-positron pair production on an atomic nucleus. We show that in all cases under consideration the electron spin can have a characteristic impact on the process properties and their total probabilities. To this end, spin-resolved calculations based on the Dirac equation in the presence of an intense laser field are performed. The predictions from Dirac theory are also compared with the corresponding results from the Klein-Gordon equation.
Entanglement via atomic coherence induced by two strong classical fields
Lü, Xin-You; Huang, Pei; Yang, Wen-Xing; Yang, Xiaoxue
2009-09-01
Based on the standard criteria [P. van Loock and A. Furusawa, Phys. Rev. A 67, 052315 (2003)], we propose a scheme to achieve the fully tripartite continuous-variable (CV) entanglement in a Y -type atomic system driven by two strong classical fields. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the generation of entanglement does not depend intensively on the initial condition of cavity field and the time for which the cavity modes remain entangled can be prolonged via enhancing the intensities of classical fields in our scheme. Moreover, our numerical results also show that a tripartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in the present scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve fully tripartite CV entangled state even when the three entangled modes have different frequencies and initial states, which may be useful for the progress of quantum information networks with many nodes.
Strong correlation between early stage atherosclerosis and electromechanical coupling of aorta
Liu, X. Y.; Yan, F.; Niu, L. L.; Chen, Q. N.; Zheng, H. R.; Li, J. Y.
2016-03-01
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases that are responsible for many deaths in the world, and the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis is highly desirable. The existing imaging methods, however, are not capable of detecting the early stage of atherosclerosis development due to their limited spatial resolution. Using piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), we show that the piezoelectric response of an aortic wall increases as atherosclerosis advances, while the stiffness of the aorta shows a less evident correlation with atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we show that there is strong correlation between the coercive electric field necessary to switch the polarity of the artery and the development of atherosclerosis. Thus by measuring the electromechanical coupling of the aortic wall, it is possible to probe atherosclerosis at the early stage of its development, not only improving the spatial resolution by orders of magnitude, but also providing comprehensive quantitative information on the biomechanical properties of the artery.
Electrically tunable single-dot nanocavities in the weak and strong coupling regimes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laucht, Arne; Hofbauer, Felix; Angele, Jacob
2008-01-01
We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dot - photonic crystal defect nanocavities [1] operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light matter interaction. Unlike previous studies, where the dot-cavity spectral detuning...... of the emitted photons from a single-dot nanocavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. New information is obtained on the nature of the dot-cavity coupling in the weak coupling regime and electrical control of zero dimensional polaritons is demonstrated for the first time. Vacuum Rabi splittings up to 2g...... electrical readout of the strongly coupled dot-cavity system using photocurrent methods will be discussed. This work is financially supported by the DFG via SFB 631 and by the German Excellence Initiative via the “Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM)”....
Ratio of bulk to shear viscosity in a quasigluon plasma: from weak to strong coupling
Bluhm, M; Redlich, K
2012-01-01
The ratio of bulk to shear viscosity is expected to exhibit a different behaviour in weakly and in strongly coupled systems. This can be expressed by the dependence of the ratio on the squared sound velocity. In the high temperature QCD plasma at small running coupling, the viscosity ratio is uniquely determined by a quadratic dependence on the conformality measure, whereas in certain strongly coupled and nearly conformal theories this dependence is linear. Employing an effective kinetic theory of quasiparticle excitations with medium-modified dispersion relation, we analyze the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity of the gluon plasma. We show that in this approach the viscosity ratio comprises both dependencies found by means of weak coupling perturbative and strong coupling holographic techniques.
Ricketts, David S.; Chabalko, Matthew J.; Hillenius, Andrew
2013-02-01
In this work, we show experimentally that wireless power transfer (WPT) using strongly coupled magnetic resonance (SCMR) and traditional induction are equivalent. We demonstrate that for a given coil separation, and to within 4%, strongly coupled magnetic resonance and traditional induction produce the same theoretical efficiency of wireless power transfer versus distance. Moreover, we show that the difference between traditional induction and strongly coupled magnetic resonance is in the implementation of the impedance matching network where strongly coupled magnetic resonance uses the mini-loop impedance match. The mini-loop impedance mach provides a low-loss, high-ratio impedance transformation that makes it desirable for longer distance wireless power transfer, where large impedance transformations are needed to maximize power transfer.
Dynamics of dissociation versus ionization in strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, experimental results are presented which clearly demonstrate the effectiveness that an external field has in altering the dissociation dynamics. The experiment examines the strong-field dissociation dynamics of molecular hydrogen ions and its deuterated isotopes. These studies involve multiphoton excitation in the intensity regime of 10 11-14 W/cm 2 with the fundamental and second harmonic of a ND:YAG or ND:YLF laser system. Measurements include energy resolved electron and mass spectroscopy which provide useful probes in elucidating the interaction dynamics predicted by existing models. The example this in this paper, examines the strong-field dissociation of H 2 + , HD + , and D 2 + at green (0.5 μm) and (1μm) frequencies. The diatomic ions are formed via multiphonon ionization of the neutral precursor which is physically separable from the dissociation process. This study provides the first observation of the dynamics associated with the above threshold dissociation (ATD) process and analogies will be made with the more familiar above threshold ionization (ATI) phenomenon
Spin-orbit-induced strong coupling of a single spin to a nanomechanical resonator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pályi, András; Struck, P R; Rudner, Mark
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the deflection-induced coupling of an electron spin to vibrational motion due to spin-orbit coupling in suspended carbon nanotube quantum dots. Our estimates indicate that, with current capabilities, a quantum dot with an odd number of electrons can serve....... The strong intrinsic spin-mechanical coupling allows for detection, as well as manipulation of the spin qubit, and may yield enhanced performance of nanotubes in sensing applications....
Extending the reach of strong-coupling: an iterative technique for Hamiltonian lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberty, J.; Greensite, J.; Patkos, A.
1983-12-01
The authors propose an iterative method for doing lattice strong-coupling-like calculations in a range of medium to weak couplings. The method is a modified Lanczos scheme, with greatly improved convergence properties. The technique is tested on the Mathieu equation and on a Hamiltonian finite-chain XY model, with excellent results. (Auth.)
Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: From weak to strong coupling superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozieres, P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.
1985-01-01
We consider a gas of fermions interacting via an attractive potential. We study the ground state of that system and calculate the critical temperature for the onset of superconductivity as a function of the coupling strength. We compare the behavior of continuum and lattice models and show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling superconductivity is smooth
Zhou, Ning; Yuan, Meng; Gao, Yuhan; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Deren
2016-04-26
Strong coupling between semiconductor excitons and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) giving rise to hybridized plexciton states in which energy is coherently and reversibly exchanged between the components is vital, especially in the area of quantum information processing from fundamental and practical points of view. Here, in photoluminescence spectra, rather than from common extinction or reflection measurements, we report on the direct observation of Rabi splitting of approximately 160 meV as an indication of strong coupling between excited states of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) and LSP modes of silver nanoshells under nonresonant nanosecond pulsed laser excitation at room temperature. The strong coupling manifests itself as an anticrossing-like behavior of the two newly formed polaritons when tuning the silver nanoshell plasmon energies across the exciton line of the QDs. Further analysis substantiates the essentiality of high pump energy and collective strong coupling of many QDs with the radiative dipole mode of the metallic nanoparticles for the realization of strong coupling. Our finding opens up interesting directions for the investigation of strong coupling between LSPs and excitons from the perspective of radiative recombination under easily accessible experimental conditions.
Cooper Pair Breakup in YBCO under Strong Terahertz Fields
Glossner, Andreas; Zhang, Caihong; Kikuta, Shinya; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Müller, Paul; Tonouchi, Masayoshi
2012-01-01
We show that strong electric fields of ~ 30 kV cm^(-1) at terahertz frequencies can significantly weaken the superconducting characteristics of cuprate superconductors. High-power terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was used to investigate the in-plane conductivity of YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) with highly intense single-cycle terahertz pulses. Even though the terahertz photon energy (~ 1.5 meV) was significantly smaller than the energy gap in YBCO (~ 20-30 meV), the optical conductivity...
Confinement and αs in a strong magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.A. Simonov
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Hadron decay widths are shown to increase in strong magnetic fields as Γ(eB∼eBκΓ(0. The same mechanism is shown to be present in the production of the sea quark pair inside the confining string, which decreases the string tension with the growing eB parallel to the string. On the other hand, the average energy of the qq¯ holes in the string world sheet increases, when the direction of B is perpendicular to the sheet. These two effects stipulate the spectacular picture of the B dependent confinement and αs, discovered on the lattice.
Helium atoms and molecules in strong magnetic fields
Mori, K.
Recent theoretical studies have shown that the neutron star surface may be composed of helium or heavier elements as hydrogen may be quickly depleted by diffuse nuclear burning Chang Bildsten However while Hydrogen atmospheres have been studied in great details atomic data for helium is available only for He ion Pavlov Bezchastnov 2005 We performed Hartree-Fock type calculation for Helium atom and molecules and computed their binding ionization and dissociation energies in strong magnetic fields B sim10 12 -- 10 15 G We will present ionization balance of Helium atmospheres at typical magnetic field strengths and temperatures to radio-quiet neutron stars and AXPs We will also discuss several implications of helium atmosphere to X-ray data of isolated neutron stars focusing on the detected spectral features
Strong magnetic field induces superconductivity in a Weyl semimetal
Rosenstein, Baruch; Shapiro, B. Ya.; Li, Dingping; Shapiro, I.
2017-12-01
Microscopic theory of the normal-to-superconductor coexistence line of a multiband Weyl superconductor subjected to magnetic field is constructed. It is shown that the Weyl semimetal that is nonsuperconducting or having a small critical temperature Tc at zero field might become a superconductor at higher temperatures when the magnetic field is tuned to a series of quantized values Hn. The pairing occurs on Landau levels. It is argued that the phenomenon is detectable much easier in Weyl semimetals than in parabolic band metals since the quantum limit already has been approached in several Weyl materials. The effect of Zeeman coupling leading to splitting of the reentrant superconducting regions on the magnetic phase diagram is considered. An experimental signature of the superconductivity on Landau levels is the reduction of magnetoresistivity. This has been observed already in Cd3As2 and several other compounds. The novel kind of quantum oscillations of magnetoresistance detected in ZrTe5 is discussed along these lines.
Effective Field Theories and Strong Interactions. Final Technical Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleming, Sean
2011-01-01
The framework of Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allows us to describe strong interactions in terms of degrees of freedom relevant to the energy regimes of interest, in the most general way consistent with the symmetries of QCD. Observables are expanded systematically in powers of M lo /M hi , where M lo (M hi ) denotes a low-(high-)energy scale. This organizational principle is referred to as 'power counting'. Terms of increasing powers in the expansion parameter are referred to as leading order (LO), next-to-leading order (NLO), etc. Details of the QCD dynamics not included explicitly are encoded in interaction parameters, or 'low-energy constants' (LECs), which can in principle be calculated from an explicit solution of QCD - for example via lattice simulations- but can also be determined directly from experimental data. QCD has an intrinsic scale M QCD ≅ 1 GeV, at which the QCD coupling constant α s (M QCD ) becomes large and the dynamics becomes non-perturbative. As a consequence M QCD sets the scale for the masses of most hadrons, such as the nucleon mass m N ≅ 940 MeV. EFTs can roughly be divided into two categories: those that can be matched onto QCD in perturbation theory, which we call high-energy EFTs, and those that cannot be matched perturbatively, which we call low-energy EFTs. In high-energy EFTs, M QCD typically sets the low-energy scale, and all the dynamics associated with this scale reside in matrix elements of EFT operators. These non-perturbative matrix elements are the LECs and are also referred to as long-distance contributions. Each matrix element is multiplied by a short-distance coefficient, which contains the dynamics from the high scale M hi . Since M hi >> M QCD , α s (M hi ) hi ∼ M Q , the heavy-quark mass, and in addition to M QCD there are low scales associated with the typical relative momentum ∼ M Q v and energy ∼ M Q v 2 of the heavy quarks. Depending on the sizes of M Q and the heavy-quark velocity v these scales can
Electron-positron-photon cascades in the strong laser field
Legkov, Maxim; Fedotov, Alexander
2012-06-01
At nearest future several ambitious projects (such as ELI and HiPER) may provide laser filed intensity up to 10^23--10^24 W/cm^2. In such strong fields quantum effects are essential. The most important among them is production of QED cascades. In this paper external field intensity is considered as ultra-relativistic but subcritical. Using a model of two colliding counter-propagating laser beams it was shown that the number of particles during the process is growing exponentially in time. This leads to vast formation of electron-positron-photon plasma. According to numerical simulations, this plasma quickly absorbs an essential part of the energy of the laser field thus leading to its depletion. Numerical simulation has been also performed for a case of high-energetic particle and laser beam collision. Probability rates of direct and recombination processes have been theoretically studied. Under some conditions, recombination may come into play and suppress cascade development. Using approximation of radiation in forward direction, system of kinetic equations, which describes plasma evaluation, was constructed. According to qualitative estimations based on kinetic equations, it was shown that recombination processes can be neglected for optical frequencies range of external field.
Solutions of the coupled Higgs field equations
Talukdar, Benoy; Ghosh, Swapan K.; Saha, Aparna; Pal, Debabrata
2013-07-01
By an appropriate choice for the phase of the complex nucleonic field and going over to the traveling coordinate, we reduce the coupled Higgs equations to the Hamiltonian form and treat the resulting equation using the dynamical system theory. We present a phase-space analysis of its stable points. The results of our study demonstrate that the equation can support both traveling- and standing-wave solutions. The traveling-wave solution appears in the form of a soliton and resides in the midst of doubly periodic standing-wave solutions.
Strong coupling and polariton lasing in Te based microcavities embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rousset, J.-G., E-mail: j-g.rousset@fuw.edu.pl; Piętka, B.; Król, M.; Mirek, R.; Lekenta, K.; Szczytko, J.; Borysiuk, J.; Suffczyński, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Goryca, M.; Smoleński, T.; Kossacki, P.; Nawrocki, M.; Pacuski, W. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warszawa (Poland)
2015-11-16
We report on properties of an optical microcavity based on (Cd,Zn,Mg)Te layers and embedding (Cd,Zn)Te quantum wells. The key point of the structure design is the lattice matching of the whole structure to MgTe, which eliminates the internal strain and allows one to embed an arbitrary number of unstrained quantum wells in the microcavity. We evidence the strong light-matter coupling regime already for the structure containing a single quantum well. Embedding four unstrained quantum wells results in further enhancement of the exciton-photon coupling and the polariton lasing in the strong coupling regime.
Strong-field control landscapes of coherent electronic excitation
Bayer, Tim; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas
2008-04-01
We report on physical mechanisms behind resonant strong-field coherent control. To this end, we study multi-photon ionization of potassium atoms using intense shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The measured photoelectron spectra are discussed in terms of selective population of dressed states (SPODS). A physically motivated pulse parameterization is introduced which opens up two-dimensional parameter spaces comprising pulse sequences as well as chirped pulses. The control topologies of these subspaces are mapped out experimentally and are presented in the form of strong-field control landscapes (SFCLs). In the SFCLs, complementary realizations of SPODS via photon locking and rapid adiabatic passage are observed. Moreover, the combined effect, termed Multi-RAP, arises when both mechanisms are at play simultaneously. In order to better understand the performance of adaptive optimization procedures, we experimentally study their capability to find optimal solutions on a given parameter space. The evolution of different optimization procedures is visualized by means of control trajectories on the surface of the measured SFCL.
The strongly coupled fourth family and a first-order electroweak phase transition. 1. Quark sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikukawa, Yoshio; Kohda, Masaya; Yasuda, Junichiro
2009-01-01
In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking due to strongly coupled fourth-family quarks and leptons, their low-energy effective descriptions may involve multiple composite Higgs fields, leading to a possibility that the electroweak phase transition at finite temperature is first-order due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. We examine the behavior of the electroweak phase transition on the basis of the effective renormalizable Yukawa theory, which consists of the fourth-family quarks and two SU(2)-doublet Higgs fields corresponding to the bilinear operators of the fourth-family quarks with/without imposing the compositeness condition. The strength of the first-order phase transition is estimated using the finite-temperature effective potential at one loop with ring improvement. In the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is found that there is a parameter region where the first-order phase transition is sufficiently strong for the electroweak baryogenesis with the experimentally acceptable Higgs boson and fourth-family quark masses. On the other hand, when the compositeness condition is imposed, the phase transition turns out to be weakly first-order, or possibly second-order, although the result is rather sensitive to the details of the compositeness condition. By combining with the result of the Yukawa theory without the compositeness condition, it is argued that with the fourth-family quark masses in the range of 330-480 GeV, corresponding to the compositeness scale in the range of 1.0-2.3 TeV, the four-fermion interaction among the fourth-family quarks does not lead to the strongly first-order electroweak phase transition. (author)
Liu, Peter Q.; Luxmoore, Isaac J.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Savostianova, Nadja A.; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R.
2015-01-01
Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light–matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ∼60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light–matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation. PMID:26584781
Liu, Peter Q.; Luxmoore, Isaac J.; Mikhailov, Sergey A.; Savostianova, Nadja A.; Valmorra, Federico; Faist, Jérôme; Nash, Geoffrey R.
2015-11-01
Metamaterials and plasmonics are powerful tools for unconventional manipulation and harnessing of light. Metamaterials can be engineered to possess intriguing properties lacking in natural materials, such as negative refractive index. Plasmonics offers capabilities of confining light in subwavelength dimensions and enhancing light-matter interactions. Recently, the technological potential of graphene-based plasmonics has been recognized as the latter features large tunability, higher field-confinement and lower loss compared with metal-based plasmonics. Here, we introduce hybrid structures comprising graphene plasmonic resonators coupled to conventional split-ring resonators, thus demonstrating a type of highly tunable metamaterial, where the interaction between the two resonances reaches the strong-coupling regime. Such hybrid metamaterials are employed as high-speed THz modulators, exhibiting ~60% transmission modulation and operating speed in excess of 40 MHz. This device concept also provides a platform for exploring cavity-enhanced light-matter interactions and optical processes in graphene plasmonic structures for applications including sensing, photo-detection and nonlinear frequency generation.
TIME EVOLUTION OF WOUTHUYSEN-FIELD COUPLING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Ishani; Shu Chiwang; Xu Wen; Fang Lizhi; Qiu Jingmei
2009-01-01
We study the Wouthuysen-Field (W-F) coupling at early universe with numerical solutions of the integrodifferential equation describing the kinetics of photons undergoing resonant scattering. The numerical solver is developed based on the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) scheme for the Boltzmann-like integrodifferential equation. This method has perfectly passed the tests of the analytic solution and conservation property of the resonant scattering equation. We focus on the time evolution of the Wouthuysen-Field (W-F) coupling in relation to the 21 cm emission and absorption at the epoch of reionization. We especially pay attention to the formation of the local Boltzmann distribution, e -(ν-ν 0 )/kT , of photon frequency spectrum around resonant frequency ν 0 within width ν l , i.e., |ν - ν 0 | ≤ ν l . We show that a local Boltzmann distribution will be formed if photons with frequency ∼ν 0 have undergone a 10,000 or more times of scattering, which corresponds to the order of 10 3 yr for neutral hydrogen density of the concordance ΛCDM model. The time evolution of the shape and width of the local Boltzmann distribution actually do not depend on the details of atomic recoil, photon sources, or initial conditions very much. However, the intensity of photon flux at the local Boltzmann distribution is substantially time dependent. The timescale of approaching the saturated intensity can be as long as 10 5 -10 6 yr for typical parameters of the ΛCDM model. The intensity of the local Boltzmann distribution at time less than 10 5 yr is significantly lower than that of the saturation state. Therefore, it may not be always reasonable to assume that the deviation of the spin temperature of 21 cm energy states from cosmic background temperature is mainly due to the W-F coupling if first stars or their emission/absorption regions evolved with a timescale equal to or less than Myr.
Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields
Grossmann, Frank
2018-01-01
This textbook extends from the basics of femtosecond physics all the way to some of the latest developments in the field. In this updated edition, the chapter on laser-driven atoms is augmented by the discussion of two-electron atoms interacting with strong and short laser pulses, as well as by a review of ATI rings and low energy structures in photo-electron spectra. In the chapter on laser-driven molecules a discussion of 2D infrared spectroscopy is incorporated. Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. The presentation starts with a brief introduction to pulsed laser physics. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Its analytical as well as numerical solution are laid out in some detail. The light field is treated classically and different possi...
Anomalous electrodynamics of neutral pion matter in strong magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brauner, Tomáš [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Kadam, Saurabh V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER),Pune 411008 (India)
2017-03-03
The ground state of quantum chromodynamics in sufficiently strong external magnetic fields and at moderate baryon chemical potential is a chiral soliton lattice (CSL) of neutral pions https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.05213. We investigate the interplay between the CSL structure and dynamical electromagnetic fields. Our main result is that in presence of the CSL background, the two physical photon polarizations and the neutral pion mix, giving rise to two gapped excitations and one gapless mode with a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The nature of this mode depends on the direction of its propagation, interpolating between a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.085036 and a neutral pion surface wave, which in turn arises from the spontaneously broken translation invariance. Quite remarkably, there is a neutral-pion-like mode that remains gapped even in the chiral limit, in seeming contradiction to the Goldstone theorem. Finally, we have a first look at the effect of thermal fluctuations of the CSL, showing that even the soft nonrelativistic excitation does not lead to the Landau-Peierls instability. However, it leads to an anomalous contribution to pressure that scales with temperature and magnetic field as T{sup 5/2}(B/f{sub π}){sup 3/2}.
Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Postavaru, Octavian
2010-12-08
In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)
An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolton, Adam S [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burles, Scott [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2007-12-15
We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction.
Virtual detector theory for strong-field atomic ionization
Wang, Xu; Tian, Justin; Eberly, J. H.
2018-04-01
A virtual detector (VD) is an imaginary device located at a fixed position in space that extracts information from the wave packet passing through it. By recording the particle momentum and the corresponding probability current at each time, the VDs can accumulate and build the differential momentum distribution of the particle, in a way that resembles real experiments. A mathematical proof is given for the equivalence of the differential momentum distribution obtained by the VD method and by Fourier transforming the wave function. In addition to being a tool for reducing the computational load, VDs have also been found useful in interpreting the ultrafast strong-field ionization process, especially the controversial quantum tunneling process.
Coherence and quasistable states in a strong infrared field
Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, F.
2016-03-01
We study the quasistability of UV-pulse-train-excited H atoms in a strong infrared (IR) laser as a function of the phase delay of the UV pulse train relative to the IR laser. The UV pulse train contains two frequency components. When the two components have frequencies separated by two IR photons, the population of surviving electrons is modulated by up to ten percent. When electrons are excited to right above or below the threshold, the survival probabilities have inverted phase delay dependence, which can be explained classically. When the two frequencies are one IR photon apart, the angular symmetry of the quasistable electrons is broken, and the asymmetry is also controlled by the phase delay. The asymmetrical distribution can be observed while the IR is on and smoothly evolves to a nonzero asymmetry that only weakly depends on the duration of the IR field.
Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polunin, V.M.; Ryapolov, P.A.; Platonov, V.B.
2017-01-01
Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.
The ESRg matrix for strong field d5 systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
McGarvey Bruce R.
1998-01-01
Full Text Available This review has tried to collect and correlate all the various equations for the g matrix of strong field d5 systems obtained from different basis sets using full electron and hole formalism calculations. It has corrected mistakes found in the literature and shown how the failure to properly take in symmetry boundary conditions has produced a variety of apparently inconsistent equations in the literature. The review has reexamined the problem of spin-orbit interaction with excited t4e states and finds that the earlier reports that it is zero in octahedral symmetry is not correct. It has shown how redefining what x, y, and z are in the principal coordinate system simplifies, compared to previous methods, the analysis of experimental g values with the equations.
An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolton, Adam S; Burles, Scott
2007-01-01
We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction
Probing strong-field general relativity near black holes
CERN. Geneva; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís
2005-01-01
Nature has sprinkled black holes of various sizes throughout the universe, from stellar mass black holes in X-ray sources to supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses in quasars. Astronomers today are probing the spacetime near black holes using X-rays, and gravitational waves will open a different view in the near future. These tools give us an unprecedented opportunity to test ultra-strong-field general relativity, including the fundamental theorem of the uniqueness of the Kerr metric and Roger Penrose's cosmic censorship conjecture. Already, fascinating studies of spectral lines are showing the extreme gravitational lensing effects near black holes and allowing crude measurements of black hole spin. When the ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector LISA begins its observations in about 10 years, it will make measurements of dynamical spacetimes near black holes with an accuracy greater even than that which theoreticians can reach with their computations today. Most importantly, when gravitational wa...
Analog quantum simulation of the Rabi model in the ultra-strong coupling regime.
Braumüller, Jochen; Marthaler, Michael; Schneider, Andre; Stehli, Alexander; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V
2017-10-03
The quantum Rabi model describes the fundamental mechanism of light-matter interaction. It consists of a two-level atom or qubit coupled to a quantized harmonic mode via a transversal interaction. In the weak coupling regime, it reduces to the well-known Jaynes-Cummings model by applying a rotating wave approximation. The rotating wave approximation breaks down in the ultra-strong coupling regime, where the effective coupling strength g is comparable to the energy ω of the bosonic mode, and remarkable features in the system dynamics are revealed. Here we demonstrate an analog quantum simulation of an effective quantum Rabi model in the ultra-strong coupling regime, achieving a relative coupling ratio of g/ω ~ 0.6. The quantum hardware of the simulator is a superconducting circuit embedded in a cQED setup. We observe fast and periodic quantum state collapses and revivals of the initial qubit state, being the most distinct signature of the synthesized model.An analog quantum simulation scheme has been explored with a quantum hardware based on a superconducting circuit. Here the authors investigate the time evolution of the quantum Rabi model at ultra-strong coupling conditions, which is synthesized by slowing down the system dynamics in an effective frame.
Room-temperature cavity quantum electrodynamics with strongly coupled Dicke states
Breeze, Jonathan D.; Salvadori, Enrico; Sathian, Juna; Alford, Neil McN.; Kay, Christopher W. M.
2017-09-01
The strong coupling regime is essential for efficient transfer of excitations between states in different quantum systems on timescales shorter than their lifetimes. The coupling of single spins to microwave photons is very weak but can be enhanced by increasing the local density of states by reducing the magnetic mode volume of the cavity. In practice, it is difficult to achieve both small cavity mode volume and low cavity decay rate, so superconducting metals are often employed at cryogenic temperatures. For an ensembles of N spins, the spin-photon coupling can be enhanced by √{N } through collective spin excitations known as Dicke states. For sufficiently large N the collective spin-photon coupling can exceed both the spin decoherence and cavity decay rates, making the strong-coupling regime accessible. Here we demonstrate strong coupling and cavity quantum electrodynamics in a solid-state system at room-temperature. We generate an inverted spin-ensemble with N 1015 by photo-exciting pentacene molecules into spin-triplet states with spin dephasing time T2* 3 μs. When coupled to a 1.45 GHz TE01δ mode supported by a high Purcell factor strontium titanate dielectric cavity (Vm 0.25 cm3, Q 8,500), we observe Rabi oscillations in the microwave emission from collective Dicke states and a 1.8 MHz normal-mode splitting of the resultant collective spin-photon polariton. We also observe a cavity protection effect at the onset of the strong-coupling regime which decreases the polariton decay rate as the collective coupling increases.
Self-Organization of Polymeric Fluids in Strong Stress Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Semakov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of literature data and our own experimental observations have led to the conclusion that, at high deformation rates, viscoelastic liquids come to behave as rubbery materials, with strong domination by elastic deformations over flow. This can be regarded as a deformation-induced fluid-to-rubbery transition. This transition is accompanied by elastic instability, which can lead to the formation of regular structures. So, a general explanation for these effects requires the treatment of viscoelastic liquids beyond critical deformation rates as rubbery media. Behaviouristic modeling of their behaviour is based on a new concept, which considers the medium as consisting of discrete elastic elements. Such a type of modeling introduces a set of discrete rotators settled on a lattice with two modes of elastic interaction. The first of these is their transformation from spherical to ellipsoidal shapes and orientation in an external field. The second is elastic collisions between rotators. Computer calculations have demonstrated that this discrete model correctly describes the observed structural effects, eventually resulting in a “chaos-to-order” transformation. These predictions correspond to real-world experimental data obtained under different modes of deformation. We presume that the developed concept can play a central role in understanding strong nonlinear effects in the rheology of viscoelastic liquids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radtke, R.J.; Norman, M.R.
1994-01-01
Recent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments have indicated that the electronic dispersion in some of the cuprates possesses an extended saddle point near the Fermi level which gives rise to a density of states that diverges like a power law instead of the weaker logarithmic divergence usually considered. We investigate whether this strong singularity can give rise to high transition temperatures by computing the critical temperature T c and isotope effect coefficient α within a strong-coupling Eliashberg theory which accounts for the full energy variation of the density of states. Using band structures extracted from ARPES measurements, we demonstrate that, while the weak-coupling solutions suggest a strong influence of the strength of the Van Hove singularity on T c and α, strong-coupling solutions show less sensitivity to the singularity strength and do not support the hypothesis that band-structure effects alone can account for either the large T c 's or the different T c 's within the copper oxide family. This conclusion is supported when our results are plotted as a function of the physically relevant self-consistent coupling constant, which shows universal behavior at very strong coupling
Non-minimal coupling for spin 3/2 fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villanueva, V.M.; Nieto, J.A.; Obregon, O.
2002-01-01
The problem of the electromagnetic coupling for spin 3/2 fields is discussed. Following supergravity and some recent works in the field of classical supersymmetric particles, we find that the electromagnetic coupling must not obey a minimal coupling in the sense that one needs lo consider not only the electromagnetic potential but also the coupling of the electromagnetic field strength. This coupling coincides with the ore found by Ferrara e al by requiring that the gyromagnetic ratio be 2. Coupling with non-Abelian Yang-Mills fields is also discussed. (Author)
Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chajkovskij, I.A.
1974-01-01
A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers
On the absence of pentaquark states from dynamics in strongly coupled lattice QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anjos, Petrus Henrique Ribeiro dos [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Veiga, Paulo Afonso Faria da; O' Carroll, Michael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Francisco Neto, Antonio [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: We consider an imaginary time functional integral formulation of a two-flavor, 3 + 1 lattice QCD model with Wilson's action and in the strong coupling regime (with a small hopping parameter, {kappa}0, and a much smaller plaquette coupling, {beta} = 1/g{sub 0}{sup 2}, so that the quarks and glueballs are heavy). The model has local SU(3){sub c} gauge and global SU(2){sub f} flavor symmetries, and incorporates the corresponding part of the eightfold way particles: baryons (mesons) of asymptotic mass -3ln{kappa}(-2 ln {kappa}). We search for pentaquark states as meson-baryon bound states in the energy-momentum spectrum of the model, using a lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation. This equation is solved within a ladder approximation, given by the lowest nonvanishing order in {kappa} and {beta} of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel. It includes order 2 contributions with a q-barq exchange potential together with a contribution that is a local-in-space, energy-dependent potential. The attractive or repulsive nature of the exchange interaction depends on the spin of the meson-baryon states. The Bethe-Salpeter equation presents integrable singularities, forcing the couplings to be above a threshold value for the meson and the baryon to bind in a pentaquark. We analyzed all the total isospin sectors, I = 1/2/3/2/ 5/2, for the system. For all I, the net attraction resulting from the two sources of interaction is not strong enough for the meson and the baryon to bind. Thus, within our approximation, these pentaquark states are not present up to near the free meson-baryon energy threshold of - 5 ln{kappa}. This result is to be contrasted with the spinless case for which our method detects meson-baryon bound states, as well as for Yukawa effective baryon and meson field models. A physical interpretation of our results emerges from an approximate correspondence between meson-baryon bound states and negative energy states of a one-particle lattice Schroedinger Hamiltonian
Theory of strong-field attosecond transient absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Mengxi; Chen, Shaohao; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B
2016-01-01
Attosecond transient absorption is one of the promising new techniques being developed to exploit the availability of sub-femtosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses to study the dynamics of the electron on its natural time scale. The temporal resolution in a transient absorption setup comes from the control of the relative delay and coherence between pump and probe pulses, while the spectral resolution comes from the characteristic width of the features that are being probed. In this review we focus on transient absorption scenarios where an attosecond pulse of XUV radiation creates a broadband excitation that is subsequently probed by a few cycle infrared (IR) laser. Because the attosecond XUV pulses are locked to the IR field cycle, the exchange of energy in the laser–matter interaction can be studied with unprecedented precision. We focus on the transient absorption by helium atoms of XUV radiation around the first ionization threshold, where we can simultaneoulsy solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the single atom response and the Maxwell wave equation for the collective response of the nonlinear medium. We use a time-domain method that allows us to treat on an equal footing all the different linear and nonlinear processes by which the medium can exchange energy with the fields. We present several simple models, based on a few-level system interacting with a strong IR field, to explain many of the novel features found in attosecond transient absorption spectrograms. These include the presence of light-induced states, which demonstrate the ability to probe the dressed states of the atom. We also present a time-domain interpretation of the resonant pulse propagation features that appear in absorption spectra in dense, macroscopic media. We close by reviewing several recent experimental results that can be explained in terms of the models we discuss. Our aim is to present a road map for understanding future attosecond transient absorption
Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulillo, B., E-mail: bruno.paulillo@u-psud.fr; Manceau, J.-M., E-mail: jean-michel.manceau@u-psud.fr; Colombelli, R., E-mail: raffaele.colombelli@u-psud.fr [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris Sud, UMR8622 CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2016-03-07
We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms at room temperature. The intersubband transition of semiconductor quantum wells with a parabolic energy potential is strongly coupled to the confined circuital mode of three-dimensional split-ring metal-semiconductor-metal resonators that have an extreme sub-wavelength volume (λ/10). The frequency of these lumped-element resonators is controlled by the size and shape of the external antenna, while the interaction volume remains constant. This allows the resonance frequency to be swept across the intersubband transition and the anti-crossing characteristic of the strong light-matter coupling regime to be observed. The Rabi splitting, which is twice the Rabi frequency (2Ω{sub Rabi}), amounts to 20% of the bare transition at room temperature, and it increases to 28% at low-temperature.
Ideal gas behavior of a strongly-coupled complex (dusty) plasma
Oxtoby, Neil P.; Griffith, Elias J.; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F.; Samsonov, Dmitry
2012-01-01
In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas.
Plexcitons: The Role of Oscillator Strengths and Spectral Widths in Determining Strong Coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Reshmi [School; Thomas, Anoop [School; Pullanchery, Saranya [School; Joseph, Linta [School; Somasundaran, Sanoop Mambully [School; Swathi, Rotti Srinivasamurthy [School; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Thomas, K. George [School
2018-01-05
Strong coupling interactions between plasmon and exciton-based excitations have been proposed to be useful in the design of optoelectronic systems. However, the role of various optical parameters dictating the plasmon-exciton (plexciton) interactions is less understood. Herein, we propose an inequality for achieving strong coupling between plasmons and excitons through appropriate variation of their oscillator strengths and spectral widths. These aspects are found to be consistent with experiments on two sets of free-standing plexcitonic systems obtained by (i) linking fluorescein isothiocyanate on Ag nanoparticles of varying sizes through silane coupling and (ii) electrostatic binding of cyanine dyes on polystyrenesulfonate-coated Au nanorods of varying aspect ratios. Being covalently linked on Ag nanoparticles, fluorescein isothiocyanate remains in monomeric state, and its high oscillator strength and narrow spectral width enable us to approach the strong coupling limit. In contrast, in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate, monomeric forms of cyanine dyes exist in equilibrium with their aggregates: Coupling is not observed for monomers and H-aggregates whose optical parameters are unfavorable. The large aggregation number, narrow spectral width, and extremely high oscillator strength of J-aggregates of cyanines permit effective delocalization of excitons along the linear assembly of chromophores, which in turn leads to efficient coupling with the plasmons. Further, the results obtained from experiments and theoretical models are jointly employed to describe the plexcitonic states, estimate the coupling strengths, and rationalize the dispersion curves. The experimental results and the theoretical analysis presented here portray a way forward to the rational design of plexcitonic systems attaining the strong coupling limits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kononov, A.; Egorov, S. V. [Russian Academy Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation); Deviatov, E. V., E-mail: dev@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
We experimentally investigate spin-polarized electron transport between a permalloy ferromagnet and the edge of a two-dimensional electron system with band inversion, realized in a narrow, 8 nm wide, HgTe quantum well. In zero magnetic field, we observe strong asymmetry of the edge potential distribution with respect to the ferromagnetic ground lead. This result indicates that the helical edge channel, specific for the structures with band inversion even at the conductive bulk, is strongly coupled to the ferromagnetic side contact, possibly due to the effects of proximity magnetization. This allows selective and spin-sensitive contacting of helical edge states.
Strong/weak coupling duality relations for non-supersymmetric string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, J.D.; Dienes, K.R.
1998-01-01
Both the supersymmetric SO(32) and E 8 x E 8 heterotic strings in ten dimensions have known strong-coupling duals. However, it has not been known whether there also exist strong-coupling duals for the non-supersymmetric heterotic strings in ten dimensions. In this paper, we construct explicit open-string duals for the circle compactifications of several of these non-supersymmetric theories, among them the tachyon-free SO(16) x SO(16) string. Our method involves the construction of heterotic and open-string interpolating models that continuously connect non-supersymmetric strings to supersymmetric strings. We find that our non-supersymmetric dual theories have exactly the same massless spectra as their heterotic counterparts within a certain range of our interpolations. We also develop a novel method for analyzing the solitons of non-supersymmetric open-string theories, and find that the solitons of our dual theories also agree with their heterotic counterparts. These are therefore the first known examples of strong/weak coupling duality relations between non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free string theories. Finally, the existence of these strong-coupling duals allows us to examine the non-perturbative stability of these strings, and we propose a phase diagram for the behavior of these strings as a function of coupling and radius. (orig.)
Cooling in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics
Nunnenkamp, A.; Børkje, K.; Girvin, S. M.
2012-05-01
In this Rapid Communication we discuss how red-sideband cooling is modified in the single-photon strong-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the mechanical oscillator by more than its zero-point uncertainty. Using Fermi's golden rule we calculate the transition rates induced by the optical drive without linearizing the optomechanical interaction. In the resolved-sideband limit we find multiple-phonon cooling resonances for strong single-photon coupling that lead to nonthermal steady states including the possibility of phonon antibunching. Our study generalizes the standard linear cooling theory.
Angular Structure of Jet Quenching Within a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Milhano, Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna
2017-01-01
Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter $K\\equiv \\hat q/T^3$ that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when $K\
Strong enhancement of light-matter interaction in graphene coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity.
Gan, Xuetao; Mak, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuanda; You, Yumeng; Hatami, Fariba; Hone, James; Heinz, Tony F; Englund, Dirk
2012-11-14
We demonstrate a large enhancement in the interaction of light with graphene through coupling with localized modes in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Spectroscopic studies show that a single atomic layer of graphene reduces the cavity reflection by more than a factor of one hundred, while also sharply reducing the cavity quality factor. The strong interaction allows for cavity-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on subwavelength regions of a graphene sample. A coupled-mode theory model matches experimental observations and indicates significantly increased light absorption in the graphene layer. The coupled graphene-cavity system also enables precise measurements of graphene's complex refractive index.
Thermal conductivity of magnetic insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling
Stamokostas, Georgios; Lapas, Panteleimon; Fiete, Gregory A.
We study the influence of spin-orbit coupling on the thermal conductivity of various types of magnetic insulators. In the absence of spin-orbit coupling and orbital-degeneracy, the strong-coupling limit of Hubbard interactions at half filling can often be adequately described in terms of a pure spin Hamiltonian of the Heisenberg form. However, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling the resulting exchange interaction can become highly anisotropic. The effect of the atomic spin-orbit coupling, taken into account through the effect of magnon-phonon interactions and the magnetic order and excitations, on the lattice thermal conductivity of various insulating magnetic systems is studied. We focus on the regime of low temperatures where the dominant source of scattering is two-magnon scattering to one-phonon processes. The thermal current is calculated within the Boltzmann transport theory. We are grateful for financial support from NSF Grant DMR-0955778.
Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao
2015-10-10
High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gold, Roman
2011-01-01
In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on to the
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gold, Roman
2011-09-27
In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on
Inert two-Higgs-doublet model strongly coupled to a non-Abelian vector resonance
Rojas-Abatte, Felipe; Mora, Maria Luisa; Urbina, Jose; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.
2017-11-01
We study the possibility of a dark matter candidate having its origin in an extended Higgs sector which, at least partially, is related to a new strongly interacting sector. More concretely, we consider an i2HDM (i.e., a Type-I two Higgs doublet model supplemented with a Z2 under which the nonstandard scalar doublet is odd) based on the gauge group S U (2 )1×S U (2 )2×U (1 )Y . We assume that one of the scalar doublets and the standard fermion transform nontrivially under S U (2 )1 while the second doublet transforms under S U (2 )2. Our main hypothesis is that standard sector is weakly coupled while the gauge interactions associated to the second group is characterized by a large coupling constant. We explore the consequences of this construction for the phenomenology of the dark matter candidate and we show that the presence of the new vector resonance reduces the relic density saturation region, compared to the usual i2DHM, in the high dark matter mass range. In the collider side, we argue that the mono-Z production is the channel which offers the best chances to manifest the presence of the new vector field. We study the departures from the usual i2HDM predictions and show that the discovery of the heavy vector at the LHC is challenging even in the mono-Z channel since the typical cross sections are of the order of 10-2 fb .
The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)
2006-07-01
The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)
The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A.; Starostenko, O.
2006-01-01
The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)
Numerical Hydrodynamics in Strong-Field General Relativity
East, William Edward
In this thesis we develop and test methods for numerically evolving hydrodynamics coupled to the Einstein field equations, and then apply them to several problems in gravitational physics and astrophysics. The hydrodynamics scheme utilizes high-resolution shock-capturing techniques with flux corrections while the Einstein equations are evolved in the generalized harmonic formulation using finite difference methods. We construct initial data by solving the constraint equations using a multigrid algorithm with free data chosen based on superposing isolated compact objects. One application we consider is the merger of black hole-neutron star and neutron star-neutron star binaries that form through dynamical capture, as may occur in globular clusters or galactic nuclei. These systems can merge with non-negligible orbital eccentricity and display significant variability in dynamics and outcome as a function of initial impact parameter. We study the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave transients that these mergers may produce and their prospects for being detected with upcoming observations. We also introduce a numerical technique that allows solutions to the full Einstein equations to be obtained for extreme-mass-ratio systems where the spacetime is dominated by a known background solution. This technique is based on using the knowledge of a background solution to subtract off its contribution to the truncation error. We use this to study the tidal effects and gravitational radiation from a solar-type star falling into a supermassive black hole. Finally, we utilize general-relativistic hydrodynamics to study ultrarelativistic black hole formation. We study the head-on collision of fluid particles well within the kinetic energy dominated regime (Lorentz factors of 8-12). We find that black hole formation does occur at energies a factor of a few below simple hoop conjecture estimates. We also find that near the threshold for black hole formation, the collision leads to
First-order discrete Faddeev gravity at strongly varying fields
Khatsymovsky, V. M.
2017-11-01
We consider the Faddeev formulation of general relativity (GR), which can be characterized by a kind of d-dimensional tetrad (typically d = 10) and a non-Riemannian connection. This theory is invariant w.r.t. the global, but not local, rotations in the d-dimensional space. There can be configurations with a smooth or flat metric, but with the tetrad that changes abruptly at small distances, a kind of “antiferromagnetic” structure. Previously, we discussed a first-order representation for the Faddeev gravity, which uses the orthogonal connection in the d-dimensional space as an independent variable. Using the discrete form of this formulation, we considered the spectrum of (elementary) area. This spectrum turns out to be physically reasonable just on a classical background with large connection like rotations by π, that is, with such an “antiferromagnetic” structure. In the discrete first-order Faddeev gravity, we consider such a structure with periodic cells and large connection and strongly changing tetrad field inside the cell. We show that this system in the continuum limit reduces to a generalization of the Faddeev system. The action is a sum of related actions of the Faddeev type and is still reduced to the GR action.
Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves
Pretorius, Frans
We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string
Confined surface plasmon sensors based on strongly coupled disk-in-volcano arrays.
Ai, Bin; Wang, Limin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yu, Ye; Zhang, Gang
2015-02-14
Disk-in-volcano arrays are reported to greatly enhance the sensing performance due to strong coupling in the nanogaps between the nanovolcanos and nanodisks. The designed structure, which is composed of a nanovolcano array film and a disk in each cavity, is fabricated by a simple and efficient colloidal lithography method. By tuning structural parameters, the disk-in-volcano arrays show greatly enhanced resonances in the nanogaps formed by the disks and the inner wall of the volcanos. Therefore they respond to the surrounding environment with a sensitivity as high as 977 nm per RIU and with excellent linear dependence on the refraction index. Moreover, through mastering the fabrication process, biological sensing can be easily confined to the cavities of the nanovolcanos. The local responsivity has the advantages of maximum surface plasmon energy density in the nanogaps, reducing the sensing background and saving expensive reagents. The disk-in-volcano arrays also possess great potential in applications of optical and electrical trapping and single-molecule analysis, because they enable establishment of electric fields across the gaps.
Strong Coupling of a Quantum Oscillator to a Flux Qubit at Its Symmetry Point
Fedorov, A.; Feofanov, A.K.; Macha, P.; Forn-Díaz, P.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2010-01-01
A flux qubit biased at its symmetry point shows a minimum in the energy splitting (the gap), providing protection against flux noise. We have fabricated a qubit of which the gap can be tuned fast and have coupled this qubit strongly to an LC oscillator. We show full spectroscopy of the
Departures from predicted type II behavior in dirty strong-coupling superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, J.C.; Neighbor, J.E.; Shiffman, C.A.
1976-01-01
Calorimetric measurements of the Ginsburg-Landau parameters for Pb-Sn and Pb-Bi alloys show good agreement with the calculations of Rainer and Bergmann for kappa 1 (t)/kappa 1 (1). However, the calculations of Rainer and Usadel for kappa 2 (t)/kappa 2 (1) substantially underestimate the enhancements due to strong-coupling. (Auth.)
Fast-Projectile Stopping Power of Quantal Multicomponent Strongly Coupled Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballester, D.; Tkachenko, I. M.
2008-01-01
The Bethe-Larkin formula for the fast-projectile stopping power is extended to multicomponent plasmas. The results are to contribute to the correct interpretation of the experimental data, which could permit us to test existing and future models of thermodynamic, static, and dynamic characteristics of strongly coupled Coulomb systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Exner, Pavel; Pankrashkin, K.
2014-01-01
Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-212 ISSN 0360-5302 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Eigenvalue * Schrödinger operator * singular interaction * strong coupling * 35Q40 * 35P15 * 35J10 Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.013, year: 2014
Cusp anomalous dimension in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling.
Basso, B; Korchemsky, G P; Kotański, J
2008-03-07
We construct an analytical solution to the integral equation which is believed to describe logarithmic growth of the anomalous dimensions of high-spin operators in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and use it to determine the strong coupling expansion of the cusp anomalous dimension.
Measurement of the Strong Coupling Constant from Inclusive Jet Production at the Tevatron Collider
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesropian, Christina [Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)
2000-06-01
We present a measurement of the strong coupling constant from a single observable, the inclusive jet cross section. We use 86 pb^{-1} of data collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1800 GeV. The data was analyzed and experimental systematic uncertainties estimated.
Towards corrections to the strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD
Fromm, Michael; Philipsen, Owe; de Forcrand, Philippe; Unger, Wolfgang; Miura, Kotaroh
2011-01-01
We report on the first steps of an ongoing project to add gauge observables and gauge corrections to the well-studied strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD, which has been shown earlier to be amenable to numerical simulations by the worm algorithm in the chiral limit and at finite density. Here we show how to evaluate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in the framework of the strong coupling limit at finite temperature, allowing to study confinement properties along with those of chiral symmetry breaking. We find the Polyakov loop to rise smoothly, thus signalling deconfinement. The non-analytic nature of the chiral phase transition is reflected in the derivative of the Polyakov loop. We also discuss how to construct an effective theory for non-zero lattice coupling, which is valid to $O(\\beta)$.
Strong asymmetry for surface modes in nonlinear lattices with long-range coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, Alejandro J.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.; Molina, Mario I.
2010-01-01
We analyze the formation of localized surface modes on a nonlinear cubic waveguide array in the presence of exponentially decreasing long-range interactions. We find that the long-range coupling induces a strong asymmetry between the focusing and defocusing cases for the topology of the surface modes and also for the minimum power needed to generate them. In particular, for the defocusing case, there is an upper power threshold for exciting staggered modes, which depends strongly on the long-range coupling strength. The power threshold for dynamical excitation of surface modes increases (decreases) with the strength of long-range coupling for the focusing (defocusing) cases. These effects seem to be generic for discrete lattices with long-range interactions.
Strong light-matter coupling from atoms to solid-state systems
2014-01-01
The physics of strong light-matter coupling has been addressed in different scientific communities over the last three decades. Since the early eighties, atoms coupled to optical and microwave cavities have led to pioneering demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics, Gedanken experiments, and building blocks for quantum information processing, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2012. In the framework of semiconducting devices, strong coupling has allowed investigations into the physics of Bose gases in solid-state environments, and the latter holds promise for exploiting light-matter interaction at the single-photon level in scalable architectures. More recently, impressive developments in the so-called superconducting circuit QED have opened another fundamental playground to revisit cavity quantum electrodynamics for practical and fundamental purposes. This book aims at developing the necessary interface between these communities, by providing future researchers with a robust conceptu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clauer, C.R.; Friis-Christensen, E.
1988-01-01
On July 23, 1983, the Interplanetary Magnetic Field turned strongly northward, becoming about 22 nT for several hours. Using a combined data set of ionospheric convection measurements made by the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar and convection inferred from Greenland magnetometer measurements, we observe the onset of the reconfiguration of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to occur about 3 min following the northward IMF encountering the magnetopause. The large-scale reconfiguration of currents, however, appears to evolve over a period of about 22 min. Using a computer model in which the distribution of field-aligned current in the polar cleft is directly determined by the strength and orientation of the interplanetary electric field, we are able to simulate the time-varying pattern of ionospheric convection, including the onset of high-latitude ''reversed convection'' cells observed to form during the interval of strong northward IMF. These observations and the simulation results indicate that the dayside polar cap electric field observed during strong northward IMF is produced by a direct electrical current coupling with the solar wind. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
Correlated electron-ion collisions in a strong laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ristow, T.
2007-01-01
Electron-ion-collisions in plasmas in the presence of an ultra-short intensive laser pulse can cause high energy transfers to the electrons. During the collision the oscillation energy of the electron in the laser field is changed into drift energy. In this regime, multi-photon processes, known from the ionization of neutral atoms (Above-Threshold Ionization), and successive, so called correlated collisions, are important. The subject of the thesis is a study of binary Coulomb collisions in strong laser fields. The collisions are treated both in the context of classical Newtonian mechanics and in the quantum-mechanical framework by the Schroedinger equation. In the classical case a simplified instantaneous collision model and a complete dynamical treatment are discussed. Collisions can be treated instantaneously, if the ratio of the impact parameter to the quiver amplitude is small. The energy distributions calculated in this approximation show an elastic peak and a broad plateau due to rescattered electrons. At incident velocities smaller than the quiver velocity, correlated collisions are observed in the electron trajectories of the dynamical model. This effect leads to characteristic momentum distributions of the electrons, that are explicitly calculated and compared with the results of the instantaneous model. In addition, the time-dependence of the collisions is discussed in the framework of a singular perturbation theory. The complete description of the Coulomb scattering requires a quantum-mechanical description. A time-dependent method of wave-packet scattering is used and the corresponding time-dependent three-dimensional Schroedinger equation is solved by an implicit ADImethod on a spatial grid. The momentum and the energy distributions of the scattered electrons are calculated by the Fourier transformation of the wavefunction. A comparison of the scattering from a repulsive and an attractive potential is used to distinguish between simple collisions and
Search for new photon couplings in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cameron, R.E.
1992-01-01
Of great interest to particle physics is the question of the existence of new, light, pseudoscalar (or scalar) particles. In particular, the existence of a light pseudoscalar boson, known as the axion, would prove a solution to the strong CP problem. These particles, which must be very weakly coupled to ordinary matter, could also be the missing matter in the universe. The author attempted to produce axions in the laboratory by shining a laser beam through a transverse magnetic field. Only light polarized parallel to the magnetic field produces axions, so the polarization state of the light was carefully controlled. To increase the production of axions, the author constructed a multipass optical cavity that makes the light travel as much as 4 km through the magnetic field region. Using two different methods to detect the production of axions, limits were set on the axion coupling to two photons. In the first experiment, the change in polarization of the light was measured. To do this, the author constructed an ellipsometer, which could measure changes in polarization angle as small as 4 x 10 -11 rad. From the absence of an optical rotation due to the production of axions, it was possible to set a limit on axion coupling to two photons of g aγγ -7 GeV -1 . In the second experiment the author attempted to more directly measure the production of axions. In this case the axions were reconverted to photons, and the regenerated photons were counted by a low dark current photomultiplier tube. No photons in excess of the dark current were detected and the limit on axion coupling to two photons from this experiment is g aγγ -7 GeV -1
Search for New Photon Couplings in a Magnetic Field
Cameron, Ruth Elizabeth
1992-01-01
Of great interest to particle physics is the question of the existence of new, light, pseudoscalar (or scalar) particles. In particular, the existence of a light pseudoscalar boson, known as the axion, would prove a solution to the strong CP problem. These particles, which must be very weakly coupled to ordinary matter, could also be the missing matter in the universe. We attempted to produce axions in the laboratory by shining a laser beam through a transverse magnetic field. Only light polarized parallel to the magnetic field produces axions, so the polarization state of the light was carefully controlled. To increase the production of axions, we constructed a multipass optical cavity that makes the light travel as much as 4 km through the magnetic field region. Using two different methods to detect the production of axions, we set limits on the axion coupling to two photons. In the first experiment, the change in polarization of the light was measured. To do this, we constructed an ellipsometer, which could measure changes in polarization angle as small as 4 times 10^{ -11} rad. From the absence of an optical rotation due to the production of axions, we were able to set a limit on axion coupling to two photons of g_ {rm agammagamma} times 10^{-7 } GeV^{-1}. In the second experiment we attempted to more directly measure the production of axions. In this case the axions were reconverted to photons, and the regenerated photons were counted by a low dark current photomultiplier tube. No photons in excess of the dark current were detected, and the limit on axion coupling to two photons from this experiment is g_{rm agamma gamma} times 10^{-7} GeV^{-1}.
Towards strong field tests of beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Sakstein, Jeremy; Babichev, Eugeny; Koyama, Kazuya; Langlois, David; Saito, Ryo
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class encompass a wide range of scalar-tensor theories that will be tested on cosmological scales over the coming decade. In this work, we investigate the possibility of testing them in the strong field regime by looking at the properties of compact objects—neutron, hyperon, and quark stars—embedded in an asymptotically de Sitter space-time, for a specific subclass of theories. We extend previous works to include slow rotation and find a relation between the dimensionless moment of inertia (I ¯ =I c2/GNM3 ) and the compactness C =GNM /R c2 (an I ¯-C relation), independent of the equation of state, that is reminiscent of but distinct from the general relativity prediction. Several of our equations of state contain hyperons and free quarks, allowing us to revisit the hyperon puzzle. We find that the maximum mass of hyperon stars can be larger than 2 M⊙ for small values of the beyond Horndeski parameter, thus providing a resolution of the hyperon puzzle based on modified gravity. Moreover, stable quark stars exist when hyperonic stars are unstable, which means that the phase transition from hyperon to quark stars is predicted just as in general relativity (GR), albeit with larger quark star masses. Two important and potentially observable consequences of some of the theories we consider are the existence of neutron stars in a range of masses significantly higher than in GR and I ¯-C relations that differ from their GR counterparts. In the former case, we find objects that, if observed, could not be accounted for in GR because they violate the usual GR causality condition. We end by discussing several difficult technical issues that remain to be addressed in order to reach more realistic predictions that may be tested using gravitational wave searches or neutron star observations.
Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)
2016-08-08
Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.
The process γγ → νν-bar in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, A.V.; Mikheev, N.V.; Rumyantsev, D.A.
2003-01-01
A general analysis of the three-vertex loop amplitude in a strong magnetic field, based on the asymptotic form of the electron propagator in the field, is performed. In order to investigate the photon-neutrino process γγ → νν-bar, the vertex combinations of the scalar-vector-vector (SVV), pseudoscalar- vector-vector (PVV), 3-vector (VVV), and axial-vector-vector (AVV) types are considered. It is shown that only the SVV amplitude grows linearly with the magnetic-field strength, while in the other amplitudes, PVV, VVV, and AVV, the linearly growing terms are cancelled. The process γγ → νν-bar is investigated in the left-right-symmetric extension of the standard model of electroweak interaction, where the effective scalar ννee coupling could exist. Possible astrophysical manifestations of the considered process are discussed [ru
Variational cluster approximation study of Mott transition with strong spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirakawa, Tomonori; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yunoki, Seiji
2011-01-01
Motivated by recent experiments on Sr 2 IrO 4 , the ground state magnetic and electronic structures are studied theoretically for a two-dimensional three-band Hubbard model with strong spin-orbit coupling. To treat spin-orbit coupling, local Coulomb interactions, and band structure effects on the same footing, the variational cluster approximation based on the self-energy functional theory is employed. It is found that for a relatively large coupling region, the ground state is an anisotropic antiferromagnetic Mott insulator of an effective local angular momentum J eff = 1/2 with xy plane as an easy plane. This anisotropy is caused by the strong spin-orbit coupling along with the inter-orbital Hund's coupling. The momentum resolved one-particle excitations are also studied for the Mott insulating phase. It is found that the low-energy one-particle excitations consist mostly of the J eff = 1/2 state, a direct evidence of a novel J eff = 1/2 Mott insulator.
Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field
Bethe, H. A.
1972-09-01
The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.
Strong coupling in porphyrin J-aggregate excitons and plasmons in nano-void arrays
Ferdele, Stefano; Jose, Bincy; Foster, Robert; Keyes, Tia E.; Rice, James H.
2017-10-01
Active plasmonic nano-void arrays made through colloidal lithography (a cost effective and rapid process) potentially offers opportunities for scalable device design. In this work we demonstrate strong coupling between Bragg-like quadrupole surface plasmon modes in nano-void substrate designs with Frankel excitons in a molecular J-aggregate layer though angular tuning. The enhanced exciton-plasmon coupling creates a Fano like line shape in the differential reflection spectra associated with the formation of new hybrid states, leading to anti-crossing of the upper and lower polaritons with a Rabi frequency of 120 meV.
Study of the Higgs-Yukawa theory in the strong-Yukawa coupling regime
Bulava, John; Hou, George W.S.; Jansen, Karl; Knippschild, Bastian; Lin, C.J.David; Nagai, Kei-Ichi; Nagy, Attila; Ogawa, Kenji; Smigielski, Brian
2011-01-01
In this article, we present an ongoing lattice study of the Higgs-Yukawa model, in the regime of strong-Yukawa coupling, using overlap fermions. We investigated the phase structure in this regime by computing the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and by exploring the finite-size scaling behaviour of the susceptibility corresponding to the magnetisation. Our preliminary results indicate the existence of a second-order phase transition when the Yukawa coupling becomes large enough, at which the Higgs vacuum expectation value vanishes and the susceptibility diverges.
Simple model of a Feshbach resonance in the strong-coupling regime
Wasak, T.; Krych, M.; Idziaszek, Z.; Trippenbach, M.; Avishai, Y.; Band, Y. B.
2014-11-01
We use the dressed potentials obtained in the adiabatic representation of two coupled channels to calculate s -wave Feshbach resonances in a three-dimensional spherically symmetric potential with an open channel interacting with a closed channel. Analytic expressions for the s -wave scattering length a and number of resonances are obtained for a piecewise constant model with a piecewise constant interaction of the open and closed channels near the origin. We show analytically and numerically that, for strong enough coupling strength, Feshbach resonances can exist even when the closed channel does not have a bound state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaturvedi, D.K.; Senatore, G.; Tosi, M.P.
1980-10-01
An analytic theory is presented for the static structure factor of the one-component classical plasma at strong couplings. The theory combines the hard-core model of Gillan for short-range correlations in the Coulomb fluid with a semiempirical representation of intermediate-range correlations, through which the requirement of thermodynamic consistency on the ''compressibility'' and the known equation of state of the system are satisfied. Excellent agreement is found with the available computer simulation data on the structure of the fluid. The approach becomes inapplicable at intermediate and weak couplings where effects of penetration in the Coulomb hole of each particle become important. (author)
Achieving the classical Carnot efficiency in a strongly coupled quantum heat engine
Xu, Y. Y.; Chen, B.; Liu, J.
2018-02-01
Generally, the efficiency of a heat engine strongly coupled with a heat bath is less than the classical Carnot efficiency. Through a model-independent method, we show that the classical Carnot efficiency is achieved in a strongly coupled quantum heat engine. First, we present the first law of quantum thermodynamics in strong coupling. Then, we show how to achieve the Carnot cycle and the classical Carnot efficiency at strong coupling. We find that this classical Carnot efficiency stems from the fact that the heat released in a nonequilibrium process is balanced by the absorbed heat. We also analyze the restrictions in the achievement of the Carnot cycle. The first restriction is that there must be two corresponding intervals of the controllable parameter in which the corresponding entropies of the work substance at the hot and cold temperatures are equal, and the second is that the entropy of the initial and final states in a nonequilibrium process must be equal. Through these restrictions, we obtain the positive work conditions, including the usual one in which the hot temperature should be higher than the cold, and a new one in which there must be an entropy interval at the hot temperature overlapping that at the cold. We demonstrate our result through a paradigmatic model—a two-level system in which a work substance strongly interacts with a heat bath. In this model, we find that the efficiency may abruptly decrease to zero due to the first restriction, and that the second restriction results in the control scheme becoming complex.
Angular-momentum-assisted dissociation of CO in strong optical fields
Mullin, Amy; Ogden, Hannah; Murray, Matthew; Liu, Qingnan; Toro, Carlos
2017-04-01
Filaments are produced in CO gas by intense, chirped laser pulses. Visible emission from C2 is observed as a result of chemical reactions of highly excited CO. At laser intensities greater than 1014 W cm-2, the C2 emission shows a strong dependence on laser polarization. Oppositely chirped pulses of light with ω0 = 800 nm are recombined spatially and temporally to generate angularly accelerating electric fields (up to 30 THz) that either have an instantaneous linear polarization or act as a dynamic polarization grating that oscillates among linear and circular polarizations. The angularly accelerating linear polarization corresponds to an optical centrifuge that concurrently drives molecules into high rotational states (with J 50) and induces strong-field dissociation. Higher order excitation is observed for the time-varying laser polarization configuration that does not induce rotational excitation. The results indicate that the presence of rotational angular momentum lowers the threshold for CO dissociation in strong optical fields by coupling nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom. Support from NSF CHE-1058721 and the University of Maryland.
Ion H2+ can dissociate in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turbiner, A.V.; Lopez, J.C.; Flores-Riveros, A.
2001-01-01
In framework of a variational method the molecular ion H 2 + in a magnetic field is studied. An optimal form of the vector potential corresponding to a given magnetic field is chosen. It is shown that for any magnetic field strength as well as for any orientation of the molecular axis the system (ppe) possesses a minimum in the potential energy. The stable configuration always corresponds to elongation along the magnetic line. However, for magnetic fields B ≥ 5 x 10 11 G and some orientations the ion H 2 + becomes instable decaying to H-atom + p [ru
Generic strong coupling behavior of Cooper pairs in the surface of superfluid nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pillet, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Sandulescu, N. [DPTA/Service de Physique nucleaire, CEA/DAM Ile de France, BP12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)]|[Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay, F-91406 (France)]|[Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay, F-91505 (France)
2007-01-15
With realistic HFB calculations, using the D1S Gogny force, we reveal a generic behavior of concentration of small sized Cooper pairs (2-3 fm) in the surface of superfluid nuclei. This study confirms and extends previous results given in the literature that use more schematic approaches. It is shown that the strong concentration of pair probability of small Cooper pairs in the nuclear surface is a quite general and generic feature and that nuclear pairing is much closer to the strong coupling regime than previously assumed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo
2011-01-01
Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields. (author)
Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo
2011-01-01
Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.
Strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and MIM nanocavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
San Chen
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the strong coupling effects between a meta-atom and a metal-insulator-metal (MIM nanocavity. By changing the meta-atom sizes, we achieve the meta-atomic electric dipole, quadrupole or multipole interaction with the plasmonic nanocavity, in which characteristic anticrossing behaviors demonstrate the occurrence of the strong coupling. The various interactions present obviously different splitting values and behaviors of dependence on the meta-atomic position. The largest Rabi-type splittings, about 360.0 meV and 306.1 meV, have been obtained for electric dipole and quadrupole interaction, respectively. We attribute the large splitting to the highly-confined cavity mode and the large transition dipole of the meta-atom. Also the Rabi-type oscillation in time domain is given.
Review of strongly-coupled composite dark matter models and lattice simulations
Kribs, Graham D.; Neil, Ethan T.
2016-08-01
We review models of new physics in which dark matter arises as a composite bound state from a confining strongly-coupled non-Abelian gauge theory. We discuss several qualitatively distinct classes of composite candidates, including dark mesons, dark baryons, and dark glueballs. We highlight some of the promising strategies for direct detection, especially through dark moments, using the symmetries and properties of the composite description to identify the operators that dominate the interactions of dark matter with matter, as well as dark matter self-interactions. We briefly discuss the implications of these theories at colliders, especially the (potentially novel) phenomenology of dark mesons in various regimes of the models. Throughout the review, we highlight the use of lattice calculations in the study of these strongly-coupled theories, to obtain precise quantitative predictions and new insights into the dynamics.
Equivalence of meson scattering amplitudes in strong coupling lattice and flat space string theory
Armoni, Adi; Ireson, Edwin; Vadacchino, Davide
2018-03-01
We consider meson scattering in the framework of the lattice strong coupling expansion. In particular we derive an expression for the 4-point function of meson operators in the planar limit of scalar Chromodynamics. Interestingly, in the naive continuum limit the expression coincides with an independently known result, that of the worldline formalism. Moreover, it was argued by Makeenko and Olesen that (assuming confinement) the resulting scattering amplitude in momentum space is the celebrated expression proposed by Veneziano several decades ago. This motivates us to also use holography in order to argue that the continuum expression for the scattering amplitude is related to the result obtained from flat space string theory. Our results hint that at strong coupling and large-Nc the naive continuum limit of the lattice formalism can be related to a flat space string theory.
Wilson loop correlators at strong coupling: from matrices to bubbling geometries
Gomis, Jaume; Matsuura, Shunji; Okuda, Takuya; Trancanelli, Diego
2008-08-01
We compute at strong coupling the large N correlation functions of supersymmetric Wilson loops in large representations of the gauge group with local operators of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. The gauge theory computation of these correlators is performed using matrix model techniques. We show that the strong coupling correlator of the Wilson loop with the stress tensor computed using the matrix model exactly matches the semiclassical computation of the correlator of the 't Hooft loop with the stress tensor, providing a non-trivial quantitative test of electric-magnetic duality of Script N = 4 super Yang-Mills. We then perform these calculations using the dual bulk gravitational picture, where the Wilson loop is described by a ``bubbling'' geometry. By applying holographic methods to these backgrounds we calculate the Wilson loop correlation functions, finding perfect agreement with our gauge theory results.
Sensitive Detection of Individual Neutral Atoms in a Strong Coupling Cavity QED System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Peng-Fei; Zhang Yu-Chi; Li Gang; Du Jin-Jin; Zhang Yan-Feng; Guo Yan-Qiang; Wang Jun-Min; Zhang Tian-Cai; Li Wei-Dong
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate real-time detection of individual cesium atoms by using a high-finesse optical micro-cavity in a strong coupling regime. A cloud of cesium atoms is trapped in a magneto-optical trap positioned at 5 mm above the micro-cavity center. The atoms fall down freely in gravitation after shutting off the magneto-optical trap and pass through the cavity. The cavity transmission is strongly affected by the atoms in the cavity, which enables the micro-cavity to sense the atoms individually. We detect the single atom transits either in the resonance or various detunings. The single atom vacuum-Rabi splitting is directly measured to be Ω = 2π × 23.9 MHz. The average duration of atom-cavity coupling of about 110 μs is obtained according to the probability distribution of the atom transits. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
Particularities of surface plasmon-exciton strong coupling with large Rabi splitting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symonds, C; Bonnand, C; Plenet, J C; Brehier, A; Parashkov, R; Lauret, J S; Deleporte, E; Bellessa, J
2008-01-01
This paper presents some of the particularities of the strong coupling regime occurring between surface plasmon (SP) modes and excitons. Two different active materials were deposited on a silver film: a cyanine dye J-aggregate, and a two-dimensional layered perovskite-type semiconductor. The dispersion relations, which are deduced from angular resolved reflectometry spectra, present an anticrossing characteristic of the strong coupling regime. The wavevector is a good parameter to determine the Rabi splitting. Due to the large interaction energies (several hundreds of milli-electron-volts), the calculations at constant angle can induce an overestimation of the Rabi splitting of more than a factor of two. Another property of polaritons based on SP is their nonradiative character. In order to observe the polaritonic emission, it is thus necessary to use particular extraction setups, such as gratings or prisms. Otherwise only the incoherent emission can be detected, very similar to the bare exciton emission
Sakata Memorial KMI Workshop on Origin of Mass and Strong Coupling Gauge Theories
Maskawa, Toshihide; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi
2018-01-01
This volume contains contributions to the workshop, which was largely focused on the strong coupling gauge theories in search for theories beyond the standard model, particularly, the LHC experiments and lattice studies of conformal fixed point. The main topics include walking technicolor and the role of conformality in view of the 125 GeV Higgs as a light composite Higgs (technidilaton, and other composite Higgs, etc.). Nonperturbative studies like lattice simulations and stringy/holographic approaches are extensively discussed in close relation to the phenomenological studies. After the discovery of 125 GeV Higgs at LHC, the central issue of particle physics is now to reveal the dynamical origin of the Higgs itself. One of the possibilities would be the composite Higgs based on the strong coupling gauge theory in the TeV region, such as the technidilaton predicted in walking technicolor with infrared conformality. The volume contains, among others, many of the latest important reports on walking technicolo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzimis, A.; Savvidis, P. G.; Trifonov, A. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Christmann, G.; Tsintzos, S. I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Kavokin, A. V.
2015-01-01
We report observation of strong light-matter coupling in an AlGaAs microcavity (MC) with an embedded single parabolic quantum well. The parabolic potential is achieved by varying aluminum concentration along the growth direction providing equally spaced energy levels, as confirmed by Brewster angle reflectivity from a reference sample without MC. It acts as an active region of the structure which potentially allows cascaded emission of terahertz (THz) light. Spectrally and time resolved pump-probe spectroscopy reveals characteristic quantum beats whose frequencies range from 0.9 to 4.5 THz, corresponding to energy separation between relevant excitonic levels. The structure exhibits strong stimulated nonlinear emission with simultaneous transition to weak coupling regime. The present study highlights the potential of such devices for creating cascaded relaxation of bosons, which could be utilized for THz emission
Equivalence of meson scattering amplitudes in strong coupling lattice and flat space string theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adi Armoni
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider meson scattering in the framework of the lattice strong coupling expansion. In particular we derive an expression for the 4-point function of meson operators in the planar limit of scalar Chromodynamics. Interestingly, in the naive continuum limit the expression coincides with an independently known result, that of the worldline formalism. Moreover, it was argued by Makeenko and Olesen that (assuming confinement the resulting scattering amplitude in momentum space is the celebrated expression proposed by Veneziano several decades ago. This motivates us to also use holography in order to argue that the continuum expression for the scattering amplitude is related to the result obtained from flat space string theory. Our results hint that at strong coupling and large-Nc the naive continuum limit of the lattice formalism can be related to a flat space string theory.
Strong-coupling behaviour of two t - J chains with interchain single-electron hopping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Guangming; Feng Shiping; Yu Lu.
1994-01-01
Using the fermion-spin transformation to implement spin-charge separation of constrained electrons, a model of two t - J chains with interchain single-electron hopping is studied by abelian bosonization. After spin-charge decoupling the charge dynamics can be trivially solved, while the spin dynamics is determined by a strong-coupling fixed point where the correlation functions can be calculated explicitly. This is a generalization of the Luther-Emery line for two-coupled t - J chains. The interchain single-electron hopping changes the asymptotic behaviour of the interchain spin-spin correlation functions and the electron Green function, but their exponents are independent of the coupling strength. (author). 25 refs
Ionization of atoms in strong low-frequency electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krainov, V. P.
2010-01-01
The ionization of atoms in a low-frequency linearly polarized electromagnetic field (the photon energy is much lower than the ionization potential of an atom) is considered under new conditions, in which the Coulomb interaction of an electron with the atomic core in the final state of the continuum cannot be considered in perturbation theory in the interaction of the electron with the electromagnetic field. The field is assumed to be much weaker that the atomic field. In these conditions, the classical motion of the electron in the final state of the continuum becomes chaotic (so-called dynamic chaos). Using the well-known Chirikov method of averaging over chaotic variations of the phase of motion, the problem can be reduced to non-linear diffusion on the energy scale. We calculate the classical electron energy in the final state, which is averaged over fast chaotic oscillations and takes into account both the Coulomb field and the electromagnetic field. This energy is used to calculate the probability of ionization from the ground state of the atom to a lower-lying state in the continuum using the Landau-Dykhne approximation (to exponential accuracy). This ionization probability noticeably depends on the field frequency. Upon a decrease in frequency, a transition to the well-known tunnel ionization limit with a probability independent of the field frequency is considered.
Chiral spiral induced by a strong magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abuki Hiroaki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study the modification of the chiral phase structure of QCD due to an external magnetic field. We first demonstrate how the effect of magnetic field can systematically be incorporated into a generalized Ginzburg-Landau framework. We then analyze the phase structure in the vicinity of the chiral critical point. In the chiral limit, the effect is found to be so drastic that it brings a “continent” of chiral spiral in the phase diagram, by which the chiral tricritical point is totally washed out. This is the case no matter how small the intensity of magnetic field is. On the other hand, the current quark mass protects the chiral critical point from a weak magnetic field. However, the critical point will eventually be covered by the chiral spiral phase as the magnetic field grows.
Breakdown of the 1/N expansion in the continuum limit of strong coupling lattice QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bralic, N.; Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Chile, Santiago. Facultad de Fisica); Loewe, M.
1983-08-01
The restoration of lorentz covariance in the continuum limit of strong coupling lattice QCD is shown to require the breakdown of the 1/N expansion. With the leading 1/N appoximation becoming irrelevant in that limit. To leading order in 1/N lorentz convariance can be restored only as an approximate long distance symmetry a non conventional continuum limit with a non hermitian hamiltonian. (Author) [pt
Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions
Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi
2010-01-01
We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...
Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in 3D THz meta-atoms (Conference Presentation)
Paulillo, Bruno; Manceau, Jean-Michel; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund; Colombelli, Raffaele
2016-04-01
We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling at room temperature in the terahertz (THz) spectral region using 3D meta-atoms with extremely sub-wavelength volumes. Using an air-bridge fabrication scheme, we have implemented sub-wavelength 3D THz micro-resonators that rely on suspended loop antennas connected to semiconductor-filled patch cavities. We have experimentally shown that they possess the functionalities of lumped LC resonators: their frequency response can be adjusted by independently tuning the inductance associated the antenna element or the capacitance provided by the metal-semiconductor-metal cavity. Moreover, the radiation coupling and efficiency can be engineered acting on the design of the loop antenna, similarly to conventional RF antennas. Here we take advantage of this rich playground in the context of cavity electrodynamics/intersubband polaritonics. In the strong light-matter coupling regime, a cavity and a two-level system exchange energy coherently at a characteristic rate called the vacuum Rabi frequency ΩR which is dominant with respect to all other loss mechanisms involved. The signature, in the frequency domain, is the appearance of a splitting between the bare cavity and material system resonances: the new states are called upper and a lower polariton branches. So far, most experimental demonstrations of strong light-matter interaction between an intersubband transition and a deeply sub-wavelength mode in the THz or mid-infrared ranges rely on wavelength-scale or larger resonators such as photonic crystals, diffractive gratings, dielectric micro-cavities or patch cavities. Lately, planar metamaterials have been used to enhance the light-matter interaction and strongly reduce the interaction volume by engineering the electric and magnetic resonances of the individual subwavelength constituents. In this contribution we provide evidence of strong coupling between a THz intersubband transition and an extremely sub-wavelength mode (≈λ/10
Experimental study of transport of relativistic electron beams in strong magnetic mirror field
Sakata, Shohei; Kondo, Kotaro; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathiu; Bellei, Claudio; Santos, Joao; Firex Project Team
2015-11-01
Relativistic electron beams REB produced by ultra high intense laser pulses have generally a large divergence angle that results in degradation of energy coupling between the REB and a fuel core in the fast ignition scheme. Guiding and focusing of the REB by a strong external magnetic field was proposed to achieve high efficiency. We investigated REB transport through 50 μm or 250 μm thick plastic foils CuI doped under external magnetic fields, in magnetic mirror configurations of 1.2 or 4 mirror ratio. The experiment was carried out at the GEKKO XII and LFEX laser facility. Spatial pattern of the REB was measured by coherent transition radiation and/or Cu Ka x ray emission from the rear surface of the foil targets. Strong collimation of the REB by the external magnetic field was observed with 50 μm thick plastic targets, while the REB scattered in 250 μm thick targets. The experimental results are compared with computer simulations to understand the physical mechanisms of the REB transport in the external magnetic field. This work is supported by NIFS (Japan), MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI (Japan), JSPS Fellowship (Japan), ANR (France) and COST (Europe).
Drift wave shear damping annulment due to parametric coupling and magnetic field variation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davydova, T.A.; Jovanovic, D.; Vranjes, J.; Weiland, J.
1993-01-01
Nonlinear suppression of the drift wave shear damping by the simultaneous action of a strong standing pump wave and of the magnetic field variation along the magnetic field line is studied using a version of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. The threshold for the parametric destabilization is calculated as a function of the plasma parameters. Destabilization occurs due to the elimination of the energy convection towards the dissipative layer, by both the linear toroidal coupling and nonlinear parametric coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prajapati, R. P., E-mail: prajapati-iter@yahoo.co.in; Bhakta, S. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Central University, Bilaspur-495009 (C.G.) (India); Chhajlani, R. K. [Retired from School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University, Ujjain-456010 (M.P.) (India)
2016-05-15
The influence of dust-neutral collisions, polarization force, and electron radiative condensation is analysed on the Jeans (gravitational) instability of partially ionized strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) using linear perturbation (normal mode) analysis. The Boltzmann distributed ions, dynamics of inertialess electrons, charged dust and neutral particles are considered. Using the plane wave solutions, a general dispersion relation is derived which is modified due to the presence of dust-neutral collisions, strong coupling effect, polarization force, electron radiative condensation, and Jeans dust/neutral frequencies. In the long wavelength perturbations, the Jeans instability criterion depends upon strong coupling effect, polarization interaction parameter, and thermal loss, but it is independent of dust-neutral collision frequency. The stability of the considered configuration is analysed using the Routh–Hurwitz criterion. The growth rates of Jeans instability are illustrated, and stabilizing influence of viscoelasticity and dust-neutral collision frequency while destabilizing effect of electron radiative condensation, polarization force, and Jeans dust-neutral frequency ratio is observed. This work is applied to understand the gravitational collapse of SCDP with dust-neutral collisions.
Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)
2016-03-15
A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.
Radial oscillations of neutron stars in strong magnetic fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The eigen frequencies of radial pulsations of neutron stars are calculated in a strong magnetic ﬁeld. At low densities we use the magnetic BPS equation of state (EOS) similar to that obtained by Lai and Shapiro while at high densities the EOS obtained from the relativistic nuclear mean ﬁeld theory is taken and extended to ...
Certain relativistic effects due to strong electromagnetic fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsintsadze, N.L.
1974-01-01
It is shown that the propagation of a strong electromagnetic wave in an electron plasma can lead to a generation of a constant electron current along the direction of propagation and to a large increase in the average electron density. (Auth.)
Inherent resistivity of graphene to strong THz fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Turchinovich, Dmitry; Mics, Zoltán; Jensen, Søren
2014-01-01
The nonlinear THz conductivity of graphene is characterized using nonlinear ultrafast THz spectroscopy. Efficient carrier heating by the THz field reduces carrier scattering, yet, counter-intuitively, simultaneously suppresses the high-frequency conductivity of graphene. © 2014 OSA....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregori, G.; Hansen, S.B.; Key, M.H.; King, J.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Park, H.; Patel, P.K.; Shepard, R.; Snavely, R.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Glenzer, S.H.
2005-01-01
We have measured high resolution copper Kα spectra from a picosecond high intensity laser produced plasma. By fitting the shape of the experimental spectra with a self-consistent-field model which includes all the relevant line shifts from multiply ionized atoms, we are able to infer time and spatially averaged electron temperatures (T e ) and ionization state (Z) in the foil. Our results show increasing values for T e and Z when the overall mass of the target is reduced. In particular, we measure temperatures in excess of 200 eV with Z ∼ 13-14. For these conditions the ion-ion coupling constant is Λ ii ∼ 8-9, thus suggesting the achievement of a strongly coupled plasma regime
Channel-closing effects in strong-field ionization by a bicircular field
Milošević, D. B.; Becker, W.
2018-03-01
Channel-closing effects, such as threshold anomalies and resonantlike intensity-dependent enhancements in strong-field ionization by a bicircular laser field are analyzed. A bicircular field consists of two coplanar corotating or counter-rotating circularly polarized fields having different frequencies. For the total detachment rate of a negative ion by a bicircular field we observe threshold anomalies and explain them using the Wigner threshold law and energy and angular momentum conservation. For the corotating bicircular case, these effects are negligible, while for the counter-rotating case they are pronounced and their position depends on the magnetic quantum number of the initial state. For high-order above-threshold ionization of rare-gas atoms by a counter-rotating bicircular laser field we observe very pronounced intensity-dependent enhancements. We find all four types of threshold anomalies known from collision theory. Contrary to the case of linear polarization, channel-closing effects for a bicircular field are visible also in the cutoff region of the electron energy spectrum, which is explained using quantum-orbit theory.
Quantum processes in a strong electromagnetic field producing pairs. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.; Gavrilov, S.P.
1977-01-01
The Furry picture in quantum electrodynamics with an external field producing real pairs has been generalized. For the required generalization to be achieved all operators of a spinor field are expressed through functions of production and annihilation operators and formulated are the rules for reduction to a generalized normal form, i.e., to such a form in which all the production operators in each term are on the left from all the annihilation operators. The diagram technique for matrix elements of random processes has been considered
Neutron star in the presence of strong magnetic field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stars: neutron stars; magnetic fields; equation of state. PACS Nos 26.60.Kp; 52.35.Tc; 97.10.Cv. 1. Introduction. The central density of neutron stars (NS) exceeds the nuclear saturation density (n0 ∼. 0.15 fm. −3. ), thereby giving the idea that compact stars might contain deconfined and chirally restored quark matter in them.
Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields
Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S
2002-01-01
In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)
Multistage ionization of atoms in a very strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krajnov, V.P.; Manykin, Eh.A.
1980-01-01
Considered is a problem of multiple ionization of middle and heavy atoms as a function of the intensity of an electromagnetic field. The atom is considered in the Thomas -Fermi approximation. Presented are estimates of ionization degree for lead, tungsten and tantalum
Constraints on parton distributions and the strong coupling from LHC jet data
Rojo, Juan
2015-11-01
Jet production at hadron colliders provides powerful constraints on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton, in particular on the gluon PDF. Jet production can also be used to extract the QCD coupling αs(Q) and to test its running with the momentum transfer up to the TeV region. In this review, I summarize the information on PDFs and the strong coupling that has been provided by Run I LHC jet data. First of all, I discuss why jet production is directly sensitive to the gluon and quark PDFs at large-x, and then review the state-of-the-art perturbative calculations for jet production at hadron colliders and the corresponding fast calculations required for PDF fitting. Then I present the results of various recent studies on the impact on PDFs, in particular the gluon, that have been performed using as input jet measurements from ATLAS and CMS. I also review the available determinations of the strong coupling constant based on ATLAS and CMS jet data, with emphasis on the fact that LHC jet data provides, for the first time, a direct test of the αs(Q) running at the TeV scale. I conclude with a brief outlook on possible future developments.
Oblique S and T constraints on electroweak strongly-coupled models with a light Higgs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pich, A. [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Rosell, I. [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y de la Computación,Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera,c/ Sant Bartomeu 55, E-46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Sanz-Ciller, J.J. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física Teórica,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - CSIC,c/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)
2014-01-28
Using a general effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2){sub L}⊗SU(2){sub R}→SU(2){sub L+R}, we present a one-loop calculation of the oblique S and T parameters within electroweak strongly-coupled models with a light scalar. Imposing a proper ultraviolet behaviour, we determine S and T at next-to-leading order in terms of a few resonance parameters. The constraints from the global fit to electroweak precision data force the massive vector and axial-vector states to be heavy, with masses above the TeV scale, and suggest that the W{sup +}W{sup −} and ZZ couplings of the Higgs-like scalar should be close to the Standard Model value. Our findings are generic, since they only rely on soft requirements on the short-distance properties of the underlying strongly-coupled theory, which are widely satisfied in more specific scenarios.
Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf
2015-05-07
We study the effective interaction mediated by strongly coupled Coulomb fluids between dielectric surfaces carrying quenched, random monopolar charges with equal mean and variance, both when the Coulomb fluid consists only of mobile multivalent counterions and when it consists of an asymmetric ionic mixture containing multivalent and monovalent (salt) ions in equilibrium with an aqueous bulk reservoir. We analyze the consequences that follow from the interplay between surface charge disorder, dielectric and salt image effects, and the strong electrostatic coupling that results from multivalent counterions on the distribution of these ions and the effective interaction pressure they mediate between the surfaces. In a dielectrically homogeneous system, we show that the multivalent counterions are attracted towards the surfaces with a singular, disorder-induced potential that diverges logarithmically on approach to the surfaces, creating a singular but integrable counterion density profile that exhibits an algebraic divergence at the surfaces with an exponent that depends on the surface charge (disorder) variance. This effect drives the system towards a state of lower thermal 'disorder', one that can be described by a renormalized temperature, exhibiting thus a remarkable antifragility. In the presence of an interfacial dielectric discontinuity, the singular behavior of counterion density at the surfaces is removed but multivalent counterions are still accumulated much more strongly close to randomly charged surfaces as compared with uniformly charged ones. The interaction pressure acting on the surfaces displays in general a highly non-monotonic behavior as a function of the inter-surface separation with a prominent regime of attraction at small to intermediate separations. This attraction is caused directly by the combined effects from charge disorder and strong coupling electrostatics of multivalent counterions, which dominate the surface-surface repulsion due to
Emission of strong Terahertz pulses from laser wakefields in weakly coupled plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Divya, E-mail: dsingh@rajdhani.du.ac.in [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Department of Physics & Electronics, Rajdhani College, University of Delhi, Raja Garden, Ring Road, New Delhi 110015 (India); Malik, Hitendra K. [PWAPA Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016 (India)
2016-09-01
The present paper discusses the laser plasma interaction for the wakefield excitation and the role of external magnetic field for the emission of Terahertz radiation in a collisional plasma. Flat top lasers are shown to be more appropriate than the conventional Gaussian lasers for the effective excitation of wakefields and hence, the generation of strong Terahertz radiation through the transverse component of wakefield.
Cigar-shaped quarkonia under strong magnetic field
Suzuki, Kei; Yoshida, Tetsuya
2016-03-01
Heavy quarkonia in a homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed by using a potential model with constituent quarks. To obtain anisotropic wave functions and corresponding eigenvalues, the cylindrical Gaussian expansion method is applied, where the anisotropic wave functions are expanded by a Gaussian basis in the cylindrical coordinates. Deformation of the wave functions and the mass shifts of the S-wave heavy quarkonia (ηc, J /ψ , ηc(2 S ), ψ (2 S ) and bottomonia) are examined for the wide range of external magnetic field. The spatial structure of the wave functions changes drastically as adjacent energy levels cross each other. Possible observables in heavy-ion collision experiments and future lattice QCD simulations are also discussed.
The realization of strong, stray static magnetic fields
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel
2012-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 1 (2012), s. 71-77 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic fields * magnetic circuits * permanent NdFeB magnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2012_01/7_Zezulka.pdf
Electrohydrodynamics of drops in strong electric fields: Simulations and theory
Saintillan, David; Das, Debasish
2016-11-01
Weakly conducting dielectric liquid drops suspended in another dielectric liquid exhibit a wide range of dynamical behaviors when subject to an applied uniform electric field contingent on field strength and material properties. These phenomena are best described by the much celebrated Maylor-Taylor leaky dielectric model that hypothesizes charge accumulation on the drop-fluid interface and prescribes a balance between charge relaxation, the jump in Ohmic currents and charge convection by the interfacial fluid flow. Most previous numerical simulations based on this model have either neglected interfacial charge convection or restricted themselves to axisymmetric drops. In this work, we develop a three-dimensional boundary element method for the complete leaky dielectric model to systematically study the deformation and dynamics of liquid drops in electric fields. The inclusion of charge convection in our simulation permits us to investigate drops in the Quincke regime, in which experiments have demonstrated symmetry-breaking bifurcations leading to steady electrorotation. Our simulation results show excellent agreement with existing experimental data and small deformation theories. ACSPRF Grant 53240-ND9.
Highly controlled orientation of CaBi4Ti4O15 using a strong magnetic field
Suzuki, Tohru S.; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke; Ando, Akira; Sakka, Yoshio; Sakabe, Yukio
2006-09-01
The texture of feeble magnetic ceramics can be controlled by a strong magnetic field. When the magnetic susceptibility of the c axis is smaller than that of the other axes, the c axis aligns perpendicular to the magnetic field; however, the direction is randomly oriented on the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. The authors demonstrate in this letter that a highly controlled texture in bismuth titanate, which has a c-axis susceptibility smaller than the other axes, can be achieved using a two-step magnetic field procedure. This highly controlled orientation is effective for improving the electromechanical coupling coefficient.
Strong coupling in F-theory and geometrically non-Higgsable seven-branes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Halverson
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Geometrically non-Higgsable seven-branes carry gauge sectors that cannot be broken by complex structure deformation, and there is growing evidence that such configurations are typical in F-theory. We study strongly coupled physics associated with these branes. Axiodilaton profiles are computed using Ramanujan's theories of elliptic functions to alternative bases, showing explicitly that the string coupling is O(1 in the vicinity of the brane; that it sources nilpotent SL(2,Z monodromy and therefore the associated brane charges are modular; and that essentially all F-theory compactifications have regions with order one string coupling. It is shown that non-perturbative SU(3 and SU(2 seven-branes are related to weakly coupled counterparts with D7-branes via deformation-induced Hanany–Witten moves on (p,q string junctions that turn them into fundamental open strings; only the former may exist for generic complex structure. D3-brane near these and the Kodaira type II seven-branes probe Argyres–Douglas theories. The BPS states of slightly deformed theories are shown to be dyonic string junctions.
Liang, Yongye; Wang, Hailiang; Diao, Peng; Chang, Wesley; Hong, Guosong; Li, Yanguang; Gong, Ming; Xie, Liming; Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Regier, Tom Z; Wei, Fei; Dai, Hongjie
2012-09-26
Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for a variety of renewable energy applications and energy-intensive industries. The design and synthesis of highly active ORR catalysts with strong durability at low cost is extremely desirable but remains challenging. Here, we used a simple two-step method to synthesize cobalt oxide/carbon nanotube (CNT) strongly coupled hybrid as efficient ORR catalyst by directly growing nanocrystals on oxidized multiwalled CNTs. The mildly oxidized CNTs provided functional groups on the outer walls to nucleate and anchor nanocrystals, while retaining intact inner walls for highly conducting network. Cobalt oxide was in the form of CoO due to a gas-phase annealing step in NH(3). The resulting CoO/nitrogen-doped CNT (NCNT) hybrid showed high ORR current density that outperformed Co(3)O(4)/graphene hybrid and commercial Pt/C catalyst at medium overpotential, mainly through a 4e reduction pathway. The metal oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid was found to be advantageous over the graphene counterpart in terms of active sites and charge transport. Last, the CoO/NCNT hybrid showed high ORR activity and stability under a highly corrosive condition of 10 M NaOH at 80 °C, demonstrating the potential of strongly coupled inorganic/nanocarbon hybrid as a novel catalyst system in oxygen depolarized cathode for chlor-alkali electrolysis.
Charging-delay effect on longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Samiran; Gupta, M.R.
2005-01-01
Taking into account the charging-delay effect, the nonlinear propagation characteristics of longitudinal dust acoustic wave in strongly coupled collisional dusty plasma described by generalized hydrodynamic model have been investigated. In the 'hydrodynamic limit', a Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation with a damping term arising due to dust-neutral collision is derived in which the Burger term is proportional to the dissipation due to dust viscosity through dust-dust correlation and charging-delay-induced anomalous dissipation. On the other hand, in the 'kinetic limit', a KdVB equation with a damping term and a nonlocal nonlinear forcing term arising due to memory-dependent strong correlation effect of dust fluid is derived in which the Burger term depends only on the charging-delay-induced dissipation. Numerical solution of integrodifferential equations reveals that (i) dissipation due to dust viscosity and principally due to charging delay causes excitation of the longitudinal dust acoustic shock wave in strongly coupled dusty plasma and (ii) dust-neutral collision does not appear to play any direct role in shock formation. The condition for the generation of shock is also discussed briefly
Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization
Trabert, D.; Hartung, A.; Eckart, S.; Trinter, F.; Kalinin, A.; Schöffler, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Kunitski, M.; Dörner, R.
2018-01-01
The spin polarization of electrons from multiphoton ionization of Xe by 395 nm circularly polarized laser pulses at 6 ×1013 W /cm2 has been measured. At this photon energy of 3.14 eV the above-threshold ionization peaks connected to Xe+ ions in the ground state (J =3 /2 , ionization potential Ip=12.1 eV ) and the first excited state (J =1 /2 , Ip=13.4 eV ) are clearly separated in the electron energy distribution. These two combs of above-threshold ionization peaks show opposite spin polarizations. The magnitude of the spin polarization is a factor of 2 higher for the J =1 /2 than for the J =3 /2 final ionic state. In turn, the data show that the ionization probability is strongly dependent on the sign of the magnetic quantum number.
Treating Sample Covariances for Use in Strongly Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Data Assimilation
Smith, Polly J.; Lawless, Amos S.; Nichols, Nancy K.
2018-01-01
Strongly coupled data assimilation requires cross-domain forecast error covariances; information from ensembles can be used, but limited sampling means that ensemble derived error covariances are routinely rank deficient and/or ill-conditioned and marred by noise. Thus, they require modification before they can be incorporated into a standard assimilation framework. Here we compare methods for improving the rank and conditioning of multivariate sample error covariance matrices for coupled atmosphere-ocean data assimilation. The first method, reconditioning, alters the matrix eigenvalues directly; this preserves the correlation structures but does not remove sampling noise. We show that it is better to recondition the correlation matrix rather than the covariance matrix as this prevents small but dynamically important modes from being lost. The second method, model state-space localization via the Schur product, effectively removes sample noise but can dampen small cross-correlation signals. A combination that exploits the merits of each is found to offer an effective alternative.
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.
2011-01-01
Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.
Domain structure of a Reggeon field theory with three couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geer, K.A.; Pinsky, S.S.
1974-01-01
The high energy behavior of a Reggeon field theory with a three-Reggeon coupling and two four-Reggeon couplings is considered. Using the renormalization group equations which are calculated in lowest order for this model, one studies the way the couplings evolve to the fixed points in the high energy limit. It was found that there are three fixed points (plus a fourth at infinity) to which the couplings can evolve. The space of couplings divides into four domains, two of which are two-dimensional and two of which are three-dimensional. The couplings in one of the three-dimensional domains are found to evolve to infinity and the couplings in the other three domains are found to evolve to the fixed point couplings. The boundaries of these domains and some characteristic evolution curves are shown. The implications of the domain structure of the model are discussed. (U.S.)
Study of the interaction of atoms with strong laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, M.
1984-01-01
Three aspects of the interactions of atoms with high intensity laser fields were treated. All three were motivated by experiment. The first investigation was prompted by a recent experiment (Kruit et al. 1983) involving multiphoton ionization of Xe. In this experiment it was found that the photoelectron energy spectrum contained peaks that corresponded to the absorption of more than the minimum number of photons required to ionize the atom. A model approximation here showed good qualitative agreement with experiment. An experiment (Grove et al. 1977) designed to test a theoretical calculation of the dynamical Stark effect stimulated the second part of this thesis, namely: a study of how an adiabatically and near-adiabatically changing field intensity affects the resonance fluorescence spectrum of a two-level atom. It was found that there is an asymmetry in the spectrum for off-resonance excitation produced because the field turn-on repopulates the dressed state that is depopulated by spontaneous emission. The third part of this thesis was based on an experiment (Granneman and Van der Wiel 1976) that attempted to verify a perturbation calculation of the two-photon ionization cross section of Cs. A discrepancy of four orders of magnitude near a minimum in the cross section was found between theory and experiment. To explain this discrepancy it was suggested (Armstrong and Beers 1977) that the effective order of nonlinearity (k) for this process varied significantly around the minimum. This study involves a perturbation calculation of k. It was found that k varies rapidly around the minimum, and that this variation should be experimentally observable for laser intensities of the order of tens of GW cm -2
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-03
Jan 3, 2017 ... potential along with the average scale factor as an exponential function of scalar field lead to the logarithmic form of scalar field in each case which ... The observational results lead to the search of some kinds of exotic matter which ... Therefore, in this paper, our motivation is to find exact cosmological ...
Strong-coupling Bose polarons out of equilibrium: Dynamical renormalization-group approach
Grusdt, Fabian; Seetharam, Kushal; Shchadilova, Yulia; Demler, Eugene
2018-03-01
When a mobile impurity interacts with a surrounding bath of bosons, it forms a polaron. Numerous methods have been developed to calculate how the energy and the effective mass of the polaron are renormalized by the medium for equilibrium situations. Here, we address the much less studied nonequilibrium regime and investigate how polarons form dynamically in time. To this end, we develop a time-dependent renormalization-group approach which allows calculations of all dynamical properties of the system and takes into account the effects of quantum fluctuations in the polaron cloud. We apply this method to calculate trajectories of polarons following a sudden quench of the impurity-boson interaction strength, revealing how the polaronic cloud around the impurity forms in time. Such trajectories provide additional information about the polaron's properties which are challenging to extract directly from the spectral function measured experimentally using ultracold atoms. At strong couplings, our calculations predict the appearance of trajectories where the impurity wavers back at intermediate times as a result of quantum fluctuations. Our method is applicable to a broader class of nonequilibrium problems. As a check, we also apply it to calculate the spectral function and find good agreement with experimental results. At very strong couplings, we predict that quantum fluctuations lead to the appearance of a dark continuum with strongly suppressed spectral weight at low energies. While our calculations start from an effective Fröhlich Hamiltonian describing impurities in a three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate, we also calculate the effects of additional terms in the Hamiltonian beyond the Fröhlich paradigm. We demonstrate that the main effect of these additional terms on the attractive side of a Feshbach resonance is to renormalize the coupling strength of the effective Fröhlich model.
Dynamics of Molecular Gyroscopes Created by Strong Optical Fields
Mullin, Amy
2015-03-01
We explore the behavior of molecules in ultra-high angular momentum states prepared in an optical centrifuge and detected with transient IR absorption spectroscopy. In the optical centrifuge, the polarizable electron cloud of molecules interacts with the electric field of linearly polarized light that angularly accelerates over the time of the optical pulse. The centrifuge pulse is generated by combining oppositely chirped pulsed of light. Trapped molecules are driven into high angular momentum states that are spatially oriented with the optical field and have energies far above the average at 300 K. High resolution transient IR spectroscopy reveals the dynamics of collisional energy transfer for the super-rotors. Polarization-dependent studies show that the initial angular momentum orientation persists for many collisions, indicating that molecules in an optical centrifuge behave as quantum gyroscopes. Time-dependent population and energy profiles for individual J- states give information about the dynamics of super-rotors. Research support provided by NSF and the University of Maryland.
Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields
Grossmann, Frank
2013-01-01
Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapuria, S; Yaqoob Yasin, M
2013-01-01
In this work, we present an electromechanically coupled efficient layerwise finite element model for the static response of piezoelectric laminated composite and sandwich plates, considering the nonlinear behavior of piezoelectric materials under strong electric field. The nonlinear model is developed consistently using a variational principle, considering a rotationally invariant second order nonlinear constitutive relationship, and full electromechanical coupling. In the piezoelectric layer, the electric potential is approximated to have a quadratic variation across the thickness, as observed from exact three dimensional solutions, and the equipotential condition of electroded piezoelectric surfaces is modeled using the novel concept of an electric node. The results predicted by the nonlinear model compare very well with the experimental data available in the literature. The effect of the piezoelectric nonlinearity on the static response and deflection/stress control is studied for piezoelectric bimorph as well as hybrid laminated plates with isotropic, angle-ply composite and sandwich substrates. For high electric fields, the difference between the nonlinear and linear predictions is large, and cannot be neglected. The error in the prediction of the smeared counterpart of the present theory with the same number of primary displacement unknowns is also examined. (paper)
Strong coupling on a forbidden transition in strontium and nondestructive atom counting
Norcia, Matthew A.; Thompson, James K.
2016-02-01
We observe strong collective coupling between an optical cavity and the forbidden spin singlet to triplet optical transition S10 to P31 in an ensemble of 88Sr. Despite the transition being 1000 times weaker than a typical dipole transition, we observe a well-resolved vacuum Rabi splitting. We use the observed vacuum Rabi splitting to make nondestructive measurements of atomic population with the equivalent of projection-noise limited sensitivity between subsequent measurements and with minimal heating [lattice clocks by generating entangled states and reducing dead time.
A strongly conservative finite element method for the coupling of Stokes and Darcy flow
Kanschat, G.
2010-08-01
We consider a model of coupled free and porous media flow governed by Stokes and Darcy equations with the Beavers-Joseph-Saffman interface condition. This model is discretized using divergence-conforming finite elements for the velocities in the whole domain. Discontinuous Galerkin techniques and mixed methods are used in the Stokes and Darcy subdomains, respectively. This discretization is strongly conservative in Hdiv(Ω) and we show convergence. Numerical results validate our findings and indicate optimal convergence orders. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Radiation of a circulating quark in strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory
Athanasiou, Christiana; Chesler, Paul M.; Liu, Hong; Nickel, Dominik; Rajagopal, Krishna
2010-12-01
The energy density and angular distribution of power radiated by a quark undergoing circular motion in strongly coupled N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory is computed using gauge/gravity duality. The results are qualitatively similar to that of synchrotron radiation produced by an electron in circular motion in classical electrodynamics: At large velocities the quark emits radiation in a narrow beam along its velocity vector with a characteristic opening angle α˜1/γ and radial thickness scaling like ˜1/γ3.
Measuring the EOS of a Dense, Strongly Coupled Plasma; Description of the Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benage, John F. Jr.; Kyraka, George; Workman, Jonathan; Tierney, Thomas
1997-08-01
This paper describes a new experimental design which we believe can produce reasonably accurate data for the equation of state (EOS) of a dense plasma. This design takes advantage of the standard shock technique used for determining the high pressure EOS of solids. It also utilizes recently developed experimental techniques for producing dense, strongly coupled plasmas as well as new diagnostic techniques for measuring the properties of these plasmas. The results should be able to distinguish among theoretical models for plasmas at just under solid density and temperatures of 10's of eV
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens
2002-01-01
We present a new view and an analytical formalism of electron flow through a donor-acceptor molecule inserted between a pair of metal electrodes. The donor and acceptor levels are strongly coupled to an environmental nuclear continuum. The formalism applies to molecular donor-acceptor systems both...... in vacuum or air, and in aqueous solution under electrochemical potential control. Multifarious patterns of rectified electron flow from the negatively to the positively biased electrode arise. The electronic interaction between the donor and acceptor fragments, mutually and with the electrodes, can be weak...
Global Behavior for a Strongly Coupled Predator-Prey Model with One Resource and Two Consumers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yujuan Jiao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a strongly coupled predator-prey model with one resource and two consumers, in which the first consumer species feeds on the resource according to the Holling II functional response, while the second consumer species feeds on the resource following the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response, and they compete for the common resource. Using the energy estimates and Gagliardo-Nirenberg-type inequalities, the existence and uniform boundedness of global solutions for the model are proved. Meanwhile, the sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium for this model are given by constructing a Lyapunov function.
Analyzing quantum jumps of one and two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reick, Sebastian; Mølmer, Klaus; Alt, Wolfgang
2010-01-01
We induce quantum jumps between the hyperfine ground states of one and two cesium atoms, strongly coupled to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator, and analyze the resulting random telegraph signals. We identify experimental parameters to deduce the atomic spin state nondestructively from...... time-dependent probabilities for the atoms to be in one of the two hyperfine states. This analysis is extended to short time bins where a simple threshold analysis would not yield reasonable results. We discuss the effect of super-Poissonian photon number distributions caused by atomic motion....
Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)
2014-12-30
We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic N=4,SU(N) super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szyniszewski, Marcin; Manchester Univ.; Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Kujawa-Cichy, Agnieszka
2014-10-01
We employ exact diagonalization with strong coupling expansion to the massless and massive Schwinger model. New results are presented for the ground state energy and scalar mass gap in the massless model, which improve the precision to nearly 10 -9 %. We also investigate the chiral condensate and compare our calculations to previous results available in the literature. Oscillations of the chiral condensate which are present while increasing the expansion order are also studied and are shown to be directly linked to the presence of flux loops in the system.
Viscosity calculated in simulations of strongly coupled dusty plasmas with gas friction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Yan; Goree, J.; Liu Bin
2011-01-01
A two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma is modeled using Langevin and frictionless molecular dynamical simulations. The static viscosity η and the wave-number-dependent viscosity η(k) are calculated from the microscopic shear in the random motion of particles. A recently developed method of calculating the wave-number-dependent viscosity η(k) is validated by comparing the results of η(k) from the two simulations. It is also verified that the Green-Kubo relation can still yield an accurate measure of the static viscosity η in the presence of a modest level of friction as in dusty plasma experiments.
Experimental Measurement of Self-Diffusion in a Strongly Coupled Plasma
2016-08-04
and ni for all the analysis regions are shown with vertical error bars representing the standard deviation . ωp and Γi are calculated from Ti and ni for... standard - deviation uncertainties of the mean values, which we use in the main article to calculate the uncer- tainties in hΔvxðtÞiþ=hΔvxð0Þiþ. The fits to...Areas: Atomic and Molecular Physics, Plasma Physics, Statistical Physics I. INTRODUCTION In strongly coupled plasmas [1], the Coulomb interaction energy
The Bethe roots of Regge cuts in strongly coupled N=4 SYM theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartels, J.; Schomerus, V.; Sprenger, M.
2015-01-01
We describe a general algorithm for the computation of the remainder function for n-gluon scattering in multi-Regge kinematics for strongly coupled planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. This regime is accessible through the infrared physics of an auxiliary quantum integrable system describing strings in AdS 5 ×S 5 . Explicit formulas are presented for n=6 and n=7 external gluons. Our results are consistent with expectations from perturbative gauge theory. This paper comprises the technical details for the results announced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP10(2014)067.
Analytic properties of the OCP and ionic mixtures in the strongly coupled fluid state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeWitt, H.E.
1993-01-01
Exact results for the Madelung constants and first order anharmonic energies are given for the inverse power potentials with the Coulomb potential as the softest example. Similar exact results are obtained using the analysis of Rosenfeld on the Γ → ∞ limit for the OCP internal energy, direct correlation function, screening function, and bridge functions. Knowing these exact limits for the fluid phase of the OCP allows one to determine the nature of the thermal corrections to the strongly coupled results. Solutions of the HNC equation modified with the hard sphere bridge function give an example
Intrinsic kinetics in heavy ion reactions in the strong-coupling limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Isaev, P.N. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)
1985-02-01
A quantum statistical description is suggested for the intrinsic kinetics of nuclear systems with a strong coupling between the collective (global) dynamics and intrinsic degrees of freedom (for a double nuclear system in heavy ion reactions and mother nucleus at the descent stage of fission). The influence of the ''memory'' of the system concerning pre-history of the kinetic process on the form of the kinetic equation is studied in detail. It is shown that Markov's regime is realized at practically all evolution stages of the double nuclear system (and, certainly, in fission). The kinetic equation is written and discussed in this regime.
Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S. B.
2017-12-01
In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li+, Be+, and B+, in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B field.
Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S B
2017-12-28
In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li + , Be + , and B + , in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B
Annular billiard dynamics in a circularly polarized strong laser field
Kamor, A.; Mauger, F.; Chandre, C.; Uzer, T.
2012-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of a valence electron of the buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60) subjected to a circularly polarized laser field by modeling it with the motion of a classical particle in an annular billiard. We show that the phase space of the billiard model gives rise to three distinct trajectories: “whispering gallery orbits,” which hit only the outer billiard wall; “daisy orbits,” which hit both billiard walls (while rotating solely clockwise or counterclockwise for all time); and orbits that only visit the downfield part of the billiard, as measured relative to the laser term. These trajectories, in general, maintain their distinct features, even as the intensity is increased from 1010 to 1014Wcm-2. We attribute this robust separation of phase space to the existence of twistless tori.
Hydrogen atom in a strong uniform electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damburg, R.Ya.
1989-01-01
It has been shown that notwithstanding the separability of the Schroedinger equation for the Lo-Surdo s tark (LS-S) problem for hydrogen, the quasistationary states cannot be always characterized by parabolic quantum numbers of n 1 , n 2 ,m. It is a reason why any numerical procedure of the calculation of the LS-S parameters E 0 and Γ which ignores this circumstance can appear to be invalid for large values of n 1 and F and small ones of n 2 and m. Experimental data on the photoionization of atoms in the presence of an electric field in the vicinity of the Rydberg series limit E=0 are in an accord with theoretical predictions. 32 refs.; 6 figs
Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations of Strongly-Correlated Systems, the Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-11-07
In this final report, we present preliminary results of ground state phases of interacting spinless Dirac fermions. The name "Dirac fermion" originates from the fact that low-energy excitations of electrons hopping on the honeycomb lattice are described by a relativistic Dirac equation. Dirac fermions have received much attention particularly after the seminal work of Haldale1 which shows that the quantum Hall physics can be realized on the honeycomb lattice without magnetic fields. Haldane's work later becomes the foundation of topological insulators (TIs). While the physics of TIs is based largely on spin-orbit coupled non-interacting electrons, it was conjectured that topological insulators can be induced by strong correlations alone.
Influence of strong magnetic fields on laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma
Wilson, T. C.; Li, F. Y.; Weikum, M.; Sheng, Z. M.
2017-06-01
We examine the interaction between intense laser pulses and strongly magnetised plasmas in the weakly relativistic regime. An expression for the electron Lorentz factor coupling both relativistic and cyclotron motion nonlinearities is derived for static magnetic fields along the laser propagation axis. This is applied to predict modifications to the refractive index, critical density, group velocity dispersion and power threshold for relativistic self-focusing. It is found that electron quiver response is enhanced under right circularly-polarised light, decreasing the power threshold for various instabilities, while a dampening effect occurs under left circularly-polarised light, increasing the power thresholds. Derived theoretical predictions are tested by one- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.
Radiation effects on relativistic electrons in strong external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Khalid
2013-01-01
The effects of radiation of high energy electron beams are a major issue in almost all types of charged particle accelerators. The objective of this thesis is both the analytical and numerical study of radiation effects. Due to its many applications the study of the self force has become a very active and productive field of research. The main part of this thesis is devoted to the study of radiation effects in laser-based plasma accelerators. Analytical models predict the existence of radiation effects. The investigation of radiation reaction show that in laser-based plasma accelerators, the self force effects lower the energy gain and emittance for moderate energies electron beams and increase the relative energy spread. However, for relatively high energy electron beams, the self radiation and retardation (radiation effects of one electron on the other electron of the system) effects increase the transverse emittance of the beam. The energy gain decreases to even lower value and relative energy spread increases to even higher value due to high radiation losses. The second part of this thesis investigates with radiation reaction in focused laser beams. Radiation effects are very weak even for high energy electrons. The radiation-free acceleration and the simple practical setup make direct acceleration in a focused laser beam very attractive. The results presented in this thesis can be helpful for the optimization of future electron acceleration experiments, in particular in the case of laser-plasma accelerators.
Strong-field physics with singular light beams
Zürch, M.; Kern, C.; Hansinger, P.; Dreischuh, A.; Spielmann, Ch.
2012-10-01
Light beams carrying a point singularity with a screw-type phase distribution are associated with an optical vortex. The corresponding momentum flow leads to an orbital angular momentum of the photons. The study of optical vortices has led to applications such as particle micro-manipulation, imaging, interferometry, quantum information and high-resolution microscopy and lithography. Recent analyses showed that transitions forbidden by selection rules seem to be allowed when using optical vortex beams. To exploit these intriguing new applications, it is often necessary to shorten the wavelength by nonlinear frequency conversion. However, during the conversion the optical vortices tend to break up. Here we show that optical vortices can be generated in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) region using high-harmonic generation. The singularity impressed on the fundamental beam survives the highly nonlinear process. Vortices in the XUV region have the same phase distribution as the driving field, which is in contradiction to previous findings, where multiplication of the momentum by the harmonic order is expected. This approach opens the way for several applications based on vortex beams in the XUV region.
Charge transfer of He2 + with H in a strong magnetic field
Liu, Chun-Lei; Zou, Shi-Yang; He, Bin; Wang, Jian-Guo
2015-09-01
By solving a time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE), we studied the electron capture process in the He2 + +H collision system under a strong magnetic field in a wide projectile energy range. The strong enhancement of the total charge transfer cross section is observed for the projectile energy below 2.0 keV/u. With the projectile energy increasing, the cross sections will reduce a little and then increase again, compared with those in the field-free case. The cross sections to the states with different magnetic quantum numbers are presented and analyzed where the influence due to Zeeman splitting is obviously found, especially in the low projectile energy region. The comparison with other models is made and the tendency of the cross section varying with the projectile energy is found closer to that from other close coupling models. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11104017, 11025417, 11275029, and 11474032), the National Basic Research Programm of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200), and the Foundation for the Development of Science and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2014B09036 and 2013A0102005).
Nerkararyan, Khachatur V.; Yezekyan, Torgom S.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.
2018-01-01
We investigate excitation dynamics in the system of a quantum dipole emitter (QDE) coupled to a located nearby metal nanoparticle (MNP), which exhibits a dipolar localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance at the frequency of the QDE radiative transition, in the presence of a strong external resonant electromagnetic field. Considering the QDE-field interactions in the regime of strong QDE-field coupling, we show that the feedback provided by the MNP on the QDE (due to the LSP excitation with the field generated by the dipole moment of the QDE transition) influences significantly the coherent process of Rabi oscillations, resulting in the occurrence of additional satellite frequencies in the radiation spectrum scattered by the QDE-MNP configuration. The relative ratio of high harmonics depends strongly on the QDE-MNP separation, an important characteristic feature that can be used for observing this effect and can be exploited, for example, for controlling distances at the nanoscale.
Test of Horizontal Magnetic Field Measurements in the Presence of a Strong Vertical Field
Vasserman, Isaac
2004-01-01
Trajectory straightness is an important parameter defining the performance of free-electron laser (FEL) devices. The first test of horizontal field measurements using Hall probes was done in 1998 as a preparation to the tuning of undulators for the FEL project at the Advanced Photon Source. This work continues the 1998 work, now associated with Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) project. Tolerances for the LCLS FEL undulator specify 2 um trajectory excursion in both (horizontal and vertical) planes for a particle energy of 14.1 GeV, which means that measurements of a small horizontal field in presence of strong (up to 1.5 T) vertical field are required. Hall probe measurements under such conditions are complicated due to a planar Hall probe effect. Previous tests done in 1998 showed that a 2- axis Sentron probe is a possible choice. The high sensitivity of horizontal field integrals to the vertical position of the sensor was observed. It was shown that this probe could be used for fast measurements and tuning...
Contribution to the study of molecular multi-ionisation and multifragmentation in strong laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hering, P.
1999-12-01
Molecular multi-ionization in strong laser field is studied using different experimental and theoretical techniques. In the 10 13 -10 16 W/cm 2 laser intensity range, the strong non-linear laser-molecule coupling allows the absorption of energies necessary to the ejection of valence electrons. The double ionization is characterized by the production of doubly charged molecular ions and by charge separation channels such as A + + B + . For molecular charge states greater than two, the multi-ionization dynamics study is based on the observables due to the multifragmentation, which are the fragments charge states and initial momenta. For strong intensities in the 1015-1016 w/cm 2 range, the multicharged atomic ions production efficiency depends on the initial electronic density localization of the molecule. For intensities less than 5 x 10 14 w/cm 2 , double ionization leads to the simultaneous emission of two electrons from the molecule. The two-missing electrons fragmentation channels appear at internuclear equilibrium distance following the Franck-Condon principle. For more than two-missing electrons channels, the internuclear distance of excitation is more difficult to determine. However the reported different experiments show that the multifragmentation dynamics is independent of the electronic emission dynamics. The theoretical approach is based on the Thomas-Fermi equations and allows a non-perturbative description of the laser-molecule coupling. The calculated fragmentation kinetic energies are smaller than the coulombic repulsion energies calculated at the internuclear equilibrium distance because of an electronic screening effect. This model reproduce the experimental fragmentation 'energy releases obtained experimentally for molecules such as N 2 , CO 2 or N 2 O. (author)
The shot noise of a strongly correlated quantum dot coupled to the Luttinger liquid leads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Kai-Hua; He, Xian; Wang, Huai-Yu; Liu, Kai-Di; Liu, Bei-Yun
2014-01-01
We study the shot noise of a strongly correlated quantum dot weakly coupled to Luttinger liquid leads in the Kondo regime by means of the extended equation of motion method. A general zero-frequency shot noise formula with good convergence is derived. The shot noise exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on voltage for weak intralead interaction. There is a peak around the Kondo temperature at low voltage when the interaction is very weak, and its height decreases rapidly with the intralead interaction increasing. When the interaction is moderately strong the peak disappears and the shot noise scales as a power law in bias voltage, indicating that the intralead electron interaction suppresses the shot noise. It is possible that the measurements of the shot noise spectrum can extract the information of the intralead interaction. - Highlights: • The shot noise of a dot coupled to Luttinger liquid leads in the Kondo regime. • A shot noise formula is derived. • Intralead interaction suppresses the shot noise. • The noise shows different voltage-dependence for different intralead interaction
On Yang--Mills Theories with Chiral Matter at Strong Coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shifman, M.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Saclay, SPhT; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2008-08-20
Strong coupling dynamics of Yang-Mills theories with chiral fermion content remained largely elusive despite much effort over the years. In this work, we propose a dynamical framework in which we can address non-perturbative properties of chiral, non-supersymmetric gauge theories, in particular, chiral quiver theories on S{sub 1} x R{sub 3}. Double-trace deformations are used to stabilize the center-symmetric vacuum. This allows one to smoothly connect smaller(S{sub 1}) to larger(S{sub 1}) physics (R{sub 4} is the limiting case) where the double-trace deformations are switched off. In particular, occurrence of the mass gap in the gauge sector and linear confinement due to bions are analytically demonstrated. We find the pattern of the chiral symmetry realization which depends on the structure of the ring operators, a novel class of topological excitations. The deformed chiral theory, unlike the undeformed one, satisfies volume independence down to arbitrarily small volumes (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) in the large N limit. This equivalence, may open new perspectives on strong coupling chiral gauge theories on R{sub 4}.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takamoto, Makoto [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Lazarian, Alexandre, E-mail: mtakamoto@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: alazarian@facstaff.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2016-11-10
In this Letter, we report compressible mode effects on relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations. We decomposed fluctuations in the turbulence into 3 MHD modes (fast, slow, and Alfvén) following the procedure of mode decomposition in Cho and Lazarian, and analyzed their energy spectra and structure functions separately. We also analyzed the ratio of compressible mode to Alfvén mode energy with respect to its Mach number. We found the ratio of compressible mode increases not only with the Alfvén Mach number, but also with the background magnetization, which indicates a strong coupling between the fast and Alfvén modes. It also signifies the appearance of a new regime of RMHD turbulence in Poynting-dominated plasmas where the fast and Alfvén modes are strongly coupled and, unlike the non-relativistic MHD regime, cannot be treated separately. This finding will affect particle acceleration efficiency obtained by assuming Alfvénic critical-balance turbulence and can change the resulting photon spectra emitted by non-thermal electrons.
Continuum Lowering and Fermi-Surface Rising in Strongly Coupled and Degenerate Plasmas
Hu, S. X.
2017-08-01
Continuum lowering is a well known and important physics concept that describes the ionization potential depression (IPD) in plasmas caused by thermal- or pressure-induced ionization of outer-shell electrons. The existing IPD models are often used to characterize plasma conditions and to gauge opacity calculations. Recent precision measurements have revealed deficits in our understanding of continuum lowering in dense hot plasmas. However, these investigations have so far been limited to IPD in strongly coupled but nondegenerate plasmas. Here, we report a first-principles study of the K -edge shifting in both strongly coupled and fully degenerate carbon plasmas, with quantum molecular dynamics calculations based on the all-electron density-functional theory. The resulting K -edge shifting versus plasma density, as a probe to the continuum lowering and the Fermi-surface rising, is found to be significantly different from predictions of existing IPD models. In contrast, a simple model of "single-atom-in-box," developed in this work, accurately predicts K -edge locations as ab initio calculations provide.
Heavy quark energy loss far from equilibrium in a strongly coupled collision
Chesler, Paul M; Rajagopal, Krishna
2013-01-01
We compute and study the drag force acting on a heavy quark propagating through the matter produced in the collision of two sheets of energy in a strongly coupled gauge theory that can be analyzed holographically. Although this matter is initially far from equilibrium, we find that the equilibrium expression for heavy quark energy loss in a homogeneous strongly coupled plasma with the same instantaneous energy density or pressure as that at the location of the quark describes many qualitative features of our results. One interesting exception is that there is a time delay after the initial collision before the heavy quark energy loss becomes significant. At later times, once a liquid plasma described by viscous hydrodynamics has formed, expressions based upon assuming instantaneous homogeneity and equilibrium provide a semi-quantitative description of our results - as long as the rapidity of the heavy quark is not too large. For a heavy quark with large rapidity, the gradients in the velocity of the hydrodyna...
Coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, coupled Higgs field equation are studied using the Lie classical method. Symmetry reductions and exact solutions are reported for Higgs equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation. We also establish the travelling wave solutions involving parameters of the coupled Higgs equation and Hamiltonian ...
Routine daily physical activity and glucose variations are strongly coupled in adults with T1DM.
Farabi, Sarah S; Carley, David W; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta
2015-12-01
Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM) is characterized by altered glucose homeostasis resulting in wide glucose variations throughout a 24-h period. The relationship between routine daily physical activity and glucose variations has not been systematically investigated in adults with T1DM. The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the relationship between routine daily activity and glucose variations in a small group of adults with T1DM. Adults with T1DM treated with an insulin pump were recruited for the study. Over a 3-day period, glucose variations were monitored with a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and routine daily physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer-based physical activity-monitoring band. Simultaneous glucose and physical activity data for one 24-h period were used for analysis. Cross-correlation function and wavelet coherence analyses were employed to quantify the coupling between physical activity and glucose. Twelve subjects were included in the analysis. Cross-correlation function analysis revealed strong coupling between activity and glucose. Wavelet Coherence demonstrated that slower oscillations (120-340 min) of glucose and physical activity exhibited significantly greater coherence (F = 12.6, P < 0.0001) than faster oscillations (10 and 120 min). Physical activity and glucose demonstrate strong time and frequency-dependent coupling throughout a 24-h time period in adults with T1DM. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; A. Hoffmann, Ary
2008-01-01
Physiological and evolutionary responses to thermal variation are often investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. However, this approach may fail to account for the complexity of natural environments. Here we investigated the costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation...... that the ability to locate a field resource has a genetic basis with a high heritability since only round of selection on parental flies (F0) revealed clear differences in the ability of offspring (F1 and F2) to locate field resources at cold temperatures. Again we found a poor association between field...... and laboratory performance emphasising the importance of testing thermal resistance under relevant/natural conditions....
Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...
Weakly coupled mean-field game systems
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-07-14
Here, we prove the existence of solutions to first-order mean-field games (MFGs) arising in optimal switching. First, we use the penalization method to construct approximate solutions. Then, we prove uniform estimates for the penalized problem. Finally, by a limiting procedure, we obtain solutions to the MFG problem. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-03
Jan 3, 2017 ... a phantom field [24,25], quintom [26,27], k-essence. [28], tachyon [29] and so forth. It is well known that the evolution of the Uni- verse admits a scenario of anisotropic expansion and gains a lot of interest, under the light of the recently announced Planck Probe results [7]. The Bianchi models, which describe ...
Watanabe, Norihiro; Blucher, Guido; Cacace, Mauro; Kolditz, Olaf
2016-04-01
A robust and computationally efficient solution is important for 3D modelling of EGS reservoirs. This is particularly the case when the reservoir model includes hydraulic conduits such as induced or natural fractures, fault zones, and wellbore open-hole sections. The existence of such hydraulic conduits results in heterogeneous flow fields and in a strengthened coupling between fluid flow and heat transport processes via temperature dependent fluid properties (e.g. density and viscosity). A commonly employed partitioned solution (or operator-splitting solution) may not robustly work for such strongly coupled problems its applicability being limited by small time step sizes (e.g. 5-10 days) whereas the processes have to be simulated for 10-100 years. To overcome this limitation, an alternative approach is desired which can guarantee a robust solution of the coupled problem with minor constraints on time step sizes. In this work, we present a Newton-Raphson based monolithic coupling approach implemented in the OpenGeoSys simulator (OGS) combined with the Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library. The PETSc library is used for both linear and nonlinear solvers as well as MPI-based parallel computations. The suggested method has been tested by application to the 3D reservoir site of Groß Schönebeck, in northern Germany. Results show that the exact Newton-Raphson approach can also be limited to small time step sizes (e.g. one day) due to slight oscillations in the temperature field. The usage of a line search technique and modification of the Jacobian matrix were necessary to achieve robust convergence of the nonlinear solution. For the studied example, the proposed monolithic approach worked even with a very large time step size of 3.5 years.
Conner, Kyle M; Arostegui, AnnaMaria C; Swanson, Daniel D; Brown, Seth N
2018-03-08
The 2,2'-biphenylene-bridged bis(iminosemiquinone) complexes ( t BuClip)M [ t BuClipH 4 = 4,4'-di- tert-butyl- N, N'-bis(3,5-di- tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-diaminobiphenyl; M = Pd, Pt] can be reduced to the bis(aminophenoxide) complexes ( t BuClipH 2 )M by reaction with hydrazobenzene (M = Pd) or by catalytic hydrogenation (M = Pt). The palladium complex with one aminophenoxide ligand and one iminosemiquinone ligand, ( t BuClipH)Pd, is generated by comproportionation of ( t BuClip)Pd with ( t BuClipH 2 )Pd in a process that is both slow (0.06 M -1 s -1 in toluene at 23 °C) and only modestly favorable ( K com = 1.9 in CDCl 3 ), indicating that both N-H bonds have essentially the same bond strength. The mono(iminoquinone) complex ( t BuClipH)Pt has not been observed, indicating that the platinum analogue shows no tendency to comproportionate ( K com < 0.1). The average bond dissociation free energies (BDFE) of the complexes have been established by equilibration with suitably substituted hydrazobenzenes, and the palladium bis(iminosemiquinone) is markedly more oxidizing than the platinum compound, with hydrogen transfer from ( t BuClipH 2 )Pt to ( t BuClip)Pd occurring with Δ G° = -8.9 kcal mol -1 . The palladium complex ( t BuClipH 2 )Pd reacts with nitroxyl radicals in two observable steps, with the first hydrogen transfer taking place slightly faster than the second. In the platinum analogue, the first hydrogen transfer is much slower than the second, presumably because the N-H bond in the monoradical complex ( t BuClipH)Pt is unusually weak. Using driving force-rate correlations, it is estimated that this bond has a BDFE of 55.1 kcal mol -1 , which is 7.1 kcal mol -1 weaker than that of the first N-H bond in ( t BuClipH 2 )Pt. The two radical centers in the platinum, but not the palladium, complex thus act in concert with each other and display a strong thermodynamic bias toward two-electron reactivity. The greater thermodynamic and kinetic coupling in
Kozin, V. K.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.
2018-01-01
We demonstrate theoretically that a strong high-frequency circularly polarized electromagnetic field can turn a two-dimensional periodic array of interconnected quantum rings into a topological insulator. The elaborated approach is applicable to calculate and analyze the electron energy spectrum of the array, the energy spectrum of the edge states, and the corresponding electronic densities. As a result, the present theory paves the way to optical control of the topological phases in ring-based mesoscopic structures.
On symmetry inheritance of nonminimally coupled scalar fields
Barjašić, Irena; Smolić, Ivica
2018-04-01
We present the first symmetry inheritance analysis of fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. In this work we are focused on the real scalar field ϕ with nonminimal coupling of the form ξφ2 R . Possible cases of symmetry noninheriting fields are constrained by the properties of the Ricci tensor and the scalar potential. Examples of such spacetimes can be found among those which are ‘dressed’ with the stealth scalar field, a nontrivial scalar field configuration with the vanishing energy–momentum tensor. We classify the scalar field potentials which allow symmetry noninheriting stealth field configurations on top of the exact solutions of the Einstein’s gravitational field equation with the cosmological constant.
Effective potential in the strong-coupling lattice QCD with next-to-next-to-learning order effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakano, Takashi Z.; Miura, Kohtaroh; Ohnishi, Akira
2010-01-01
We derive an analytic expression of the effective potential at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ) in the strong-coupling lattice QCD for color SU(3) including next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) effects in the strong coupling expansion. NNLO effective action terms are systematically evaluated in the leading order of the large dimensional (1/d) expansion, and are found to come from some types of connected two-plaquette configurations. We apply the extended Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and a gluonic-dressed fermion technique to the effective action, and obtain the effective potential as a function of T, μ, and two order parameters: chiral condensate and vector potential field. The next-to-leading order (NLO) and NNLO effects result in modifications of the wave function renormalization factor, quark mass, and chemical potential. We find that T c,μ =0 and μ c,T =0 are similar to the NLO results, whereas the position of the critical point is sensitive to NNLO corrections. (author)
Disorder effects on helical edge transport in graphene under a strong tilted magnetic field
Huang, Chunli; Cazalilla, Miguel A.
2015-10-01
In a recent experiment, Young et al. [Nature (London) 505, 528 (2014), 10.1038/nature12800] observed a metal to insulator transition as well as transport through helical edge states in monolayer graphene under a strong, tilted magnetic field. Under such conditions, the bulk is a magnetic insulator which can exhibit metallic conduction through helical edges. It was found that the two-terminal conductance of the helical channels deviates from the expected quantized value (=e2/h per edge, at zero temperature). Motivated by this observation, we study the effect of disorder on the conduction through the edge channels. We show that, unlike for helical edges of topological insulators in semiconducting quantum wells, a disorder Rashba spin-orbit coupling does not lead to backscattering, at least to leading order. Instead, we find that the lack of perfect antialignment of the electron spins in the helical channels to be the most likely cause for backscattering arising from scalar (i.e., spin-independent) impurities. The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and other time-reversal symmetry-breaking and/or sublattice parity-breaking potentials also lead to (subleading) corrections to the channel conductance.
Optical investigation of the strong spin-orbit-coupled magnetic semimetal YbMnBi2
Chaudhuri, Dipanjan; Cheng, Bing; Yaresko, Alexander; Gibson, Quinn D.; Cava, R. J.; Armitage, N. P.
2017-08-01
Strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can result in ground states with nontrivial topological properties. The situation is even richer in magnetic systems where the magnetic ordering can potentially have strong influence over the electronic band structure. The class of A MnBi2 (A = Sr, Ca) compounds are important in this context as they are known to host massive Dirac fermions with strongly anisotropic dispersion, which is believed to be due to the interplay between strong SOC and magnetic degrees of freedom. We report the optical conductivity of YbMnBi2, a newly discovered member of this family and a proposed Weyl semimetal (WSM) candidate with broken time reversal symmetry. Together with density functional theory (DFT) band-structure calculations, we show that the complex conductivity can be interpreted as the sum of an intraband Drude response and interband transitions. We argue that the canting of the magnetic moments that has been proposed to be essential for the realization of the WSM in an otherwise antiferromagnetically ordered system is not necessary to explain the optical conductivity. We believe our data is explained qualitatively by the uncanted magnetic structure with a small offset of the chemical potential from strict stochiometry. We find no definitive evidence of a bulk Weyl nodes. Instead, we see signatures of a gapped Dirac dispersion, common in other members of A MnBi2 family or compounds with similar 2D network of Bi atoms. We speculate that the evidence for a WSM seen in ARPES arises through a surface magnetic phase. Such an assumption reconciles all known experimental data.
Self-diffusion for a weakly-coupled plasma in a magnetic field
Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.
1984-01-01
The longitudinal self-diffusion coefficient for a magnetized plasma with a small plasma parameter is calculated from kinetic theory in the weak-coupling approximation. Asymptotic expressions for this coefficient are derived in the limits of weak and of strong magnetic field. For intermediate
Room temperature strong coupling effects from single ZnO nanowire microcavity
Das, Ayan
2012-05-01
Strong coupling effects in a dielectric microcavity with a single ZnO nanowire embedded in it have been investigated at room temperature. A large Rabi splitting of ?100 meV is obtained from the polariton dispersion and a non-linearity in the polariton emission characteristics is observed at room temperature with a low threshold of 1.63 ?J/cm2, which corresponds to a polariton density an order of magnitude smaller than that for the Mott transition. The momentum distribution of the lower polaritons shows evidence of dynamic condensation and the absence of a relaxation bottleneck. The polariton relaxation dynamics were investigated by timeresolved measurements, which showed a progressive decrease in the polariton relaxation time with increase in polariton density. © 2012 Optical Society of America.
Violation of the Holographic Viscosity Bound in a Strongly Coupled Anisotropic Plasma
Rebhan, Anton; Steineder, Dominik
2012-01-01
We study the conductivity and shear viscosity tensors of a strongly coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma which is kept anisotropic by a θ parameter that depends linearly on one of the spatial dimensions. Its holographic dual is given by an anisotropic axion-dilaton-gravity background and has recently been proposed by Mateos and Trancanelli as a model for the preequilibrium stage of quark-gluon plasma in heavy-ion collisions. By applying the membrane paradigm which we also check by numerical evaluation of Kubo formula and lowest lying quasinormal modes, we find that the shear viscosity purely transverse to the direction of anisotropy saturates the holographic viscosity bound, whereas longitudinal shear viscosities are smaller, providing the first such example not involving higher-derivative theories of gravity and, more importantly, with fully known gauge-gravity correspondence.
Emori, Satoru; Gray, Benjamin A; Jeon, Hyung-Min; Peoples, Joseph; Schmitt, Maxwell; Mahalingam, Krishnamurthy; Hill, Madelyn; McConney, Michael E; Gray, Matthew T; Alaan, Urusa S; Bornstein, Alexander C; Shafer, Padraic; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Arenholz, Elke; Haugstad, Greg; Meng, Keng-Yuan; Yang, Fengyuan; Li, Dongyao; Mahat, Sushant; Cahill, David G; Dhagat, Pallavi; Jander, Albrecht; Sun, Nian X; Suzuki, Yuri; Howe, Brandon M
2017-09-01
Low-loss magnetization dynamics and strong magnetoelastic coupling are generally mutually exclusive properties due to opposing dependencies on spin-orbit interactions. So far, the lack of low-damping, magnetostrictive ferrite films has hindered the development of power-efficient magnetoelectric and acoustic spintronic devices. Here, magnetically soft epitaxial spinel NiZnAl-ferrite thin films with an unusually low Gilbert damping parameter (ferrite. At the same time, the coherently strained film structure suppresses extrinsic damping, enables soft magnetic behavior, and generates large easy-plane magnetoelastic anisotropy. These findings provide a foundation for a new class of low-loss, magnetoelastic thin film materials that are promising for spin-mechanical devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yucel Yildirim
2011-09-01
Full Text Available A generic theory of the quasiparticle superconducting gap in underdoped cuprates is derived in the strong-coupling limit, and found to describe the experimental “second gap” in absolute scale. In drastic contrast to the standard pairing gap associated with Bogoliubov quasiparticle excitations, the quasiparticle gap is shown to originate from anomalous kinetic (scattering processes, with a size unrelated to the pairing strength. Consequently, the k dependence of the gap deviates significantly from the pure d_{x^{2}-y^{2}} wave of the order parameter. Our study reveals a new paradigm for the nature of the superconducting gap, and is expected to reconcile numerous apparent contradictions among existing experiments and point toward a more coherent understanding of high-temperature superconductivity.
Observation of dust acoustic shock wave in a strongly coupled dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Sumita K.; Boruah, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Bailung, H.
2016-01-01
Dust acoustic shock wave is observed in a strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasma. A supersonic flow of charged microparticles is allowed to perturb a stationary dust fluid to excite dust acoustic shock wave. The evolution process beginning with steepening of initial wave front and then formation of a stable shock structure is similar to the numerical results of the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation. The measured Mach number of the observed shock wave agrees with the theoretical results. Reduction of shock amplitude at large distances is also observed due to the dust neutral collision and viscosity effects. The dispersion relation and the spatial damping of a linear dust acoustic wave are also measured and compared with the relevant theory.
Strong Bulk-Edge Coupling in the Compressible Half-Filled Quantum Hall State
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milovanovic, M.V.; Shimshoni, E.
1999-01-01
We studied analytically static correlators in the compressible half-filled quantum Hall state, which characterize the nature of charged excitations in the bulk and on the edge of the system. We employ a modified version of the plasma analogy - namely, a mapping to a classical two-dimensional system of interacting particles - similarly to what has been done in studies of the incompressible (Laughlin) states. However, the 'fake plasma' corresponding to the half-filled state is found to have anomalously weak screening properties. As a consequence, the correlations along the edge do not decay algebraically as in the incompressible case, thus indicating the breakdown of Wen's edge theory. On the other hand, the bulk correlator (which parallels the Girvin-MacDonald algebraic off-diagonal long range order) decays algebraically in a similar way as in the incompressible states, signifying the presence of some kind of bosonic order even in the compressible state. The above results suggest that due to the strong coupling between charged modes on the edge and the neutral Fermions (dipoles) in the bulk, the (attractive) correlation hole is not well defined on the edge. Hence, the system there can be modeled as a free Fermi gas of electrons (with an appropriate boundary condition). A possible experimental indication of a strong bulk-edge coupling at half-filling has been indeed observed in non-local resistance measurements [1]. We also suggest, that while our results contradict the validity of an effective one-dimensional description of the edge excitations on the static level, the dynamics may decouple the edge and bulk so as to recover the Laughlin-like behavior apparent in the experiment of Grayson et al
Radiation by a heavy quark in N=4 SYM at strong coupling
Hatta, Y; Mueller, A H; Triantafyllopoulos, D N
2011-01-01
Using the AdS/CFT correspondence in the supergravity approximation, we compute the energy density radiated by a heavy quark undergoing some arbitrary motion in the vacuum of the strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We find that this energy is fully generated via backreaction from the near-boundary endpoint of the dual string attached to the heavy quark. Because of that, the energy distribution shows the same space-time localization as the classical radiation that would be produced by the heavy quark at weak coupling. We believe that this and some other unnatural features of our result (like its anisotropy and the presence of regions with negative energy density) are artifacts of the supergravity approximation, which will be corrected after including string fluctuations. For the case where the quark trajectory is bounded, we also compute the radiated power, by integrating the energy density over the surface of a sphere at infinity. For sufficiently large times, we find agreement with a previo...
Crossover from weak to strong coupling superconductivity in multi-band systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinola Neto, Francisco [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ, 24.210-340 (Brazil); Continentino, Mucio A [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas FIsicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud, 150-Urca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22290-180 (Brazil); Lacroix, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.lacroix@grenoble.cnrs.f [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2010-02-24
The study of superconductivity in correlated systems is an exciting area of condensed matter physics. In this paper we consider superconducting ground states in systems described by two-band models with different effective masses. These two bands are coupled through an effective hybridization that can be directly tuned by pressure. We consider the cases of s-wave superconductivity associated with the electrons in a narrow band and also with inter-band pairing. To study the system in the strong coupling regime we introduce the s-wave scattering length a{sub s}, and obtain the superconducting order parameters and the chemical potential as functions of the interaction strength 1/k{sub F}a{sub s} along the BCS-BEC crossover at T = 0. Finally, we discuss the phase diagram of this model as a function of external pressure and how our results can be applied for two-band systems as Fe pnictides or heavy fermions. The main result of this study is the occurrence of a superconducting quantum critical point (SQCP) in this two-band model.
Lasing by driven atoms-cavity system in collective strong coupling regime.
Sawant, Rahul; Rangwala, S A
2017-09-12
The interaction of laser cooled atoms with resonant light is determined by the natural linewidth of the excited state. An optical cavity is another optically resonant system where the loss from the cavity determines the resonant optical response of the system. The near resonant combination of an optical Fabry-Pérot cavity with laser cooled and trapped atoms couples two distinct optical resonators via light and has great potential for precision measurements and the creation of versatile quantum optics systems. Here we show how driven magneto-optically trapped atoms in collective strong coupling regime with the cavity leads to lasing at a frequency red detuned from the atomic transition. Lasing is demonstrated experimentally by the observation of a lasing threshold accompanied by polarization and spatial mode purity, and line-narrowing in the outcoupled light. Spontaneous emission into the cavity mode by the driven atoms stimulates lasing action, which is capable of operating as a continuous wave laser in steady state, without a seed laser. The system is modeled theoretically, and qualitative agreement with experimentally observed lasing is seen. Our result opens up a range of new measurement possibilities with this system.
Inverse magnetic catalysis from the properties of the QCD coupling in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayala, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico); Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Dominguez, C.A. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Hernández, L.A., E-mail: HRNLUI001@myuct.ac.za [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Loewe, M. [Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Zamora, R. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aeroespaciales (CIDCA), Fuerza Aérea de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Diego Portales, Casilla 298-V, Santiago (Chile)
2016-08-10
We compute the vacuum one-loop quark–gluon vertex correction at zero temperature in the presence of a magnetic field. From the vertex function we extract the effective quark–gluon coupling and show that it grows with increasing magnetic field strength. The effect is due to a subtle competition between the color charge associated to gluons and the color charge associated to quarks, the former being larger than the latter. In contrast, at high temperature the effective thermo-magnetic coupling results exclusively from the contribution of the color charge associated to quarks. This produces a decrease of the coupling with increasing field strength. We interpret the results in terms of a geometrical effect whereby the magnetic field induces, on average, a closer distance between the (electrically charged) quarks and antiquarks. At high temperature, since the effective coupling is proportional only to the color charge associated to quarks, such proximity with increasing field strength makes the effective coupling decrease due to asymptotic freedom. In turn, this leads to a decreasing quark condensate. In contrast, at zero temperature both the effective strong coupling and the quark condensate increase with increasing magnetic field. This is due to the color charge associated to gluons dominating over that associated to quarks, with both having the opposite sign. Thus, the gluons induce a kind of screening of the quark color charge, in spite of the quark–antiquark proximity. We discuss the implications for the inverse magnetic catalysis phenomenon.
Ilgen, Julian; Kaltschnee, Lukas; Thiele, Christina M.
2018-01-01
Motivated by the persisting need for enhanced resolution in solution state NMR spectra, pure shift techniques such as Zangger-Sterk decoupling have recently attracted widespread interest. These techniques for homonuclear decoupling offer enhanced resolution in one- and multidimensional proton detected experiments by simplifying multiplet structures. In this work, a modification to the popular Zangger-Sterk technique PEPSIE (Perfect Echo Pure Shift Improved Experiment) is presented, which decouples pairs of spins even if they share the same volume element. This in turn can drastically improve the sensitivity, as compared to classical Zangger-Sterk decoupling, as larger volume elements can be used to collect the detected signal. Most interestingly, even in the presence of moderate strong coupling, the PEPSIE experiment produces clean and widely artifact free spectra. In order to better understand this - to us initially - surprising behaviour we performed analyses using numerical simulations and derived an (approximate) analytical solution from density matrix formalism. We show that this experiment is particularly suitable to study samples with strong signal clustering, a situation which can render classic Zangger-Sterk decoupling inefficient.
Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowler, E.P.
1964-03-01
The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10 -8 A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10 -10 A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with very
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta, L.; Martel, I.; Perez-Bernal, F.; Rodriguez, D.; Sanchez-Benitez, A.M. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Huelva (Spain); Alvarez, M.A.G.; Gomez-Camacho, J. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-Junta de Andalucia, Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain); Andres, M.V.; Espino, J.M.; Moro, A.M.; Mukha, I. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Borge, M.J.G.; Cortes, M.; Galaviz, D.; Maira, A.; Reillo, E.; Tengblad, O. [CSIC, Madrid, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Madrid (Spain); Rusek, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland)
2009-12-15
The angular distribution for {sup 11}Be+{sup 120}Sn quasielastic scattering at E{sub lab}=32 MeV was measured at REX-ISOLDE, CERN. The interpretation of the data in terms of coupled-channel calculations suggests a strong coupling with the p-states lying in the continuum. (orig.)
Zhang, C.; Feng, T.; Raabe, N.; Rottke, H.
2018-02-01
Strong-field ionization (SFI) of the homonuclear noble gas dimer Xe2 is investigated and compared with SFI of the Xe atom and of the ArXe heteronuclear dimer by using ultrashort Ti:sapphire laser pulses and photoelectron momentum spectroscopy. The large separation of the two nuclei of the dimer allows the study of two-equivalent-center interference effects on the photoelectron momentum distribution. Comparing the experimental results with a new model calculation, which is based on the strong-field approximation, actually reveals the influence of interference. Moreover, the comparison indicates that the presence of closely spaced gerade and ungerade electronic state pairs of the Xe2 + ion at the Xe2 ionization threshold, which are strongly dipole coupled, affects the photoelectron momentum distribution.
Massive Abelian gauge fields coupled with nonconserved currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.
1985-04-01
A massive Abelian gauge field coupled with a nonconserved mass-changing current is described within the framework of canonical quantum theory with indefinite metric. In addition to the conventional Lagrange multiplier fields, another ghost field is introduced to preserve gauge invariance and unitarity of a physical S-matrix in the case of the nonconserved current. The renormalizability of the theory is explicitly shown in the sense of superpropagator approach for nonpolynomial Lagrangian theories. (author)
Exchange bias and major coercivity enhancement in strongly-coupled CuO/Co films
Gamino, M.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Salazar Cuaila, J. L.; Schmidt, J. E.; Skumryev, V.; Geshev, J.
2018-03-01
The exchange-bias properties of ferromagnetic, either Co or Ni, thin films deposited onto polycrystalline multiferroic CuO are investigated. After field cooling, the CuO/Co magnetization hysteresis loops show exchange bias at temperatures lower than 200 K, while the CuO/Ni system exhibits bias below about 5 K only. It is suggested that the exchange bias of CuO/Co is determined mainly by the magnetization reversal that takes place on the descending branch of the loop. Rather high values of both the interface coupling energy, 0.89 erg/cm2, and coercivity, 2.44 kOe, of the CuO/Co film are obtained at 5 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.
2011-01-01
The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.
Redshift of A 1(longitudinal optical) mode for GaN crystals under strong electric field
Gu, Hong; Wu, Kaijie; Zheng, Shunan; Shi, Lin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Zhenghui; Liu, Xinke; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Taofei; Xu, Ke
2018-01-01
We investigated the property of GaN crystals under a strong electric field. The Raman spectra of GaN were measured using an ultraviolet laser, and a remarkable redshift of the A 1(LO) mode was observed. The role of the surface depletion layer was discussed, and the interrelation between the electric field and phonons was revealed. First-principles calculations indicated that, in particular, the phonons that vibrate along the [0001] direction are strongly influenced by the electric field. This effect was confirmed by a surface photovoltage experiment. The results revealed the origin of the redshift and presented the phonon property of GaN under a strong electric field.
Bare coupling constants and asymptotic behaviour in reggeon field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baig, M.
1983-01-01
A relation between the values of bare coupling constants and the asymptotic behaviour of the reggeon field theory (RFT) is discussed. It is shown how the numerical values of bare coupling constants fix the starting point of renormalization group trajectories which, in turn, determine the asymptotic behaviour of the RFT. Applications to a pure pomeron theory and a pomeron plus f-pole model are discussed. Some nontrivial phenomenological information concerning the values of bare triple-Regge pomeron-f-pole coupling constants is obtained
Classical trajectory perspective of atomic ionization in strong laser fields semiclassical modeling
Liu, Jie
2014-01-01
The ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is an active field in modern physics and has versatile applications in such as attosecond physics, X-ray generation, inertial confined fusion (ICF), medical science and so on. Classical Trajectory Perspective of Atomic Ionization in Strong Laser Fields covers the basic concepts in this field and discusses many interesting topics using the semiclassical model of classical trajectory ensemble simulation, which is one of the most successful ionization models and has the advantages of a clear picture, feasible computing and accounting for many exquisite experiments quantitatively. The book also presents many applications of the model in such topics as the single ionization, double ionization, neutral atom acceleration and other timely issues in strong field physics, and delivers useful messages to readers with presenting the classical trajectory perspective on the strong field atomic ionization. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faucher, V.
2014-01-01
This HDR is dedicated to the research in the framework of fast transient dynamics for industrial fluid-structure systems carried in the Laboratory of Dynamic Studies from CEA, implementing new numerical methods for the modelling of complex systems and the parallel solution of large coupled problems on supercomputers. One key issue for the proposed approaches is the limitation to its minimum of the number of non-physical parameters, to cope with constraints arising from the area of usage of the concepts: safety for both nuclear applications (CEA, EDF) and aeronautics (ONERA), protection of the citizen (EC/JRC) in particular. Kinematic constraints strongly coupling structures (namely through unilateral contact) or fluid and structures (with both conformant or non-conformant meshes depending on the geometrical situation) are handled through exact methods including Lagrange Multipliers, with consequences on the solution strategy to be dealt with. This latter aspect makes EPX, the simulation code where the methods are integrated, a singular tool in the community of fast transient dynamics software. The document mainly relies on a description of the modelling needs for industrial fast transient scenarios, for nuclear applications in particular, and the proposed solutions built in the framework of the collaboration between CEA, EDF (via the LaMSID laboratory) and the LaMCoS laboratory from INSA Lyon. The main considered examples are the tearing of the fluid-filled tank after impact, the Code Disruptive Accident for a Generation IV reactor or the ruin of reinforced concrete structures under impact. Innovative models and parallel algorithms are thus proposed, allowing to carry out with robustness and performance the corresponding simulations on supercomputers made of interconnected multi-core nodes, with a strict preservation of the quality of the physical solution. This was particularly the main point of the ANR RePDyn project (2010-2013), with CEA as the pilot. (author
Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.; Lein, M.
2018-01-01
Using the semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization we investigate the interference structures emerging in strong-field photoelectron holography, taking into account the Coulomb potential of the atomic core. For every kind of the interference pattern predicted by the three-step model, we calculate the corresponding structure in the presence of the Coulomb field, showing that the Coulomb potential modifies the interference patterns significantly.
Molecular quantum magnetism with strong spin-orbit coupling in inorganic solid Ba3Yb2Zn5O11
Park, Sang-Youn; Ji, Sungdae; Park, Jae-Hoon; Do, Seunghwan; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Jang, Dongjin; Schmidt, Burkhard; Brando, Manuel; Butch, Nicholas
The molecular magnet, assembly of finite number of spins which are isolated from environment, is a model system to study the quantum information process such as the qubit or spintronic devices. In past decades, the molecular magnet has been mostly realized in organic material, however, it has difficulty synthesizing materials or controlling their properties, meanwhile tremendous endeavors to search inorganic molecular magnet are continuing. Here, we propose Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 as a candidate of inorganic molecular magnet. This material consists of an alternating 3D-array of small and large tetrahedron containing antiferromagnetically coupled four pseudospin-1/2 Yb ions, and magnetic properties are described by an isolated tetrahedron without long-range magnetic ordering. Inelastic neutron scattering measurement with external magnetic field reveals that extraordinarily huge Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction originating from strong spin-orbit coupling in Yb isospin is the key to explain energy level of tetrahedron in addition to Heisenberg exchange interaction and Zeeman effect. Magnetization measurement shows the Landau-Zener transition between avoided crossing levels caused by DM interaction.
Angular structure of jet quenching within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gulhan, Doga Can [CERN, EP Department,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP),Av. Elias Garcia 14-1, P-1000-149 Lisboa (Portugal); Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2017-03-27
Within the context of a hybrid strong/weak coupling model of jet quenching, we study the modification of the angular distribution of the energy within jets in heavy ion collisions, as partons within jet showers lose energy and get kicked as they traverse the strongly coupled plasma produced in the collision. To describe the dynamics transverse to the jet axis, we add the effects of transverse momentum broadening into our hybrid construction, introducing a parameter K≡q̂/T{sup 3} that governs its magnitude. We show that, because of the quenching of the energy of partons within a jet, even when K≠0 the jets that survive with some specified energy in the final state are narrower than jets with that energy in proton-proton collisions. For this reason, many standard observables are rather insensitive to K. We propose a new differential jet shape ratio observable in which the effects of transverse momentum broadening are apparent. We also analyze the response of the medium to the passage of the jet through it, noting that the momentum lost by the jet appears as the momentum of a wake in the medium. After freezeout this wake becomes soft particles with a broad angular distribution but with net momentum in the jet direction, meaning that the wake contributes to what is reconstructed as a jet. This effect must therefore be included in any description of the angular structure of the soft component of a jet. We show that the particles coming from the response of the medium to the momentum and energy deposited in it leads to a correlation between the momentum of soft particles well separated from the jet in angle with the direction of the jet momentum, and find qualitative but not quantitative agreement with experimental data on observables designed to extract such a correlation. More generally, by confronting the results that we obtain upon introducing transverse momentum broadening and the response of the medium to the jet with available jet data, we highlight the
Strong Coupling and Bounds on the Spin-2 Mass in Massive Gravity
Burrage, Clare; Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio
2013-07-01
The de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley theory of a single massive spin-2 field has a cutoff much below its Planck scale because the extra modes from the massive spin-2 multiplet involve higher derivative self-interactions, controlled by a scale convoluted from its mass. Generically, these correct the propagator by environmental effects. The resulting effective cutoff depends on the environmental parameters and the spin-2 “graviton” mass. Requiring the theory to be perturbative down to O(1)mm, we derive bounds on the mass, corresponding to ≳O(1)meV for the generic case, assuming the coupling to be given by the standard Newton’s constant, and somewhat weaker bounds in cases with fine-tuning. Thus, the theory of a single massive spin-2 can really only be viewed as a theory describing the full nonlinear propagation of a massive spin-2 field on a fixed background and not as an approximation to general relativity.
Strongly coupled interaction between a ridge of fluid and an inviscid airflow
Paterson, C.
2015-07-01
© 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. The behaviour of a steady thin sessile or pendent ridge of fluid on an inclined planar substrate which is strongly coupled to the external pressure gradient arising from an inviscid airflow parallel to the substrate far from the ridge is described. When the substrate is nearly horizontal, a very wide ridge can be supported against gravity by capillary and/or external pressure forces; otherwise, only a narrower (but still wide) ridge can be supported. Classical thin-aerofoil theory is adapted to obtain the governing singular integro-differential equation for the profile of the ridge in each case. Attention is focused mainly on the case of a very wide sessile ridge. The effect of strengthening the airflow is to push a pinned ridge down near to its edges and to pull it up near to its middle. At a critical airflow strength, the upslope contact angle reaches the receding contact angle at which the upslope contact line de-pins, and continuing to increase the airflow strength beyond this critical value results in the de-pinned ridge becoming narrower, thicker, and closer to being symmetric in the limit of a strong airflow. The effect of tilting the substrate is to skew a pinned ridge in the downslope direction. Depending on the values of the advancing and receding contact angles, the ridge may first de-pin at either the upslope or the downslope contact line but, in general, eventually both contact lines de-pin. The special cases in which only one of the contact lines de-pins are also considered. It is also shown that the behaviour of a very wide pendent ridge is qualitatively similar to that of a very wide sessile ridge, while the important qualitative difference between the behaviour of a very wide ridge and a narrower ridge is that, in general, for the latter one or both of the contact lines may never de-pin.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loeffler, Andreas
2008-11-05
At the beginning, we improved the three dimensional optical confinement of the micropillars. The quality factor of the pillars could be increased by the use of higher reflectivity mirrors and a matched V/III ratio for the different epitaxial layers. Hence, a record quality factor of about 90000 was achieved for an active micropillar with 26 (30) mirror pairs in the top (bottom) DBR and a diameter of 4 {mu}m. In parallel to this, we made studies on the growth of self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Here, the nucleation of three dimensional islands as well as their optical properties were object of the investigation. The morphological properties of the dots were analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and the optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence and photoreflectance measurements. The optical and particularly the morphological properties of the self-assembled GaInAs quantum dots were essentially improved. Due to a low strain nucleation layer with an indium content of 30 %, the dot density could be reduced to 6-9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} and their geometric dimensions were increased to typical lengths between 50 and 100 nm and widths of about 30 nm. The lattice mismatch between the quantum dots and the surrounding matrix is decreased due to the reduced indium content. The minimized strain during the dot growth leads to an enhanced migration length of the deposited atoms on the surface. Finally, the obtained findings of the MBE growth of microcavities, their fabrication and the self-assembled island growth of GaInAs on GaAs were used for the realization of further samples. Low strain GaInAs quantum dots were embedded into the microresonators. These structures allowed for the first time the observation of strong coupling between light and matter in a semiconductor. In case of the low strain quantum dots with enlarged dimensions in the strong coupling regime, a vacuum Rabi-splitting of about 140 {mu}eV between the
Coupling non-gravitational fields with simplicial spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jonathan R; Miller, Warner A
2010-01-01
The inclusion of source terms in discrete gravity is a long-standing problem. Providing a consistent coupling of source to the lattice in the Regge calculus (RC) yields a robust unstructured spacetime mesh applicable to both numerical relativity and quantum gravity. RC provides a particularly insightful approach to this problem with its purely geometric representation of spacetime. The simplicial building blocks of RC enable us to represent all matter and fields in a coordinate-free manner. We provide an interpretation of RC as a discrete exterior calculus framework into which non-gravitational fields naturally couple with the simplicial lattice. Using this approach we obtain a consistent mapping of the continuum action for non-gravitational fields to the Regge lattice. In this paper we apply this framework to scalar, vector and tensor fields. In particular we reconstruct the lattice action for (1) the scalar field, (2) Maxwell field tensor and (3) Dirac particles. The straightforward application of our discretization techniques to these three fields demonstrates a universal implementation of the coupling source to the lattice in RC.
On the evolution of jet energy and opening angle in strongly coupled plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chesler, Paul M.; Rajagopal, Krishna
2016-01-01
We calculate how the energy and the opening angle of jets in N=4 SYM theory evolve as they propagate through the strongly coupled plasma of that theory. We define the rate of energy loss dE jet /dx and the jet opening angle in a straightforward fashion directly in the gauge theory before calculating both holographically, in the dual gravitational description. In this way, we rederive the previously known result for dE jet /dx without the need to introduce a finite slab of plasma. We obtain a striking relationship between the initial opening angle of the jet, which is to say the opening angle that it would have had if it had found itself in vacuum instead of in plasma, and the thermalization distance of the jet. Via this relationship, we show that N=4 SYM jets with any initial energy that have the same initial opening angle and the same trajectory through the plasma experience the same fractional energy loss. We also provide an expansion that describes how the opening angle of the N=4 SYM jets increases slowly as they lose energy, over the fraction of their lifetime when their fractional energy loss is not yet large. We close by looking ahead toward potential qualitative lessons from our results for QCD jets produced in heavy collisions and propagating through quark-gluon plasma.
Precision determination of the strong coupling constant within a global PDF analysis arXiv
Ball, Richard D.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma; Ubiali, Maria
We present a determination of the strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ based on the NNPDF3.1 determination of parton distributions, which for the first time includes constraints from jet production, top-quark pair differential distributions, and the $Z$ $p_T$ distributions using exact NNLO theory. Our result is based on a novel extension of the NNPDF methodology - the correlated replica method - which allows for a simultaneous determination of $\\alpha_s$ and the PDFs with all correlations between them fully taken into account. We study in detail all relevant sources of experimental, methodological and theoretical uncertainty. At NNLO we find $\\alpha_s(m_Z) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0005^\\text{(exp)}\\pm 0.0001^\\text{(meth)}$, showing that methodological uncertainties are negligible. We conservatively estimate the theoretical uncertainty due to missing higher order QCD corrections (N$^3$LO and beyond) from half the shift between the NLO and NNLO $\\alpha_s$ values, finding $\\Delta\\alpha^{\\rm th}_s =0.0011$.
Measurement of jet production with the ATLAS detector and extraction of the strong coupling constant
Sawyer, Lee; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The production of jets at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD at the highest energies. The process can also be used to probe the gluon density function of the proton. Specific topologies can be used to extract the strong coupling constant. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the inclusive jet production cross section in data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8TeV and 13TeV. The measurements have been performed differentially in jet rapidity and transverse momentum. The collaboration also presents a first measurement of the di-jet cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV as a function of the di-jet mass and rapidity. The results have been compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in pQCD, interfaced with different parton distribution functions and can be used to constrain the proton structure. We also present new measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations (TEEC) and their associated asymmetries (ATEEC) in multi-jet events at a center...
Mamo, Kiminad A.
2012-10-01
We study holographic RG flow of the shear viscosity tensor of anisotropic, strongly coupled {N}=4 super-Yang-Mills plasma by using its type IIB supergravity dual in anisotropic bulk spacetime. We find that the shear viscosity tensor has three independent components in the anisotropic bulk spacetime away from the boundary, and one of the components has a non-trivial RG flow while the other two have a trivial one. For the component of the shear viscosity tensor with non-trivial RG flow, we derive its RG flow equation, and solve the equation analytically to second order in the anisotropy parameter a. We derive the RG equation using the equation of motion, holographic Wilsonian RG method, and Kubo's formula. All methods give the same result. Solving the equation, we find that the ratio of the component of the shear viscosity tensor to entropy density η /s flows from above 1/{4π } the horizon (IR) to below 1/{4π } the boundary (UV) where it violates the holographic shear viscosity (Kovtun-Son-Starinets) bound and where it agrees with the other longitudinal component.
Wang, Hao; Cao, Yingjie; Sun, Cheng; Zou, Guifu; Huang, Jianwen; Kuai, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Jianqing; Gao, Lijun
2017-09-22
High-performance and affordable electrocatalysts from earth-abundant elements are desirably pursued for water splitting involving hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, a bifunctional electrocatalyst of highly crystalline Mo 2 C nanoparticles supported on carbon sheets (Mo 2 C/CS) was designed toward overall water splitting. Owing to the highly active catalytic nature of Mo 2 C nanoparticles, the high surface area of carbon sheets and efficient charge transfer in the strongly coupled composite, the designed catalysts show excellent bifunctional behavior with an onset potential of -60 mV for HER and an overpotential of 320 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm -2 for OER in 1 m KOH while maintaining robust stability. Moreover, the electrolysis cell using the catalyst only requires a low cell voltage of 1.73 V to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm -2 and maintains the activity for more than 100 h when employing the Mo 2 C/CS catalyst as both anode and cathode electrodes. Such high performance makes Mo 2 C/CS a promising electrocatalyst for practical hydrogen production from water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Engineering light emission of two-dimensional materials in both the weak and strong coupling regimes
Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.; Ballesteros, Guillem C.; Gerardot, Brian D.; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have promising applications in optoelectronics, photonics, and quantum technologies. However, their intrinsically low light absorption limits their performance, and potential devices must be accurately engineered for optimal operation. Here, we apply a transfer matrix-based source-term method to optimize light absorption and emission in 2D materials and related devices in weak and strong coupling regimes. The implemented analytical model accurately accounts for experimental results reported for representative 2D materials such as graphene and MoS2. The model has been extended to propose structures to optimize light emission by exciton recombination in MoS2 single layers, light extraction from arbitrarily oriented dipole monolayers, and single-photon emission in 2D materials. Also, it has been successfully applied to retrieve exciton-cavity interaction parameters from MoS2 microcavity experiments. The present model appears as a powerful and versatile tool for the design of new optoelectronic devices based on 2D semiconductors such as quantum light sources and polariton lasers.
The ATLAS Measurements of Jet Production and the Strong Coupling Constant
Sawyer, Lee; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The production of jets at hadron colliders provides a stringent test of perturbative QCD at the highest energies. The process can also be used to probe the gluon density in the parton distribution function of the proton. Specific topologies can be used to extract the strong coupling constant. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the inclusive jet production cross section in data collected at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements have been performed differentially in jet rapidity and transverse momentum. The collaboration also presents a first measurement of the dijet cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV as a function of the dijet invariant mass and rapidity. The results have been compared with state-of-the-art theory predictions at NLO in pQCD, interfaced with different parton distribution functions and can be used to constrain the proton structure. We also present new measurements of transverse energy-energy correlations (TEEC) and their associated asymmetries (...
Heavy flavor at the large hadron collider in a strong coupling approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He, Min [Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Fries, Rainer J.; Rapp, Ralf [Cyclotron Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States)
2014-07-30
Employing nonperturbative transport coefficients for heavy-flavor (HF) diffusion through quark–gluon plasma (QGP), hadronization and hadronic matter, we compute D- and B-meson observables in Pb+Pb (√(s)=2.76 TeV) collisions at the LHC. Elastic heavy-quark scattering in the QGP is evaluated within a thermodynamic T-matrix approach, generating resonances close to the critical temperature which are utilized for recombination into D and B mesons, followed by hadronic diffusion using effective hadronic scattering amplitudes. The transport coefficients are implemented via Fokker–Planck Langevin dynamics within hydrodynamic simulations of the bulk medium in nuclear collisions. The hydro expansion is quantitatively constrained by transverse-momentum spectra and elliptic flow of light hadrons. Our approach thus incorporates the paradigm of a strongly coupled medium in both bulk and HF dynamics throughout the thermal evolution of the system. At low and intermediate p{sub T}, HF observables at LHC are reasonably well accounted for, while discrepancies at high p{sub T} are indicative for radiative mechanisms not included in our approach.
One-loop QCD thermodynamics in a strong homogeneous and static magnetic field
Rath, Shubhalaxmi; Patra, Binoy Krishna
2017-12-01
We have studied how the equation of state of thermal QCD with two light flavors is modified in a strong magnetic field. We calculate the thermodynamic observables of hot QCD matter up to one-loop, where the magnetic field affects mainly the quark contribution and the gluon part is largely unaffected except for the softening of the screening mass. We have first calculated the pressure of a thermal QCD medium in a strong magnetic field, where the pressure at fixed temperature increases with the magnetic field faster than the increase with the temperature at constant magnetic field. This can be understood from the dominant scale of thermal medium in the strong magnetic field, being the magnetic field, in the same way that the temperature dominates in a thermal medium in the absence of magnetic field. Thus although the presence of a strong magnetic field makes the pressure of hot QCD medium larger, the dependence of pressure on the temperature becomes less steep. Consistent with the above observations, the entropy density is found to decrease with the temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field which is again consistent with the fact that the strong magnetic field restricts the dynamics of quarks to two dimensions, hence the phase space becomes squeezed resulting in the reduction of number of microstates. Moreover the energy density is seen to decrease and the speed of sound of thermal QCD medium increases in the presence of a strong magnetic field. These findings could have phenomenological implications in heavy ion collisions because the expansion dynamics of the medium produced in non-central ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is effectively controlled by both the energy density and the speed of sound.
Gauge field localization on the brane through geometrical coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alencar, G., E-mail: geova@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60451-970 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Landim, R.R., E-mail: rrlandim@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60451-970 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Tahim, M.O., E-mail: makarius.tahim@uece.br [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Faculdade de Educação, Ciências e Letras do Sertão Central – R. Epitácio Pessoa, 2554, 63.900-000 Quixadá, Ceará (Brazil); Costa Filho, R.N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, 60451-970 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)
2014-12-12
In this paper we consider a geometrical Yukawa coupling as a solution to the problem of gauge field localization. We show that upon dimensional reduction the vector field component of the field is localized but the scalar component (A{sub 5}) is not. We show this for any smooth version of the Randall–Sundrum model. The covariant version of the model with geometrical coupling simplifies the generalization to smooth versions generated by topological defects. This kind of model has been considered some time ago, but there it has been introduced with two free parameters in order to get a localized solution which satisfy the boundary conditions: a mass term in five dimensions and a coupling with the brane. The boundary condition fixes one of them and the model is left with one free parameter M. First we show that by considering a Yukawa coupling with the Ricci scalar it is possible to unify these two parameters into just one fixed by the boundary condition. With this we get a consistent model with no free parameters and the mass term can be interpreted as a coupling to the cosmological constant.
High energy heavy ion collisions from the view point of the 'strong field physics'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itakura, Kazunori
2012-01-01
In the high energy heavy ion collisions at the facilities like RHIC and LHC, two strongest fields in the present universe are generated. First of all, a very strong electromagnetic field is generated, though its duration is very short due to the very high speed collisions of nuclei and the large electric charges. On the other hand, the nuclei are described as the high density saturation gluon state just before the moment of the collision and the high density gluon is released by the collision. A very strong color electromagnetic field is generated. The color glass condensate (CGC) is a reasonable picture. In this text, dynamics of the GLASMA (Glass + plasma), the new physics brought about by those 'strong fields', are introduced and are explained how the yet unsolved problems of the heavy ion collisions are going to be investigated on the new view point. The mechanism of the apparitions of the strong electromagnetic field and the strong color electromagnetic field are explained at first. The heavy ion collisions can be described as the process CGC to develop into QGP. As the phenomena under the strong electromagnetic field and the heavy ion collisions, their synchrotron radiations, the photon birefringence, the photon decay, the splitting of photons and the chiral phase transitions under high field are picked up. Concerning the strong color electromagnetic field dynamics and the heavy ion collisions, the plasma flux tube dynamics, the color magnetic flux tube, the color electric flux tube and the coexisting case of the color electric field and magnetic field are presented. (S. Funahashi)
Control and identification of strong field dissociative channels in CO2+ via molecular alignment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oppermann, M; Weber, S J; Marangos, J P; Morales, F; Richter, M; Patchkovskii, S; Ivanov, M; Smirnova, O; Csehi, A; Vibók, Á
2014-01-01
The dissociative excitation of CO 2 + was studied in the molecular frame as a function of probe laser intensity, ellipticity and polarization with respect to the molecular bond at laser wavelengths of 800 nm and 1350 nm. This allowed the identification of the main excitation pathway consisting of tunnel ionization from HOMO-2 followed by a parallel dipole transition from the second excited state B to the predissociating, third excited state C. Recollision excitation was shown to play a negligible role. Using laser induced impulsive alignment, the strong field induced coupling at 800 nm and 1350 nm of the ionic states B and C could thus be controlled by the laser polarization. This leads to a suppression of the fragmentation yield of up to 70% when the laser polarization was perpendicular to the molecular axis compared to parallel polarization. We have performed simulations of various ionization channels of CO 2 . Our simulations reflect the experimental findings and show that dissociation of CO 2 + is induced by tunnelling from deeper molecular orbitals HOMO-1, HOMO-2, HOMO-3, followed by laser driven hole dynamics in the ion. (paper)
Dynamics of coupled field solitons: A collective coordinate approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we consider a class of systems of two coupled real scalar fields in bidimensional space-time, with the main motivation of studying classical stability of soliton solutions using collective coordinate approach. First, we present the class of systems of the collective coordinate equations which are derived using the ...
Coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, coupled Higgs field equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation are studied using the Lie classical method. Symmetry reductions and exact solutions are reported for Higgs equation and Hamiltonian amplitude equation. We also establish the travelling wave solutions involving parameters of the ...
Linear classical stability from three coupled real scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima; Silva Filho, Pedro Barbosa da; Vaidya, A.N.
1997-01-01
We investigate the linear classical stability of static solitons for a system of three coupled real scalar fields in 1+1 dimensions. We consider a general positive potential with a square form and show that the associated three-component normal modes are non-negatives. (author)
Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The dilaton black hole solutions have attracted considerable attention for the last few years and there exists fairly exhaustive literature on the subject [1–4]. When the dilaton field is a coupled system or in other words when we consider a charged dilaton sphere, the so- lutions are significantly modified from the ordinary black ...
Dynamics of coupled field solitons: A collective coordinate approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mensional space-time, with the main motivation of studying classical stability of soliton solutions using collective coordinate ... presented in some previous works [1,2] which where motivated by investigations intro- duced in [3,4], ... The collision of coupled field solitons leads to resonance structure depending on the energy ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Decker, K.; Hamburg Univ.
1985-12-01
An efficient description of all clusters contributing to the strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in three-dimensional pure Z 2 lattice gauge theory is presented. This description is correct to all orders in the strong coupling expansion and is chosen in such a way that it remains valid in four dimensions for gauge group Z 2 . Relying on this description an algorithm has been constructed which generates and processes all the contributing graphs to the exact strong coupling expansion of the mass gap in the three-dimensional model in a fully automatic fashion. A major component of this algorithm can also be used to generate exact strong coupling expansions for the free energy logZ. The algorithm is correct to any order; thus the order of these expansions is only limited by the available computing power. The presentation of the algorithm is such that it can serve as a guide-line for the construction of a generalized one which would also generate exact strong coupling expansions for the masses of low-lying excited states of four-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Haihua [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhang, Hongbin [Idaho National Laboratory; Zou, Ling [Idaho National Laboratory; Martineau, Richard Charles [Idaho National Laboratory
2015-03-01
The reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system in a boiling water reactor (BWR) provides makeup cooling water to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) when the main steam lines are isolated and the normal supply of water to the reactor vessel is lost. The RCIC system operates independently of AC power, service air, or external cooling water systems. The only required external energy source is from the battery to maintain the logic circuits to control the opening and/or closure of valves in the RCIC systems in order to control the RPV water level by shutting down the RCIC pump to avoid overfilling the RPV and flooding the steam line to the RCIC turbine. It is generally considered in almost all the existing station black-out accidents (SBO) analyses that loss of the DC power would result in overfilling the steam line and allowing liquid water to flow into the RCIC turbine, where it is assumed that the turbine would then be disabled. This behavior, however, was not observed in the Fukushima Daiichi accidents, where the Unit 2 RCIC functioned without DC power for nearly three days. Therefore, more detailed mechanistic models for RCIC system components are needed to understand the extended SBO for BWRs. As part of the effort to develop the next generation reactor system safety analysis code RELAP-7, we have developed a strongly coupled RCIC system model, which consists of a turbine model, a pump model, a check valve model, a wet well model, and their coupling models. Unlike the traditional SBO simulations where mass flow rates are typically given in the input file through time dependent functions, the real mass flow rates through the turbine and the pump loops in our model are dynamically calculated according to conservation laws and turbine/pump operation curves. A simplified SBO demonstration RELAP-7 model with this RCIC model has been successfully developed. The demonstration model includes the major components for the primary system of a BWR, as well as the safety
Kim, Junyeon; Karube, Shutaro; Chen, Yan-Ting; Kondou, Kouta; Tatara, Gen; Otani, YoshiChika
2016-10-01
Spin-charge conversion induced by spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is attractive topic for alternative magnetization manipulation and involved various novel phenomena. Particularly Bi-based structure draws interest due to its large Rashba-Edelstein effect (REE) at interface between non-magnetic metal and Bi [1]. A recent report showed that spin-to-charge current conversion becomes more efficient when Bi2O3 is employed on behalf of the Bi [2]. Here we report novel type of magnetoresistance (MR) in Co25Fe75/Cu/Bi2O3 multilayer. This novel MR comes from conversion between spin and charge current at Cu/Bi2O3 interface, and distinctive spin transfer torque dependent on magnetization of the ferromagnetic Co25Fe75 layer. A Co25Fe75 (5)/Cu (0-30)/Bi2O3 (20) (unit:nm) multilayer was deposited with electron beam evaporation on shadow masked Si substrate. Hall bar shaped shadow mask was patterned with photo-lithography method. The MR measurement was performed via 4-point probe method with changing magnitude or angle of external field. Note that external field for angle dependent measurement was 6 T to make sure complete saturation of ferromagnetic layer. We found characteristic resistance drop when the magnetization of ferromagnetic layer is parallel to magnetic direction of spin accumulation, which is similar to spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) [3,4]. Further discussion will be given. [1] J. C. Rojas Sanchez et al. Nature Comm. 4, 2944 (2013). [2] S. Karube et al. Appl. Phys. Express. 9, 03301 (2016). [3] H. Nakayama et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 206601 (2013). [4] J. Kim et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. (in press).
Spectrum of absorption of a weak signal by an atom in a strong field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakaev, D.S.; Vdovin, Y.A.; Ermachenko, V.M.; Yakovlenko, S.I.
1985-01-01
An analysis is made of the spectrum of absorption of a weak probe electromagnetic field by two-level atoms in a strong resonant laser field, undergoing collision with buffer gas atoms. The analysis is made using an approach that allows for the direct influence of a strong electromagnetic field on the dynamics of an elastic collision between an active atom and a buffer gas atom. Rate equations are analyzed for a combined ''atom--strong electromagnetic field'' system (an atom ''dressed'' by the field) allowing for spontaneous and optical collisional transitions, and also for the interaction with the probe field. In the steady-state case, an expression is derived for the electric susceptibility of the medium at the small-signal frequency. This expression contains the rates of the optical collisional transitions that depend nontrivially on the parameters of the strong electromagnetic field. The phenomenological characteristics of optical collisional transitions generally used are only valid at low intensities and for small frequency detunings of the strong electromagnetic field, i.e., in the impact limit
Regularity and Chaos in the Hydrogen Atom Highly Excited with a Strong Magnetic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Amdouni
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The effects of the relativistic corrections on the energy spectra are analyzed. Effective simulations based on manipulations of operators in the Sturmian basis are developed. Discrete and continuous energy spectra of a hydrogen atom with realistic nucleus mass in a strong magnetic field are computed. The transition from regularity to chaos in diamagnetic problem with the effect of the nucleus recoil energy is explored. Anticrossing of energy levels is observed for strong magnetic field.
Computational strong-field quantum dynamics intense light-matter interactions
2017-01-01
This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time-dependent Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.
Computational strong-field quantum dynamics. Intense light-matter interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, Dieter (ed.) [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2017-09-01
This graduate textbook introduces the computational techniques to study ultra-fast quantum dynamics of matter exposed to strong laser fields. Coverage includes methods to propagate wavefunctions according to the time dependent Schroedinger, Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation, the calculation of typical observables, time-dependent density functional theory, multi configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock, time-dependent configuration interaction singles, the strong-field approximation, and the microscopic particle-in-cell approach.
Curious Consequences of Strong Coupling in NMR Experiments Involving Selective Pulses
Huth, Johannes; Fu, Riqiang; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
This study is concerned with the effects of applying selective pulses to systems with strong second-order scalar couplings in isotropic phase, where different transitions ( rs) are associated with different transition matrix elements F+( rs) . Two unusual features can be distinguished: the nutation angle ("flip angle") depends on the matrix element of the irradiated transition ( rs), and, in contrast to the behavior of an isolated spin- {1}/{2} system, the norm of the three single-transition operators [ I( rs) x, I( rs) y, I( rs) z] associated with the fictitious spin- {1}/{2} space of the irradiated transition ( rs) is generally not conserved. It is necessary to consider the single-transition operators [ I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( rp) z] and [ I( sq) x, I( sq) y, I( sq) z] associated with all connected transitions ( rp) and ( sq) that share a common energy level ror swith the irradiated transition ( rs). If the pulse applied to the ( rs) transition is sufficiently selective, the transverse components I( rp) x, I( rp) y, I( sq) x, and I( sq) y, can be neglected, since their expectation values remain equal to zero after application of a selective pulse to the ( rs) transition, but the longitudinal components I( rp) zand I( sq) zacquire nonvanishing expectation values. When the selective pulse affects several transitions simultaneously, the response varies from one transition to another, depending on the matrix elements and the connectivities. These effects manifest themselves in unusual amplitudes and phases of signals excited by selective pulses, in particular in selective two-dimensional correlation spectra.
MgB2 superconducting particles in a strong electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao, R.; Xu, X.; Amr, E.
2003-01-01
The electric-field induced ball formation has been observed with MgB 2 powder in a strong static or quasi-static electric field. The effect of temperature and magnetic field on the ball formation shows surprising features. For quite a wide range of temperature from T c =39 K and below, the ball size is proportional to (1-T/T c ). As the temperature further goes below 20 K, the ball size becomes almost a constant. If MgB 2 particles are in a strong electric field and a moderate magnetic field, the electric-field induced balls align in the magnetic-field direction to form ball chains
Strongly coupled coulomb systems of dust particles in traps and plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrov, O.F.; Fortov, V.E.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. After first experimental observations of ordered structures of dust particles in rf and dc gas discharges, similar dusty plasma structures are frequently considered as a macroscopic physical model of coupled Coulomb systems (SCCS), which can visually be observed. Using such structures of charged dust particles, one can investigate the processes of phase transitions, waves, and instabilities on kinetic levels. One of the central problems associated with experimental studies of stable SCCS is that of ensuring the levitation of charged particles. The levitation of dust particles in gas discharges is provided by the interaction of the particle charge with electric field. For confinement and investigation of SCCS of charged dust particles, we propose to use a trap based on the known possibility of the levitation of diamagnetic bodies in a nonuniform steady-state magnetic field. An experimental setup is described, which is capable of forming and confining clusters of charge graphite particles sized 100 to 300 μm in magnetic field B∼1 T and |V-barB| ∼10 T/cm. It is inferred that it will be possible to form stable 3d dust structures containing several thousand particles under terrestrial conditions by using more intensive magnetic fields B > 10 T. Less intensive magnetic fields (B ∼ 0.1 T, |V-barB| ∼ 0.1 T/cm) will be required for studying analogous structures under microgravity conditions. The superhigh charging of dust particles under direct stimulation by an electron beam is experimentally investigated. The energy of beam electrons amounts to 25 keV, with the typical diameter of dust particles employed in the experiment of 100 μm. The charge acquired by a dust particle amounts to 5·10 7 electron charges, which is more than two orders of magnitude higher than the values of the charge of dust particles in gas discharges. A technique for analyzing the pair interaction forces between particles in nonideal dissipative systems
Hole dynamics and spin currents after ionization in strong circularly polarized laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga
2014-01-01
We apply the time-dependent analytical R-matrix theory to develop a movie of hole motion in a Kr atom upon ionization by strong circularly polarized field. We find rich hole dynamics, ranging from rotation to swinging motion. The motion of the hole depends on the final energy and the spin of the photoelectron and can be controlled by the laser frequency and intensity. Crucially, hole rotation is a purely non-adiabatic effect, completely missing in the framework of quasistatic (adiabatic) tunneling theories. We explore the possibility to use hole rotation as a clock for measuring ionization time. Analyzing the relationship between the relative phases in different ionization channels we show that in the case of short-range electron-core interaction the hole is always initially aligned along the instantaneous direction of the laser field, signifying zero delays in ionization. Finally, we show that strong-field ionization in circular fields creates spin currents (i.e. different flow of spin-up and spin-down density in space) in the ions. This phenomenon is intimately related to the production of spin-polarized electrons in strong laser fields Barth and Smirnova (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 013401). We demonstrate that rich spin dynamics of electrons and holes produced during strong field ionization can occur in typical experimental conditions and does not require relativistic intensities or strong magnetic fields. (paper)
Magnetic-field-dependent optical properties and interdot correlations in coupled quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, Devis; Troiani, Filippo; Goldoni, Guido; Molinari, Elisa
2005-01-01
We theoretically investigate the properties of neutral and charged excitons in vertically coupled quantum dots, as a function of the in-plane magnetic field. The single-particle states are computed by numerically solving the 3D effective-mass equation, while the neutral- and charged-exciton states are obtained by means of a configuration interaction approach. We show that the field determines an enhancement of the interdot correlations, resulting in unexpected carrier localization. The field effect on the excitonic binding energies is also discussed, and is shown to strongly depend on the charging
Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI in strong magnetic guide field reconnection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is
Electron cyclotron maser instability (ECMI) in strong magnetic guide field reconnection
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2017-08-01
The ECMI model of electromagnetic radiation from electron holes is shown to be applicable to spontaneous magnetic reconnection. We apply it to reconnection in strong current-aligned magnetic guide fields. Such guide fields participate only passively in reconnection, which occurs in the antiparallel components to both sides of the guide-field-aligned current sheets with current carried by kinetic Alfvén waves. Reconnection generates long (the order of hundreds of electron inertial scales) electron exhaust regions at the reconnection site X point, which are extended perpendicular to the current and the guide fields. Exhausts contain a strongly density-depleted hot electron component and have properties similar to electron holes. Exhaust electron momentum space distributions are highly deformed, exhibiting steep gradients transverse to both the reconnecting and guide fields. Such properties suggest application of the ECMI mechanism with the fundamental ECMI X-mode emission beneath the nonrelativistic guide field cyclotron frequency in localized source regions. An outline of the mechanism and its prospects is given. Potential applications are the kilometric radiation (AKR) in auroral physics, solar radio emissions during flares, planetary emissions and astrophysical scenarios (radiation from stars and compact objects) involving the presence of strong magnetic fields and field-aligned currents. Drift of the exhausts along the guide field maps the local field and plasma properties. Escape of radiation from the exhaust and radiation source region still poses a problem. The mechanism can be studied in 2-D particle simulations of strong guide field reconnection which favours 2-D, mapping the deformation of the electron distribution perpendicular to the guide field, and using it in the numerical calculation of the ECMI growth rate. The mechanism suggests also that reconnection in general may become a source of the ECMI with or without guide fields. This is of particular
Schaap, K.
2015-01-01
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the
Sensitivity Analysis and Simulation of Theoretical Response of Ceramics to Strong Magnetic Fields
2016-09-01
448. 23. Song Q, Zhang ZJ. Shape control and associated magnetic properties of spinel cobalt ferrite nanocrystals. Journal of the American Chemical...Strong Magnetic Fields by Carli A Moorehead, Michael M Kornecki, Victoria L Blair, Raymond E Brennan Approved for... Magnetic Fields by Carli A Moorehead Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia Michael M Kornecki, Victoria L Blair, and Raymond E Brennan
ON MULTIPLE RECONNECTION X-LINES AND TRIPOLAR PERTURBATIONS OF STRONG GUIDE MAGNETIC FIELDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, S.; Gosling, J. T.; Lapenta, G.; Newman, D. L.; Goldman, M. V.; Phan, T. D.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Carr, C. M.; Markidis, S.
2015-01-01
We report new multi-spacecraft Cluster observations of tripolar guide magnetic field perturbations at a solar wind reconnection exhaust in the presence of a guide field B M which is almost four times as strong as the reversing field B L . The novel tripolar field consists of two narrow regions of depressed B M , with an observed 7%–14% ΔB M magnitude relative to the external field, which are found adjacent to a wide region of enhanced B M within the exhaust. A stronger reversing field is associated with each B M depression. A kinetic reconnection simulation for realistic solar wind conditions and the observed strong guide field reveals that tripolar magnetic fields preferentially form across current sheets in the presence of multiple X-lines as magnetic islands approach one another and merge into fewer and larger islands. The simulated ΔB M /ΔX N over the normal width ΔX N between a B M minimum and the edge of the external region agree with the normalized values observed by Cluster. We propose that a tripolar guide field perturbation may be used to identify candidate regions containing multiple X-lines and interacting magnetic islands at individual solar wind current sheets with a strong guide field
Phenomena in J-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in low magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelt, Stephan; Haesing, F. Wolfgang; Kuehn, Holger; Bluemich, Bernhard
2007-01-01
We present the theory and experimental results of phenomena associated to J-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at low magnetic fields ( -4 T). So far it was believed that in low field the chemical shift and with it the homonuclear J-coupling information is lost. This contribution shows that the network of all homo- and heteronuclear J-coupling constants can be measured in low magnetic fields, thus revealing the whole molecular structure even in the absence of any chemical shift information. The chemical group of the form YX N (Y=rare spin 1/2, X=observed spin 1/2, N=number of spins X) can be identified by the number of lines in the heteronuclear coupled X spectrum if the strong J-coupling condition is valid. If two molecular groups, such as YX N and AX M-N (A=group without nuclear spin, M=total number of coupled spinsX), are bound together then all homo- and heteronuclear J-coupling constants appear in the X-NMR spectrum as pairs of multiplets. A vector model is presented which explains the relation between the molecular structure and the number of observed lines in a multiplet pair. The linewidths of the different NMR lines inside one multiplet are measured to be substantially different and depend on the total spin state of the molecule. If M is an odd number and M-1 spins X of the molecule are coupled into (M-1)/2 singlets, then intramolecular dipole-dipole relaxation as well as J-coupling mediated relaxation processes are suppressed and very narrow lines are observed
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.
1995-02-01
This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.
Magnetic-Field Dependence of Tunnel Couplings in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grove-Rasmussen, Kasper; Grap, S.; Paaske, Jens
2012-01-01
By means of sequential and cotunneling spectroscopy, we study the tunnel couplings between metallic leads and individual levels in a carbon nanotube quantum dot. The levels are ordered in shells consisting of two doublets with strong- and weak-tunnel couplings, leading to gate-dependent level...... renormalization. By comparison to a one- and two-shell model, this is shown to be a consequence of disorder-induced valley mixing in the nanotube. Moreover, a parallel magnetic field is shown to reduce this mixing and thus suppress the effects of tunnel renormalization....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maruyama Tomoyuki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study pion production from proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields by using the exact proton propagator in a strong magnetic field and explicitly including the anomalous magnetic moment. Results in this exact quantum-field approach do not agree with those obtained in the semi-classical approach. Furthermore, we also find that the anomalous magnetic moment of the proton greatly enhances the production rate about by two orders of magnitude, and that the polar angle of an emitted pion is the same as that of an initial proton.
Strong field approximation within a Faddeev-like formalism for laser-matter interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, Y.; Galstyan, A.; Piraux, B.; Mota-Furtado, F.; O'Mahony, P.F.
2017-01-01
We consider the interaction of atomic hydrogen with an intense laser field within the strong-field approximation (SFA). By using a Faddeev-like formalism, we introduce a new perturbative series in the binding potential of the atom. As a first test of this new approach, we calculate the electron energy spectrum in the very simple case of a photon energy higher than the ionisation potential. We show that by contrast to the standard perturbative series in the binding potential obtained within the strong field approximation, the first terms of the new series converge rapidly towards the results we get by solving the corresponding time-dependent Schroedinger equation. (authors)
Charge states of high Z atoms in a strong laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susskind, S.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Oberman, C.R.; Bernstein, I.B.
1989-11-01
We present a numerical solution of the Thomas-Fermi atom in the presence of a static electric field as a model of the adiabatic response of a heavy atom in the presence of a strong laser field. In this semiclassical approach, we calculate the resulting charge state of the atom and its induced dipole moment after the field is turned on. Due to the scaling properties of the Thomas-Fermi approach, the resulting total atomic charge and dipole moment can be expressed as a universal function of the field. We compare our results with recent ionization experiments performed on noble gases using laser fields. 7 refs., 5 figs
Sharp-front wave of strong magnetic field diffusion in solid metal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, Bo; Gu, Zhuo-wei; Kan, Ming-xian; Wang, Gang-hua; Zhao, Jian-heng [Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-105, Mianyang 621900 (China)
2016-08-15
When a strong magnetic field diffuses into a solid metal, if the metal's resistance possesses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature and the magnetic field strength is above some critical value, the magnetic field will diffuse into the metal in the form of a sharp-front wave. Formulas for the critical conditions under which a sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave emerges and a formula for the wave-front velocity are derived in this work.
Electronic transport through a quantum dot chain with strong dot-lead coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Yu; Zheng, Yisong; Gong, Weijiang; Gao, Wenzhu; Lue, Tianquan
2007-01-01
By means of the non-equilibrium Green function technique, the electronic transport through an N-quantum-dot chain is theoretically studied. By calculating the linear conductance spectrum and the local density of states in quantum dots, we find the resonant peaks in the spectra coincides with the eigen-energies of the N-quantum-dot chain when the dot-lead coupling is relatively weak. With the increase of the dot-lead coupling, such a correspondence becomes inaccurate. When the dot-lead coupling exceeds twice the interdot coupling, such a mapping collapses completely. The linear conductance turn to reflect the eigen-energies of the (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain instead. The two peripheral quantum dots do not manifest themselves in the linear conductance spectrum. More interestingly, with the further increase of the dot-lead coupling, the system behaves just like an (N-2)- or (N-1)-quantum dot chain in weak dot-lead coupling limit, since the resonant peaks becomes narrower with the increase of dot-lead coupling
Arakawa, Naoya
2016-11-01
I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .
Evaluation of nonuniform field exposures with coupling factors.
Sunohara, Tetsu; Hirata, Akimasa; Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Onishi, Teruo
2015-10-21
In this study, the safety compliance for nonuniform field exposures is discussed using coupling factor concepts. The coupling factor, which is defined in the International Electrotechnical Commission 62311 standard, is extended to consider the effects of harmonics and also to apply to the specific absorption rate (for frequencies up to 30 MHz). The proposed compliance procedure is applied to and demonstrated for a prototype wireless power transfer (WPT) system with induction coupling operating at the fundamental frequency in 140 kHz band. First, measurements confirm that the perturbation of the external magnetic field strength and S11 parameter of a one-loop antenna by a human-equivalent phantom are sufficiently small, suggesting the applicability of the magneto-quasi-static approximation to frequencies up to 30 MHz. Then, the frequency characteristics of the coupling factor are derived for the WPT system. For the prototype system that is not optimized for commercial usage, the maximum allowable transmitting power is relaxed by a factor of 23 with the proposed procedure. The contribution of the harmonics decreased the allowable transmitting power by 39%, indicating their importance for safety compliance.
THE EXTRAORDINARY COMPLEX MAGNETIC FIELD OF THE HELIUM-STRONG STAR HD 37776
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochukhov, Oleg; Lundin, Andreas; Romanyuk, Iosif; Kudryavtsev, Dmitry
2011-01-01
The early-type chemically peculiar stars often show strong magnetic fields on their surfaces. These magnetic topologies are organized on large scales and are believed to be close to an oblique dipole for most of the stars. In a striking exception to this general trend, the helium-strong star HD 37776 shows an extraordinary double-wave rotational modulation of the longitudinal magnetic field measurements, indicating a topologically complex and, possibly, record-strong magnetic field. Here we present a new investigation of the magnetic field structure of HD 37776, using both simple geometrical interpretation of the longitudinal field curve and detailed modeling of the time-resolved circular polarization line profiles with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging technique. We derive a model of the magnetic field structure of HD 37776, which reconciles for the first time all magnetic observations available for this star. We find that the local surface field strength does not exceed ∼30 kG, while the overall field topology of HD 37776 is dominated by a non-axisymmetric component and represents by far the most complex magnetic field configuration found among early-type stars.
Effects of the temperature and magnetic-field dependent coupling on the properties of QCD matter
Yang, Li; Wen, Xin-Jian
2017-09-01
To reflect the asymptotic freedom in the thermal direction, a temperature-dependent coupling was proposed in the literature. We investigate its effect on QCD matter with and without strong magnetic fields. Compared with the fixed coupling constant, the running coupling leads to a drastic change in the dynamical quark mass, entropy density, sound velocity, and specific heat. The crossover transition of QCD matter at finite temperature is characterized by the pseudocritical temperature Tpc , which is generally determined by the peak of the derivative of the quark condensate with respect to the temperature d ϕ /d T , or equivalently, by the derivative of the quark dynamical mass d M /d T . In a strong magnetic field, the temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent coupling G (e B ,T ) was recently introduced to account for inverse magnetic catalysis. We propose an analytical relation between the two criteria d ϕ /d T and d M /d T and show a discrepancy between them in finding the pseudocritical temperature. The magnitude of the discrepancy depends on the behavior of d G /d T .
Jorna, P.
2005-01-01
Electromagnetic field theory plays a very important role in present-day technology; examples of technologies based on electromagnetism that are inextricably bound up with every day life are: radar, remote sensing, geoelectromagnetics, bioelectromagnetics, antennas, wireless communication, optics,
Quantum field theories coupled to supergravity. AdS/CFT and local couplings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, J.
2006-01-01
This dissertation is devoted to the investigation of the interplay of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) and supergravity (SUGRA). The topic is studied from two points of view: Firstly from the point of view of AdS/CFT correspondence, which realises the coupling of four dimensional superconformal N=4 SYM theory and ten dimensional type IIB SUGRA in a holographic way. In order to arrive at theories that resemble quantum chromodynamics (QCD) more closely, fundamental fields are introduced using probe D7-branes and nontrivial background configuration are considered. In particular supergravity solutions that are only asymptotically anti-de Sitter and break supersymmetry are used. This allows the description of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. The meson spectrum is calculated and the existence of an associated Goldstone mode is demonstrated. Moreover it is shown that highly radially excited mesons are not degenerate. Additionally instanton configurations on the D7-branes are investigated, which lead to a holographic description of the dual field theory's Higgs branch. Finally a holographic description of heavy-light mesons is developed, which are mesons consisting of quarks with a large mass difference, such that a treatment of B mesons can be achieved. The second approach to the topic of this thesis is the technique of socalled space-time dependent couplings (also known as ''local couplings''), where coupling constants are promoted to external sources. This allows to explore the conformal anomaly of quantum field theories coupled to a classical gravity background. The technique is extended to the superfield description of N=1 supergravity, a complete basis for the anomaly is given and the consistency conditions that arise from a cohomological treatment are calculated. Possible implications for an extension of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem to four dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theories are discussed. (orig.)
Quantum field theories coupled to supergravity. AdS/CFT and local couplings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosse, J.
2006-08-03
This dissertation is devoted to the investigation of the interplay of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories (SYM) and supergravity (SUGRA). The topic is studied from two points of view: Firstly from the point of view of AdS/CFT correspondence, which realises the coupling of four dimensional superconformal N=4 SYM theory and ten dimensional type IIB SUGRA in a holographic way. In order to arrive at theories that resemble quantum chromodynamics (QCD) more closely, fundamental fields are introduced using probe D7-branes and nontrivial background configuration are considered. In particular supergravity solutions that are only asymptotically anti-de Sitter and break supersymmetry are used. This allows the description of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. The meson spectrum is calculated and the existence of an associated Goldstone mode is demonstrated. Moreover it is shown that highly radially excited mesons are not degenerate. Additionally instanton configurations on the D7-branes are investigated, which lead to a holographic description of the dual field theory's Higgs branch. Finally a holographic description of heavy-light mesons is developed, which are mesons consisting of quarks with a large mass difference, such that a treatment of B mesons can be achieved. The second approach to the topic of this thesis is the technique of socalled space-time dependent couplings (also known as ''local couplings''), where coupling constants are promoted to external sources. This allows to explore the conformal anomaly of quantum field theories coupled to a classical gravity background. The technique is extended to the superfield description of N=1 supergravity, a complete basis for the anomaly is given and the consistency conditions that arise from a cohomological treatment are calculated. Possible implications for an extension of Zamolodchikov's c-theorem to four dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theories are discussed. (orig.)
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.
1996-08-01
Centrifugal pumping flows are produced in the melt by the rotations of crystal and crucible during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals. This paper treats the centrifugal pumping effects with a steady, strong, non-uniform axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields ranging from a uniform axial field to a "cusp" field, which has a purely radial field at the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We present the numerical solutions for the centrifugal pumping flows as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp one, and for arbitrary Hartmann number. Since the perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not likely, we also investigate the effects of a slight misalignment.
Tiny Stars, Strong Fields: Exploring the Origin of Intense Magnetism in M Stars
Toomre, Juri
The M-type stars are becoming dominant targets in searches for Earth-like planets that could occupy their habitable zones. The low masses and luminosities of M-dwarf central stars make them very attractive for such exoplanetary hunts. The habitable zone of M dwarfs is close to the star due to their low luminosity. Thus possibly habitable planets will have short orbital periods, making their detection feasible both with the transit method (used by Kepler, K2 and soon with TESS) and with the radial velocity approaches. Yet habitability on a planet likely requires both solid surfaces and atmospheres, but also a favorable radiation environment. It is here that the M-dwarf central stars raise major theoretical puzzles, for many of them exhibit remarkably intense and frequent flaring, despite their modest intrinsic luminosities. The super-flares release their energy both in white light and in X-rays, and can be thousands of times brighter than the strongest solar flares. Such striking events must have magnetic origins, likely from fields built by convective dynamos operating in their interiors. Further, recent observations suggest that the surface of some M stars is carpeted with magnetic fields of 3 kG or more. Such field strengths are reminiscent of a sunspot, but here instead cover much of the stellar surface. With M stars now taking center stage in the search for Earthlike planets, it is crucial to begin to understand how convective dynamos may be able to build intense magnetic fields involved with super-flares and vast star spots, and how they depend upon the mass and rotation rate of these stars. We propose to use major 3-D MHD simulations with our Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code to study the coupling of turbulent convection, rotation, and magnetism within full spherical domains such as the interior of an M dwarf. This permits the exploration of the magnetic dynamos that must be responsible for the evolving magnetism and intense activity of many M dwarfs