Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. L. Palau
2009-01-01
Full Text Available By experimentation and modelling, this paper analyses the atmospheric dispersion of the SO_{2} emissions from a power plant on complex terrain under strong convective conditions, describing the main dispersion features as an ensemble of "stationary dispersive scenarios" and reformulating some "classical" dispersive concepts to deal with the systematically monitored summer dispersive scenarios in inland Spain. The results and discussions presented arise from a statistically representative study of the physical processes associated with the multimodal distribution of pollutants aloft and around a 343-m-tall chimney under strong dry convective conditions in the Iberian Peninsula. This paper analyses the importance of the identification and physical implications of transitional periods for air quality applications. The indetermination of a transversal plume to the preferred transport direction during these transitional periods implies a small (or null physical significance of the classical definition of horizontal standard deviation of the concentration distribution.
High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.
1999-01-01
. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z ...An unusual high-latitude ionospheric pattern was observed on March 23, 1995. ionospheric convection appeared as clockwise merging convection cell focused at 84 degrees magnetic latitude around 1200 MLT. No signature of the viscous convection cell in the afternoon sector was observed...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
stress fluid in an inclined asymmetric channel with convective conditions. Soret and Dufour and Hall effects are taken into account. Analysis has been carried out in a wave frame of reference. Expressions for velocity, pressure gradient, temperature ...
Dielectrophoretic Rayleigh-Bénard convection under microgravity conditions.
Yoshikawa, H N; Tadie Fogaing, M; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I
2013-04-01
Thermal convection in a dielectric fluid layer between two parallel plates subjected to an alternating electric field and a temperature gradient is investigated under microgravity conditions. A thermoelectric coupling resulting from the thermal variation of the electric permittivity of the fluid produces the dielectrophoretic (DEP) body force, which can be regarded as thermal buoyancy due to an effective gravity. This electric gravity can destabilize a stationary conductive state of the fluid to develop convection. The similarity of the DEP thermal convection with the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) convection is examined by considering its behavior in detail by a linear stability theory and a two-dimensional direct numerical simulation. The results are analyzed from an energetic viewpoint and in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. The stabilizing effects of a thermoelectric feedback make the critical parameters different from those in the RB instability. The nonuniformity of the electric gravity arising from the finite variation of permittivity also affects the critical parameters. The characteristic constants of the GL equation are comparable with those for the RB convection. The heat transfer in the DEP convection is weaker than in the RB convection as a consequence of the feedback that impedes the convection.
Onset of Convection in Strongly Shaken Granular Matter
Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Alam, Meheboob; van Gerner, H.J.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef
2010-01-01
Strongly vertically shaken granular matter can display a density inversion: A high-density cluster of beads is elevated by a dilute gaslike layer of fast beads underneath (“granular Leidenfrost effect”). For even stronger shaking the granular Leidenfrost state becomes unstable and granular
Strong convective and shock wave behaviour in solar flares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloomberg, H.W.; Davis, J.; Boris, J.P.
1977-01-01
A model has been developed to study the gasdynamics of a flare region heated by a stream of energetic electrons. It is shown that the energy deposition can introduce strong chromospheric dynamical effects. As a result of fluid motion into rarified regions, there is considerable redistribution of mass causing a profound influence on the emitted line radiation. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.
2000-01-01
enough, the B-z reorientation causes changes in the flow intensity but not in the shape of the convection pattern. The results show the characteristics of ionospheric convection response during strong B-y and suggest that the convection reconfiguration is not only determined by the changing B-z but also...... the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...
Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in strongly turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Ahlers, Günter; Brown, Eric; Fontenele Araujo Junior, F.; Funfschilling, Denis; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef
2006-01-01
Non-Oberbeck–Boussinesq (NOB) effects on the Nusselt number $Nu$ and Reynolds number $\\hbox{\\it Re}$ in strongly turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard (RB) convection in liquids were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments the heat current, the temperature difference, and the
MARANGONI CONVECTION AROUND A VENTILATED AIR BUBBLE UNDER MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS
HOEFSLOOT, HCJ; JANSSEN, LPBM; HOOGSTRATEN, HW
Under microgravity conditions in both parabolic and sounding rocket flights, the mass-transfer-induced Marangoni convection around an air bubble was studied. To prevent the bubble from becoming saturated, the bubble was ventilated. It turned out that the flow rate of the air through the bubble
Hayat, Tasawar; Ashraf, Muhammad Bilal; Alsulami, Hamed H; Alhuthali, Muhammad Shahab
2014-01-01
The objective of present research is to examine the thermal radiation effect in three-dimensional mixed convection flow of viscoelastic fluid. The boundary layer analysis has been discussed for flow by an exponentially stretching surface with convective conditions. The resulting partial differential equations are reduced into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. The series solutions are developed through a modern technique known as the homotopy analysis method. The convergent expressions of velocity components and temperature are derived. The solutions obtained are dependent on seven sundry parameters including the viscoelastic parameter, mixed convection parameter, ratio parameter, temperature exponent, Prandtl number, Biot number and radiation parameter. A systematic study is performed to analyze the impacts of these influential parameters on the velocity and temperature, the skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number. It is observed that mixed convection parameter in momentum and thermal boundary layers has opposite role. Thermal boundary layer is found to decrease when ratio parameter, Prandtl number and temperature exponent are increased. Local Nusselt number is increasing function of viscoelastic parameter and Biot number. Radiation parameter on the Nusselt number has opposite effects when compared with viscoelastic parameter.
MHD Natural Convection with Convective Surface Boundary Condition over a Flat Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad M. Rashidi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We apply the one parameter continuous group method to investigate similarity solutions of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD heat and mass transfer flow of a steady viscous incompressible fluid over a flat plate. By using the one parameter group method, similarity transformations and corresponding similarity representations are presented. A convective boundary condition is applied instead of the usual boundary conditions of constant surface temperature or constant heat flux. In addition it is assumed that viscosity, thermal conductivity, and concentration diffusivity vary linearly. Our study indicates that a similarity solution is possible if the convective heat transfer related to the hot fluid on the lower surface of the plate is directly proportional to (x--1/2 where x- is the distance from the leading edge of the solid surface. Numerical solutions of the ordinary differential equations are obtained by the Keller Box method for different values of the controlling parameters associated with the problem.
High-latitude ionospheric convection during strong interplanetary magnetic field B-y
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, C.S.; Sofko, G.J.; Murr, D.
1999-01-01
. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions corresponding to the occurrence of the ionospheric convection were B-x approximate to 1 nT, B-y approximate to 10 nT, and B-z y). We have compared our observations with statistical patterns and MHD numerical models for similar IMF...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available Main objective of present study is to analyze the mixed convective peristaltic transport of water based nanofluids using five different nanoparticles i.e. (Al2O3, CuO, Cu, Ag and TiO2. Two thermal conductivity models namely the Maxwell's and Hamilton-Crosser's are used in this study. Hall and Joule heating effects are also given consideration. Convection boundary conditions are employed. Furthermore, viscous dissipation and heat generation/absorption are used to model the energy equation. Problem is simplified by employing lubrication approach. System of equations are solved numerically. Influence of pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature are discussed. Also the heat transfer rate at the wall is observed for considered five nanofluids using the two phase models via graphs.
Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.
1995-02-01
This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Z., E-mail: zahidiqbal_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mustafa, M. [Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation, National University of Sciences and Technology, Sector H-12, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2012-11-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boundary layer flow of an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convective boundary conditions have been used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Series solutions are obtained by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphical results for various interesting parametric values. - Abstract: This study discusses the flow and heat transfer in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a moving surface in the presence of a free stream velocity. The convective boundary conditions have been handled. Similarly transformations are invoked to convert the partial differential equations governing the steady flow of a Maxwell fluid into an ordinary differential system. This system is solved by a homotopic approach. The effects of influential parameters such as Deborah number ({beta}), Prandtl number (Pr), Eckert number (Ec), suction parameter (S) and ratio ({lambda}) have been thoroughly examined.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, C.S.; Murr, D.; Sofko, G.J.
2000-01-01
the dawn-dusk meridian plane, which is interpreted as propagation or expansion of newly generated convection cells in the cusp region. Other studies showed that the change in convection pattern in response to IMF reorientations is spatially fixed. In this paper, we investigate the ionospheric convection...... response to IMF Bz changes during strong IMF BZ. On March 23, 1995, B-x was small, B-y was strongly positive (7-11 nT), and the B-z polarity changed several times after 1300 UT. The dayside ionospheric convection is dominated by a large clockwise convection cell. The cell focus (the "eye" of the convection...... pattern) is located in the prenoon sector for northward B-z and in the postnoon sector for southward B-z. It is found that the cell focus shifts from the prenoon sector to the postnoon sector following a southward BL turning and vice versa for a northward B-z turning. However, the motion of the convection...
Unsteady Squeezing Flow of Carbon Nanotubes with Convective Boundary Conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available Unsteady flow of nanofluids squeezed between two parallel plates is discussed in the presence of viscous dissipation. Heat transfer phenomenon is disclosed via convective boundary conditions. Carbon nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall are used as nanoparticles which are homogeneously distributed in the base fluid (water. A system of non-linear differential equations for the flow is obtained by utilizing similarity transformations through the conservation laws. Influence of various emerging parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are sketched graphically and discussed comprehensively. Analyses of skin fraction coefficient and Nusselt number are also elaborated numerically. It is found out that velocity is smaller for squeezing parameter in the case of multi-wall carbon nanotubes when compared with single-wall carbon nanotubes.
High resolution geodynamo simulations with strongly-driven convection and low viscosity
Schaeffer, Nathanael; Fournier, Alexandre; Jault, Dominique; Aubert, Julien
2015-04-01
Numerical simulations have been successful at explaining the magnetic field of the Earth for 20 years. However, the regime in which these simulations operate is in many respect very far from what is expected in the Earth's core. By reviewing previous work, we find that it appears difficult to have both low viscosity (low magnetic Prandtl number) and strong magnetic fields in numerical models (large ratio of magnetic over kinetic energy, a.k.a inverse squared Alfvén number). In order to understand better the dynamics and turbulence of the core, we have run a series of 3 simulations, with increasingly demanding parameters. The last simulation is at the limit of what nowadays codes can do on current super computers, with a resolution of 2688 grid points in longitude, 1344 in latitude, and 1024 radial levels. We will show various features of these numerical simulations, including what appears as trends when pushing the parameters toward the one of the Earth. The dynamics is very rich. From short time scales to large time scales, we observe at large scales: Inertial Waves, Torsional Alfvén Waves, columnar convective overturn dynamics and long-term thermal winds. In addition, the dynamics inside and outside the tangent cylinder seem to follow different routes. We find that the ohmic dissipation largely dominates the viscous one and that the magnetic energy dominates the kinetic energy. The magnetic field seems to play an ambiguous role. Despite the large magnetic field, which has an important impact on the flow, we find that the force balance for the mean flow is a thermal wind balance, and that the scale of convective cells is still dominated by viscous effects.
Transition to geostrophic convection: the role of the boundary conditions
Kunnen, R.P.J.; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; van der Poel, Erwin; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2016-01-01
Rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection, the flow in a rotating fluid layer heated from below and cooled from above, is used to analyse the transition to the geostrophic regime of thermal convection. In the geostrophic regime, which is of direct relevance to most geo- and astrophysical flows, the system
Conditions for the formation of deep convective activities over Nigeria
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Some mean flow parameters and dynamic processes necessary for the formation of widespread deep convective activities over Nigeria have been investigated and their interactive roles identified. These parameters include the low-level and the 700mb winds known as African Easterly jet (AEJ), spatial distribution of the ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed J Uddin
Full Text Available Taking into account the effect of constant convective thermal and mass boundary conditions, we present numerical solution of the 2-D laminar g-jitter mixed convective boundary layer flow of water-based nanofluids. The governing transport equations are converted into non-similar equations using suitable transformations, before being solved numerically by an implicit finite difference method with quasi-linearization technique. The skin friction decreases with time, buoyancy ratio, and thermophoresis parameters while it increases with frequency, mixed convection and Brownian motion parameters. Heat transfer rate decreases with time, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and diffusion-convection parameters while it increases with the Reynolds number, frequency, mixed convection, buoyancy ratio and conduction-convection parameters. Mass transfer rate decreases with time, frequency, thermophoresis, conduction-convection parameters while it increases with mixed convection, buoyancy ratio, diffusion-convection and Brownian motion parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on this topic and hence the results are new. We believe that the results will be useful in designing and operating thermal fluids systems for space materials processing. Special cases of the results have been compared with published results and an excellent agreement is found.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwole Daniel Makinde
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Steady laminar natural convection flow over a semi-infinite moving vertical plate in the presence of internal heat generation and a convective surface boundary condition is examined in this paper. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the cold fluid on the right surface of the plate contains a heat source that decays exponentially with the classical similarity variable. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying shooting iteration technique together with fourth order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of physical parameters on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are depicted graphically and analyzed in detail. Finally, numerical values of physical quantities, such as the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented in tabular form.
Strong Duality and Optimality Conditions for Generalized Equilibrium Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Fang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a generalized equilibrium problem involving DC functions. By using the properties of the epigraph of the conjugate functions, some sufficient and/or necessary conditions for the weak and strong duality results and optimality conditions for generalized equilibrium problems are provided.
Two-phase forced-convective fouling under steam generator operating conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimas, S.J.; Pietralik, J.M.
2002-01-01
Two-phase forced-convective fouling can occur in adiabatic two-phase flow and in diabatic two-phase flow, where it can be a significant contributor to fouling under flow-boiling conditions. For recirculating steam generators (SGs), it is, therefore, of significance to steam separators, tube support plates, tubesheet and the tube bundle. Loop test data are presented on forced-convective fouling rate of iron corrosion products under a range of conditions relevant to the secondary-side of recirculating SGs. The measurements were performed using a number of corrosion products (magnetite, hematite and lepidocrocite) under a range of water chemistry conditions, with several different amines. The measurements were limited to the straight-tube geometry. Comparable fouling data are given for flow-boiling conditions. A SG artefact was examined to corroborate the loop data. The rate constants for the forced-convective fouling measurements are compared with those for flow-boiling fouling. Their relative magnitudes can vary greatly, depending on the chemistry and thermohydraulic conditions. Boiling fouling dominated over forced-convection fouling for hematite and lepidocrocite particles, likely because of particle-bubble interactions. Forced-convective fouling rate was only slightly lower than boiling fouling for magnetite. For the region of cross-flow (upper tube bundle), deposits show significant thickness variation. Four or five deposit thickness peaks are noted, approximately equally spaced circumferentially. It is hypothesized that the fouling pattern is developed due to the cross-flow pattern present in the tube bundle. The possible interactions between the force-convective and nucleate-boiling fouling streams are briefly discussed. A method is presented for the superposition of the forced-convective and nucleate boiling fouling components. This method is based on the Chen heat transfer correlation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia, E-mail: rabiamalik.qau@gmail.com; Munir, Asif [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2015-08-15
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Masood; Malik, Rabia; Munir, Asif
2015-01-01
In this article, the mixed convective heat transfer to Sisko fluid over a radially stretching surface in the presence of convective boundary conditions is investigated. The viscous dissipation and thermal radiation effects are also taken into account. The suitable transformations are applied to convert the governing partial differential equations into a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations. The analytical solution of the governing problem is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Additionally, these analytical results are compared with the numerical results obtained by the shooting technique. The obtained results for the velocity and temperature are analyzed graphically for several physical parameters for the assisting and opposing flows. It is found that the effect of buoyancy parameter is more prominent in case of the assisting flow as compared to the opposing flow. Further, in tabular form the numerical values are given for the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. A remarkable agreement is noticed by comparing the present results with the results reported in the literature as a special case
A proof of fulfillment of the strong bootstrap condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fadin, V.S.; Papa, A.
2002-01-01
It is shown that the kernel of the BFKL equation for the octet color state of two Reggeized gluons satisfies the strong bootstrap condition in the next-to-leading order. This condition is much more restrictive than the one obtained from the requirement of the Reggeized form for the elastic scattering amplitudes in the next-to-leading approximation. It is necessary, however, for self-consistency of the assumption of the Reggeized form of the production amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics, which are used in the derivation of the BFKL equation. The fulfillment of the strong bootstrap condition for the kernel opens the way to a rigorous proof of the BFKL equation in the next-to-leading approximation. (author)
Natural convection accidental conditions in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmastro, D.F.; Clausse, A.
1990-01-01
Under certain conditions, wether accidental or in nuclear reactor design, a nuclear reactor core may be found to be refrigerated by a fluid in natural circulation. Before the possible density waves phenomenon occurrence, it is essential to have a good knowledge of the flow evolution and thermohydraulic variables under these conditions. (Author) [es
Heat transfer in the thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity conditions.
Fogaing, M Tadie; Yoshikawa, H N; Crumeyrolle, O; Mutabazi, I
2014-04-01
This article deals with the thermal convection in a dielectric fluid confined in a finite-length plane capacitor with a temperature gradient under microgravity conditions. The dielectrophoretic force resulting from differential polarization of the fluid plays the role of buoyancy force associated with an electric effective gravity. It induces the convection when the Rayleigh number based on this electric gravity exceeds a critical value. Two-dimensional numerical simulation for a geometry with a large aspect ratio is used to determine the convective flow in the saturated state. The Nusselt number Nu is computed for a wide range of Prandtl number (0.01 ≤ Pr ≤ 10(3)) and its dependence on the distance from the critical condition is determined. A correlation between Nu and Pr in the vicinity of criticality is obtained and compared with that of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The behavior of the convection is analyzed in detail from an energetic viewpoint: electrostatic energy, power inputs by different components of the electric gravity and viscous and thermal dissipations are computed.
Sensitivity analysis of uranium solubility under strongly oxidizing conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.; Neretnieks, I.
1999-01-01
To evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions in the repository on the solubility of uranium under strongly oxidizing conditions, a mathematical model has been developed to determine the solubility, by utilizing a set of nonlinear algebraic equations to describe the chemical equilibria in the groundwater environment. The model takes into account the predominant precipitation-dissolution reactions, hydrolysis reactions and complexation reactions that may occur under strongly oxidizing conditions. The model also includes the solubility-limiting solids induced by the presence of carbonate, phosphate, silicate, calcium, and sodium in the groundwater. The thermodynamic equilibrium constants used in the solubility calculations are essentially taken from the NEA Thermochemical Data Base of Uranium, with some modification and some uranium minerals added, such as soddyite, rutherfordite, uranophane, uranyl orthophosphate, and becquerelite. By applying this model, the sensitivities of uranium solubility to variations in the concentrations of various groundwater component species are systematically investigated. The results show that the total analytical concentrations of carbonate, phosphate, silicate, and calcium in deep groundwater play the most important role in determining the solubility of uranium under strongly oxidizing conditions
Aerosol-Induced Changes of Convective Cloud Anvils Produce Strong Climate Warming
Koren, I.; Remer, L. A.; Altaratz, O.; Martins, J. V.; Davidi, A.
2010-01-01
The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm(exp-2) . Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing. We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvi1 clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming) at top-of-atmosphere. Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (r), cloud height (Z) forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene. Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds; increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.
Aerosol-induced changes of convective cloud anvils produce strong climate warming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Koren
2010-05-01
Full Text Available The effect of aerosol on clouds poses one of the largest uncertainties in estimating the anthropogenic contribution to climate change. Small human-induced perturbations to cloud characteristics via aerosol pathways can create a change in the top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of hundreds of Wm^{−2}. Here we focus on links between aerosol and deep convective clouds of the Atlantic and Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zones, noting that the aerosol environment in each region is entirely different. The tops of these vertically developed clouds consisting of mostly ice can reach high levels of the atmosphere, overshooting the lower stratosphere and reaching altitudes greater than 16 km. We show a link between aerosol, clouds and the free atmosphere wind profile that can change the magnitude and sign of the overall climate radiative forcing.
We find that increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils. The taller clouds reach levels of enhanced wind speeds that act to spread and thin the anvil clouds, increasing areal coverage and decreasing cloud optical depth. The radiative effect of this transition is to create a positive radiative forcing (warming at top-of-atmosphere.
Furthermore we introduce the cloud optical depth (τ, cloud height (Z forcing space and show that underestimation of radiative forcing is likely to occur in cases of non homogenous clouds. Specifically, the mean radiative forcing of towers and anvils in the same scene can be several times greater than simply calculating the forcing from the mean cloud optical depth in the scene.
Limitations of the method are discussed, alternative sources of aerosol loading are tested and meteorological variance is restricted, but the trend of taller clouds, increased and thinner anvils associated with increased aerosol loading remains robust through all the different tests and perturbations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Hongyan; Meng, Sheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Education Commission, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Pingleyuan 100, Beijing 100022 (China)
2007-07-15
Surface hydrophilicity has a strong influence on frost nucleation according to phase transition theory. To study this effect, a close observation of frost formation and deposition processes on a vertical plate was made under free convection conditions. The formation and shape variation of frost crystals during the initial period are described and the frost thickness variation with time on both hydrophobic and plain copper cold surfaces are presented. The various influencing factors are discussed in depth. The mechanism of surface hydrophilicity influence on frost formation was analyzed theoretically. This revealed that increasing the contact angle can increase the potential barrier and restrain crystal nucleation and growth and thus frost deposition. The experimental results show that the initial water drops formed on a hydrophobic surface are smaller and remain in the liquid state for a longer time compared with ones formed on a plain copper surface. It is also observed that the frost layer deposited on a hydrophobic surface is loose and weak. Though the hydrophobic surface can retard frost formation to a certain extent and causes a looser frost layer, our experimental results show that it does not depress the growth of the frost layer. (author)
Zipser, Edward J.; Lutz, Kurt R.
1994-01-01
Reflectivity data from Doppler radars are used to construct vertical profiles of radar reflectivity (VPRR) of convective cells in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in three different environmental regimes. The National Center for Atmospheric Research CP-3 and CP-4 radars are used to calculate median VPRR for MCSs in the Oklahoma-Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central in 1985. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere radar in Darwin, Australia, is used to calculate VPRR for MCSs observed both in oceanic, monsoon regimes and in continental, break period regimes during the wet seasons of 1987/88 and 1988/89. The midlatitude and tropical continental VPRRs both exhibit maximum reflectivity somewhat above the surface and have a gradual decrease in reflectivity with height above the freezing level. In sharp contrast, the tropical oceanic profile has a maximum reflectivity at the lowest level and a very rapid decrease in reflectivity with height beginning just above the freezing level. The tropical oceanic profile in the Darwin area is almost the same shape as that for two other tropical oceanic regimes, leading to the conclustion that it is characteristic. The absolute values of reflectivity in the 0 to 20 C range are compared with values in the literature thought to represent a threshold for rapid storm electrification leading to lightning, about 40 dBZ at -10 C. The large negative vertical gradient of reflectivity in this temperature range for oceanic storms is hypothesized to be a direct result of the characteristically weaker vertical velocities observed in MCSs over tropical oceans. It is proposed, as a necessary condition for rapid electrification, that a convective cell must have its updraft speed exceed some threshold value. Based upon field program data, a tentative estimate for the magnitude of this threshold is 6-7 m/s for mean speed and 10-12 m/s for peak speed.
Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-09-01
This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.
Moment-based boundary conditions for lattice Boltzmann simulations of natural convection in cavities
Allen, Rebecca
2016-06-29
We study a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann model for natural convection with moment-based boundary conditions. The unknown primary variables of the algorithm at a boundary are found by imposing conditions directly upon hydrodynamic moments, which are then translated into conditions for the discrete velocity distribution functions. The method is formulated so that it is consistent with the second order implementation of the discrete velocity Boltzmann equations for fluid flow and temperature. Natural convection in square cavities is studied for Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 108. An excellent agreement with benchmark data is observed and the flow fields are shown to converge with second order accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Orazio, A; Karimipour, A; Nezhad, A H; Shirani, E
2014-01-01
Laminar mixed convective heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular inclined driven cavity is studied numerically by means of a double population thermal Lattice Boltzmann method. Through the top moving lid the heat flux enters the cavity whereas it leaves the system through the bottom wall; side walls are adiabatic. The counter-slip internal energy density boundary condition, able to simulate an imposed non zero heat flux at the wall, is applied, in order to demonstrate that it can be effectively used to simulate heat transfer phenomena also in case of moving walls. Results are analyzed over a range of the Richardson numbers and tilting angles of the enclosure, encompassing the dominating forced convection, mixed convection, and dominating natural convection flow regimes. As expected, heat transfer rate increases as increases the inclination angle, but this effect is significant for higher Richardson numbers, when buoyancy forces dominate the problem; for horizontal cavity, average Nusselt number decreases with the increase of Richardson number because of the stratified field configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Iqbal, Rija [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: qau14@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-15
This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for peristalsis of pseudoplastic nanofluid is formulated. • Analysis has been made in a tapered asymmetric channel. • Magnetohydrodynamic aspects have been outlined. • Influence of thermal radiation is investigated. • Convective conditions for both heat and mass transfer are present.
Hayat, T.; Ahmed, Bilal; Alsaedi, A.; Abbasi, F. M.
2018-03-01
The present communication investigates flow of Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid in presence of mixed convection and Hall current. Effects of viscous dissipation, Ohmic heating and convective conditions are addressed. In addition zero nanoparticle mass flux condition is imposed. Wave frame analysis is carried out. Coupled differential systems after long wavelength and low Reynolds number are numerically solved. Effects of different parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration are studied. Heat and mass transfer rates are analyzed through tabular values. It is observed that concentration for thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters has opposite effect. Further heat and mass transfer rates at the upper wall enhances significantly when Hartman number increases and reverse situation is noticed for Hall parameter.
Chujo, Toshihiro; Mori, Osamu; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Yano, Hajime
2018-03-01
Due to its important role in the sorting of particles on microgravity bodies by size, Brazil nut effect (BNE) is a major subject of study for understanding the evolution of planetesimals. Recent studies have revealed that the mechanism for the BNE on microgravity bodies is the percolation of particles or void-filling, rather than granular convection. This study also considers the mechanism for the BNE under `less-convective' conditions and introduces three categories of behaviour for particles that mainly depend on the dimensionless acceleration of vibration Γ (ratio of maximum acceleration to gravitational acceleration), using a simplified analytical model. The conditions for Γ proposed by the model for each category are verified by both numerical simulations and laboratory experiments. `Less-convective' conditions are realized by reducing the friction force between particles and the wall. We found three distinct behaviours of the particles when Γ > 1: the (i) `slow BNE', (ii) `fast BNE', and (iii) `fluid motion' (the reverse BNE may be induced), and the thresholds for Γ correspond well with those proposed by the simple model. We also applied this categorization to low-gravity environments and found that the categorization scales with gravity level. These results imply that laboratory experiments can provide knowledge of granular mobility on the surface of microgravity bodies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adesanya, S.O.; Oluwadare, E.O.; Falade, J.A.; Makinde, O.D.
2015-01-01
In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow. - Highlights: • The influence of magnetic field on the free convective fluid flow is considered. • The coupled equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. • The Adomian series solution agreed with previously obtained result. • Magnetic field decreases the velocity maximum but enhances temperature field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of conjugate natural convection in a closed rectangular cavity with a radiant energy source in conditions of convective-radiative heat exchange at the external boundary was conducted. The radiant energy distribution was set by the Lambert’s law. Conduction and convection processes analysis showed that the air masses flow pattern is modified slightly over the time. The temperature increases in the gas cavity, despite the heat removal from the one of the external boundary. According to the results of the integral heat transfer analysis were established that the average Nusselt number (Nuav increasing occurs up to τ = 200 (dimensionless time. Further Nuav has changed insignificantly due to the temperature field equalization near the interfaces “gas – wall”.
Boundary Control Problem for Heat Convection Equations with Slip Boundary Condition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Exequiel Mallea-Zepeda
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We analyze an optimal boundary control problem for heat convection equations in a three-dimensional domain, with mixed boundary conditions. We prove the existence of optimal solutions, by considering boundary controls for the velocity vector and the temperature. The analyzed optimal control problem includes the minimization of a Lebesgue norm between the velocity and some desired field, as well as the temperature and some desired temperature. By using the Lagrange multipliers theorem we derive an optimality system. We also give a second-order sufficient condition.
Heat transfer and convective structure of evaporating films under pressure-modulated conditions
Gonzalez-Pons, Juan Carlos; Hermanson, James; Allen, Jeffrey
2014-11-01
The interfacial stability, convective structure, and evaporation rate of upward-facing, thin liquid films were studied experimentally. Dichloromethane films approximately 2 mm thick were subjected to impulsive, time-varying superheating. The films resided on a temperature controlled, copper surface in a closed, initially degassed test chamber. Superheating was achieved by modulating the pressure of the saturated pure vapor in the test chamber. The dynamic film thickness was measured at multiple points using ultrasound, and the convective structure information was visualized by schlieren imaging. Two distinct raises in heat transfer rate under unsteady conditions were observed. The first transition appears to be associated with conduction within the film only; the second, to a change in the pattern of convection within the film. Different pressure-modulation cycles were studied to capture one or both of the observed rises in heat transfer. The total film thickness change over multiple cycles, as indicated by ultrasound, allowed determination of the total heat rejected into the evaporating films. Results suggest that there are cycle combinations that lead to an elevation in the average rate of heat transfer compared to films undergoing quasi-steady evaporation. This work was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Cooperative Agreement NNX09AL02G.
Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel
2016-06-01
Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the
Sakiadis flow of Maxwell fluid considering magnetic field and convective boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mustafa, M., E-mail: meraj-mm@hotmail.com [School of Natural Sciences (SNS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Khan, Junaid Ahmad [Research Centre for Modeling and Simulation (RCMS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-02-15
In this paper we address the flow of Maxwell fluid due to constantly moving flat radiative surface with convective condition. The flow is under the influence of non-uniform transverse magnetic field. The velocity and temperature distributions have been evaluated numerically by shooting approach. The solution depends on various interesting parameters including local Deborah number De, magnetic field parameter M, Prandtl number Pr and Biot number Bi. We found that variation in velocity with an increase in local Deborah number De is non-monotonic. However temperature is a decreasing function of local Deborah number De.
Hayat, T.; Iqbal, Rija; Tanveer, Anum; Alsaedi, A.
2016-06-01
This paper looks at the influences of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and thermal radiation on peristaltic transport of a pseudoplastic nanofluid in a tapered asymmetric channel. The tapered channel walls satisfy convective boundary conditions. The governing equations for the balance of mass, momentum, temperature and volume fraction for pseudoplastic nanofluid are first formulated and then utilized for long wavelength and small Reynolds number considerations. Effects of involved parameters on the flow characteristics have been plotted and examined. It is observed that the heat transfer Biot number shows a dual behavior on the temperature of nanofluid particles whereas the mass transfer Biot number with its increasing values enhances the fluid temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Mushtaq
Full Text Available In this paper, the classical Von Kármán problem of infinite disk is extended when an electrically conducting nanofluid fills the space above the rotating disk which also stretches uniformly in the radial direction. Buongiorno model is considered in order to incorporate the novel Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects. Heat transport mechanism is modeled through more practically feasible convective conditions while Neumann type condition for nanoparticle concentration is adopted. Modified Von Kármán transformations are utilized to obtain self-similar differential system which is treated through a numerical method. Stretching phenomenon yields an additional parameter c which compares the stretch rate with the swirl rate. The effect of parameter c is to reduce the temperature and nanoparticle concentration profiles. Torque required to main steady rotation of the disk increases for increasing values of c while an improvement in cooling rate is anticipated in case of radial stretching, which is important in engineering processes. Brownian diffusion does not influence the heat flux from the stretching wall. Moreover, the wall heat flux has the maximum value for the situation in which thermoporetic force is absent. Keywords: Rotating disk, Nanofluid, Buongiorno model, Shooting method, Convective condition, Magnetic field
Effects of various thermal boundary conditions on natural convection in porous cavities
Cheong, H. T.; Sivasankaran, S.; Bhuvaneswari, M.; Siri, Z.
2015-10-01
The present work analyzes numerically the effects of various thermal boundary conditions and the geometry of the cavity on natural convection in cavities with fluid-saturated porous medium. Cavity of square, right-angled trapezium and right-angled triangle shapes are considered. The different temperature profiles are imposed on the left wall of the cavity and the right wall is maintained at a lower constant temperature. The top and bottom walls are adiabatic. The Darcy model is adopted for the porous medium. The finite difference method is used to solve the governing equations and boundary conditions over a range of Darcy-Rayleigh numbers. Streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers are used for presenting the results. The heat transfer of the square cavity is more enhanced at high Darcy-Rayleigh number for all the thermal boundary conditions considered.
Heat transfer tests under forced convection conditions with high wettable heater surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitsutake, Toru; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Miura, Shigeru; Akiba, Miyuki; Sato, Hisaki; Shirakawa, Ken-etsu; Oosato, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Seiji [Toshiba Co., Kanagawa (Japan)
2002-07-01
Under forced convection and atmospheric pressure conditions, heat transfer tests were performed using the annulus channel of a heater rod with highly wettable surface. Improvement of boiling heat transfer requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. >From this point of view, high-wettable heating surface was studied. As oxide semiconductor-coated materials are highly-wettable, we made a TiO{sub 2} coated heater rod. TiO{sub 2} coated surface has a high-wettability, in terms of contact angle and Leidenfrost temperature. The boiling curve was measured with and without TiO coated surface. The results showed difference between with and without TiO{sub 2} coating. TiO{sub 2} coating rod showed lower boiling onset heat flux, wider nucleate boiling region and higher critical heat flux than without coating. In summary, high wettablity heater surface produced higher boiling heat transfer characteristics under forced convection conditions. (author)
Chernokulsky, A. V.; Kurgansky, M. V.; Mokhov, I. I.
2017-12-01
A simple index of convective instability (3D-index) is used for analysis of weather and climate processes that favor to the occurrence of severe convective events including tornadoes. The index is based on information on the surface air temperature and humidity. The prognostic ability of the index to reproduce severe convective events (thunderstorms, showers, tornadoes) is analyzed. It is shown that most tornadoes in North Eurasia are characterized by high values of the 3D-index; furthermore, the 3D-index is significantly correlated with the available convective potential energy. Reanalysis data (for recent decades) and global climate model simulations (for the 21st century) show an increase in the frequency of occurrence of favorable for tornado formation meteorological conditions in the regions of Northern Eurasia. The most significant increase is found on the Black Sea coast and in the south of the Far East.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwang-Won, Lee; Sang-Yong, Lee
1995-09-01
A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to investigate transition boiling mechanisms and to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of the elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux (CHF) condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling characterized by the frequent touches of the interface and the heated wall. The total heat transfer rates after the DNB is weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. The parametric effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling on the transition boiling heat transfer are also investigated. From these comparisons, it can be seen that this model can identify the crucial mechanisms of forced convective transition boiling, and that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. In future, this model will be improved in the unstable film boiling stage and generalized for high quality and low pressure situations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This article presents the simultaneous effects of convective heat and mass conditions in boundary-layer flow of nanoliquid due to a nonlinear curved stretching surface. A nonlinear curved stretching surface is used to generate the flow. Thermophoretic diffusion and random motion features are also incorporated. Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed at boundary. Suitable variables are utilized to convert the nonlinear partial differential system into nonlinear ordinary differential system. The obtained nonlinear systems are solved numerically through shooting technique. Plots are displayed in order to explore the role of physical flow variables on the solutions. The skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and examined. Our findings indicate that the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reduced for larger values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: Nonlinear curved stretching surface, Nanoparticles, Convective heat and mass conditions, Numerical solution
Zhao, J.; Ai, X.; Li, Y. Z.
2007-10-01
This paper presents analyses of the transient temperature fields in an infinite plate, an infinite solid cylinder and a solid sphere made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) under convective boundary conditions. The composition and the thermo-physical properties of the infinite FGM plate, the infinite FGM solid cylinder and the FGM solid sphere are of planar symmetric, axially symmetric and spherically symmetric distributions, respectively. The analytical formulae of the one-dimensional transient temperature fields for the three FGM solids are obtained respectively by using the separation-of-variables method and the variable substitution method. Numerical results reveal that the transient temperature fields of the FGM components exhibit similar shape effect to that of homogeneous components. The present work provides valuable basis for the investigation of the thermal shock resistance of FGMs with various shapes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenshi Hibino
2018-04-01
Full Text Available An extreme precipitation event happened at Hiroshima in 2014. Over 200 mm of total rainfall was observed on the night of August 19th, which caused floods and many landslides. The rainfall event was estimated to be a rare event happening once in approximately 30 years. The physical response of this event to the change of the future atmospheric condition, which includes a temperature increase on average and convective stability change, is investigated in the present study using a 27-member ensemble experiment and pseudo global warming downscaling method. The experiment is integrated using the Japan Meteorological Research Institute non-hydrostatic regional climate model. A very high-resolution horizontal grid, 500 m, is used to reproduce dense cumulonimbus cloud formation causing heavy rainfall in the model. The future climate condition determined by a higher greenhouse gas concentration is prescribed to the model, in which the surface air temperature globally averaged is 4 K warmer than that in the preindustrial era. The total amounts of precipitation around the Hiroshima area in the future experiments are closer to or slightly lower than in the current experiments in spite of the increase in water vapor due to the atmospheric warming. The effect of the water vapor increase on extreme precipitation is found to be canceled out by the suppression of convection due to the thermal stability enhancement. The fact that future extreme precipitation like the Hiroshima event is not intensified is in contrast to the well-known result that extreme rainfall tends to be intensified in the future. The results in the present study imply that the response of extreme precipitation to global warming differs for each rainfall phenomenon.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoling He
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the convection flow between the two parallel plates in a fluid cell subject to the transient thermal field. We use the modal approximations similar to that of the original Lorenz model to obtain a generalized Lorenz-type model for the flow induced by the transient thermal field at the bottom plate. This study examines the convection flow bifurcation conditions in relation to the transient temperature variations and the flow properties. We formulated successive bifurcation conditions and illustrated the various flow behaviors and their steady-state attractors affected by the thermal field functions and fluid properties.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarzia Domingo Alberto
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We obtain for the two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face in the case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied. Moreover, an inequality for the coefficient which characterizes the solid-liquid interface of the classical Neumann solution is also obtained. This inequality must be satisfied for data of any phase-change material, and as a consequence the result given in Tarzia, Quart. Appl. Math., 39 (1981, 491-497 is also recovered when a heat flux condition was imposed at the fixed face.
RamReddy, Ch.; Venkata Rao, Ch.
2017-12-01
In this paper, a numerical analysis is performed to investigate the effects of double dispersion and convective boundary condition on natural convection flow over vertical frustum of a cone in a nanofluid saturated non-Darcy porous medium. In addition, Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects have taken into consideration, and the uniform wall nanoparticle condition is replaced with the zero nanoparticle mass flux boundary condition to execute physically applicable results. For this complex problem, the similarity solution does not exist and hence suitable non-similarity transformations are used to transform the governing equations along with the boundary conditions into non-dimensional form. The Bivariate Pseudo-Spectral Local Linearisation Method (BPSLLM) is used to solve the reduced non-similar, coupled partial differential equations. To test the accuracy of proposed method, the error analysis and convergence tests are conducted. The effect of flow influenced parameters on non-dimensional velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, regular concentration field as well as on the surface drag, heat transfer, nanoparticle and regular mass transfer rates are analyzed.
Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.
2017-02-01
This paper reports the results of an experimental study to estimate the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient using liquid crystal thermography and Bayesian inference in a heat generating sphere, enclosed in a cubical Teflon block. The geometry considered for the experiments comprises a heater inserted in a hollow hemispherical aluminium ball, resulting in a volumetric heat generation source that is placed at the center of the Teflon block. Calibrated thermochromic liquid crystal sheets are used to capture the temperature distribution at the front face of the Teflon block. The forward model is the three dimensional conduction equation which is solved within the Teflon block to obtain steady state temperatures, using COMSOL. Match up experiments are carried out for various velocities by minimizing the residual between TLC and simulated temperatures for every assumed loss coefficient, to obtain a correlation of average Nusselt number against Reynolds number. This is used for prescribing the boundary condition for the solution to the forward model. A surrogate model obtained by artificial neural network built upon the data from COMSOL simulations is used to drive a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Metropolis Hastings algorithm to generate the samples. Bayesian inference is adopted to solve the inverse problem for determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient from the measured temperature field. Point estimates of the posterior like the mean, maximum a posteriori and standard deviation of the retrieved heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient are reported. Additionally the effect of number of samples on the performance of the estimation process has been investigated.
The effect of cooling conditions on convective heat transfer and flow in a steam-cooled ribbed duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shui, Linqi; Gao, Jianmin; Shi, Xiaojun; Liu, Jiazeng; Xu, Liang
2014-01-01
This work presents a numerical and experimental investigation on the heat transfer and turbulent flow of cooling steam in a rectangular duct with 90 .deg. ribs and studies the effect of cooling conditions on the heat transfer augmentation of steam. In the calculation, the variation range of Reynolds is from 10,000 to 190,000, the inlet temperature varies from 300 .deg. C to 500 .deg. C and the outlet pressure is from 0.5MPa to 6MPa. The aforementioned wide ranges of flow parameters cover the actual operating condition of coolant used in the gas turbine blades. The computations are carried with four turbulence models (the standard k-ε, the renormalized group (RNG) k-ε, the Launder-Reece-Rodi (LRR) and the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) turbulence models). The comparison of numerical and experimental results reveals that the SSG turbulence model is suitable for steam flow in the ribbed duct. Therefore, adopting the conjugate calculation technique, further study on the steam heat transfer and flow characteristics is performed with SSG turbulence model. The results show that the variation of cooling condition strongly impacts the forced convection heat transfer of steam in the ribbed duct. The cooling supply condition of a relative low temperature and medium pressure could bring a considerable advantage on steam thermal enhancement. In addition, comparing the heat transfer level between steam flow and air flow, the performance advantage of using steam is also influenced by the cooling supply condition. Changing Reynolds number has little effect on the performance superiority of steam cooling. Increasing pressure would strengthen the advantage, but increasing temperature gives an opposite result.
Chahtour, C.; Ben Hamed, H.; Beji, H.; Guizani, A.; Alimi, W.
2018-01-01
We investigate how an external imposed magnetic field affects thermal instability in a horizontal shallow porous cavity saturated by a non-Newtonian power-law liquid. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and parallel to the gravity. A uniform heat flux is applied to the horizontal walls of the layer while the vertical walls are adiabatic. We use linear stability analysis to find expressions for the critical Rayleigh number as a function of the power-law index and the intensity of the magnetic field. We use nonlinear parallel flow theory to find some explicit solutions of the problem, and we use finite difference numerical simulations to solve the full nonlinear equations. We show how the presence of magnetic field alters the known hydrodynamical result of Newtonian flows and power-law flows and how it causes the presence of subcritical finite amplitude convection for both pseudoplastic and dilatant fluids. We also show that in the limit of very strong magnetic field, the dissipation of energy by Joule effect dominates the dissipation of energy by shear stress and gives to the liquid an inviscid character.
Mesoscale convective systems in Spain: instability conditions and moisture sources involved
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Queralt
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Source-receptor water vapor content areas are analyzed for a particular case of deep mesoscale convective system (MCS developed over the Mediterranean margin of Spain in October 1982. The aim of this work is to study simultaneously the atmospheric instability conditions and water vapour fluxes which finally resulted in very severe precipitation rates, reaching up to 600 mm in a single day. Humidity amounts and transport are quantified along the trajectories computed from a lagrangian particle simulation model (FLEXPART6.2. To evaluate the precipitation probability, the water vapor content and both thermodynamic and dynamic atmospheric instability components were assessed. The October 1982 Iberian MCS occurred as a consequence of a deep cutoff low detected between 500 and 200 hPa levels. The dynamical instability was measured through potential vorticity anomalies and Q vector divergence, which presented their maximum and minimum centers respectively over south-eastern Iberia. Synoptic and dynamic instability conditions were obtained from the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. It is observed that during this severe weather episode, the specific humidity increased along the lowest and easternmost trajectories, which are mainly spread over the Mediterranean Sea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibukun Sarah Oyelakin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report on combined Dufour and Soret effects on the heat and mass transfer in a Casson nanofluid flow over an unsteady stretching sheet with thermal radiation and heat generation. The effects of partial slip on the velocity at the boundary, convective thermal boundary condition, Brownian and thermophoresis diffusion coefficients on the concentration boundary condition are investigated. The model equations are solved using the spectral relaxation method. The results indicate that the fluid flow, temperature and concentration profiles are significantly influenced by the fluid unsteadiness, the Casson parameter, magnetic parameter and the velocity slip. The effect of increasing the Casson parameter is to suppress the velocity and temperature growth. An increase in the Dufour parameter reduces the flow temperature, while an increase in the value of the Soret parameter causes increase in the concentration of the fluid. Again, increasing the velocity slip parameter reduces the velocity profile whereas increasing the heat generation parameter increases the temperature profile. A validation of the work is presented by comparing the current results with existing literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syahira Mansur
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The unsteady boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet with a convective surface boundary condition is studied. The effects of the unsteadiness parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, convective parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter on the local Nusselt number are investigated. Numerical solutions to the governing equations are obtained using a shooting method. The results for the local Nusselt number are presented for different values of the governing parameters. The local Nusselt number decreases as the stretching/shrinking parameter increases. The local Nusselt number is consistently higher for higher values of the convective parameter but lower for higher values of the unsteadiness parameter, Brownian motion parameter and thermophoresis parameter.
Boiler startup under conditions of convective heating of the highly reactive coal dust
Zhuikov, A. V.; Kulagin, V. A.; Baranova, M. P.; Glushkov, D. O.
2016-12-01
Experimental research of conditions and characteristics of ignition of the pulverized coal (with a particle size of approximately 80 μm) of different-type brown coals (1B, 2B, and 3B) during convective heating by a heated airflow (at a temperature of 425-600°C and velocity of 1-5 m/s) is carried out. The use of low-inertia thermocouples, a high-speed video camera, and dedicated software has made it possible to determine the minimum oxidizer parameters needed for coal dust ignition, and the approximation dependences of a main characteristic of the process under study―ignition delay time―on the air temperature. Results of experimental studies provide a basis for developing an optimal scheme of the boiler startup without heavy oil, which differs from the known schemes by the relatively low energy consumption for fuel-burning initiation. By example of the BKZ 75-39FB boiler, the economic usefulness of applying the boiler startup without heavy oil is shown. This scheme can be implemented using the proposed ignition burner that functions as a part of the direct system of pulverized-fuel preparation.
Flow and heat transfer in Sisko fluid with convective boundary condition.
Malik, Rabia; Khan, Masood; Munir, Asif; Khan, Waqar Azeem
2014-01-01
In this article, we have studied the flow and heat transfer in Sisko fluid with convective boundary condition over a nonisothermal stretching sheet. The flow is influenced by non-linearly stretching sheet in the presence of a uniform transverse magnetic field. The partial differential equations governing the problem have been reduced by similarity transformations into the ordinary differential equations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and numerically by the shooting method. Effects of different parameters like power-law index n, magnetic parameter M, stretching parameter s, generalized Prandtl number Pr and generalized Biot number γ are presented graphically. It is found that temperature profile increases with the increasing value of M and γ whereas it decreases for Pr. Numerical values of the skin-friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are tabulated at various physical situations. In addition, a comparison between the HAM and exact solutions is also made as a special case and excellent agreement between results enhance a confidence in the HAM results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garg P.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the mathematical implications of the two dimensional viscous steady laminar combined free-forced convective flow of an incompressible fluid over a semi infinite fixed vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium. It is assumed that the left surface of the plate is heated by convection from a hot fluid which is at a temperature higher than the temperature of the fluid on the right surface of the vertical plate. To achieve numerical consistency for the problem under consideration, the governing non linear partial differential equations are first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using a similarity variable and then solved numerically under conditions admitting similarity solutions. The effects of the physical parameters of both the incompressible fluid and the vertical plate on the dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are studied and analysed and the results are depicted both graphically and in a tabular form. Finally, algebraic expressions and the numerical values are obtained for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number.
Zircaloy PWR fuel cladding deformation tests under mainly convective cooling conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hindle, E.D.; Mann, C.A.
1980-01-01
In a loss-of-coolant accident the temperature of the cladding of the fuel rods may rise to levels (650-810 0 C) where the ductility of Zircaloy is high (approximately 80%). The net outward pressure which will obtain if the coolant pressure falls to a small fraction of its normal working value produces stresses in the cladding which can result in large strain through secondary creep. An earlier study of the deformation of specimens of PWR Zircaloy cladding tubing 450 mm long under internal pressure had shown that strains of over 50% could be produced over considerable lengths (greater than twenty tube diameters). Extended deformation of this sort might be unacceptable if it occurred in a fuel element. The previous tests had been carried out under conditions of uniform radiative heat loss, and the work reported here extends the study to conditions of mainly convective heat loss believed to be more representative of a fuel element following a loss of coolant. Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens 450 mm long were filled with alumina pellets and tested at temperatures between 630 and 845 0 C in flowing steam at atmospheric pressure. Internal test pressures were in the range 2.9-11.0 MPa (400-1600 1b/in 2 ). Maximum strains were observed of the same magnitude as those seen in the previous tests, but the shape of the deformation differed; in these tests the deformation progressively increased in the direction of the steam flow. These results are compared with those from multi-rod tests elsewhere, and it is suggested that heat transfer has a dominant effect in determining deformation. The implications for the behaviour of fuel elements in a loss-of-coolant accident are outlined. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Mansour
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Numerical investigation for heat transfer with natural convection and nanofluid flow subjected to changeable thermal boundary conditions and inclined magnetic field has been performed. Effect of problem’s parameters on each other has been monitored. It has been reached to that inclination angle can justify the quasi-symmetric boundary conditions to be symmetric. In addition to that as inclination angle increases, the magnetic force pointed to horizontal trend; so the convection regime dominates the cavity. In a related context, nanoparticles provide conduction regime, increase and maintenance the rate of heat transfer all over the cavity. However thermal emission at ends of heat source–sink has been found to be constant when boundary conditions change in the pure case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jawad Ahmed
Full Text Available This paper examines the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristic in power law fluid model over unsteady radially stretching sheet under the influence of convective boundary conditions. A uniform magnetic field is applied transversely to the direction of the flow. The governing time dependent nonlinear boundary layer equations are reduced into nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed coupled ordinary differential equations are then solved analytically by homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerically by shooting procedure. Effects of various governing parameters like, power law index n, magnetic parameter M, unsteadiness A, suction/injection S, Biot number γ and generalized Prandtl number Pr on velocity, temperature, local skin friction and the local Nusselt number are studied and discussed. It is found from the analysis that the magnetic parameter diminishes the velocity profile and the corresponding thermal boundary layer thickness. Keywords: Axisymmetric flow, Power law fluid, Unsteady stretching, Convective boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, Tasawar [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics; Iqbal, Zahid [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; Qasim, Muhammad [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Mathematics; Aldossary, Omar M. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics
2012-05-15
This investigation reports the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics in a couple stress fluid flow over a continuos moving surface with a parallel free stream. The effects of heat generation in the presence of convective boundary conditions are also investigated. Series solutions for the velocity and temperature distributions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Convergence of obtained series solutions are analyzed. The results are obtained and discussed through graphs for physical parameters of interest. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiji, L.M. [City Univ. of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2006-07-01
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the following ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters. (orig.)
Jiji, Latif M.
Professor Jiji's broad teaching experience lead him to select the topics for this book to provide a firm foundation for convection heat transfer with emphasis on fundamentals, physical phenomena, and mathematical modelling of a wide range of engineering applications. Reflecting recent developments, this textbook is the first to include an introduction to the challenging topic of microchannels. The strong pedagogic potential of Heat Convection is enhanced by the follow ing ancillary materials: (1) Power Point lectures, (2) Problem Solutions, (3) Homework Facilitator, and, (4) Summary of Sections and Chapters.
Time-dependent convective flows with high viscosity contrasts under micro gravity conditions.
Zaussinger, Florian; Egbers, Christoph; Krebs, Andreas; Schwarzbach, Felix; Kunze, Christian
2015-04-01
Thermal driven convection in spherical geometry is of main interest in geo- and astrophysical research. To capture certain aspects of temperature dependent viscosity we investigate the micro-gravity experiment GeoFlow-IIb, located on the ISS. This unique experimental setup consists of a bottom heated and top cooled spherical gap, filled with the silicon oil 1-Nonanol. However, rotation and varying temperature gradients can be applied, to spread the experimental parameter space. The main focus of the current mission is the investigation of time dependent convective flow structures. Since the ISS requirements makes it impossible to use tracer particles, the flow structures are captured by interferometry, whose outcome is analysed by an ground based adapted image processing technique. To guarantee valid results the experimental time of each parameter is in the order of the thermal time scale, which is about 40 min. We are presenting latest results of plume-like and sheet-like time-dependent convective patterns in the spherical shell, their evolution and temporal behaviour under high viscosity contrasts. Due to an unexpected nonlinear coupling between the temperature dependent viscosity of the working fluid and the applied dielectrophoretic force field, we are able to maintain a viscosity contrast of 50 and more. This gives the chance to compare cautiously our experimental results with theoretical assumptions of the mantle convection theory. Besides, numerical simulations in the same parameter regime are performed, which give the opportunity to deduce the internal structure of the experimental flow flied. The main focus of the presented results are the long time temporal evolution of convective plumes in the spherical gap, image capturing- and processing techniques and the deduction of the internal flow field based on planar interferometry pictures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramov, Alexey G; Smirnov, Evgueni M; Goryachev, Valery D
2014-01-01
Results of direct numerical simulations for time-developing air natural-convection boundary layer are presented. Computations have been performed assuming periodicity conditions in both the directions parallel to the vertical isothermal hot plate. The contribution is mainly focused on understanding of laminar–turbulent transition peculiarities in the case of perturbation action of external turbulence that is modeled by isotropic disturbances initially introduced into the computational domain. Special attention is paid to identification and analysis of evolving three-dimensional vortices that clearly manifest themselves through the whole stages of laminar–turbulent transition in the boundary layer. A comparison of computed profiles of mean velocity, mean temperature and fluctuation characteristics for turbulent regimes of convection with experimental data is performed as well. (paper)
Strode, Sarah A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael; Nielsen, J. Eric; Oman, Luke D.
2017-11-01
Satellite observations of in-cloud ozone concentrations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Microwave Limb Sounder instruments show substantial differences from background ozone concentrations. We develop a method for comparing a free-running chemistry-climate model (CCM) to in-cloud and background ozone observations using a simple criterion based on cloud fraction to separate cloudy and clear-sky days. We demonstrate that the CCM simulates key features of the in-cloud versus background ozone differences and of the geographic distribution of in-cloud ozone. Since the agreement is not dependent on matching the meteorological conditions of a specific day, this is a promising method for diagnosing how accurately CCMs represent the relationships between ozone and clouds, including the lower ozone concentrations shown by in-cloud satellite observations. Since clouds are associated with convection as well as changes in chemistry, we diagnose the tendency of tropical ozone at 400 hPa due to chemistry, convection and turbulence, and large-scale dynamics. While convection acts to reduce ozone concentrations at 400 hPa throughout much of the tropics, it has the opposite effect over highly polluted regions of South and East Asia.
Takemi, T.; Nomura, S.; Oku, Y.; Ishikawa, H.
2011-12-01
Understanding and forecasting of convective rain due to intense thunderstorms, which develop under conditions both with and without significant synoptic-scale and/or mesoscale forcings, are critical in dealing with disaster prevention/mitigation and developing urban planning appropriate for disaster management. Thunderstorms rapidly develop even during the daytimes of fair weather conditions without any external forcings, and sometimes become strong enough to induce local-scale meteorological disasters such as torrential rain, flush flooding, high winds, and tornadoes/gusts. With the growing interests in climate change, future changes in the behavior of such convectively generated extreme events have gained scientific and societal interests. This study conducted the regional-scale evaluations on the environmental stability conditions for convective rain that develops under synoptically undisturbed, summertime conditions by using the outputs of super-high-resolution AGCM simulations, at a 20-km resolution, for the present, the near-future, and the future climates under global warming with IPCC A1B emission scenario. The GCM, MRI-AGCM3.2S, was developed by Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency under the KAKUSHIN program funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan. The climate simulation outputs that were used in this study corresponded to three 25-year periods: 1980-2004 for the present climate; 2020-2044 for the near-future climate; and 2075-2099 for the future climate. The Kanto Plain that includes the Tokyo metropolitan area was chosen as the study area, since the Tokyo metropolitan area is one of the largest metropolises in the world and is vulnerable to extreme weather events. Therefore, one of the purposes of this study was to examine how regional-scale evaluations are performed from the super-high-resolution GCM outputs. After verifying the usefulness of the GCM present-climate outputs with
Bonanno, Riccardo; Loglisci, Nicola
2018-02-01
The aim of this study is to assess the behavior of the high-resolution COSMO model, having convection explicitly solved, to different soil moisture initializations. This work is devoted to understand if and how the model is sensitive to the initial condition of the soil water content. Four different case studies, representing four different meteorological regimes, have been selected for such a purpose using different soil moisture fields prepared ad hoc. Results confirm that the model is very sensitive to the perturbation of the initial conditions of the soil water content, showing a significant spread increase in main prognostic variables, near the soil as well as upper in the atmosphere. These results suggest that an ensemble system, based on a high-resolution convection-permitting model, could benefit in terms of spread increase if a perturbation of the initial conditions of the soil moisture would be added to the classic perturbation of the atmosphere. For an evaluation of the performances of this kind of ensemble system, a comparison with observations should be performed.
Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I
2012-01-01
Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed J Uddin
Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.
Lee, Man
2012-02-22
A microchannel heat sink, integrated with pressure and temperature microsensors, is utilized to study single-phase liquid flow forced convection under a uniform heat flux boundary condition. Utilizing a waferbond-and-etch- back technology, the heat source, temperature and pressure sensors are encapsulated in a thin composite membrane capping the microchannels, thus allowing experimentally good control of the thermal boundary conditions. A three-dimensional physical model has been constructed to facilitate numerical simulations of the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that upstream the cold working fluid absorbs heat, while, within the current operating conditions, downstream the warmer working fluid releases heat. The Nusselt number is computed numerically and compared with experimental and analytical results. The wall Nusselt number in a microchannel can be estimated using classical analytical solutions only over a limited range of the Reynolds number, Re: both the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 4 for Re < 1, while the top and bottom Nusselt numbers approach 0 and 5.3, respectively, for Re > 100. The experimentally estimated Nusselt number for forced convection is highly sensitive to the location of the temperature measurements used in calculating the Nusselt number. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Analytical solutions for tomato peeling with combined heat flux and convective boundary conditions
Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.; Metallo, A.
2017-11-01
Peeling of tomatoes by radiative heating is a valid alternative to steam or lye, which are expensive and pollutant methods. Suitable energy densities are required in order to realize short time operations, thus involving only a thin layer under the tomato surface. This paper aims to predict the temperature field in rotating tomatoes exposed to the source irradiation. Therefore, a 1D unsteady analytical model is presented, which involves a semi-infinite slab subjected to time dependent heating while convective heat transfer takes place on the exposed surface. In order to account for the tomato rotation, the heat source is described as the positive half-wave of a sinusoidal function. The problem being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform Method. In addition, an easy-to-handle solution for the problem at hand is presented, which assumes a differentiable function for approximating the source while neglecting convective cooling, the latter contribution turning out to be negligible for the context at hand. A satisfying agreement between the two analytical solutions is found, therefore, an easy procedure for a proper design of the dry heating system can be set up avoiding the use of numerical simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Senior
2002-06-01
Full Text Available High-time resolution data from the two Iceland SuperDARN HF radars show very strong nightside convection activity during a prolonged period of low geomagnetic activity and northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Flows bursts with velocities ranging from 0.8 to 1.7 km/s are observed to propagate in the sunward direction with phase velocities up to 1.5 km/s. These bursts occur over several hours of MLT in the 20:00–01:00 MLT sector, in the evening-side sunward convection. Data from a simultaneous DMSP pass and POLAR UVI images show a very contracted polar cap and extended regions of auroral particle precipitation from the magnetospheric boundaries. A DMSP pass over the Iceland-West field-of-view while one of these sporadic bursts of enhanced flow is observed, indicates that the flow bursts appear within the plasma sheet and at its outward edge, which excludes Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the magnetopause boundary as the generation mechanism. In the nightside region, the precipitation is more spot-like and the convection organizes itself as clockwise U-shaped structures. We interpret these flow bursts as the convective transport following plasma injection events from the tail into the night-side ionosphere. We show that during this period, where the IMF clock angle is around 70°, the dayside magnetosphere is not completely closed.Key words. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Ionospheremagnetosphere interactions; Particle precipitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Hayat
Full Text Available The present analysis aims to report the consequences of nonlinear radiation, convective condition and heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness. Non-uniform magnetic field and nonuniform heat generation/absorption are accounted. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The computations are organized and the effects of physical variables such as thickness parameter, power index, Hartman number, inertia and porous parameters, radiation parameter, Biot number, Prandtl number, ratio parameter, heat generation parameter and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameter are investigated. The variations of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for different interesting variables are plotted and discussed. It is noticed that Biot number and heat generation variable lead to enhance the temperature distribution. The solutal boundary layer thickness decreases for larger homogeneous variable while reverse trend is seen for heterogeneous reaction. Keywords: Variable sheet thickness, Darcy-Forchheimer flow, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Power-law surface velocity, Convective condition, Heat generation/absorption, Nonlinear radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. C. Kelley
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Here we report on four events detected using the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO over an 18-year period, in which huge convective ionospheric storms (CISs occur in a stable ionosphere. We argue that these rare events could be initiated by meteor-induced electric fields. The meteor-induced electric fields map to the bottomside of the F region, causing radar echoes and a localized CIS. If and when a localized disturbance reaches 500 km, we argue that it becomes two-dimensionally turbulent and cascades structure to both large and small scales. This leads to long-lasting structure and, almost certainly, to scintillations over a huge range of latitudes some ±15° wide and to 3 m irregularities, which backscatter the VHF radar waves. These structures located at high altitudes are supported by vortices shed by the upwelling bubble in a vortex street.
Impact of radial magnetic field on peristalsis in curved channel with convective boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayat, Tasawar [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Tanveer, Anum, E-mail: qau14@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaadi, Fuad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Mousa, Ghassan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-04-01
This paper addresses the peristaltic flow in curved channel with combined heat/mass transfer and convective effects. The channel walls are flexible. An imposed magnetic field is applied in radial direction to increase the wave amplitude (used in ECG for synchronization purposes). The pseudoplastic fluid comprising shear-thinning/shear thickening effects has been used in mathematical modeling. Small Reynolds number assumption is employed to neglect inertial effects. Half channel-width to wavelength ratio is small enough for the pressure to be considered uniform over the cross-section. The graphical results obtained are compared with planar channel. Results show the non-symmetric behavior of sundry parameters in contrary to the planar case. Additionally more clear results are seen when the curved channel is approached. - Highlights: • The behavior of curvature parameter k on velocity is not symmetric. • Temperature is decreasing function of Biot number Bi. • Hartman number has similar qualitative effects on both velocity and temperature. • Behavior of concentration is opposite to that of temperature in a qualitative sense. • Bolus size via curvature parameter has opposite effect near the upper and lower channel walls.
Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong
2014-01-01
Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, W.J.
1987-04-01
Simple theoretical models have been developed which are suitable for predicting the thermal responses of irradiated research fuel elements of markedly different geometries when they are subjected to loss-of-coolant accident conditions. These models have been used to calculate temperature responses corresponding to various non-forced convective conditions. Comparisons between experimentally observed temperatures and calculated values have shown that a suitable value for surface thermal emissivity is 0.35; modelling of the fuel element beyond the region of the fuel plate needs to be included since these areas account for approximately 25 per cent of the thermal power dissipated; general agreement between calculated and experimental temperatures for both transient and steady-state conditions is good - the maximum discrepancy between calculated and experimental temperatures for a HIFAR Mark IV/V fuel element is ∼ 70 deg C, and for an Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) box-type fuel element ∼ 30 deg C; and axial power distribution does not significantly affect thermal responses for the conditions investigated. Overall, the comparisons have shown that the models evolved can reproduce experimental data to a level of accuracy that provides confidence in the modelling technique and the postulated heat dissipation mechanisms, and that these models can be used to predict thermal responses of fuel elements in accident conditions that are not easily investigated experimentally
Hayat, T.; Shah, Faisal; Alsaedi, A.; Hussain, Zakir
The present analysis aims to report the consequences of nonlinear radiation, convective condition and heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions in Darcy-Forchheimer flow over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness. Non-uniform magnetic field and nonuniform heat generation/absorption are accounted. The governing boundary layer partial differential equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The computations are organized and the effects of physical variables such as thickness parameter, power index, Hartman number, inertia and porous parameters, radiation parameter, Biot number, Prandtl number, ratio parameter, heat generation parameter and homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction parameter are investigated. The variations of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number for different interesting variables are plotted and discussed. It is noticed that Biot number and heat generation variable lead to enhance the temperature distribution. The solutal boundary layer thickness decreases for larger homogeneous variable while reverse trend is seen for heterogeneous reaction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sameh E. Ahmed
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the effects of slip boundary conditions and chemical reaction on the heat and mass transfer by mixed convective boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian fluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet. The Casson fluid model is used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. First order chemical reactions are considered. Similar solutions are used to convert the partial differential equations governing the problem to ordinary differential equations. The velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are obtained, numerically, using the MATLAB function bvp4c and those are used to compute the entropy generation number. The effect of increasing values of the Casson parameter is found to suppress the velocity field and temperature distribution. But the concentration is enhanced with the increasing of Casson parameter. The viscous dissipation, temperature and concentration irreversibility are determined and discussed in details.
Hussain, Arif; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.; Rubab, A.; Khan, Mair
Present analysis is concentrating on the thermo-physical aspects of MHD tangent hyperbolic fluid flow over a non-linear stretching sheet with viscous dissipation and convective boundary conditions. Mathematical modelling yields non-linear partial differential equations. The governing equations are transformed into corresponding coupled ordinary differential equations via using local similarity variables. The accomplished boundary layer ordinary differential equations are solved with the aid of both homotopy analysis method and shooting method. The effects of flow govern parameters are visualized on velocity and temperature in both qualitative and quantitative manners. The computations of wall friction factor and local Nusselt number are performed to analyze the behavior in the vicinity of stretching sheet. The contrast between analytically and numerically computed values of wall friction factor and local Nusselt number is presented. It is worth mentioning that the both results are in excellent agreement, this favorable comparison led to confidence on computed results.
Research on Condition Assessment Method of Transmission Tower Under the Action of Strong Wind
Huang, Ren-mou; An, Li-qiang; Zhang, Rong-lun; Wu, Jiong; Liang, Ya-feng
2018-03-01
Transmission towers are often subjected to the external damage of severe weather like strong wind and so on, which may cause the collapse due to the yield and fracture of the tower material. Aiming this issue, an assessment method was proposed in this paper to assess the operation condition of transmission towers under strong wind. With a reasonable assess index system established firstly, then the internal force of the tower material was solved and its stability was determined through the mechanical analysis of the transmission tower finite element model. Meanwhile, the condition risk level of the tower was finally determined by considering the difference among the influences of other factors like corrosion and loose of members, slope on the transmission tower through the analytic hierarchy process. The assessment method was applied to assess the wind-induced collapse of towers in 110kV Bao Yi II line in Wenchang City, Hainan Province, of which the result proves the method can assess the condition of transmission tower under strong wind and of guiding significance for improving the windproof capability of transmission towers.
Measuring Convective Mass Fluxes Over Tropical Oceans
Raymond, David
2017-04-01
Deep convection forms the upward branches of all large-scale circulations in the tropics. Understanding what controls the form and intensity of vertical convective mass fluxes is thus key to understanding tropical weather and climate. These mass fluxes and the corresponding conditions supporting them have been measured by recent field programs (TPARC/TCS08, PREDICT, HS3) in tropical disturbances considered to be possible tropical storm precursors. In reality, this encompasses most strong convection in the tropics. The measurements were made with arrays of dropsondes deployed from high altitude. In some cases Doppler radar provided additional measurements. The results are in some ways surprising. Three factors were found to control the mass flux profiles, the strength of total surface heat fluxes, the column-integrated relative humidity, and the low to mid-tropospheric moist convective instability. The first two act as expected, with larger heat fluxes and higher humidity producing more precipitation and stronger lower tropospheric mass fluxes. However, unexpectedly, smaller (but still positive) convective instability produces more precipitation as well as more bottom-heavy convective mass flux profiles. Furthermore, the column humidity and the convective instability are anti-correlated, at least in the presence of strong convection. On spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers, the virtual temperature structure appears to be in dynamic balance with the pattern of potential vorticity. Since potential vorticity typically evolves on longer time scales than convection, the potential vorticity pattern plus the surface heat fluxes then become the immediate controlling factors for average convective properties. All measurements so far have taken place in regions with relatively flat sea surface temperature (SST) distributions. We are currently seeking funding for a measurement program in the tropical east Pacific, a region that exhibits strong SST gradients and
Thermal Conditions in a Simulated Office Environment with Convective and Radiant Cooling Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin
2013-01-01
The thermal conditions in a two person office room were measured with four air conditioning systems: chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...
Bollati, Julieta; Tarzia, Domingo A.
2018-04-01
Recently, in Tarzia (Thermal Sci 21A:1-11, 2017) for the classical two-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem an equivalence between the temperature and convective boundary conditions at the fixed face under a certain restriction was obtained. Motivated by this article we study the two-phase Stefan problem for a semi-infinite material with a latent heat defined as a power function of the position and a convective boundary condition at the fixed face. An exact solution is constructed using Kummer functions in case that an inequality for the convective transfer coefficient is satisfied generalizing recent works for the corresponding one-phase free boundary problem. We also consider the limit to our problem when that coefficient goes to infinity obtaining a new free boundary problem, which has been recently studied in Zhou et al. (J Eng Math 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10665-017-9921-y).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Upadhyay Balendu B.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we define some new generalizations of strongly convex functions of order m for locally Lipschitz functions using Clarke subdifferential. Suitable examples illustrating the non emptiness of the newly defined classes of functions and their relationships with classical notions of pseudoconvexity and quasiconvexity are provided. These generalizations are then employed to establish sufficient optimality conditions for a nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problem involving support functions of compact convex sets. Furthermore, we formulate a mixed type dual model for the primal problem and establish weak and strong duality theorems using the notion of strict efficiency of order m. The results presented in this paper extend and unify several known results from the literature to a more general class of functions as well as optimization problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barletta, A.
2008-01-01
The necessary condition for the onset of parallel flow in the fully developed region of an inclined duct is applied to the case of a circular tube. Parallel flow in inclined ducts is an uncommon regime, since in most cases buoyancy tends to produce the onset of secondary flow. The present study shows how proper thermal boundary conditions may preserve parallel flow regime. Mixed convection flow is studied for a special non-axisymmetric thermal boundary condition that, with a proper choice of a switch parameter, may be compatible with parallel flow. More precisely, a circumferentially variable heat flux distribution is prescribed on the tube wall, expressed as a sinusoidal function of the azimuthal coordinate θ with period 2π. A π/2 rotation in the position of the maximum heat flux, achieved by setting the switch parameter, may allow or not the existence of parallel flow. Two cases are considered corresponding to parallel and non-parallel flow. In the first case, the governing balance equations allow a simple analytical solution. On the contrary, in the second case, the local balance equations are solved numerically by employing a finite element method
Bertini, Lorenzo; Cirillo, Emilio N. M.; Olivieri, Enzo
1999-12-01
In this paper we study a renormalization-group map: the block averaging transformation applied to Gibbs measures relative to a class of finite-range lattice gases, when suitable strong mixing conditions are satisfied. Using a block decimation procedure, cluster expansion, and detailed comparison between statistical ensembles, we are able to prove Gibbsianness and convergence to a trivial (i.e., Gaussian and product) fixed point. Our results apply to the 2D standard Ising model at any temperature above the critical one and arbitrary magnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gama, R.M.S. da.
1992-08-01
The energy transfer phenomenon in a rigid and opaque body that exchanges energy, with the environment, by convection and by diffuse thermal radiation is studied. The considered phenomenon is described by a partial differential equation, subjected to (nonlinear) boundary conditions. A minimum principle, suitable for a large class of energy transfer problems is presented. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosnitskiy, P., E-mail: pavrosni@yandex.ru; Yuldashev, P., E-mail: petr@acs366.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlova, V., E-mail: vera@acs366.phys.msu.ru [Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-10-28
An equivalent source model was proposed as a boundary condition to the nonlinear parabolic Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya (KZ) equation to simulate high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields generated by medical ultrasound transducers with the shape of a spherical shell. The boundary condition was set in the initial plane; the aperture, the focal distance, and the initial pressure of the source were chosen based on the best match of the axial pressure amplitude and phase distributions in the Rayleigh integral analytic solution for a spherical transducer and the linear parabolic approximation solution for the equivalent source. Analytic expressions for the equivalent source parameters were derived. It was shown that the proposed approach allowed us to transfer the boundary condition from the spherical surface to the plane and to achieve a very good match between the linear field solutions of the parabolic and full diffraction models even for highly focused sources with F-number less than unity. The proposed method can be further used to expand the capabilities of the KZ nonlinear parabolic equation for efficient modeling of HIFU fields generated by strongly focused sources.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Walter, B.; Peters, J.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.
2015-01-01
pulses of a higher light intensity (120 mmol m22 s21, 2/22 hlight/dark). Both experimental light conditions offered the same daily light dose. No growth was observed at temperatures below 88C. Above 88C, growth rates were significantly higher under low light conditions compared with those of short pulsed......Aim of this study was to expose phytoplankton to growth conditions simulating deep winter convection in the North Atlantic and thereby to assess changes in physiology enabling their survival. Growth rate, biochemical composition, and photosynthetic activity of the diatom Thalassiosiraweissflogii...... were determined under two different light scenarios over a temperature range of 5–158C to simulate conditions experienced by cells during winter deep convection. These metrics were examined under a low light scenario (20 mmol m22 s21, 12/12 h light/dark), and compared with a scenario of short light...
Deev, V. I.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Churkin, A. N.; Baisov, A. M.
2017-11-01
In this report the assessment of the results of recent experimental investigations of heat transfer in turbulent flow of supercritical water and modeling fluids (carbon dioxide, Freon) in vertical channels of different geometry (tubes, annular gaps and rod bundles) is presented. The conditions of similarity and the system of criteria, which determine the intensity of heat exchange in the fluids near the critical point, are considered. Due to the small hydraulic diameter of the heat exchange channels in the core of nuclear reactors it is possible to neglect the gravitational forces compared to the acceleration caused by the thermal inertia effects and the forces of viscosity. Based on these ideas two comprehensive criteria were proposed. Their application in the basic equation of heat transfer suggested by the authors earlier for the normal regimes satisfactorily (with an error of 20–25%) describes the features of change of heat transfer coefficient in the deteriorated and mixed regimes of heat transfer. The system of equations suitable for engineering calculation of heat transfer in channels of nuclear reactors cooled with supercritical pressure water was developed.
A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm
Klinger, R.; Rejmanek, M.
2010-01-01
Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. Therefore, we used a combination of observations and field experiments to determine the degree to which germination rates of the palm Astrocaryum mexicanum varied with abundance of a small mammal seed predator/disperser, Heteromysdesmarestianus, in a lowland tropical forest. Patterns of abundance of the two species were strongly related; density of H. desmarestianus was low in sites with low density of A. mexicanum and vice versa. Rates of predation and dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds depended on abundance of H. desmarestianus; sites with high densities of H. desmarestianus had the highest rates of seed predation and lowest rates of seed germination, but a greater total number of seeds were dispersed and there was greater density of seedlings, saplings, and adults of A. mexicanum in these sites. When abundance of H. desmarestianus was experimentally reduced, rates of seed predation decreased, but so did dispersal of A. mexicanum seeds. Critically, rates of germination of dispersed seeds were 5 times greater than undispersed seeds. The results suggest that the relationship between A. mexicanum and H. desmarestianus is a conditional mutualism that results in a strong local effect on the abundance of each species. However, the magnitude and direction of these effects are determined by the relative strength of opposing, but related, mechanisms. A. mexicanum nuts provide H. desmarestianus with a critical food resource, and while seed predation on A. mexicanum nuts by H. desmarestianus is very intense, A. mexicanum ultimately benefits because of the relatively high germination rates of its seeds that are dispersed by H. desmarestianus. ?? The Author(s) 2010.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hsien-Hung Ting
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This numerical study is aimed at investigating the forced convection heat transfer and flow characteristics of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids inside a horizontal circular tube in the laminar flow regime under the constant wall temperature boundary condition. Five volume concentrations of nanoparticle, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 vol.%, are used and diameter of nanoparticle is 40 nm. Characteristics of heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, and pressure drop are reported. The results show that heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids increases with increasing Reynolds number or particle volume concentration. The heat transfer coefficient of the water-based nanofluid with 2 vol.% Al2O3 nanoparticles is enhanced by 32% compared with that of pure water. Increasing particle volume concentration causes an increase in pressure drop. At 2 vol.% of particle concentration, the pressure drop reaches a maximum that is nearly 5.7 times compared with that of pure water. It is important to note that the numerical results are in good agreement with published experimental data.
Shi, Hongrong; Chen, Hongbin; Xia, Xiang'ao; Fan, Xuehua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Li, Jun; Ling, Chao
2017-06-01
Using radiosonde measurements from 26 July to 30 July 2014 at Baiqi over the Inner Mongolia grassland of China, the vertical structure of shallow cumulus (SCu) clouds and associated environmental conditions were investigated. The cloud base height and the cloud top height of SCu was 3.4 km and 5 km, respectively. The temperature of the SCu layer was less than 0°C. The horizontal advection of specific humidity was smaller than the vertical transport in the atmosphere below 5 km. Above 5 km, the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere remained stable. At the interface of the cloud layer and free air atmosphere, there was obvious wind shear and a temperature inversion ( 2.9°C). Comparisons of environmental parameters associated with cumulus congestus, rain and clear days, showed that the formation of SCu was characterized by a higher Bowen ratio (high sensible heat flux and low latent heat flux), which indicated intensive turbulence in the boundary layer. The formation of SCu was associated with the boundary layer height exceeding the lifting condensation level. The maintenance of SCu was likely associated with the lower convective available potential energy, weak wind shear, and weak subsidence of the synoptic system, which did not favor the dramatic vertical development of SCu and thereby the transformation of SCu to cumulus congestus.
Bai, Yu; Jiang, Yuehua; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Yan
2017-12-01
This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Bai
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imran Ullah
Full Text Available Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
Ullah, Imran; Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Shafie, Sharidan; Khan, Ilyas
2016-01-01
Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
Leśniewska, Barbara; Jebors, Said; Coleman, Anthony W; Suwińska, Kinga
2012-03-01
The structure of griseofulvic acid, C16H15ClO6, at 100 K has orthorhombic (P2(1)2(1)2) symmetry. It is of interest with respect to biological activity. The structure displays intermolecular O-H...O, C-H...O hydrogen bonding as well as week C-H...pi and pi...pi interactions. In strong acidic conditions the griseofulvin undergoes dimerization. The structure of dimerized griseofulvin, C34H32C12O12 x C2H6O x H2O, at 100 K has monoclinic (P2(1)) symmetry. The molecule crystallized as a solvate with one ethanol and one water molecule. The dimeric molecules form intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds to solvents molecules only but they interact via week C-H...O, C-H...pi, C-Cl...pi and pi...pi interactions with other dimerized molecules.
de Koning, Heleen D; Bergboer, Judith G M; van den Bogaard, Ellen H; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; Rodijk-Olthuis, Diana; Simon, Anna; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; Schalkwijk, Joost
2012-12-01
Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-stranded DNA receptor, and its activation initiates an interleukin-1 beta processing inflammasome. AIM2 is implicated in host defense against several pathogens, but could hypothetically also contribute to autoinflammatory or autoimmune diseases, such as is the case for NLRP3. Using thoroughly characterised antibodies, we analysed AIM2 expression in human tissues and primary cells. A strong epidermal upregulation of AIM2 protein expression was observed in several acute and chronic inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, venous ulcera, contact dermatitis, and experimental wounds. We also found AIM2 induction by interferon-gamma in submerged and three-dimensional in vitro models of human epidermis. Our data highlight the dynamics of epidermal AIM2 expression, showing Langerhans cell and melanocyte-restricted expression in normal epidermis but a pronounced induction in subpopulations of epidermal keratinocytes under inflammatory conditions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.
2011-01-01
Implementations of a model for equilibrium, steady-state ablation boundary conditions are tested for the purpose of providing strong coupling with a hypersonic flow solver. The objective is to remove correction factors or film cooling approximations that are usually applied in coupled implementations of the flow solver and the ablation response. Three test cases are considered - the IRV-2, the Galileo probe, and a notional slender, blunted cone launched at 10 km/s from the Earth's surface. A successive substitution is employed and the order of succession is varied as a function of surface temperature to obtain converged solutions. The implementation is tested on a specified trajectory for the IRV-2 to compute shape change under the approximation of steady-state ablation. Issues associated with stability of the shape change algorithm caused by explicit time step limits are also discussed.
Analysis of corrosion product transport in PWR primary system under non-convective condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Byoung Sub
1992-02-01
The increase of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) due to the increase of the operational period at existing nuclear power plant and also the publication of the new version of ICRP recommendation (ICRP publication No. 60) for radiological protection require much more strict reduction of radiation buildup in the nuclear power plant. The major sources of the radiation, i.e. the radioactive corrosion-products, are generated by the neutron activation of the corrosion products at the reactor core, and then the radioactive corrosion products are transported to the outside of the core, and accumulated near the steam generator side at PWR. Major radioactive corrosion-products of interest in PWR are Cr 51 ,: Mn 54 ,: Co 58 ,: Fe 59 and Co 60 . Among them Co 58 and Co 60 are known to contribute approximately more than 70% of the total ORE. Thus our main concerns are focused on predicting the transport and deposition of the Co radionuclides and suggesting the optimizing method which can minimize and control the ORE of the nuclear power plant. It is well known that Co-source is most effectively controlled by pH-solubility radiation control, and also some complex computer codes such as CORA and PACTOLE have been developed and revised to predict the corrosion product behavior. However these codes still imply some intrisic problems in simulating the real behavior of corrosion products in the reactor because of 1) the lack of important experimental data, coefficients and parameters of the transport and reactions under actual high temperature and pressure conditions, 2) no general theoretical modelling which can describe such many different mechanisms involved in the corrosion product movements, 3) the newly developed and measured behavior of the corrosion product transport mechanism. Since no sufficient and detailed information is available from the above-mentioned codes (also due to propriority problems), we concentrate on developing a new computer code, CP-TRAN (Corrosion
Semeniuk, T. A.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Salazar, V.; Breed, D. W.; Jensen, T. L.; Buseck, P. R.
2014-03-01
An airborne study of cloud microphysics provided an opportunity to collect aerosol particles in ambient and updraft conditions of natural convection systems for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particles were collected simultaneously on lacey carbon and calcium-coated carbon (Ca-C) TEM grids, providing information on particle morphology and chemistry and a unique record of the particle's physical state on impact. In total, 22 particle categories were identified, including single, coated, aggregate, and droplet types. The fine fraction comprised up to 90% mixed cation sulfate (MCS) droplets, while the coarse fraction comprised up to 80% mineral-containing aggregates. Insoluble (dry), partially soluble (wet), and fully soluble particles (droplets) were recorded on Ca-C grids. Dry particles were typically silicate grains; wet particles were mineral aggregates with chloride, nitrate, or sulfate components; and droplets were mainly aqueous NaCl and MCS. Higher numbers of droplets were present in updrafts (80% relative humidity (RH)) compared with ambient conditions (60% RH), and almost all particles activated at cloud base (100% RH). Greatest changes in size and shape were observed in NaCl-containing aggregates (>0.3 µm diameter) along updraft trajectories. Their abundance was associated with high numbers of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplets, as well as large droplet sizes in updrafts. Thus, compositional dependence was observed in activation behavior recorded for coarse and fine fractions. Soluble salts from local pollution and natural sources clearly affected aerosol-cloud interactions, enhancing the spectrum of particles forming CCN and by forming giant CCN from aggregates, thus, making cloud seeding with hygroscopic flares ineffective in this region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wubshet Ibrahim
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional boundary layer flow of nanofluid fluid past a stretching sheet is examined. The paper reveals the effect of non-linear radiative heat transfer on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD stagnation point flow past a stretching sheet with convective heating. Condition of zero normal flux of nanoparticles at the wall for the stretched flow is considered. The nanoparticle fractions on the boundary are considered to be passively controlled. The solution for the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration depends on parameters viz. Prandtl number Pr, velocity ratio parameter A, magnetic parameter M, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion Nb, and the thermophoresis parameter Nt. Moreover, the problem is governed by temperature ratio parameter (Nr=TfT∞ and radiation parameter Rd. Similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing non-linear boundary-value problems into coupled higher order non-linear ordinary differential equation. These equations were numerically solved using the function bvp4c from the matlab software for different values of governing parameters. Numerical results are obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration, as well as the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient Cf increases as the values of magnetic parameter M increase and decreases as the values of velocity ratio parameter A increase. The local Nusselt number −θ′(0 decreases as the values of thermophoresis parameter Nt and radiation parameter Nr increase and it increases as the values of both Biot number Bi and Prandtl number Pr increase. Furthermore, radiation has a positive effect on temperature and concentration profiles.
Su, Ching-Hua
2015-01-01
A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The flight experiment will conduct crystal growths of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT). The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, especially the effects of different growth orientations related to gravity direction on the grown crystals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogatyrev, I.L.; Bogoslovskaya, G.P.; Zhukov, A.V.; Sorokin, A.P.; Titov, P.A.
1992-01-01
System of constants for mass, impulse and energy conservation equations (drag, mixing, heat transfer coefficients, azimuthal unquality of temperature) is reported in region with small Re number for wide range of geometrical assembly parameters. This system can be used in subchannel calculations of assemblies with natural and mixed convection under conditions with loss of flow accident. The formulae are compared with experimental data. 30 refs.; 12 figs.; 1 tab
Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions
Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier
2017-04-01
Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).
Observing Convective Aggregation
Holloway, Christopher E.; Wing, Allison A.; Bony, Sandrine; Muller, Caroline; Masunaga, Hirohiko; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Turner, David D.; Zuidema, Paquita
2017-11-01
Convective self-aggregation, the spontaneous organization of initially scattered convection into isolated convective clusters despite spatially homogeneous boundary conditions and forcing, was first recognized and studied in idealized numerical simulations. While there is a rich history of observational work on convective clustering and organization, there have been only a few studies that have analyzed observations to look specifically for processes related to self-aggregation in models. Here we review observational work in both of these categories and motivate the need for more of this work. We acknowledge that self-aggregation may appear to be far-removed from observed convective organization in terms of time scales, initial conditions, initiation processes, and mean state extremes, but we argue that these differences vary greatly across the diverse range of model simulations in the literature and that these comparisons are already offering important insights into real tropical phenomena. Some preliminary new findings are presented, including results showing that a self-aggregation simulation with square geometry has too broad distribution of humidity and is too dry in the driest regions when compared with radiosonde records from Nauru, while an elongated channel simulation has realistic representations of atmospheric humidity and its variability. We discuss recent work increasing our understanding of how organized convection and climate change may interact, and how model discrepancies related to this question are prompting interest in observational comparisons. We also propose possible future directions for observational work related to convective aggregation, including novel satellite approaches and a ground-based observational network.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Alipour, M.
2012-01-01
In this work, the natural convection heat transfer from a long vertical electrically heated cylinder to an adjacent air gap is experimentally studied. The aspect and diameter ratios of the cylinder are 55.56 and 6.33, respectively. The experimental measurements were obtained for a concentric cond...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nordlund Åke
2009-04-01
Full Text Available We review the properties of solar convection that are directly observable at the solar surface, and discuss the relevant underlying physics, concentrating mostly on a range of depths from the temperature minimum down to about 20 Mm below the visible solar surface.The properties of convection at the main energy carrying (granular scales are tightly constrained by observations, in particular by the detailed shapes of photospheric spectral lines and the topology (time- and length-scales, flow velocities, etc. of the up- and downflows. Current supercomputer models match these constraints very closely, which lends credence to the models, and allows robust conclusions to be drawn from analysis of the model properties.At larger scales the properties of the convective velocity field at the solar surface are strongly influenced by constraints from mass conservation, with amplitudes of larger scale horizontal motions decreasing roughly in inverse proportion to the scale of the motion. To a large extent, the apparent presence of distinct (meso- and supergranulation scales is a result of the folding of this spectrum with the effective “filters” corresponding to various observational techniques. Convective motions on successively larger scales advect patterns created by convection on smaller scales; this includes patterns of magnetic field, which thus have an approximately self-similar structure at scales larger than granulation.Radiative-hydrodynamical simulations of solar surface convection can be used as 2D/3D time-dependent models of the solar atmosphere to predict the emergent spectrum. In general, the resulting detailed spectral line profiles agree spectacularly well with observations without invoking any micro- and macroturbulence parameters due to the presence of convective velocities and atmosphere inhomogeneities. One of the most noteworthy results has been a significant reduction in recent years in the derived solar C, N, and O abundances with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Zeeshan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The motivation of the current article is to explore the energy activation in MHD radiative Couette-Poiseuille flow nanofluid in horizontal channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model of Buongiorno [1] effectively describes the current flow analysis. Additionally, the impact of chemical reaction is also taken in account. The governing flow equations are simplified with the help of boundary layer approximations. Non-linear coupled equations for momentum, energy and mass transfer are tackled with analytical (HAM technique. The influence of dimensionless convergence parameter like Brownian motion parameter, radiation parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter, dimensionless activation energy, thermophoresis parameter, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless reaction rate, Schmidt number, Brinkman number, Biot number and convection diffusion parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed graphically and in tabular form. From the results, it is elaborate that the nanoparticle concentration is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy and the performance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle concentration gives reverse pattern to that of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: Convective boundary conditions, Activation energy, Chemical reaction, Couette-Poiseuille flow, Thermal radiation, Nanofluid
Zhao, Yang; Xu, Xiangde; Ruan, Zheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Fang
2018-03-01
The integrated analysis of the data from a C-band frequency-modulated continuous-wave (C-FMCW) radar site in Naqu obtained during a rainstorm over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the data concerning the three-dimensional structure of the circulation of the precipitation system that occurred over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin during the Third Tibetan Plateau (TP) Atmospheric Experiment from August 15th to 19th, 2014, was carried out. The changes in the echo intensity at the C-FMCW radar site in Naqu were of regional indicative significance for the characteristics of the whole-layer apparent heat source Q1 in local areas and the region of the adjacent river source area, including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River (hereinafter referred to as the "source area of three rivers"), as well as to the vertical speeds due to the development of convection. This study indicates that the C-FMCW radar echo intensity of the plateau convection zone and the related power structures of the coupled dipole circulations in the middle layer of the atmosphere, as well as in the upper atmospheric level divergence and lower atmospheric level convergence, are important stimuli for convective clouds in this region. Furthermore, these radar data provided a physical image of the development and maintenance mechanisms of an eastward-moving heavy rainstorm belt. This study also shows that changes in the echo intensities at the C-FMCW radar site of Naqu can provide strong signals related to heavy rainstorm processes in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.
Zheng, J.; Liu, D.; Wang, Z.
2017-12-01
Deep convective clusters (DCCs) have complicated regime with types variation and environmental effect for cloud parameterization in multiple global climate models (GCMs). This study defines separated storms, connected storms and mesoscale convective systems (MCS) and focus on multi-effect of sea surface temperature (SST), convective available potential energy (CAPE), vertical wind shear (VWS) to these three types of DCCs on tropics by collocating data from MODIS, AMSR-E, CPR and CALIOP instruments onboard A-Train satellites. Results reveal that separated storms and MCSs occur frequently over East Asia while connected storms favor over the warm pool of West Pacific in June-August and South America in December-February. Connected storms and MCS have larger ice water content (IWC) at 10-15 km than separated storms. MCS in particular has a longer histogram tail to the large IWC than other two storms. Increasing VWS affect DCCs horizontal extension positively although severe VWS (> 24 m s-1) impede promotion of vertical structures. In contrast, with accumulating of CAPE, cloud top height growing sharply whereas horizontal extension is restricted to a smaller size. Great potential of precipitation (liquid water path > 0.18 g cm-3) always accompany with moderate or high vertical wind shear (> 14 m s-1), low CAPE (ice crystals can extend in stratiform-anvil cloud effectively. In general, surface instability interrelates to vertical scale positively yet wind field impact horizontal structure of DCCs especially for upper one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutateladze, S.S.; Gogonin, I.I.
1979-01-01
Reviewed are experimental studies of boiling of the following liquids: water, ethanol, nitrogen, methanol, benzene, freon-12. A criterion dependence is obtained, and the results of experimental data processing are presented according to separation dimension of vapor bubble at boiling of the above mentioned liquids in the presence range of 0.01-100 atm. As a result of the study, an importance of taking account of a statistical character of separation dimension is noted. This parameter is shown to be strongly conditioned by liquid-material combination of heat-emissive surface. Estimated are experiments made at water boiling on surfaces being under load for a long period of time and those being fresh-prepared. A clear stratification of these data is observed which reaches 50 % in the high-pressure range
Strongly nonlinear nonhomogeneous elliptic unilateral problems with L^1 data and no sign conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elhoussine Azroul
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions to unilateral problems involving nonlinear operators of the form: $$ Au+H(x,u,abla u=f $$ where $A$ is a Leray Lions operator from $W_0^{1,p(x}(Omega$ into its dual $W^{-1,p'(x}(Omega$ and $H(x,s,xi$ is the nonlinear term satisfying some growth condition but no sign condition. The right hand side $f$ belong to $L^1(Omega$.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roday Anand P.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional melting and freezing problem in a finite slab with time-dependent convective boundary condition is solved using the heat-balance integral method. The temperature, T4 1(t, is applied at the left face and decreases linearly with time while the other face of the slab is imposed with a constant convective boundary condition where T4 2 is held at a fixed temperature. In this study, the initial condition of the solid is subcooled (initial temperature is below the melting point. The temperature, T4 1(t at time t = 0 is so chosen such that convective heating takes place and eventually the slab begins to melt (i. e., T4 1(0 > Tf > T4 2. The transient heat conduction problem, until the phase-change starts, is also solved using the heat-balance integral method. Once phase-change process starts, the solid-liquid interface is found to proceed to the right. As time continues, and T4,1(t decreases with time, the phase-change front slows, stops, and may even reverse direction. Hence this problem features sequential melting and freezing of the slab with partial penetration of the solid-liquid front before reversal of the phase-change process. The effect of varying the Biot number at the right face of the slab is investigated to determine its impact on the growth/recession of the solid-liquid interface. Temperature profiles in solid and liquid regions for the different cases are reported in detail. One of the results for Biot number, Bi2=1.5 are also compared with those obtained by having a constant value of T4 1(t.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Alexander E.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical simulation results of three-dimensional natural convection in a closed cavity were presented under conditions of the bottom horizontal solid-fluid interface radiant heating and conjugate heat exchange. Conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy were formulated in terms of vorticity vector – vector potential – temperature dimensionless variables and solved by means of the finite difference method. It was found that the heat transfer process under study had a significant unsteady nature. According to the results of conjugate heat exchange integral analysis, it was shown that similar trends of mean Nusselt numbers versus dimensionless time were formed for both two and three dimensional problem formulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.K. Ramesh
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, heat source/sink effects on the steady boundary layer flow of a Maxwell fluid over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition in the presence of nanoparticles are reported. An appropriate similarity transformation is employed to transform the governing equations in partial differential equations form to similarity equations in ordinary differential equations form. The resulting equations are then solved numerically using shooting technique. Results for the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are presented graphically for different values of the pertinent parameters. It is found that the local Nusselt number is smaller and local Sherwood number is higher for Maxwell fluids compared to Newtonian fluids.
Gude, A.; Maraschek, M.; Kardaun, O.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team
2017-09-01
A sawtooth crash algorithm that can automatically detect irregular sawteeth with strongly varying crash characteristics, including inverted crashes with central signal increase, has been developed. Such sawtooth behaviour is observed in ASDEX Upgrade with its tungsten wall, especially in phases with central ECRH. This application of ECRH for preventing impurity accumulation is envisaged also for ITER. The detection consists of three steps: a sensitive edge detection, a multichannel combination to increase detection performance, and a profile analysis that tests generic sawtooth crash features. The effect of detection parameters on the edge detection results has been investigated using synthetic signals and tested in an application to ASDEX Upgrade soft x-ray data.
The measurement of interplanetary scintillations in conditions of strong radio interference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffett-Smith, P.J.
1980-01-01
Observations of interplanetary scintillations (IPS) are often severely limited by interference from man-made transmissions within the receiver pass-band. A new method of measuring IPS is described which can give useful data even in conditions of bad interference. (author)
Thermodynamic Environments Supporting Extreme Convection in Subtropical South America
Rasmussen, K. L.; Trier, S. B.
2015-12-01
Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. In recent years, studies on the nature of convection in subtropical South America using spaceborne radar data have elucidated key processes responsible for their extreme characteristics, including a strong relationship between the Andes topography and convective initiation. Building on previous work, an investigation of the thermodynamic environment supporting some of the deepest convection in the world will be presented. In particular, an analysis of the thermodynamic destabilization in subtropical South America, which considers the parcel buoyancy minimum for conditionally unstable air parcels, will be presented. Additional comparisons between the nocturnal nature and related diurnal cycle of MCSs in subtropical South America the U.S. Great Plains will provide insights into the processes controlling MCS initiation and upscale growth.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.
2012-01-01
of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended......Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (Tsupply is 16–20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort......, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mejia, John Freddy; Poveda, German
2005-01-01
Diagnostics of prevalent atmospheric conditions during the life cycle of meso-scale convective systems (MCSs) over Colombia and the eastern tropical pacific are developed using satellite data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM), and from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. Atmospheric stability indices such as CAPE, CINE, LI, and equivalent potential temperature are quantified, as well as kinematical indices such as relative vertical vorticity and vertical wind shear. Atmospheric environments associated with MCS are studied for 1998; both as long-term means but also in terms of the seasonal cycle large-scale atmospheric indices are quantified for the most intense precipitation events within MCSs. Relationships between those indices are estimated, and atmospheric conditions are studied for the life cycle of MCSs, including antecedent and subsequent conditions surrounding MCSs activity
Characteristics of Extreme Summer Convection over equatorial America and Africa
Zuluaga, M. D.; Houze, R.
2013-12-01
Fourteen years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) version 7 data for June-August show the temporal and spatial characteristics of extreme convection over equatorial regions of the American and African continents. We identify three types of extreme systems: storms with deep convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes extending ≥10 km in height), storms with wide convective cores (contiguous convective 40 dBZ echoes with areas >1,000 km2) and storms with broad stratiform regions (stratiform echo >50,000 km2). European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis is used to describe the environmental conditions around these forms of extreme convection. Storms with deep convective cores occur mainly over land: in the equatorial Americas, maximum occurrence is in western Mexico, Northern Colombia and Venezuela; in Africa, the region of maximum occurrence is a broad zone enclosing the central and west Sudanian Savanna, south of the Sahel region. Storms with wide convective radar echoes occur in these same general locations. In the American sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation regions (typifying robust mesoscale convective systems) occur mainly over the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean and the Colombia-Panama bight. In the African sector, storms with broad stratiform precipitation areas occur primarily over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean near the coast of West Africa. ECMWF reanalyses show how the regions of extreme deep convection associated with both continents are located mainly in regions affected by diurnal heating and influenced by atmospheric jets in regions with strong humidity gradients. Composite analysis of the synoptic conditions leading to the three forms of extreme convection provides insights into the forcing mechanisms in which these systems occur. These analyses show how the monsoonal flow directed towards the Andes slopes is mainly what concentrates the occurrence of extreme
Conditional analysis near strong shear layers in DNS of isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishihara, Takashi; Kaneda, Yukio; Hunt, Julian C R
2011-01-01
Data analysis of high resolution DNS of isotropic turbulence with the Taylor scale Reynolds number R λ = 1131 shows that there are thin shear layers consisting of a cluster of strong vortex tubes with typical diameter of order 10η, where η is the Kolmogorov length scale. The widths of the layers are of the order of the Taylor micro length scale. According to the analysis of one of the layers, coarse grained vorticity in the layer are aligned approximately in the plane of the layer so that there is a net mean shear across the layer with a mean velocity jump of the order of the root-mean-square of the fluctuating velocity, and energy dissipation averaged over the layer is larger than ten times the average over the whole flow. The mean and the standard deviation of the energy transfer T(x, κ) from scales larger than 1/κ to scales smaller than 1/κ at position x are largest within the layers (where the most intense vortices and dissipation occur), but are also large just outside the layers (where viscous stresses are weak), by comparison with the average values of T over the whole region. The DNS data are consistent with exterior fluctuation being damped/filtered at the interface of the layer and then selectively amplified within the layer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamim, Jubair A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Bhowmik, Palash K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1201 N. State St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Xiangyi, Chen [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Thermo-hydrodynamic properties of water–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofluid at PWR condition is analyzed. • Details of CFD simulation and validation procedure is outlined. • Augmented heat transfer capacity of nanofluid is governed by larger pumping power. • A new correlation for nanofluid Nusselt number in subchannel geometry is proposed. - Abstract: The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is performed to determine on the thermo- and hydrodynamic performance of the water–alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanofluid in a square array subchannel featuring pitch-to-diameter ratios of 1.25 and 1.35. Two fundamental aspects of thermal hydraulics, viz. heat transfer and pressure drop, are assessed under typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions at various flow rates (3 × 10{sup 5} ⩽ Re ⩽ 6 × 10{sup 5}) using pure water and differing concentrations of water–alumina nanofluid (0.5–3.0 vol.%) as coolant. Numerical results are compared against predictions made by conventional single-phase convective heat transfer and pressure loss correlations for fully developed turbulent flow. It is observed that addition of tiny nanoparticles in PWR coolant can give rise to the convective heat transfer coefficient at the expense of larger pressure drop. Nevertheless, a modified correlation as a function of nanoparticle volume fraction is proposed to estimate nanofluid Nusselt number more precisely in square array subchannel.
Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camley, Brian A. [Center for Theoretical Biological Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Lerner, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 47374 (United States); Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Pastor, Richard W. [Laboratory of Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Brown, Frank L. H. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
2015-12-28
The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wubshet Ibrahim
Full Text Available This article presents the effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamic flow of tangent hyperbolic fluid with nanoparticle past an enlarging sheet with second order slip and convective boundary condition. Condition of zero normal flux of nanoparticles at the wall is used for the concentration boundary condition, which is the current topic that have yet to be studied extensively. The solution for the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration is governed by parameters viz. power-law index (n, Weissenberg number We, Biot number Bi, Prandtl number Pr, velocity slip parameters δ and γ, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion parameter Nb and the thermophoresis parameter Nt. Similarity transformation is used to metamorphosed the governing non-linear boundary-value problem into coupled higher order non-linear ordinary differential equation. The succeeding equations were numerically solved using the function bvp4c from the matlab for different values of emerging parameters. Numerical results are deliberated through graphs and tables for velocity, temperature, concentration, the skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. The results designate that the skin friction coefficient Cf deplete as the values of Weissenberg number We, slip parameters γ and δ upturn and it rises as the values of power-law index n increase. The local Nusselt number -θ′(0 decreases as slip parameters γ and δ, radiation parameter Nr, Weissenberg number We, thermophoresis parameter Nt and power-law index n increase. However, the local Nusselt number increases as the Biot number Bi increase. Keywords: Tangent hyperbolic fluid, Second order slip flow, MHD, Convective boundary condition, Radiation effect, Passive control of nanoparticles
Zeeshan, A.; Shehzad, N.; Ellahi, R.
2018-03-01
The motivation of the current article is to explore the energy activation in MHD radiative Couette-Poiseuille flow nanofluid in horizontal channel with convective boundary conditions. The mathematical model of Buongiorno [1] effectively describes the current flow analysis. Additionally, the impact of chemical reaction is also taken in account. The governing flow equations are simplified with the help of boundary layer approximations. Non-linear coupled equations for momentum, energy and mass transfer are tackled with analytical (HAM) technique. The influence of dimensionless convergence parameter like Brownian motion parameter, radiation parameter, buoyancy ratio parameter, dimensionless activation energy, thermophoresis parameter, temperature difference parameter, dimensionless reaction rate, Schmidt number, Brinkman number, Biot number and convection diffusion parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed graphically and in tabular form. From the results, it is elaborate that the nanoparticle concentration is directly proportional to the chemical reaction with activation energy and the performance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle concentration gives reverse pattern to that of thermophoresis parameter.
Alsabery, A. I.; Siddheshwar, P. G.; Saleh, H.; Hashim, I.
2016-12-01
In this study, we use the finite-difference method to numerically investigate the problem of transient free convective heat transfer in a nanoliquid-saturated porous square cavity with a sinusoidal boundary condition. The left vertical wall of the cavity is maintained at a constant temperature and the right wall is heated sinusoidally. The horizontal insulated walls allow no heat transfer to the surrounding. To regulate the heat transfer, we insert a solid square at the centre of the cavity in such a way that there is symmetry in the flow configuration. We use the Darcy law along with the Boussinesq approximation for the flow, and for the investigation, we employ water-based nanoliquids with Cu, Al2O3 or TiO2 nanoparticles. We obtain the results of this study for various parameters such as Rayleigh number, periodicity parameter, nanoparticle volume fraction, thermal conductivity ratio, length of the inner solid, modified conductivity ratio, and dimensionless time. We explain the different influences on the parameter contours of streamlines, isotherms, local Nusselt number and weighted-average heat transfer in unsteady and steady regimes based on the thermal conductivities of nanoparticles, water and porous media. The results show that the overall heat transfer is significantly increased with the relatively non-uniform heating. Further, we show that convective heat transfer is inhibited by the presence of the solid insert. The results have the potential for application in heat-removal and heat-storage liquid-saturated porous systems.
Bozhko, A. A.; Putin, G. F.; Tynjala, T.
As known magnetothermal mechanism of convection allows the creation of a virtually arbitrary controllable body force distribution in nonconducting diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials It is actively investigated last years due to its uses in the field of materials processing e g crystal growth from protein solution and paramagnetic melts 1-3 The magnetic body force in magneto-polarized liquids arises simply from the force of a nonuniform magnetic field on the molecular dipoles However for ordinary fluids the pondermotive forces exerted by a typical magnet are insignificant compared to gravity-induced buoyancy ones Whereas ferrofluid 4 -colloidal suspension of single-domain magnetic particles - has the susceptibility thousand times higher then natural media and are very convenient for ground-based modeling In the case of an uniform magnetic field the magnetic force arises due to the gradient of magnetic permeability that depends on both the temperature and the particle concentration gradients The particle mass flux in a classical form is summarized from the translation diffusion coefficient and the thermal diffusion ratio 4 However as the experiments and numerical simulations 5 6 shown at the terrestrial conditions the heat-mass transfer is essentially complicated because of uncontrollable gravitational sedimentation of magnetic particles and their aggregates Experiments were performed to examine the influence of external homogeneous magnetic field on convection instability of ferrofluid layer heated from one wide side and
Stationary thermal convection in a viscoelastic ferrofluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.co [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, R.G. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)
2010-11-15
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. We focus in the stationary convection for idealized boundary conditions. We obtain explicit expressions of convective thresholds in terms of the control parameters of the system. Close to bifurcation, the coefficients of the corresponding amplitude equation are determined analytically. Finally, the secondary instabilities are performed.
Environmental Characteristics of Convective Systems During TRMM-LBA
Halverson, Jeffrey B.; Rickenbach, Thomas; Roy, Biswadev; Pierce, Harold; Williams, Earle; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In this paper, data collected from 51 days of continual upper atmospheric soundings and TOGA radar at ABRACOS Hill during the TRMM-LBA experiment are used to describe the mean thermodynamic and kinematic airmass properties of wet season convection over Rondonia, Brazil. Distinct multi-day easterly and westerly lower tropospheric wind regimes occurred during the campaign with contrasting airmass characteristics. Westerly wind periods featured modest CAPE (1000 J/kg), moist conditions (>90% RH) extending through 700 mb and shallow (900 mb) speed shear on the order of 10(exp -4)/s. This combination of characteristics promoted convective systems that featured a relatively large fraction of stratiform rainfall and weak convection nearly devoid of lightning. The environment is very similar to the general airmass conditions experienced during the Darwin, Australia monsoon convective regime. In contrast, easterly regime convective systems were more strongly electrified and featured larger convective rain rates and reduced stratiform rainfall fraction. These systems formed in an environment with significantly larger CAPE (1500 J/kg), drier lower and middle level humidities (in the lowest 1-2 km, thus contributing to a more explosive growth of convection. The time series of low- and mid-level averaged humidity exhibited marked variability between westerly and easterly regimes and was characterized by low frequency (i.e., multi-day to weekly) oscillations. The synoptic scale origins of these moisture fluctuations are examined, which include the effects of variable low-level airmass trajectories and upper-level, westward migrating cyclonic vortices. The results reported herein provide an environmental context for ongoing dual Doppler analyses and numerical modeling case studies of individual TRMM-LBA convective systems.
Riley, Douglas A.
We study the three-dimensional incompressible Navier- Stokes equations in a domain of the form W'×(0,e) . First, we assume W' is a C3 bounded domain and impose no-slip boundary conditions on 6W'×(0,e ) , and periodic conditions on W'×0,e . Physically, this models fluid flow through a pipe with cross-section W' where the inlet and outlet conditions are assumed periodic. Secondly, we assume W'=(0,l4) ×(0,l5) and impose periodic boundary conditions. This problem is of interest mathematically, and has been more widely considered than the pipe flow problem. For both sets of boundary conditions, we show that a strong solution exists for all time with conditions on the initial data and forcing. We start by recalling that if the forcing function and initial condition do not depend on x3, then a global strong solution exists which also does not depend on x3. Here (x1,x2,x3) ∈W≡W'×( 0,e) . With this observation as motivation, and using an additive decomposition introduced by Raugel and Sell, we split the initial data and forcing into a portion independent of x3 and a remainder. In our first result, we impose a smallness condition on the remainder and assume the forcing function is square- integrable in time as a function into L2(W) . With these assumptions, we prove a global existence theorem that does not require a smallness condition on e or on the portion of the initial condition and forcing independent of x3. However, these quantities do affect the allowable size of the remainder. For our second result, we assume the forcing is only bounded in time as a function into L2(W) . In this case, we need a smallness condition on the initial data, the forcing, and e to obtain global existence. The interesting observation is that the allowable sizes for the initial data and forcing grow as e-->0 . Thus, we obtain a `thin-domain' result as originally obtained by Raugel and Sell. In fact, our results allow the portion of the initial data and forcing independent of x3 to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azharul Karim
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A numerical study of the unsteady mixed convection heat transfer characteristics of an Ag–water nanofluid confined within a square shape lid-driven cavity has been carried out. The Galerkin weighted residual of the finite element method has been employed to investigate the effects of the periodicity of sinusoidal boundary condition for a wide range of Grashof numbers (Gr (105 to 107 with the parametric variation of sinusoidal even and odd frequency, N, from 1 to 6 at different instants (for τ = 0.1 and 1. It has been observed that both the Grashof number and the sinusoidal even and odd frequency have a significant influence on the streamlines and isotherms inside the cavity. The heat transfer rate enhanced by 90% from the heated surface as the Grashof number (Gr increased from 105 to 107 at sinusoidal frequency N = 1 and τ = 1.
On the mapping of ionospheric convection into the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesse, M.; Birn, J.; Hoffman, R.A.
1997-01-01
Under steady state conditions and in the absence of parallel electric fields, ionospheric convection is a direct map of plasma and magnetic flux convection in the magnetosphere, and quantitative estimates can be obtained from the mapping along magnetic field lines of electrostatic ionospheric electric fields. The resulting magnetospheric electrostatic potential distribution then provides the convection electric field in various magnetospheric regions. We present a quantitative framework for the investigation of the applicability and limitations of this approach based on an analytical theory derived from first principles. Particular emphasis is on the role of parallel electric field regions and on inductive effects, such as expected during the growth and expansive phases of magnetospheric substorms. We derive quantitative estimates for the limits in which either effect leads to a significant decoupling between ionospheric and magnetospheric convection and provide an interpretation of ionospheric convection which is independent of the presence of inductive electric fields elsewhere in the magnetosphere. Finally, we present a study of the relation between average and instantaneous convection, using two periodic dynamical models. The models demonstrate and quantify the potential mismatch between the average electric fields in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere in strongly time-dependent cases that may exist even when they are governed entirely by ideal MHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nur Asiah Mohd Makhatar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A numerical investigation is carried out into the flow and heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of water–alumina (Al2O3–water, water–titania (TiO2–water and water–copperoxide (CuO–water in a vertical channel by considering Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. Actual values of thermophysical quantities are used in arriving at conclusions on the three nanoliquids. The Biot number influences on velocity and temperature distributions are opposite in regions close to the left wall and the right wall. Robin condition is seen to favour symmetry in the flow velocity whereas Dirichlet and Neumann conditions skew the flow distribution and push the point of maximum velocity to the right of the channel. A reversal of role is seen between them in their influence on the flow in the left-half and the right-half of the channel. This leads to related consequences in heat transport. Viscous dissipation is shown to aid flow and heat transport. The present findings reiterate the observation on heat transfer in other configurations that only low concentrations of nanoparticles facilitate enhanced heat transport for all three temperature conditions. Significant change was observed in Neumann condition, whereas the changes are too extreme in Dirichlet condition. It is found that Robin condition is the most stable condition. Further, it is also found that all three nanoliquids have enhanced heat transport compared to that by base liquid, with CuO–water nanoliquid shows higher enhancement in its Nusselt number, compared to Al2O3 and TiO2.
Schellen, L; Loomans, M G L C; de Wit, M H; Olesen, B W; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D
2012-09-10
Applying high temperature cooling concepts, i.e. high temperature cooling (T(supply) is 16-20°C) HVAC systems, in the built environment allows the reduction in the use of (high quality) energy. However, application of high temperature cooling systems can result in whole body and local discomfort of the occupants. Non-uniform thermal conditions, which may occur due to application of high temperature cooling systems, can be responsible for discomfort. Contradictions in literature exist regarding the validity of the often used predicted mean vote (PMV) index for both genders, and the index is not intended for evaluating the discomfort due to non-uniform environmental conditions. In some cases, however, combinations of local and general discomfort factors, for example draught under warm conditions, may not be uncomfortable. The objective of this study was to investigate gender differences in thermophysiology, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20-29 years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more uncomfortable and dissatisfied compared to the males. For females, the local sensations and skin temperatures of the extremities have a significant influence on whole body thermal sensation and are therefore important to consider under non-uniform environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dupouy, M.D.; Camel, D.; Mazille, J.E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France); Hugon, I. [Lab. de Metallographie, DCC/DTE/SIM, CEA Valrho (France)
2000-07-01
The columnar-equiaxed transition under diffusive transport conditions was studied in microgravity (EUROMIR95 and spacelab-LMS96) by solidifying four Al-4wt%Cu alloys refined at different levels, with a constant cooling rate (1 K/min), both under nearly isothermal conditions and under a decreasing temperature gradient. Isothermal samples showed a homogeneous equiaxed structure with no fading of the refiner efficiency. Gradient samples revealed a continuous transition consisting of an orientation of the microsegregation parallel to the solidification direction, without any grain selection effect. For comparison, ground samples evidence the influence of the motion of both refiner particles and growing equiaxed grains. (orig.)
Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas
2015-04-01
The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaminaga, Masanori; Watanabe, Shukichi; Ando, Hiroei; Sudo, Yukio; Ikawa, Hiromasa.
1987-03-01
This report describes the results of the steady state thermohydraulic analysis of upgraded JRR-3 core under natural convective cooling mode, using COOLOD-N code. In the code, function to calculate flow-rate under natural convective cooling mode, and a heat transfer package have been newly added to the COOLOD code which has been developed in JAERI. And this report describes outline of the COOLOD-N code. The results of analysis show that the thermohydraulics of upgraded JRR-3 core, under natural convective cooling mode have enough margine to ONB temperature, DNB heat flux and occurance of blisters in fuel meats, which are design criterion of upgraded JRR-3. (author)
National Convective Weather Diagnostic
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...
Kiciński, Jan
2018-01-01
The paper presents the results of the analysis of the dynamic performance of the rotor being a component of the ORC turbine set with the net electrical output of 100 kW and the nominal speed of 9000 rpm. The research was conducted using tools capable of performing the necessary simulation of the system operating under highly unstable conditions, i.e., in a strongly nonlinear regime. In this regard, the author of the paper followed the subsequent phases of whirl/whip formation manifested in the fluid film. Constructional solutions within the scope of the bearing were examined with non-conventional lubricating mediums (low boiling mediums). On the basis of those scientific studies, the decision to build a working prototype of the machine was taken. Such a prototype has already been manufactured, having regard to the outcome of the conducted analyses. The research presented herein produced interesting results showing that, under the conditions of hydrodynamic instability, the phenomena taking place inside the lubricating gap of the slide bearing are not recurrent for each individual rotor revolution, notwithstanding the fact that the external excitation forces acting on the system are fully repeatable. The research tools were presented that allow a detailed qualitative and quantitative description of such phenomena.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. Jackman
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple model of the flow and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere. This model is motivated by theoretical reasoning, and guided quantitatively by in situ field and flow data from space missions, ground-based IR Doppler measurements, and Hubble Space Telescope images. The flow pattern consists of components which represent (1 plasma sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere region resulting from plasma pick-up and radial transport from internal sources; (2 the Vasyliunas-cycle of internal plasma mass-loss down the magnetospheric tail at higher latitudes; and (3 the polar Dungey-cycle flow driven by the solar wind interaction. Upstream measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF indicate the occurrence of both extended low-field rarefaction intervals with essentially negligible Dungey-cycle flow, and few-day high-field compression regions in which the Dungey-cycle voltage peaks at a few hundred kV. Here we model the latter conditions when the Dungey-cycle is active, advancing on previous axi-symmetric models which may be more directly applicable to quiet conditions. For theoretical convenience the overall flow pattern is constructed by adding together two components - a purely rotational flow similar to previous axi-symmetric models, and a sun-aligned twin vortex representing the dawn-dusk asymmetry effects associated with the Vasyliunas-and Dungey-cycle flows. We calculate the horizontal ionospheric current associated with the flow and the field-aligned current from its divergence. These calculations show that a sheet of upward-directed field-aligned current flows at the boundary of open field lines which is strongly modulated in local-time by the Dungey-cycle flows. We then consider implications of the field-aligned current for magnetospheric electron acceleration and aurorae using two plasma source populations (hot outer magnetospheric electrons and cool dense magnetosheath electrons. Both sources display a strong dawn
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. R. Rout
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the influence of chemical reaction and the combined effects of internal heat generation and a convective boundary condition on the laminar boundary layer MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a moving vertical flat plate. The lower surface of the plate is in contact with a hot fluid while the stream of cold fluid flows over the upper surface with heat source and chemical reaction. The basic equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and concentration are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations by using appropriate transformation for variables and solved numerically by Runge-Kutta fourth-order integration scheme in association with shooting method. The effects of physical parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically. A table recording the values of skin friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer at the plate is also presented. The discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the results as well as their comparison with previous studies which shows good agreement as a special case of the problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.BalaAnki Reddy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a theoretical analysis of a steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a Maxwell fluid over an exponentially stretching surface in the presence of velocity slip and convective boundary condition. This model is used for a nanofluid, which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The resulting non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow field are converted into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations, and the resultant equations are then solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the behavior of the velocity, temperature and concentration. The influence of significant parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number has been studied and numerical results are presented graphically and in tabular form. The reported numerical results are compared with previously published works on various special cases and are found to be an in excellent agreement. It is found that momentum boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of magnetic parameter. It can also be found that the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.
Thorogood, Robert M.
1983-01-01
A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.
Constraining convective regions with asteroseismic linear structural inversions
Buldgen, G.; Reese, D. R.; Dupret, M. A.
2018-01-01
Context. Convective regions in stellar models are always associated with uncertainties, for example, due to extra-mixing or the possible inaccurate position of the transition from convective to radiative transport of energy. Such inaccuracies have a strong impact on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we derive from them. The most promising method to reduce these uncertainties is to use asteroseismology to derive appropriate diagnostics probing the structural characteristics of these regions. Aims: We wish to use custom-made integrated quantities to improve the capabilities of seismology to probe convective regions in stellar interiors. By doing so, we hope to increase the number of indicators obtained with structural seismic inversions to provide additional constraints on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we determine from theoretical modeling. Methods: First, we present new kernels associated with a proxy of the entropy in stellar interiors. We then show how these kernels can be used to build custom-made integrated quantities probing convective regions inside stellar models. We present two indicators suited to probe convective cores and envelopes, respectively, and test them on artificial data. Results: We show that it is possible to probe both convective cores and envelopes using appropriate indicators obtained with structural inversion techniques. These indicators provide direct constraints on a proxy of the entropy of the stellar plasma, sensitive to the characteristics of convective regions. These constraints can then be used to improve the modeling of solar-like stars by providing an additional degree of selection of models obtained from classical forward modeling approaches. We also show that in order to obtain very accurate indicators, we need ℓ = 3 modes for the envelope but that the core-conditions indicator is more flexible in terms of the seismic data required for its use.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2016-01-01
A key player in energy transition, the EDF Group is an integrated electricity company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, energy supply and trading, energy services. A global leader in low-carbon energies, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, hydropower, new renewable energies and thermal energy. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to approximately 37.6 million customers, of which 27.8 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of Euro 75 billion in 2015, of which 47.2% outside of France. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock exchange. EDF achieved all its targets in 2015. The year was marked by strong operational performance, reflecting the significant efforts the teams made. With the end of the regulated Yellow and Green Tariffs, most clients turned to EDF. Nuclear output reached its highest level, since 2011 in France, and since 2005 in the United Kingdom. EDF is also continuing its significant development in renewable energy, with an additional 1 GW of net installed capacity. The transformation of EDF Group is essential in the unfavourable market conditions. EDF has embarked on this transformation, and is accelerating innovation to serve the energy transition
An experimental study of mixed convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saez, Manuel
1998-01-01
The aim of our study is to establish a reliable data base for improving thermal-hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re=10 3 to 6*10 4 and Ri=10 -4 to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed data base of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part II presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part III describes the measurement technique (constant-temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part IV relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part V presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the flow structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part V gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author) [fr
Turbulence statistics and energy budget in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Kunnen, R.P.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Clercx, H.J.H.
The strongly-modified turbulence statistics of Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to various rotation rates is addressed by numerical investigations. The flow is simulated in a domain with periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions, and confined vertically by parallel no-slip
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wubshet Ibrahim
2016-06-01
The numerical results are obtained for velocity, temperature, induced magnetic field and concentration profiles as well as skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and Sherwood number. The results indicate that the skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and Sherwood number decrease with an increase in B and M parameters. Moreover, local Sherwood number -ϕ′(0 decreases with an increase in convective parameter Bi, but the local Nusselt number -θ′(0 increases with an increase in Bi. The results are displayed both in graphical and tabular form to illustrate the effect of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, induced magnetic field, temperature and concentration. The numerical results are compared and found to be in good agreement with the previously published results on special cases of the problem.
Drift natural convection and seepage at the Yucca Mountain repository
Halecky, Nicholaus Eugene
The decay heat from radioactive waste that is to be disposed in the once proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) will significantly influence the moisture conditions in the fractured rock near emplacement tunnels (drifts). Additionally, large-scale convective cells will form in the open-air drifts and will serve as an important mechanism for the transport of vaporized pore water from the fractured rock, from the hot drift center to the cool drift end. Such convective processes would also impact drift seepage, as evaporation could reduce the build up of liquid water at the tunnel wall. Characterizing and understanding these liquid water and vapor transport processes is critical for evaluating the performance of the repository, in terms of water- induced canister corrosion and subsequent radionuclide containment. To study such processes, we previously developed and applied an enhanced version of TOUGH2 that solves for natural convection in the drift. We then used the results from this previous study as a time-dependent boundary condition in a high-resolution seepage model, allowing for a computationally efficient means for simulating these processes. The results from the seepage model show that cases with strong natural convection effects are expected to improve the performance of the repository, since smaller relative humidity values, with reduced local seepage, form a more desirable waste package environment.
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily
2015-04-01
The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed at moderate and strong wind, and as it was shows recently CD decreases at hurricane wind speed. Waves are known to increase the sea surface resistance due to enhanced form drag, the sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the 'drag reduction' at hurricane conditions. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CD on the wind speed is not so certain and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is not completely understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of surface waves on the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the laboratory experiment, when wind and wave parameters are maintained and controlled. The effect of spray on turbulent exchange at strong winds is also estimated. A series of experiments to study the processes of turbulent exchange of momentum and heat in a stably stratified temperature turbulent boundary layer air flow over waved water surface were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS, the peculiarity of this experiment was the option to change the surface wave parameters regardless of the speed of the wind flow in the channel. For this purpose a polyethylene net with the variable depth (0.25 mm thick and a cell of 1.6 mm × 1.6mm) has been stretched along the channel. The waves were absent when the net was located at the level of the undisturbed water surface, and had maximum
Nayak, M. K.; Shaw, Sachin; Pandey, V. S.; Chamkha, Ali J.
2018-02-01
In the present study, the main concern is to investigate the magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow subject to porous matrix and convective heating past a permeable linear stretching sheet. In addition, the influence of velocity slip, viscous dissipation, Joule heating and non-linear thermal radiation are considered. A new micro-convection model known as the Patel model is implemented for considerable enhancement of the thermal conductivity and hence, the heat transfer capability of nanofluids. Moreover, a convective heat transfer model is introduced where the bottom surface of the sheet gets heated due to a convection mechanism from a hot fluid of particular temperature. The numerical results of the transformed governing differential equations have been obtained by using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method along with shooting approach and secant method is used for better approximation. In the present analysis, base fluids such as water and Ethylene glycol and Copper, Silver and Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are considered. Results of the present investigation show that inclusion of porous matrix contributes to slow down the fluid velocity and diminution of wall shear stress (axial as well as transverse). Drag force due to magnetic field strength, velocity slip and imposed fluid suction impede the fluid motion and upsurge the heat transfer rate from the surface. In addition, rise in viscous dissipation widens the thermal boundary layer.
Convective transfers; Transferts convectifs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Accary, G.; Raspo, I.; Bontoux, P. [Aix-Marseille-3 Univ. Paul Cezanne, CNRS, Lab. MSNM-GP UMR 6181, 13 - Marseille (France); Zappoli, B. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Polidori, G.; Fohanno, S. [Laboratoire de Thermomecanique, 51 - Reims (France); Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-6 et Paris-11 Univ., FAST-UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [UFRJ/LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Perrin, L.; Reulet, P.; Micheli, F.; Millan, P. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 31 - Toulouse (France); Menard, V. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Benkhelifa, A.; Penot, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), Lab. d' Etudes Thermiques, UMR CNRS 6608, 86 - Poitiers (France); Ng Wing Tin, M.; Haquet, J.F.; Journeau, C. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/DTN/STRI/LMA), Lab. d' Essais pour la Maitrise des Accidents Graves, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Naffouti, T.; Hammani, M.; Ben Maad, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Lab. d' Energetique et des Transferts Thermique et Massique, Dept. de Physique, Tunis (Tunisia); Zinoubi, J. [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Nabeul (Tunisia); Menard, V.; Le Masson, S.; Nortershauser, D. [France Telecom R and D, 22 - Lannion (France); Stitou, A.; Perrin, L.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France)
2005-07-01
This session about convective transfers gathers 31 articles dealing with: numerical study of the hydrodynamic stability of a bottom heated supercritical fluid layer; establishment of laminar-turbulent transition criteria of free convection dynamic and thermal boundary layers; heat transfer changes in free convection by mechanical and thermal disturbances; natural convection stability in partially porous horizontal layers; experimental characterization of the dynamic and thermal aspects of a natural convection flow inside a confined space; determination of transitions towards non-stationary natural convection inside a differentially heated inclined cavity; interface temperatures for the convection of fluids with variable viscosity; influence of the height of a vertical cylinder on the flow resulting from a plume-thermosyphon interaction; simultaneous measurement of dynamic and thermal fields by thermo-chromic liquid crystals in natural convection; numerical simulation of turbulent natural convection flows inside a heated room; numerical and experimental study of mixed convection heat transfer inside an axisymmetrical network; analysis of laminar flow instabilities in assisted mixed convection; entropy generation in mixed convection; thermal and mass convection in non-stationary regime inside a ventilated cavity; study of a low Reynolds number mixed convection flow; numerical study of a convective flow inside a rotating annular cavity; study of the dynamical behaviour of a transient mixed convection flow inside a thick vertical duct; internal laminar convection: selection criteria for the identification of natural, mixed or forced regimes; turbulent flow and convection heat transfer inside a channel with corrugated walls; study of the impact of an axisymmetrical jet on a concave wall; modeling of volume irreversibilities of turbulent forced convection; numerical study of forced convection irreversibilities around a network of cylindrical tubes; estimation of the
Hansen, J.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Boerma, W.G.W.; Kringos, D.S.
2015-01-01
In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care systems, we investigated whether strong primary care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries
Hansen, Johan; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Boerma, Wienke G. W.; Kringos, Dionne S.
2015-01-01
In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care systems, we investigated whether strong primary care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries
Hansen, Johan; Groenewegen, Peter P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071985409; Boerma, Wienke G W; Kringos, Dionne S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/352077131
2015-01-01
In light of the growing pressure that multiple chronic diseases place on health care systems, we investigated whether strong primary care was associated with improved health outcomes for the chronically ill. We did this by combining country- and individual-level data for the twenty-seven countries
Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Zakinyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq approximation with velocity divergence taken as zero. It has been shown that the stream function is asymmetrical in vertical direction contrary to the dry and moist unsaturated air convection. It has been demonstrated that the convection in moist atmosphere strongly depends on the vapor mass fraction gradient.
Unger, David J.
2012-11-01
A finite element analysis indicates a good correlation between the Dugdale plastic strip model and a linear elastic/perfectly plastic material under plane stress loading conditions for a flow theory of plasticity based on the Tresca yield condition. A similar analysis under the von Mises yield condition reveals no plastic strip formation.
National Convective Weather Forecast
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NCWF is an automatically generated depiction of: (1) current convection and (2) extrapolated signficant current convection. It is a supplement to, but does NOT...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sheyko, A.A.; Finlay, Chris; Marti, P.
We present a set of numerical dynamo models with the convection strength varied by a factor of 30 and the ratio of magnetic to viscous diffusivities by a factor of 20 at rapid rotation rates (E =nu/(2 Omega d^2 ) = 10-6 and 10-7 ) using a heat flux outer BC. This regime has been little explored...... on the structure of the dynamos and how this changes in relation to the selection of control parameters, a comparison with the proposed rotating convection and dynamo scaling laws, energy spectra of steady solutions and inner core rotation rates. Magnetic field on the CMB. E=2.959*10-7, Ra=6591.0, Pm=0.05, Pr=1....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishak Anuar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The problem of a steady boundary layer shear flow over a stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid is studied numerically. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation, before being solved numerically by a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method with shooting technique. Two types of nanofluids, namely, Cu-water and Ag-water are used. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction, the type of nanoparticles, the convective parameter, and the thermal conductivity on the heat transfer characteristics are discussed. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction while it decreases with the convective parameter. Moreover, the heat transfer rate at the surface of Cu-water nanofluid is higher than that at the surface of Ag-water nanofluid even though the thermal conductivity of Ag is higher than that of Cu.
Nield, Donald A
2013-01-01
Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...
Holloway, C. E.; Woolnough, S. J.
2016-03-01
Idealized explicit convection simulations of the Met Office Unified Model exhibit spontaneous self-aggregation in radiative-convective equilibrium, as seen in other models in previous studies. This self-aggregation is linked to feedbacks between radiation, surface fluxes, and convection, and the organization is intimately related to the evolution of the column water vapor field. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy (MSE), following Wing and Emanuel (2014), reveals that the direct radiative feedback (including significant cloud longwave effects) is dominant in both the initial development of self-aggregation and the maintenance of an aggregated state. A low-level circulation at intermediate stages of aggregation does appear to transport MSE from drier to moister regions, but this circulation is mostly balanced by other advective effects of opposite sign and is forced by horizontal anomalies of convective heating (not radiation). Sensitivity studies with either fixed prescribed radiative cooling, fixed prescribed surface fluxes, or both do not show full self-aggregation from homogeneous initial conditions, though fixed surface fluxes do not disaggregate an initialized aggregated state. A sensitivity study in which rain evaporation is turned off shows more rapid self-aggregation, while a run with this change plus fixed radiative cooling still shows strong self-aggregation, supporting a "moisture-memory" effect found in Muller and Bony (2015). Interestingly, self-aggregation occurs even in simulations with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of 295 and 290 K, with direct radiative feedbacks dominating the budget of MSE variance, in contrast to results in some previous studies.
Convective Radio Occultations Final Campaign Summary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biondi, R. [Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-03-01
Deep convective systems are destructive weather phenomena that annually cause many deaths and injuries as well as much damage, thereby accounting for major economic losses in several countries. The number and intensity of such phenomena have increased over the last decades in some areas of the globe. Damage is mostly caused by strong winds and heavy rain parameters that are strongly connected to the structure of the particular storm. Convection over land is usually stronger and deeper than over the ocean and some convective systems, known as supercells, also develop tornadoes through processes that remain mostly unclear. The intensity forecast and monitoring of convective systems is one of the major challenges for meteorology because in situ measurements during extreme events are too sparse or unreliable and most ongoing satellite missions do not provide suitable time/space coverage.
Convective penetration in a young sun
Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group
2018-01-01
To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.
Brice, Claire; Cubillos, Francisco A; Dequin, Sylvie; Camarasa, Carole; Martínez, Claudio
2018-01-01
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are genetically diverse, largely as a result of human efforts to develop strains specifically adapted to various fermentation processes. These adaptive pressures from various ecological niches have generated behavioral differences among these strains, particularly in terms of their nitrogen consumption capacities. In this work, we characterize this phenotype by the specific quantity of nitrogen consumed under oenological fermentation conditions using a new approach. Indeed, unlike previous studies, our experiments were conducted in an environment containing excess nitrogen, eliminating the nitrogen limitation/starvation factor that is generally observed in fermentation processes. Using these conditions, we evaluated differences in the nitrogen consumption capacities for a set of five strains from diverse origins. The strains presented extremely different phenotypes and variations in their capacities to take up nitrogen from a wine fermentation environment. These variations reflect the differences in the nitrogen uptake capacities between wine and non-wine strains. Finally, the strains differed in their ability to adapt to the nitrogen composition of the environment, leading to variations in the cellular stress states, fermentation performances and the activity of the nitrogen sensing signaling pathway.
Thermal Convection on an Ablating Target
Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva
2015-11-01
Modeling and analysis of thermal convection of a metallic targets subject to radiative flux is of relevance to various manufacturing processes as well as for the development of protective shields. The present work involves the computational modeling of metallic targets subject to high heat fluxes that are both steady and pulsed. Modeling of the ablation and associated fluid dynamics when metallic surfaces are exposed to high intensity pulsed laser fluence at normal atmospheric conditions is considered. The incident energy from the laser is partly absorbed and partly reflected by the surface during ablation and subsequent vaporization of the convecting melt also participates in the radiative exchange. The energy distribution during the process between the bulk and vapor phase strongly depends on optical and thermodynamic properties of the irradiated material, radiation wavelength, and laser pulse intensity and duration. Computational findings based on effective representation and prediction of the heat transfer, melting and vaporization of the targeting material as well as plume formation and expansion are presented and discussed in the context of various ablation mechanisms, variable thermo-physical and optical properties, plume expansion and surface geometry. Funded in part by U. S. Army ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ.
Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M
2012-08-01
Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.
Ostrovsky, Olga; Shimoni, Avichai; Baryakh, Polina; Morgulis, Yan; Mayorov, Margarita; Beider, Katia; Shteingauz, Anna; Ilan, Neta; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nagler, Arnon
2014-04-01
Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves the saccharide chains of HSPGs, important structural and functional components of the ECM. Cleavage of HS leads to loss of the structural integrity of the ECM and release of HS-bound cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive angiogenic- and growth-promoting factors. Our previous study revealed a highly significant correlation of HPSE gene SNPs rs4693608 and rs4364254 and their combination with the risk of developing GVHD. We now demonstrate that HPSE is up-regulated in response to pretransplantation conditioning, followed by a gradual decrease thereafter. Expression of heparanase correlated with the rs4693608 HPSE SNP before and after conditioning. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between recipient and donor rs4693608 SNP discrepancy and the time of neutrophil and platelet recovery. Similarly, the discrepancy in rs4693608 HPSE SNP between recipients and donors was found to be a more significant factor for the risk of aGVHD than patient genotype. The rs4693608 SNP also affected HPSE gene expression in LPS-treated MNCs from PB and CB. Possessors of the AA genotype exhibited up-regulation of heparanase with a high ratio in the LPS-treated MNCs, whereas individuals with genotype GG showed down-regulation or no effect on HPSE gene expression. HPSE up-regulation was mediated by TLR4. The study emphasizes the importance of rs4693608 SNP for HPSE gene expression in activated MNCs, indicating a role in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, including postconditioning, engraftment, and GVHD.
A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT
Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel
2016-04-01
A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global
Regional Bowen ratio controls on afternoon moist convection: A large eddy simulation study
Kang, Song-Lak
2016-12-01
This study examines the effect of the regional Bowen ratio β, the ratio of the domain-averaged surface sensible heat flux (SHF) to latent heat flux (LHF), on afternoon moist convection. With a temporally evolving but spatially uniform surface available energy over a mesoscale domain under a weak capping inversion, we run large eddy simulation of the afternoon convective boundary layer (CBL). We first prescribe a small β of 0.56 (a wet surface) and then the reversed large β of 1.80 (a dry surface) by switching the SHF and LHF fields. The perturbation fields of the fluxes are prescribed with the Fourier spectra of κ- 3 (κ is horizontal wave number; strong mesoscale heterogeneity) and κ0 (homogeneity). The large β cases have strong vertical buoyancy fluxes and produce more vigorous updrafts. In the heterogeneous, large β surface case, with the removal of convective inhibition over a mesoscale subdomain of large SHF, deep convection develops. In the heterogeneous, small β surface case, convective clouds develop but do not progress into precipitating convection. In the homogeneous surface cases, randomly distributed shallow clouds develop with significantly more and thicker clouds in the large β case. (Co)spectral analyses confirm the more vigorous turbulent thermals in the large β cases and reveal that the moisture advection by the surface heterogeneity-induced mesoscale flows makes the correlation between mesoscale temperature and moisture perturbations change from negative to positive, which facilitates the mesoscale pool of high relative humidity air just above the CBL top, a necessary condition for deep convection.
Convective-diffusive transport in protein crystal growth
Lin, H.; Rosenberger, F.; Alexander, J. I. D.; Nadarajah, A.
1995-05-01
Particular interest in the role of convection in protein crystallization has arisen since some protein single crystals of improved structural quality have been obtained under reduced gravity conditions. We have numerically modeled the time-dependent diffusive-convective transport in an isothermal protein crystal growth system at standard and zero gravity (1 g and 0 g). In the 2D model used, a rectangular crystal of fixed dimensions 400 μm × 600 μm is positioned at the bottom of a 1 mm high and 6 mm wide growth cell. The aqueous solution contains protein and precipitant. For the dependence of the crystal growth rate on interfacial supersaturation, experimental data for lysozyme are used. The repartitioning of water and precipitant at the growing interface is based on experimental segregation data for lysozyme: NaCl, and on complete rejection for a fictitious system in which lysozyme and precipitant have the same diffusivity. The results show that even in the small cell employed, protein concentration nonuniformities and gravity-driven solutal convection can be significant. The calculated convection velocities are of the same order of magnitude as those found in earlier experiments. As expected, convective transport enhances the growth rates. However, even when diffusion dominates mass transport, i.e. at 0 g, lysozyme crystal growth remains kinetically limited. Irrespective of the diffusivity of the precipitant, due to the low growth rates, the precipitant distribution in the solution remains rather uniform even at 0 g, unless strong coupling between precipitant and protein fluxes is assumed. The salt distribution in the crystal is predicted to be non-uniform at both 1 g and 0 g, as a consequence of protein depletion in the solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xuan; Zikanov, Oleg
2017-01-01
Highlights: • 2D convection flow develops with internal heating and strong axial magnetic field. • Poloidal magnetic field suppresses turbulence at high Hartmann number. • Flow structure is dominated by large-scale counter-rotation vortices. • Effective heat transfer is maintained by surviving convection structures. - Abstract: We explore the effect of poloidal magnetic field on the thermal convection flow in a toroidal duct of a generic liquid metal blanket. Non-uniform strong heating (the Grashof number up to 10 11 ) arising from the interaction of high-speed neutrons with the liquid breeder, and strong magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 10 4 ) corresponding to the realistic reactor conditions are considered. The study continues our earlier work , where the problem was solved for a purely toroidal magnetic field and the convection was found to result in two-dimensional turbulence and strong mixing within the duct. Here, we find that the poloidal component of the magnetic field suppresses turbulence, reduces the flow's kinetic energy and high-amplitude temperature fluctuations, and, at high values of Hartmann number, leads to a steady-state flow. At the same time, the intense mixing by the surviving convection structures remains able to maintain effective heat transfer between the liquid metal and the walls.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Wohland
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Limiting anthropogenic climate change requires the fast decarbonization of the electricity system. Renewable electricity generation is determined by the weather and is hence subject to climate change. We simulate the operation of a coarse-scale fully renewable European electricity system based on downscaled high-resolution climate data from EURO-CORDEX. Following a high-emission pathway (RCP8.5, we find a robust but modest increase (up to 7 % of backup energy in Europe through the end of the 21st century. The absolute increase in the backup energy is almost independent of potential grid expansion, leading to the paradoxical effect that relative impacts of climate change increase in a highly interconnected European system. The increase is rooted in more homogeneous wind conditions over Europe resulting in intensified simultaneous generation shortfalls. Individual country contributions to European generation shortfall increase by up to 9 TWh yr−1, reflecting an increase of up to 4 %. Our results are strengthened by comparison with a large CMIP5 ensemble using an approach based on circulation weather types.
Wohland, Jan; Reyers, Mark; Weber, Juliane; Witthaut, Dirk
2017-11-01
Limiting anthropogenic climate change requires the fast decarbonization of the electricity system. Renewable electricity generation is determined by the weather and is hence subject to climate change. We simulate the operation of a coarse-scale fully renewable European electricity system based on downscaled high-resolution climate data from EURO-CORDEX. Following a high-emission pathway (RCP8.5), we find a robust but modest increase (up to 7 %) of backup energy in Europe through the end of the 21st century. The absolute increase in the backup energy is almost independent of potential grid expansion, leading to the paradoxical effect that relative impacts of climate change increase in a highly interconnected European system. The increase is rooted in more homogeneous wind conditions over Europe resulting in intensified simultaneous generation shortfalls. Individual country contributions to European generation shortfall increase by up to 9 TWh yr-1, reflecting an increase of up to 4 %. Our results are strengthened by comparison with a large CMIP5 ensemble using an approach based on circulation weather types.
Solar Surface Magneto-Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert F. Stein
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum. Convection is a highly non-linear and non-local process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their results can be quantitatively compared with observations. The solar surface is covered with magnetic features with spatial sizes ranging from unobservably small to hundreds of megameters. Three orders of magnitude more magnetic flux emerges in the quiet Sun than emerges in active regions. In this review we focus mainly on the properties of the quiet Sun magnetic field. The Sun’s magnetic field is produced by dynamo action throughout the convection zone, primarily by stretching and twisting in the turbulent downflows. Diverging convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy carry magnetic flux toward the surface and sweep the field into the surrounding downflow lanes where the field is dragged downward. The result is a hierarchy of undulating magnetic Ω- and U-loops of different sizes. New magnetic flux first appears at the surface in a mixed polarity random pattern and then collects into isolated unipolar regions due to underlying larger scale magnetic structures. Rising magnetic structures are not coherent, but develop a filamentary structure. Emerging magnetic flux alters the convection properties, producing larger, darker granules. Strong field concentrations inhibit transverse plasma motions and, as a result, reduce convective heat transport toward the surface which cools. Being cooler, these magnetic field concentrations have a shorter scale height and become evacuated. The field becomes further compressed and can reach strengths in balance with the surrounding gas pressure. Because of their small internal density, photons escape from deeper in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Girault
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The distribution of ultraphytoplankton was investigated in the western North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG during La Niña, a cold phase of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Observations were conducted in a north-south transect (33.6–13.25° N along the 141.5° E meridian in order to study the ultraplankton assemblages in various oligotrophic conditions. Analyses were performed at the single cell level by analytical flow cytometry. Five ultraphytoplankton groups (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes, nanoeukaryotes and nanocyanobacteria-like defined by their optical properties were enumerated in three different areas visited during the cruise: the Kuroshio region, the subtropical Pacific gyre and a transition zone between the subtropical Pacific gyre and the Warm pool. Prochlorococcus outnumbered the other photoautotrophs in all the investigated areas. However, in terms of carbon biomass, an increase in the relative contribution of Synechococcus, picoeukaryotes and nanoeukaryotes was observed from the centre of the subtropical gyre to the Kuroshio area. In the Kuroshio region, a peak of abundance of nanoeukaryotes observed at the surface suggested an increase in nutrients likely due to the vicinity of a cold cyclonic eddy. In contrast, in the salinity front along the isohaline 35 and anticyclonic eddy located around 22.83° N, the mainly constant distribution of Prochlorococcus from the surface down to 150 m characterised the dominance by these microorganisms in high salinity and temperature zone. Results suggested that the distribution of nanocyanobacteria-like is also closely linked to the salinity front rather than low phosphate concentration. The maximum abundance of ultraphytoplankton was located above the SubTropical Counter Current (STCC at depths > 100 m where higher nutrient concentrations were measured. Finally, comparison of the ultraphytoplankton concentrations during El Niño (from the literature and La Niña (this
Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S. -P.
2012-01-01
Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...
Thermal structure of intense convective clouds derived from GPS radio occultations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biondi, Riccardo; Randel, W. J.; Ho, S.-P.
2011-01-01
Thermal structure associated with deep convective clouds is investigated using Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation measurements. GPS data are insensitive to the presence of clouds, and provide high vertical resolution and high accuracy measurements to identify associated temperature...... behavior. Deep convective systems are identified using International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) satellite data, and cloud tops are accurately measured using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIPSO) lidar observations; we focus on 53 cases of near-coincident GPS...... occultations with CALIPSO profiles over deep convection. Results show a sharp spike in GPS bending angle highly correlated to the top of the clouds, corresponding to anomalously cold temperatures within the clouds. Above the clouds the temperatures return to background conditions, and there is a strong...
Combined convective heat transfer from short cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oosthuizen, P.H.; Paul, J.T.
1985-01-01
Considerable experimental evidence has been produced recently showing that the free convective heat transfer rate from horizontal circular cylinders becomes influenced by the length to diameter ratio L/D. The major aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the L/D ratio on the conditions under which buoyancy forces cause the heat transfer rate to start to deviate significantly from that existing in purely forced convection
Luciani, S.; LeNiliot, C.
2008-11-01
Two-phase and boiling flow instabilities are complex, due to phase change and the existence of several interfaces. To fully understand the high heat transfer potential of boiling flows in microscale's geometry, it is vital to quantify these transfers. To perform this task, an experimental device has been designed to observe flow patterns. Analysis is made up by using an inverse method which allows us to estimate the local heat transfers while boiling occurs inside a microchannel. In our configuration, the direct measurement would impair the accuracy of the searched heat transfer coefficient because thermocouples implanted on the surface minichannels would disturb the established flow. In this communication, we are solving a 3D IHCP which consists in estimating using experimental data measurements the surface temperature and the surface heat flux in a minichannel during convective boiling under several gravity levels (g, 1g, 1.8g). The considered IHCP is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem and solved using the boundary element method (BEM).
Solar wind effects on ionospheric convection: a review
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, G.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Milan, S.E.
2002-01-01
), and travelling convection vortices (TCVs). Furthermore, the large-scale ionospheric convection configuration has also demonstrated a strong correspondence to variations in the interplanetary medium and substorm activity. This report briefly discusses the progress made over the past decade in studies...
Topology of convection beneath the solar surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stein, R.F.; Nordlund, A.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the topology of convection beneath the solar surface is dominated by effects of stratification. Convection in a strongly stratified medium has: (1) gentle expanding structureless warm upflows and (2) strong converging filamentary cool downdrafts. The horizontal flow topology is cellular, with a hierarchy of cell sizes. The small density scale height in the surface layers forces the formation of the solar granulation, which is a shallow surface phenomenon. Deeper layers support successively larger cells. The downflows of small cells close to the surface merge into filamentary downdrafts of larger cells at greater depths, and this process is likely to continue through most of the convection zone. Radiative cooling at the surface provides the entropy-deficient material which drives the circulation. 13 refs
Driving forces: Slab subduction and mantle convection
Hager, Bradford H.
1988-01-01
Mantle convection is the mechanism ultimately responsible for most geological activity at Earth's surface. To zeroth order, the lithosphere is the cold outer thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle. Subduction of cold dense lithosphere provides tha major source of negative buoyancy driving mantle convection and, hence, surface tectonics. There are, however, importnat differences between plate tectonics and the more familiar convecting systems observed in the laboratory. Most important, the temperature dependence of the effective viscosity of mantle rocks makes the thermal boundary layer mechanically strong, leading to nearly rigid plates. This strength stabilizes the cold boundary layer against small amplitude perturbations and allows it to store substantial gravitational potential energy. Paradoxically, through going faults at subduction zones make the lithosphere there locally weak, allowing rapid convergence, unlike what is observed in laboratory experiments using fluids with temperature dependent viscosities. This bimodal strength distribution of the lithosphere distinguishes plate tectonics from simple convection experiments. In addition, Earth has a buoyant, relatively weak layer (the crust) occupying the upper part of the thermal boundary layer. Phase changes lead to extra sources of heat and bouyancy. These phenomena lead to observed richness of behavior of the plate tectonic style of mantle convection.
Convection Signatures and the Age of Air in the Upper Troposphere
Perring, A. E.; Bertram, T. H.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Walega, J.; Fried, A.; Vay, S. A.; Hiekes, B.; Kim, S.; Huey, G.; Porter, M.; Fuelberg, H.
2005-12-01
Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) over the continental United States reveal strong signatures of convective pumping of both boundary layer and lighting NOx to the Upper Troposphere (UT) (8-12.5km) during the summer (INTEX-NA July-August 2004). This influence may require adjustments to a priori assumptions about NO2 profiles used in OMI or SCIAMACHY NO2 retrievals. As expected, similar profiles during the winter (PAVE January 2005) show no signs of enhanced NOx in the UT. Quantifying the role of convection and lightning is a long standing challenge for tropospheric chemistry. Another challenge has been to provide a clock indicating the time that air has spent in the free troposphere since convection. Following on the suggestion of Jaegle et al. [1998] that convective injection of boundary layer and lightning NOx and concurrent precipitation scavenging of HNO3 offers an initial condition that can be used to provide timing information, we use the ratio of NOx/HNO3 as an indicator of convective influence and a measure of the timing of that influence.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-H. Jeong
2012-08-01
Full Text Available To understand the different environment and morphology for heavy rainfall during 9–10 July 2007, over the Korean Peninsula, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs that accompanied the Changma front in two different regions were investigated. The sub-synoptic conditions were analysed using mesoscale analysis data (MANAL, reanalysis data, weather charts and Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT-IR data. Dual-Doppler radar observations were used to analyse the wind fields within the precipitation systems. During both the case periods, the surface low-pressure field intensified and moved northeastward along the Changma front. A low-level warm front gradually formed with an east-west orientation, and the cold front near the low pressure was aligned from northeast to southwest. The northern convective systems (meso-α-scale were embedded within an area of stratiform cloud north of the warm front. The development of low-level pressure resulted in horizontal and vertical wind shear due to cyclonic circulation. The wind direction was apparently different across the warm front. In addition, the southeasterly flow (below 4 km played an important role in generating new convective cells behind the prevailing convective cell. Each isolated southern convective cell (meso-β-scale moved along the line ahead of the cold front within the prefrontal warm sector. These convective cells developed when a strong southwesterly low-level jet (LLJ intensified and moisture was deeply advected into the sloping frontal zone. A high equivalent potential temperature region transported warm moist air in a strong southwesterly flow, where the convectively unstable air led to updraft and downdraft with a strong reflectivity core.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection under the influence of magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moessner, R.
1996-04-01
This report deals with the influence of strong magnetic fields on three-dimensional natural convection. First the dimensionless basic equations are derived in cartesian coordinates. This equations are solved numerically in rectangular domains with a Finite-Difference-Method. The following calculations investigate the flow in an electrically insulated cube which is heated and cooled at side walls. It is possible to perform systematic computations for the variation of the direction of the magnetic field and thermal boundary conditions. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xing; Bing Yue; Zha Meiqin; Wang Dongjie; Han Lei; Cao Rong
2011-01-01
Assembly reactions of orotic acid (H 3 dtpc ) and CdCl 2 .2.5H 2 O or CdSO 4 .8H 2 O yielded four new cadmium compounds {[Cd(H 2 dtpc)(phen)(H 2 O) 2 ].(H 2 dtpc).4H 2 O} 2 (1: solution reaction, pH=4-5, in addition of phen), [Cd 3 (dtpc) 2 (phen) 5 ].13H 2 O (2: hydrothermal reaction, initial pH=14, final pH=7.5), [Cd(Hdtpc)(H 2 O) 3 ] 4 (3: solution reaction, initial pH=6.5, final pH=6.0), {[Cd(Hdtpc)(phen)(H 2 O)].H 2 O} n (4: hydrothermal reaction, initial pH=8; final pH=6.5), respectively. Compounds 1-4 have been characterized by IR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), photoluminescence analyses, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Compound 1 is a binuclear, 2 is a trinuclear, 3 is a tetranuclear structure, and 4 possesses one-dimensional chain framework, respectively, in which the orotate ligands show seven different linking fashions in 1-4. The orotate ligands as trivalence anions are observed in the formation of orotate-compounds, in which the orotates show high stability under the extreme condition of strong basic solution, high temperature and pressure. - Graphical abstract: Assembly of orotic acid and Cd(II) salts result in four new compounds under different reaction conditions, the compounds possess strong photoluminescence emissions and high thermal stability. Highlights: → Four Cd-compounds were prepared from orotic acid under different crystallization systems. → The orotates as trivalence anions displayed high stability under extremely conditions. → The orotates displayed various connection modes in the compounds. → The strong photoluminescence emissions have been observed in the compounds.
Time-dependent patterns in quasivertical cylindrical binary convection
Alonso, Arantxa; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol
2018-02-01
This paper reports on numerical investigations of the effect of a slight inclination α on pattern formation in a shallow vertical cylindrical cell heated from below for binary mixtures with a positive value of the Soret coefficient. By using direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations with Soret effect in cylindrical geometry, we show that a slight inclination of the cell in the range α ≈0.036 rad =2∘ strongly influences pattern selection. The large-scale shear flow (LSSF) induced by the small tilt of gravity overcomes the squarelike arrangements observed in noninclined cylinders in the Soret regime, stratifies the fluid along the direction of inclination, and produces an enhanced separation of the two components of the mixture. The competition between shear effects and horizontal and vertical buoyancy alters significantly the dynamics observed in noninclined convection. Additional unexpected time-dependent patterns coexist with the basic LSSF. We focus on an unsual periodic state recently discovered in an experiment, the so-called superhighway convection state (SHC), in which ascending and descending regions of fluid move in opposite directions. We provide numerical confirmation that Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with standard boundary conditions contain the essential ingredients that allow for the existence of such a state. Also, we obtain a persistent heteroclinic structure where regular oscillations between a SHC pattern and a state of nearly stationary longitudinal rolls take place. We characterize numerically these time-dependent patterns and investigate the dynamics around the threshold of convection.
Stein, Robert F
2012-07-13
Convection is the transport of energy by bulk mass motions. Magnetic fields alter convection via the Lorentz force, while convection moves the fields via the curl(v×B) term in the induction equation. Recent ground-based and satellite telescopes have increased our knowledge of the solar magnetic fields on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Magneto-convection modelling has also greatly improved recently as computers become more powerful. Three-dimensional simulations with radiative transfer and non-ideal equations of state are being performed. Flux emergence from the convection zone through the visible surface (and into the chromosphere and corona) has been modelled. Local, convectively driven dynamo action has been studied. The alteration in the appearance of granules and the formation of pores and sunspots has been investigated. Magneto-convection calculations have improved our ability to interpret solar observations, especially the inversion of Stokes spectra to obtain the magnetic field and the use of helioseismology to determine the subsurface structure of the Sun.
Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Wea...
Thermal convection thresholds in a Oldroyd magnetic fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez, L.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Bernardo OHiggins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Bragard, J. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona (Spain); Laroze, D., E-mail: david.laroze@gmail.co [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany); Instituto de Alta Investigacion, Universidad de Tarapaca, Casilla 7D, Arica (Chile); Martinez-Mardones, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Pleiner, H. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D 55021 Mainz (Germany)
2011-03-15
We report theoretical and numerical results on convection for a magnetic fluid in a viscoelastic carrier liquid. The viscoelastic properties is given by the Oldroyd model. We obtain explicit expressions for the convective thresholds in terms of the parameters of the system in the case of idealized boundary conditions. We also calculate numerically the convective thresholds for the case of realistic boundary conditions. The effect of the Kelvin force and of the rheology on instability thresholds for a diluted suspensions are emphasized. - Research highlights: > We study the linear analysis of the convection in magnetic fluids. > The Rheological properties are given by the Oldroyd model. > The numerical results are performed by the Spectral method.
Pirot, D.; Vincent, A. P.; Charbonneau, P.; Solar Physics Research Group of University of Montreal
2011-12-01
Solar magnetic field originates deep inside the convection zone and rises through it to produce active regions. Detailled simulations of solar convection including granulation and radiation that have been performed in the past are important both to understand the physics of magnetic flux tube evolution as well as the algorithms used for simulations. A challenging problem is the reconstruction of the effective patterns of convection below an observed active region as given by magnetograms and temperature maps at photospheric levels. Since convection in the sun is strongly stratified in density it can be regarded as being anelastic, therefore we used ANMHD software. Here we chosed AR9077-20000714 also known to have produced the ''Bastille day'' flare a region of area 175 Mm2. To this purpose we used an anelastic convection model that we modified to include the Nudging Back and Forth, a Newtonian relaxation technique for the data assimilation of SOHO/MDI temperature and magnetograms. Vector magnetograms are first choice for the upper boundary condition to be data assimilated. However they have been computed from SOHO line of sight magnetograms using the force free hypothesis as if we would be just above photosphere. We found that velocity shears between slow diverging upflows and fast turbulent downflows produce Ω and U-shaped magnetic field loops. The coronal arcade system of AR9077-20000714 (the ``slinky'') is here understood as the emerging part of the magneto convective pattern below.
Transition to finger convection in double-diffusive convection
Kellner, M.; Tilgner, A.
2014-01-01
Finger convection is observed experimentally in an electrodeposition cell in which a destabilizing gradient of copper ions is maintained against a stabilizing temperature gradient. This double-diffusive system shows finger convection even if the total density stratification is unstable. Finger convection is replaced by an ordinary convection roll if convection is fast enough to prevent sufficient heat diffusion between neighboring fingers, or if the thermal buoyancy force is less than 1/30 of...
Convective aggregation in realistic convective-scale simulations
Holloway, Christopher E.
2017-06-01
To investigate the real-world relevance of idealized-model convective self-aggregation, five 15 day cases of real organized convection in the tropics are simulated. These include multiple simulations of each case to test sensitivities of the convective organization and mean states to interactive radiation, interactive surface fluxes, and evaporation of rain. These simulations are compared to self-aggregation seen in the same model configured to run in idealized radiative-convective equilibrium. Analysis of the budget of the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy shows that control runs have significant positive contributions to organization from radiation and negative contributions from surface fluxes and transport, similar to idealized runs once they become aggregated. Despite identical lateral boundary conditions for all experiments in each case, systematic differences in mean column water vapor (CWV), CWV distribution shape, and CWV autocorrelation length scale are found between the different sensitivity runs, particularly for those without interactive radiation, showing that there are at least some similarities in sensitivities to these feedbacks in both idealized and realistic simulations (although the organization of precipitation shows less sensitivity to interactive radiation). The magnitudes and signs of these systematic differences are consistent with a rough equilibrium between (1) equalization due to advection from the lateral boundaries and (2) disaggregation due to the absence of interactive radiation, implying disaggregation rates comparable to those in idealized runs with aggregated initial conditions and noninteractive radiation. This points to a plausible similarity in the way that radiation feedbacks maintain aggregated convection in both idealized simulations and the real world.Plain Language SummaryUnderstanding the processes that lead to the organization of tropical rainstorms is an important challenge for weather
Forced convection in nanoparticles doped nematics without reorientation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakobyan, M.R.; Hakobyan, R.S.
2016-01-01
The problem of forced convection in the cell of nanoparticles doped nematic liquid crystal with both boundaries being free, plane and isotherm is discussed. These boundary conditions (offered by Rayleigh) allow to get simple and exact solution for boundary-value problem, from which its most important peculiarities can be clearly seen. Particularly, there appears a possibility to induce convection without reorientation of liquid crystal director. It was shown that nanoparticles could have significant influence on the convection
Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa
2014-01-01
Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ku David N
2010-07-01
% and 116% was demonstrated between the experimental results and those obtained from the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes, respectively. However, both the Second-Order upwind and QUICK schemes accurately predict species concentration under high Peclet number, convection-dominated flow conditions. Conclusion Convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection has a strong influence on resultant species concentration fields, as determined by CFD. Furthermore, either the Second-Order or QUICK discretisation schemes should be implemented when numerically modelling convection-dominated mass-transport conditions. Finally, care should be taken not to utilize computationally inexpensive discretisation schemes at the cost of accuracy in resultant species concentration.
Carroll, Gráinne T; Devereux, Paul D; Ku, David N; McGloughlin, Timothy M; Walsh, Michael T
2010-07-19
results and those obtained from the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes, respectively. However, both the Second-Order upwind and QUICK schemes accurately predict species concentration under high Peclet number, convection-dominated flow conditions. Convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection has a strong influence on resultant species concentration fields, as determined by CFD. Furthermore, either the Second-Order or QUICK discretisation schemes should be implemented when numerically modelling convection-dominated mass-transport conditions. Finally, care should be taken not to utilize computationally inexpensive discretisation schemes at the cost of accuracy in resultant species concentration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saez, M.
1998-10-20
The aim of our study is to establish a reliable database for improving thermal hydraulic codes, in the field of turbulent flows with buoyancy forces. The flow considered is mixed convection in the Reynolds and Richardson number range: Re = 10{sup 3} to 6.10{sup 4} and Ri = 10{sup -4} to 1. Experiments are carried out in an upward turbulent flow between vertical parallel plates at different wall temperatures. Part 1 gives a detailed database of turbulent mixed flow of free and forced convection. Part 2 presents the installation and the calibration system intended for probes calibration. Part 3 describes the measurement technique (constant temperature probe and cold-wire probe) and the method for measuring the position of the hot-wire anemometer from the wall surface. The measurement accuracy is within 0.001 mm in the present system. Part 4 relates the development of a method for near wall measurements. This correction procedure for hot-wire anemometer close to wall has been derived on the basis of a two-dimensional numerical study. The method permits to obtain a quantitative correction of the wall influence on hot-wires and takes into account the velocity profile and the effects the wall material has on the heat loss. Part 5 presents the experimental data obtained in the channel in forced and mixed convection. Results obtained in the forced convection regime serve as a verification of the measurement technique close to the wall and give the conditions at the entrance of the test section. The effects of the buoyancy force on the mean velocity and temperature profiles are confirmed. The buoyancy strongly affects the fluid structure and deforms the distribution of mean velocity. The velocity profiles are asymmetric. The second section of part 5 gives an approach of analytical wall functions with buoyancy forces, on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the test section. (author)
Entropy Production in Convective Hydrothermal Systems
Boersing, Nele; Wellmann, Florian; Niederau, Jan
2016-04-01
Exploring hydrothermal reservoirs requires reliable estimates of subsurface temperatures to delineate favorable locations of boreholes. It is therefore of fundamental and practical importance to understand the thermodynamic behavior of the system in order to predict its performance with numerical studies. To this end, the thermodynamic measure of entropy production is considered as a useful abstraction tool to characterize the convective state of a system since it accounts for dissipative heat processes and gives insight into the system's average behavior in a statistical sense. Solving the underlying conservation principles of a convective hydrothermal system is sensitive to initial conditions and boundary conditions which in turn are prone to uncertain knowledge in subsurface parameters. There exist multiple numerical solutions to the mathematical description of a convective system and the prediction becomes even more challenging as the vigor of convection increases. Thus, the variety of possible modes contained in such highly non-linear problems needs to be quantified. A synthetic study is carried out to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a finite porous layer heated from below. Various two-dimensional models are created such that their corresponding Rayleigh numbers lie in a range from the sub-critical linear to the supercritical non-linear regime, that is purely conductive to convection-dominated systems. Entropy production is found to describe the transient evolution of convective processes fairly well and can be used to identify thermodynamic equilibrium. Additionally, varying the aspect ratio for each Rayleigh number shows that the variety of realized convection modes increases with both larger aspect ratio and higher Rayleigh number. This phenomenon is also reflected by an enlarged spread of entropy production for the realized modes. Consequently, the Rayleigh number can be correlated to the magnitude of entropy production. In cases of moderate
Ocampo-Torres, F. J.; García-Nava, H.; Durazo, R.; Osuna, P.; Díaz Méndez, G. M.; Graber, H. C.
2011-03-01
The Gulf of Tehuantepec air-sea interaction experiment ( intOA) took place from February to April 2005, under the Programme for the Study of the Gulf of Tehuantepec (PEGoT, Spanish acronym for Programa para el Estudio del Golfo de Tehuantepec). PEGoT is underway aiming for better knowledge of the effect of strong and persistent offshore winds on coastal waters and their natural resources, as well as performing advanced numerical modelling of the wave and surface current fields. One of the goals of the intOA experiment is to improve our knowledge on air-sea interaction processes with particular emphasis on the effect of surface waves on the momentum flux for the characteristic and unique conditions that occur when strong Tehuano winds blow offshore against the Pacific Ocean long period swell. For the field campaign, an air-sea interaction spar (ASIS) buoy was deployed in the Gulf of Tehuantepec to measure surface waves and the momentum flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. High frequency radar systems (phase array type) were in operation from two coastal sites and three acoustic Doppler current profilers were deployed near-shore. Synthetic aperture radar images were also acquired as part of the remote sensing component of the experiment. The present paper provides the main results on the wave and wind fields, addressing the direct calculation of the momentum flux and the drag coefficient, and gives an overview of the intOA experiment. Although the effect of swell has been described in recent studies, this is the first time for the very specific conditions encountered, such as swell persistently opposing offshore winds and locally generated waves, to show a clear evidence of the influence on the wind stress of the significant steepness of swell waves.
Natural convection in tunnels at Yucca Mountain and impact on drift seepage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halecky, N.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Peterson, P.
2010-04-15
The decay heat from radioactive waste that is to be disposed in the once proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) will significantly influence the moisture conditions in the fractured rock near emplacement tunnels (drifts). Additionally, large-scale convective cells will form in the open-air drifts and will serve as an important mechanism for the transport of vaporized pore water from the fractured rock in the drift center to the drift end. Such convective processes would also impact drift seepage, as evaporation could reduce the build up of liquid water at the tunnel wall. Characterizing and understanding these liquid water and vapor transport processes is critical for evaluating the performance of the repository, in terms of water-induced canister corrosion and subsequent radionuclide containment. To study such processes, we previously developed and applied an enhanced version of TOUGH2 that solves for natural convection in the drift. We then used the results from this previous study as a time-dependent boundary condition in a high-resolution seepage model, allowing for a computationally efficient means for simulating these processes. The results from the seepage model show that cases with strong natural convection effects are expected to improve the performance of the repository, since smaller relative humidity values, with reduced local seepage, form a more desirable waste package environment.
Properties of convective motions in facular regions
Kostik, R.; Khomenko, E. V.
2012-09-01
Aims: We study the properties of solar granulation in a facular region from the photosphere up to the lower chromosphere. Our aim is to investigate the dependence of granular structure on magnetic field strength. Methods: We used observations obtained at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife) using two different instruments: the Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to measure velocity and intensity variations along the photosphere in the Ba ii 4554 Å line; and, simultaneously, the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP-II) to the measure Stokes parameters and the magnetic field strength at the lower photosphere in the Fe i 1.56 μm lines. Results: We find that the convective velocities of granules in the facular area decrease with magnetic field while the convective velocities of intergranular lanes increase with the field strength. Similar to the quiet areas, there is a contrast and velocity sign reversal taking place in the middle photosphere. The reversal heights depend on the magnetic field strength and are, on average, about 100 km higher than in the quiet regions. The correlation between convective velocity and intensity decreases with magnetic field at the bottom photosphere, but increases in the upper photosphere. The contrast of intergranular lanes observed close to the disk center is almost independent of the magnetic field strength. Conclusions: The strong magnetic field of the facular area seems to stabilize the convection and to promote more effective energy transfer in the upper layers of the solar atmosphere, since the convective elements reach greater heights.
Primary Issues of Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin
2015-01-01
The computer code analyzing the system operating and transient behavior must distinguish flow conditions involved with convective heat transfer flow regimes. And the proper correlations must be supplied to those flow regimes. However the existing safety analysis codes are focused on the Light Water Reactor and they are skeptical to be applied to the GCRs (Gas Cooled Reactors). One of the technical issues raise by the development of the VHTR is the mixed convection, which occur when the driving forces of both forced and natural convection are of comparable magnitudes. It can be encountered as in channel of the stacked with fuel elements and a decay heat removal system and in VHTR. The mixed convection is not intermediate phenomena with natural convection and forced convection but independent complicated phenomena. Therefore, many researchers have been studied and some primary issues were propounded for phenomena mixed convection. This paper is to discuss some problems identified through reviewing the papers for mixed convection phenomena. And primary issues of mixed convection heat transfer were proposed respect to thermal hydraulic problems for VHTR. The VHTR thermal hydraulic study requires an indepth study of the mixed convection phenomena. In this study we reviewed the classical flow regime map of Metais and Eckert and derived further issues to be considered. The following issues were raised: (1) Buoyancy aided an opposed flows were not differentiated and plotted in a map. (2) Experimental results for UWT and UHF condition were also plotted in the same map without differentiation. (3) The buoyancy coefficient was not generalized for correlating with buoyancy coefficient. (4) The phenomenon analysis for laminarization and returbulization as buoyancy effects in turbulent mixed convection was not established. (5) The defining to transition in mixed convection regime was difficult
Simulating deep convection with a shallow convection scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Hohenegger
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Convective processes profoundly affect the global water and energy balance of our planet but remain a challenge for global climate modeling. Here we develop and investigate the suitability of a unified convection scheme, capable of handling both shallow and deep convection, to simulate cases of tropical oceanic convection, mid-latitude continental convection, and maritime shallow convection. To that aim, we employ large-eddy simulations (LES as a benchmark to test and refine a unified convection scheme implemented in the Single-column Community Atmosphere Model (SCAM. Our approach is motivated by previous cloud-resolving modeling studies, which have documented the gradual transition between shallow and deep convection and its possible importance for the simulated precipitation diurnal cycle.
Analysis of the LES reveals that differences between shallow and deep convection, regarding cloud-base properties as well as entrainment/detrainment rates, can be related to the evaporation of precipitation. Parameterizing such effects and accordingly modifying the University of Washington shallow convection scheme, it is found that the new unified scheme can represent both shallow and deep convection as well as tropical and mid-latitude continental convection. Compared to the default SCAM version, the new scheme especially improves relative humidity, cloud cover and mass flux profiles. The new unified scheme also removes the well-known too early onset and peak of convective precipitation over mid-latitude continental areas.
The development of neutrino-driven convection in core-collapse supernovae: 2D vs 3D
Kazeroni, R.; Krueger, B. K.; Guilet, J.; Foglizzo, T.
2017-12-01
A toy model is used to study the non-linear conditions for the development of neutrino-driven convection in the post-shock region of core-collapse supernovae. Our numerical simulations show that a buoyant non-linear perturbation is able to trigger self-sustained convection only in cases where convection is not linearly stabilized by advection. Several arguments proposed to interpret the impact of the dimensionality on global core-collapse supernova simulations are discussed in the light of our model. The influence of the numerical resolution is also addressed. In 3D a strong mixing to small scales induces an increase of the neutrino heating efficiency in a runaway process. This phenomenon is absent in 2D and this may indicate that the tridimensional nature of the hydrodynamics could foster explosions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. M. Jackman
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a simple model of the flow and currents in Saturn's polar ionosphere. This model is motivated by theoretical reasoning, and guided quantitatively by in situ field and flow data from space missions, ground-based IR Doppler measurements, and Hubble Space Telescope images. The flow pattern consists of components which represent (1 plasma sub-corotation in the middle magnetosphere region resulting from plasma pick-up and radial transport from internal sources; (2 the Vasyliunas-cycle of internal plasma mass-loss down the magnetospheric tail at higher latitudes; and (3 the polar Dungey-cycle flow driven by the solar wind interaction. Upstream measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF indicate the occurrence of both extended low-field rarefaction intervals with essentially negligible Dungey-cycle flow, and few-day high-field compression regions in which the Dungey-cycle voltage peaks at a few hundred kV. Here we model the latter conditions when the Dungey-cycle is active, advancing on previous axi-symmetric models which may be more directly applicable to quiet conditions. For theoretical convenience the overall flow pattern is constructed by adding together two components - a purely rotational flow similar to previous axi-symmetric models, and a sun-aligned twin vortex representing the dawn-dusk asymmetry effects associated with the Vasyliunas-and Dungey-cycle flows. We calculate the horizontal ionospheric current associated with the flow and the field-aligned current from its divergence. These calculations show that a sheet of upward-directed field-aligned current flows at the boundary of open field lines which is strongly modulated in local-time by the Dungey-cycle flows. We then consider implications of the field-aligned current for magnetospheric electron acceleration and aurorae using two plasma source populations (hot outer magnetospheric electrons and cool dense magnetosheath electrons. Both sources display a
Rasmussen, K. L.; Prein, A. F.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Ikeda, K.; Liu, C.
2017-11-01
Novel high-resolution convection-permitting regional climate simulations over the US employing the pseudo-global warming approach are used to investigate changes in the convective population and thermodynamic environments in a future climate. Two continuous 13-year simulations were conducted using (1) ERA-Interim reanalysis and (2) ERA-Interim reanalysis plus a climate perturbation for the RCP8.5 scenario. The simulations adequately reproduce the observed precipitation diurnal cycle, indicating that they capture organized and propagating convection that most climate models cannot adequately represent. This study shows that weak to moderate convection will decrease and strong convection will increase in frequency in a future climate. Analysis of the thermodynamic environments supporting convection shows that both convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) increase downstream of the Rockies in a future climate. Previous studies suggest that CAPE will increase in a warming climate, however a corresponding increase in CIN acts as a balancing force to shift the convective population by suppressing weak to moderate convection and provides an environment where CAPE can build to extreme levels that may result in more frequent severe convection. An idealized investigation of fundamental changes in the thermodynamic environment was conducted by shifting a standard atmospheric profile by ± 5 °C. When temperature is increased, both CAPE and CIN increase in magnitude, while the opposite is true for decreased temperatures. Thus, even in the absence of synoptic and mesoscale variations, a warmer climate will provide more CAPE and CIN that will shift the convective population, likely impacting water and energy budgets on Earth.
Methods for characterizing convective cryoprobe heat transfer in ultrasound gel phantoms.
Etheridge, Michael L; Choi, Jeunghwan; Ramadhyani, Satish; Bischof, John C
2013-02-01
While cryosurgery has proven capable in treating of a variety of conditions, it has met with some resistance among physicians, in part due to shortcomings in the ability to predict treatment outcomes. Here we attempt to address several key issues related to predictive modeling by demonstrating methods for accurately characterizing heat transfer from cryoprobes, report temperature dependent thermal properties for ultrasound gel (a convenient tissue phantom) down to cryogenic temperatures, and demonstrate the ability of convective exchange heat transfer boundary conditions to accurately describe freezing in the case of single and multiple interacting cryoprobe(s). Temperature dependent changes in the specific heat and thermal conductivity for ultrasound gel are reported down to -150 °C for the first time here and these data were used to accurately describe freezing in ultrasound gel in subsequent modeling. Freezing around a single and two interacting cryoprobe(s) was characterized in the ultrasound gel phantom by mapping the temperature in and around the "iceball" with carefully placed thermocouple arrays. These experimental data were fit with finite-element modeling in COMSOL Multiphysics, which was used to investigate the sensitivity and effectiveness of convective boundary conditions in describing heat transfer from the cryoprobes. Heat transfer at the probe tip was described in terms of a convective coefficient and the cryogen temperature. While model accuracy depended strongly on spatial (i.e., along the exchange surface) variation in the convective coefficient, it was much less sensitive to spatial and transient variations in the cryogen temperature parameter. The optimized fit, convective exchange conditions for the single-probe case also provided close agreement with the experimental data for the case of two interacting cryoprobes, suggesting that this basic characterization and modeling approach can be extended to accurately describe more complicated
Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy
Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.
2015-12-01
Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of
Mathematical models of convection
Andreev, Victor K; Goncharova, Olga N; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V
2012-01-01
Phenomena of convection are abundant in nature as well as in industry. This volume addresses the subject of convection from the point of view of both, theory and application. While the first three chapters provide a refresher on fluid dynamics and heat transfer theory, the rest of the book describes the modern developments in theory. Thus it brings the reader to the ""front"" of the modern research. This monograph provides the theoretical foundation on a topic relevant to metallurgy, ecology, meteorology, geo-and astrophysics, aerospace industry, chemistry, crystal physics, and many other fiel
Strong increase in convective precipitation in response to higher temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, P.; Moseley, C.; Härter, Jan Olaf Mirko
2013-01-01
Precipitation changes can affect society more directly than variations in most other meteorological observables, but precipitation is difficult to characterize because of fluctuations on nearly all temporal and spatial scales. In addition, the intensity of extreme precipitation rises markedly at ...
Estimating Bulk Entrainment With Unaggregated and Aggregated Convection
Becker, Tobias; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Hohenegger, Cathy; Stevens, Bjorn
2018-01-01
To investigate how entrainment is influenced by convective organization, we use the ICON (ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic) model in a radiative-convective equilibrium framework, with a 1 km spatial grid mesh covering a 600 by 520 km2 domain. We analyze two simulations, with unaggregated and aggregated convection, and find that, in the lower free troposphere, the bulk entrainment rate increases when convection aggregates. The increase of entrainment rate with aggregation is caused by a strong increase of turbulence in the close environment of updrafts, masking other effects like the increase of updraft size and of static stability with aggregation. Even though entrainment rate increases with aggregation, updraft buoyancy reduction through entrainment decreases because aggregated updrafts are protected by a moist shell. Parameterizations that wish to represent mesoscale convective organization would need to model this moist shell.
Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.
The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions
CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...
Bongers, Kale S.; Fox, Daniel K.; Kunkel, Steven D.; Stebounova, Larissa V.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pufall, Miles A.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.; Bullard, Steven A.; Dierdorff, Jason M.
2014-01-01
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. To better understand the mechanisms of muscle atrophy, we used mouse models to search for a skeletal muscle protein that helps to maintain muscle mass and is specifically lost during muscle atrophy. We discovered that diverse causes of muscle atrophy (limb immobilization, fasting, muscle denervation, and aging) strongly reduced expression of the enzyme spermine oxidase. Importantly, a reduction in spermine oxidase was sufficient to induce muscle fiber atrophy. Conversely, forced expression of spermine oxidase increased muscle fiber size in multiple models of muscle atrophy (immobilization, fasting, and denervation). Interestingly, the reduction of spermine oxidase during muscle atrophy was mediated by p21, a protein that is highly induced during muscle atrophy and actively promotes muscle atrophy. In addition, we found that spermine oxidase decreased skeletal muscle mRNAs that promote muscle atrophy (e.g., myogenin) and increased mRNAs that help to maintain muscle mass (e.g., mitofusin-2). Thus, in healthy skeletal muscle, a relatively low level of p21 permits expression of spermine oxidase, which helps to maintain basal muscle gene expression and fiber size; conversely, during conditions that cause muscle atrophy, p21 expression rises, leading to reduced spermine oxidase expression, disruption of basal muscle gene expression, and muscle fiber atrophy. Collectively, these results identify spermine oxidase as an important positive regulator of muscle gene expression and fiber size, and elucidate p21-mediated repression of spermine oxidase as a key step in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle atrophy. PMID:25406264
Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Wang, Y.; Vinas, A. F.; Sibeck, D. G.
2012-01-01
We report the first in situ observation of high-latitude magnetopause (near the northern duskward cusp) Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHW) by Cluster on January 12, 2003, under strongly dawnward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The fluctuations unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) are found to propagate mostly tailward, i.e., along the direction almost 90 deg. to both the magnetosheath and geomagnetic fields, which lowers the threshold of the KHI. The magnetic configuration across the boundary layer near the northern duskward cusp region during dawnward IMF is similar to that in the low-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF, in that (1) both magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields across the local boundary layer constitute the lowest magnetic shear and (2) the tailward propagation of the KHW is perpendicular to both fields. Approximately 3-hour-long periods of the KHW during dawnward IMF are followed by the rapid expansion of the dayside magnetosphere associated with the passage of an IMF discontinuity that characterizes an abrupt change in IMF cone angle, Phi = acos (B(sub x) / absolute value of Beta), from approx. 90 to approx. 10. Cluster, which was on its outbound trajectory, continued observing the boundary waves at the northern evening-side magnetopause during sunward IMF conditions following the passage of the IMF discontinuity. By comparing the signatures of boundary fluctuations before and after the IMF discontinuity, we report that the frequencies of the most unstable KH modes increased after the discontinuity passed. This result demonstrates that differences in IMF orientations (especially in f) are associated with the properties of KHW at the high-latitude magnetopause due to variations in thickness of the boundary layer, and/or width of the KH-unstable band on the surface of the dayside magnetopause.
Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes
Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.
2014-12-01
Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character
Convective transport resistance in the vitreous humor
Penkova, Anita; Sadhal, Satwindar; Ratanakijsuntorn, Komsan; Moats, Rex; Tang, Yang; Hughes, Patrick; Robinson, Michael; Lee, Susan
2012-11-01
It has been established by MRI visualization experiments that the convection of nanoparticles and large molecules with high rate of water flow in the vitreous humor will experience resistance, depending on the respective permeabilities of the injected solute. A set of experiments conducted with Gd-DTPA (Magnevist, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) and 30 nm gadolinium-based particles (Gado CELLTrackTM, Biopal, Worcester, MA) as MRI contrast agents showed that the degree of convective transport in this Darcy-type porous medium varies between the two solutes. These experiments consisted of injecting a mixture of the two (a 30 μl solution of 2% Magnevist and 1% nanoparticles) at the middle of the vitreous of an ex vivo whole bovine eye and subjecting the vitreous to water flow rate of 100 μl/min. The water (0.9% saline solution) was injected at the top of the eye, and was allowed to drain through small slits cut at the bottom of the eyeball. After 50 minutes of pumping, MRI images showed that the water flow carried the Gd-DTPA farther than the nanoparticles, even though the two solutes, being mixed, were subjected to the same convective flow conditions. We find that the convected solute lags the water flow, depending on the solute permeability. The usual convection term needs to be adjusted to allow for the filtration effect on the larger particles in the form (1- σ) u . ∇ c with important implications for the modeling of such systems.
Kim, Tae-Ho; Yang, Chan-Su; Oh, Jeong-Hwan; Ouchi, Kazuo
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model and Automatic Weather System (AWS) were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area. PMID:24498094
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tae-Ho Kim
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the wind drift factor under strong tidal conditions in the western coastal area of Korea on the movement of oil slicks caused by the Hebei Spirit oil spill accident in 2007. The movement of oil slicks was computed using a simple simulation model based on the empirical formula as a function of surface current, wind speed, and the wind drift factor. For the simulation, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC model and Automatic Weather System (AWS were used to generate tidal and wind fields respectively. Simulation results were then compared with 5 sets of spaceborne optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data. From the present study, it was found that highest matching rate between the simulation results and satellite imagery was obtained with different values of the wind drift factor, and to first order, this factor was linearly proportional to the wind speed. Based on the results, a new modified empirical formula was proposed for forecasting the movement of oil slicks on the coastal area.
Convective mixing in helium white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vauclair, G.; Fontaine, G.
1979-01-01
The conditions under which convective mixing episodes take place between the helium envelopes and the underlying carbon layers in helium-rich white dwarfs are investigated. It is found that, for essentially any value of the initial helium content less than the maximum mass a helium convection zone can have, mixing does occur, and leads, in the vast majority of cases, to an almost pure carbon superficial composition. Mixing products that show only traces of carbon while retaining helium-dominated envelopes are possible only if the initial helium content is quite close to the maximum possible mass of the helium convection zone. In the presence of turbulence, this restriction could be relaxed, however, and the helium-rich lambda4670 stars may possibly be explained in this fashion
Convective overshooting in stars
Andrássy, R.
2015-01-01
Numerous observations provide evidence that the standard picture, in which convective mixing is limited to the unstable layers of a star, is incomplete. The mixing layers in real stars are significantly more extended than what the standard models predict. Some of the observations require changing
Stochasticc convection parameterization
Dorrestijn, J.
2016-01-01
Clouds are chaotic, difficult to predict, but above all, magnificent natural phenomena. There are different types of clouds: stratus, a layer of clouds that may produce drizzle, cirrus, clouds in the higher parts of the atmosphere, and cumulus, clouds that arise in convective updrafts. Thermals,
Effects of Nonequilibrium at Edge of Boundary Layer on Convective Heat Transfer to a Blunt Body
Goekcen, Tahir; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
This investigation is a continuation of a previous study on nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body. In the previous study, for relatively high Reynolds number flows, it was found that: nonequilibrium convective heat transfer to a blunt body is not strongly dependent on freestream parameters, provided that the thermochemical equilibrium is reached at the edge of boundary layer; and successful testing of convective heat transfer in an arc-jet environment is possible by duplicating the surface pressure and total enthalpy. The nonequilibrium convective heat transfer computations are validated against the results of Fay and Riddell/Goulard theory. Present work investigates low Reynolds number conditions which are typical in an actual arc-jet flow environment. One expects that there will be departures from the Fay and Riddell/Goulard result since certain assumptions of the classical theory are not satisfied. These departures are of interest because the Fay and Riddell/Goulard formulas are extensively used in arc-jet testing (e.g., to determine the enthalpy of the flow and the catalytic efficiency of heat shield materials). For practical sizes of test materials, density of the test flow (and Reynolds number) in an arc-jet is such that thermochemical equilibrium may not be reached at the edge of boundary layer. For blunt body flows of nitrogen and air, computations will be presented to show the effects of thermochemical nonequilibrium at the boundary layer edge on nonequilibrium heat transfer.
Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P.
2017-12-01
Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.
Kutty, Govindan; Sandeep, S.; Vinodkumar; Nhaloor, Sreejith
2017-07-01
Indian summer monsoon rainfall is characterized by large intra-seasonal fluctuations in the form of active and break spells in rainfall. This study investigates the role of soil moisture and vegetation on 30-h precipitation forecasts during the break monsoon period using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The working hypothesis is that reduced rainfall, clear skies, and wet soil condition during the break monsoon period enhance land-atmosphere coupling over central India. Sensitivity experiments are conducted with modified initial soil moisture and vegetation. The results suggest that an increase in antecedent soil moisture would lead to an increase in precipitation, in general. The precipitation over the core monsoon region has increased by enhancing forest cover in the model simulations. Parameters such as Lifting Condensation Level, Level of Free Convection, and Convective Available Potential Energy indicate favorable atmospheric conditions for convection over forests, when wet soil conditions prevail. On spatial scales, the precipitation is more sensitive to soil moisture conditions over northeastern parts of India. Strong horizontal gradient in soil moisture and orographic uplift along the upslopes of Himalaya enhanced rainfall over the east of Indian subcontinent.
Convective Propagation Characteristics Using a Simple Representation of Convective Organization
Neale, R. B.; Mapes, B. E.
2016-12-01
Observed equatorial wave propagation is intimately linked to convective organization and it's coupling to features of the larger-scale flow. In this talk we a use simple 4 level model to accommodate vertical modes of a mass flux convection scheme (shallow, mid-level and deep). Two paradigms of convection are used to represent convective processes. One that has only both random (unorganized) diagnosed fluctuations of convective properties and one with organized fluctuations of convective properties that are amplified by previously existing convection and has an explicit moistening impact on the local convecting environment We show a series of model simulations in single-column, 2D and 3D configurations, where the role of convective organization in wave propagation is shown to be fundamental. For the optimal choice of parameters linking organization to local atmospheric state, a broad array of convective wave propagation emerges. Interestingly the key characteristics of propagating modes are the low-level moistening followed by deep convection followed by mature 'large-scale' heating. This organization structure appears to hold firm across timescales from 5-day wave disturbances to MJO-like wave propagation.
Convective heat transfer on Mars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arx, A.V. von; Delgado, A. Jr.
1991-01-01
An examination was made into the feasibility of using convective heat transfer on Mars to reject the waste heat from a Closed Brayton Cycle. Forced and natural convection were compared to thermal radiation. For the three radiator configurations studied, it was concluded that thermal radiation will yield the minimum mass and forced convection will result in the minimum area radiator. Other issues such as reliability of a fan motor were not addressed. Convective heat transfer on Mars warrants further investigation. However, the low density of the Martian atmosphere makes it difficult to utilize convective heat transfer without incurring a weight penalty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Oeder
Full Text Available Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot". Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika
2012-01-01
This study proposes a use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for environmental assessment. All organizations in private and public sectors produce not only desirable (good) but also undesirable (bad) outputs as a result of their economic activities. The proposed use of DEA determines the level of unified (operational and environmental) efficiency of all the organizations. A contribution of this study is that it explores how to measure not only RTS (Returns to Scale) on desirable outputs but also a new concept regarding “DTS: Damages to Scale” (corresponding to RTS for undesirable outputs). This study discusses how to measure RTS under natural disposability and DTS under managerial disposability by DEA. The measurement of RTS and DTS is formulated by incorporating “Strong Complementary Slackness Conditions (SCSCs)”. As a result, this study can handle an occurrence of multiple reference sets and multiple projections in the RTS/DTS measurement. The incorporation of SCSCs makes it possible both to restrict DEA multipliers in a specific range without any prior information and to identify all possible efficient organizations as a reference set. Using the unique capabilities of SCSCs, this study discusses the use of DEA environmental assessment by exploring how to classify the type of RTS/DTS with SCSCs. Such analytical capabilities are essential, but not previously explored in DEA environmental assessment for energy industries. As an illustrative example, this study applies the proposed approach for the performance evaluation of Japanese manufacturing industries. This study finds that these firms need to introduce technology innovation to reduce an amount of greenhouse gases and wastes. The empirical result confirms the importance of measuring RTS/DTS in DEA environmental assessment.
Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; BéruBé, Kelly A.; Wlodarczyk, Anna J.; Prytherch, Zoë; Michalke, Bernhard; Krebs, Tobias; Prévôt, André S. H.; Kelbg, Michael; Tiggesbäumker, Josef; Karg, Erwin; Jakobi, Gert; Scholtes, Sorana; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Sklorz, Martin; Klingbeil, Sophie; Orasche, Jürgen; Richthammer, Patrick; Müller, Laarnie; Elsasser, Michael; Reda, Ahmed; Gröger, Thomas; Weggler, Benedikt; Schwemer, Theo; Czech, Hendryk; Rüger, Christopher P.; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Radischat, Christian; Hiller, Karsten; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Zimmermann, Ralf
2015-01-01
Background Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon (“soot”). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the
Analysis of forced convection heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, H.S.; Sakurai, Katsumi; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki
2000-01-01
The supercritical carbon dioxide flow has been visualized under forced convection by a Mach-Zehnder interferometry system. The forced convection heat transfer has been examined by an one-sided wall heater in the vertical rectangular test section. Temperature and density distributions of the heated carbon dioxide inside the test section have been calculated from the measured interferometry projections for the visible interferograms conditions. The relationship of the temperature distributions with the physical conditions has been analyzed to inspect the forced convection heat transfer of the supercritical carbon dioxide flow. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung-Tae Lee
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In the summer rainy season, the Korean Peninsula is frequently influenced by severe weather phenomena such as floods and rain-induced landslides. A band-shaped precipitation system associated with unstable atmospheric conditions occurred over northwest Korea on 27 July 2011. This precipitation system produced heavy rainfall over the Seoul metropolitan area, which received over 80 mm h−1 of rainfall and suffered 70 weather-related fatalities. To investigate the precipitation system, we used diverse meteorological data of environmental condition and estimated three-dimensional wind field from dual-Doppler radar measurements of vertical air motion. Environmental conditions included high equivalent potential temperature (θe of over 355 K at low levels, and low θe of under 330 K at middle levels, causing vertical instability. Furthermore, a pressure trough was located to the northwest of Korea, favouring the development of the band-shaped precipitation system. The tip of the band-shaped precipitation system was made up of line-shaped convective systems (LSCSs that caused flooding and landslides, and the LSCSs were continuously enhanced by merging between new cells and the pre-existing cell. The position of merging moved from the coast to offshore areas and influenced the positioning of the regions of enhanced convection. In turn, this affected the roughness of the convective cell and the internal structure of the enhanced convective regions. Onshore, the convective area was higher than in offshore areas because of strong convergence (≤−4×10−4 s−1 at low levels caused by friction over land. The strong convergence generated strong updraft (≥4 m s−1 that influenced the height of the convective area. The convective region offshore was wider than that onshore because of weak convergence (≥−2.2×10−4 s−1 at low levels. Updraft in offshore areas was weak (≤3 m s−1 compared with onshore, resulting in a lower and wider convective
Convection and segregation in a flat rotating sandbox
Rietz, Frank; Stannarius, Ralf
2012-01-01
A flat box, almost completely filled with a mixture of granulate, is rotated slowly about its horizontal central axis. In this experiment, a regular vortex flow of the granular material is observed in the cell plane. These vortex structures have a superficial analogy to convection rolls in dissipative structures of ordinary liquids. Whereas in the latter, the origin of the convection can often be attributed to gradients e.g. of densities or surface tensions, there is no trivial explanation at present for the convection of the granulate in the rotating container. Despite the simplicity of the experiment, the underlying mechanisms for convection and segregation are difficult to extract. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental study of the patterns under various experimental conditions and propose a mechanism for the convection.
Patterns of granular convection and separation in narrow vibration bed
Liu, Chuanping; Wu, Ping; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Yin, Shaowu
2017-06-01
Granular convection/separation of single and binary component particles are studied in a narrow vibration bed, respectively. With filling the single light particles (molecular sieve beads), the bed exhibits five different states successively by increasing the vibration frequency f from 15Hz to 70 Hz (vibration strength Γ>3), as the global convection, symmetrical heap, unsymmetrical heap, local convection and pseudo solid. Comparatively, the granular bed of the single heavy particles (steel beads) is only in pseudo solid state at the above vibration condition. By filling binary component particles (molecular sieve and same size steel beads) instead of the single component, the bed shows similar convection state with that of the single molecular sieve beads, and the heavy steel beads are aggregated in the centre of convention roll as a core. Varying the initial distribution of binary component particles, the final convection and separation are not influenced, although the aggregation process of steel beads changes.
Convection and stellar oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aarslev, Magnus Johan
2017-01-01
energy exchange between convection and pulsations, i.e. the modal part of the surface effect. Studying excitation and damping mechanisms requires a non-adiabatic treatment. A major part of my research has been modelling damping rates of red giant stars observed by {\\Kp}. The basis for the non...... atmospheres to replace the outer layers of stellar models. The additional turbulent pressure and asymmetrical opacity effects in the atmosphere model, compared to convection in stellar evolution models, serve to expand the atmosphere. The enlarged acoustic cavity lowers the pulsation frequencies bringing them....... However, the effects are barely prominent enough to be distinguishable with today's observational precision. But it does provide means of determining the mixing-length and enables consistent patching. The previously mentioned investigations are based on adiabatic frequency calculations, which neglect...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Y.; Guentay, S.
2009-01-01
The mixed convection regime for film condensation is enveloped by free convection at one end and forced convection at the other. At both ends, the noncondensable gas effect on film condensation was established in the pioneering work by Sparrow and Minkowycz. But most practical flows are in the mixed convection regime, where it was observed in recent experiments that the pioneering work could not be applied satisfactorily. The current work tries to bridge the gap by presenting a generic boundary layer formulation of the noncondensable gas effect in the entire mixed convection regime. The current formulation is reduced to two specific cases which mathematically coincide with the pioneering work at two ends. In between, the current work fills the gap by presenting solution for the full spectrum of the mixed convection regime. The presented mixed convection solution intermediates between Minkowycz's prediction on the free convection flow and Sparrow's prediction on the forced convection flow, and is in fair agreement with the recent experiments performed in the mixed convection regime. It is found that although a slight vapor flow imposed on free convection has little effect on film condensation in the absence of noncondensable gases, a slight gas flow imposed on condensation in the presence of noncondensable gases can drastically affect the mass transfer boundary and reduce the accumulation of gas at the interface due to a strong coupling between hydrodynamics and convective mass diffusion. (author)
Dynamics of mixed convective-stably-stratified fluids
Couston, L.-A.; Lecoanet, D.; Favier, B.; Le Bars, M.
2017-09-01
We study the dynamical regimes of a density-stratified fluid confined between isothermal no-slip top and bottom boundaries (at temperatures Tt and Tb) via direct numerical simulation. The thermal expansion coefficient of the fluid is temperature dependent and chosen such that the fluid density is maximum at the inversion temperature Tb>Ti>Tt . Thus, the lower layer of the fluid is convectively unstable while the upper layer is stably stratified. We show that the characteristics of the convection change significantly depending on the degree of stratification of the stable layer. For strong stable stratification, the convection zone coincides with the fraction of the fluid that is convectively unstable (i.e., where T >Ti ), and convective motions consist of rising and sinking plumes of large density anomaly, as is the case in canonical Rayleigh-Bénard convection; internal gravity waves are generated by turbulent fluctuations in the convective layer and propagate in the upper layer. For weak stable stratification, we demonstrate that a large fraction of the stable fluid (i.e., with temperature T phenomenological description of the transition between the regimes of plume-dominated and entrainment-dominated convection through analysis of the differences in the heat transfer mechanisms, kinetic energy density spectra, and probability density functions for different stratification strengths. Importantly, we find that the effect of the stable layer on the convection decreases only weakly with increasing stratification strength, meaning that the dynamics of the stable layer and convection should be studied self-consistently in a wide range of applications.
Bejan, Adrian
2013-01-01
Written by an internationally recognized authority on heat transfer and thermodynamics, this second edition of Convection Heat Transfer contains new and updated problems and examples reflecting real-world research and applications, including heat exchanger design. Teaching not only structure but also technique, the book begins with the simplest problem solving method (scale analysis), and moves on to progressively more advanced and exact methods (integral method, self similarity, asymptotic behavior). A solutions manual is available for all problems and exercises.
Deep convective clouds at the tropopause
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. H. Aumann
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS on the EOS Aqua spacecraft each day show tens of thousands of Cold Clouds (CC in the tropical oceans with 10 μm window channel brightness temperatures colder than 225 K. These clouds represent a mix of cold anvil clouds and Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. This mix can be separated by computing the difference between two channels, a window channel and a channel with strong CO_{2} absorption: for some cold clouds this difference is negative, i.e. the spectra for some cold clouds are inverted. We refer to cold clouds with spectra which are more than 2 K inverted as DCCi2. Associated with DCCi2 is a very high rain rate and a local upward displacement of the tropopause, a cold "bulge", which can be seen directly in the brightness temperatures of AIRS and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU temperature sounding channels in the lower stratosphere. The very high rain rate and the local distortion of the tropopause indicate that DCCi2 objects are associated with severe storms. Significant long-term trends in the statistical properties of DCCi2 could be interesting indicators of climate change. While the analysis of the nature and physical conditions related to DCCi2 requires hyperspectral infrared and microwave data, the identification of DCCi2 requires only one good window channel and one strong CO_{2} sounding channel. This suggests that improved identification of severe storms with future advanced geostationary satellites could be accomplished with the addition of one or two narrow band channels.
Oscillatory convection in low aspect ratio Czochralski melts
Anselmo, A.; Prasad, V.; Koziol, J.; Gupta, K. P.
1993-11-01
Modeling of the crucible in bulk crystal growth simulations as a right circular cylinder may be adequate for high aspect ratio melts but this may be unrealistic when the melt height is low. Low melt height is a unique feature of a solid feed continuous Czochralski growth process for silicon single crystals currently under investigation. At low melt heights, the crucible bottom curvature has a dampening effect on the buoyancy-induced oscillations, a source of inhomogeneities in the grown crystal. The numerical results demonstrate how the mode of convection changes from vertical wall-dominated recirculating flows to Benard convection as the aspect ratio is lowered. This phenomenon is strongly dependent on the boundary condition at the free surface of the melt, which has been generally considered to be either adiabatic or radiatively cooled. A comparison of the flow oscillations in crucibles with and without curved bottoms at aspect ratios in the range of 0.25 to 0.50, and at realistic Grashof numbers (10 7 < Gr < 10 8) illustrate that changing the shape of the crucible may be an effective means of suppressing oscillations and controlling the melt flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kathy E Schwinn
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Petunia line Mitchell [MP, Petunia axillaris × (P. axillaris × P. hybrida] and Eustoma grandiflorum (lisianthus plants were produced containing a transgene for over-expression of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor (ROSEA1 that up-regulates flavonoid biosynthesis in Antirrhinum majus. The petunia lines were also crossed with previously produced MP lines containing a Zea mays flavonoid-related bHLH transcription factor transgene (LEAF COLOR, LC, which induces strong vegetative pigmentation when these 35S:LC plants are exposed to high light levels. 35S:ROS1 lisianthus transgenics had limited changes in anthocyanin pigmentation, specifically, precocious pigmentation of flower petals and increased pigmentation of sepals. RNA transcript levels for two anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were increased in the 35S:ROS1 lisianthus petals compared to those of control lines. With MP, the 35S:ROS1 calli showed novel red pigmentation in culture, but this was generally not seen in tissue culture plantlets regenerated from the calli or young plants transferred to soil in the greenhouse. Anthocyanin pigmentation was enhanced in the stems of mature 35S:ROS1 MP plants, but the MP white-flower phenotype was not complemented. Progeny from a 35S:ROS1×35S:LC cross had novel pigmentation phenotypes that were not present in either parental line or MP. In particular, there was increased pigment accumulation in the petal throat region, and the anthers changed from yellow to purple colour. An outdoor field trial was conducted with the 35S:ROS1, 35S:LC, 35S:ROS1×35S:LC and control MP lines. Field conditions rapidly induced intense foliage pigmentation in 35S:LC plants, a phenotype not observed in control MP or equivalent 35S:LC plants maintained in a greenhouse. No difference in plant stature, seed germination, or plant survival was observed between transgenic and control plants.
Khechiba, Khaled; Mamou, Mahmoud; Hachemi, Madjid; Delenda, Nassim; Rebhi, Redha
2017-06-01
The present study is focused on Lapwood convection in isotropic porous media saturated with non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid. The non-Newtonian rheological behavior of the fluid is modeled using the general viscosity model of Carreau-Yasuda. The convection configuration consists of a shallow porous cavity with a finite aspect ratio and subject to a vertical constant heat flux, whereas the vertical walls are maintained impermeable and adiabatic. An approximate analytical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption, and numerical solutions are obtained by solving the full governing equations. The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation and energy transport equations are solved numerically using a finite difference method. The results are obtained in terms of the Nusselt number and the flow fields as functions of the governing parameters. A good agreement is obtained between the analytical approximation and the numerical solution of the full governing equations. The effects of the rheological parameters of the Carreau-Yasuda fluid and Rayleigh number on the onset of subcritical convection thresholds are demonstrated. Regardless of the aspect ratio of the enclosure and thermal boundary condition type, the subcritical convective flows are seen to occur below the onset of stationary convection. Correlations are proposed to estimate the subcritical Rayleigh number for the onset of finite amplitude convection as a function of the fluid rheological parameters. Linear stability of the convective motion, predicted by the parallel flow approximation, is studied, and the onset of Hopf bifurcation, from steady convective flow to oscillatory behavior, is found to depend strongly on the rheological parameters. In general, Hopf bifurcation is triggered earlier as the fluid becomes more and more shear-thinning.
Pohl, Benjamin; Dieppois, Bastien; Crétat, Julien
2017-04-01
Austral summer rainfall in Southern Africa is highly variable in time and space. Seasonal rainfall amounts archived in long-term observational databases have recently been shown to exhibit significant periodicities at the interannual timescale (with a 2-8 year peak materializing mostly the regional effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), the quasi-decadal (8-13 years) and inter-decadal (15-28 years) timescales, interpretable as the signature of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation over the region. Here, we attempt to deconstruct these rainfall signals into a limited number of coherent synoptic convective regimes, obtained by applying a k-means clustering on daily Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) derived from the 20th Century Reanalysis (20CR), on the period 1901-2010 and on the 56 ensemble members individually. Results show a time-increasing agreement between the ensemble members for capturing transient variability of large-scale atmospheric convection during the austral summer rainy season. Over the recent years, the results match well those obtained using satellite OLR measurements. The respective contribution of each regime to the three dominant timescales of rainfall variability has been assessed using multiple wavelet coherence analyses. The strong interannual teleconnections between the regional convective regimes and ENSO in the recent decades remain very robust throughout the 20th century. Synoptic convective regimes leading to wetter conditions in southern Africa are not systematically related to La Nina conditions. However, combinations of El Nino conditions at the interannual timescale with negative phases of the IPO and/or the PDO are likely to be associated with wetter conditions in southern Africa. At the quasi-decadal and inter-decadal timescales, analyses suggest a superposition of short-term anomalies associated with the various regimes and large-scale changes in convective activity. These interactions
Convective effects in a regulatory and proposed fire model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wix, S.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.
1995-01-01
Radiation is the dominant mode of heat transfer in large fires. However, convection can be as much as 10 to 20 percent of the total heat transfer to an object in a large fire. The current radioactive material transportation packaging regulations include convection as a mode of heat transfer in the accident condition scenario. The current International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series 6 packaging regulation states ''the convection coefficient shall be that value which the designer can justify if the package were exposed to the specified fire''. The current Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10CFR71) packaging regulation states ''when significant, convection heat input must be included on the basis of still, ambient air at 800 degrees C (1475 degrees F)''. Two questions that can arise in an analysts mind from an examination of the packaging regulations is whether convection is significant and whether convection should be included in the design analysis of a radioactive materials transportation container. The objective of this study is to examine the convective effects on an actual radioactive materials transportation package using a regulatory and a proposed thermal boundary condition
Magnetic Control of Convection during Protein Crystallization
Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.
2004-01-01
An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular Crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for bio-chemists, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitants, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and Sedimentation as is achieved in "microgravity", we have been able to dramatically affect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, f o d o n of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with counteracts on for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility
Modelling of stellar convection
Kupka, Friedrich; Muthsam, Herbert J.
2017-07-01
The review considers the modelling process for stellar convection rather than specific astrophysical results. For achieving reasonable depth and length we deal with hydrodynamics only, omitting MHD. A historically oriented introduction offers first glimpses on the physics of stellar convection. Examination of its basic properties shows that two very different kinds of modelling keep being needed: low dimensional models (mixing length, Reynolds stress, etc.) and "full" 3D simulations. A list of affordable and not affordable tasks for the latter is given. Various low dimensional modelling approaches are put in a hierarchy and basic principles which they should respect are formulated. In 3D simulations of low Mach number convection the inclusion of then unimportant sound waves with their rapid time variation is numerically impossible. We describe a number of approaches where the Navier-Stokes equations are modified for their elimination (anelastic approximation, etc.). We then turn to working with the full Navier-Stokes equations and deal with numerical principles for faithful and efficient numerics. Spatial differentiation as well as time marching aspects are considered. A list of codes allows assessing the state of the art. An important recent development is the treatment of even the low Mach number problem without prior modification of the basic equation (obviating side effects) by specifically designed numerical methods. Finally, we review a number of important trends such as how to further develop low-dimensional models, how to use 3D models for that purpose, what effect recent hardware developments may have on 3D modelling, and others.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Jiwen [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liu, Yi-Chin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Air Resources Board, Sacramento California USA; Xu, Kuan-Man [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton Virginia USA; North, Kirk [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montréal Québec Canada; Collis, Scott [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois USA; Dong, Xiquan [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks North Dakota USA; Zhang, Guang J. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Chen, Qian [Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Kollias, Pavlos [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA
2015-04-27
The ultimate goal of this study is to improve the representation of convective transport by cumulus parameterization for mesoscale and climate models. As Part 1 of the study, we perform extensive evaluations of cloud-resolving simulations of a squall line and mesoscale convective complexes in midlatitude continent and tropical regions using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with spectral bin microphysics (SBM) and with two double-moment bulk microphysics schemes: a modified Morrison (MOR) and Milbrandt and Yau (MY2). Compared to observations, in general, SBM gives better simulations of precipitation and vertical velocity of convective cores than MOR and MY2 and therefore will be used for analysis of scale dependence of eddy transport in Part 2. The common features of the simulations for all convective systems are (1) themodel tends to overestimate convection intensity in the middle and upper troposphere, but SBM can alleviate much of the overestimation and reproduce the observed convection intensity well; (2) the model greatly overestimates Ze in convective cores, especially for the weak updraft velocity; and (3) the model performs better for midlatitude convective systems than the tropical system. The modeled mass fluxes of the midlatitude systems are not sensitive to microphysics schemes but are very sensitive for the tropical case indicating strong microphysics modification to convection. Cloud microphysical measurements of rain, snow, and graupel in convective cores will be critically important to further elucidate issues within cloud microphysics schemes
Bidispersive-inclined convection
Mulone, Giuseppe; Straughan, Brian
2016-01-01
A model is presented for thermal convection in an inclined layer of porous material when the medium has a bidispersive structure. Thus, there are the usual macropores which are full of a fluid, but there are also a system of micropores full of the same fluid. The model we employ is a modification of the one proposed by Nield & Kuznetsov (2006 Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 49, 3068–3074. (doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2006.02.008)), although we consider a single temperature field only. PMID:27616934
Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star
Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Geroux, C.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Constantino, T.; Popov, M.; Walder, R.
2016-10-01
Context. Studies of stellar convection typically use a spherical-shell geometry. The radial extent of the shell and the boundary conditions applied are based on the model of the star investigated. We study the impact of different two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from an established one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star, like our sun at 106 years of age. Aims: We analyze how the radial extent of the spherical shell changes the convective dynamics that result in the deep interior of the young sun model, far from the surface. In the near-surface layers, simple small-scale convection develops from the profiles of temperature and density. A central radiative zone below the convection zone provides a lower boundary on the convection zone. The inclusion of either of these physically distinct layers in the spherical shell can potentially affect the characteristics of deep convection. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over tens or even hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: To measure the impact of the spherical-shell geometry and our treatment of boundaries, we evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, so that our results are focused toward studies exploiting the so
Kenfack Jiotsa, Aurélien; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro
2013-06-01
We generalize the concept of the convective (or velocity-dependent) Lyapunov exponent from the maximum rate Λ(v) to an entire spectrum Λ(v, n). Our results are derived by following two distinct computational protocols: (i) Legendre transform within the chronotopic approach (Lepri et al 1996 J. Stat. Phys. 82 1429); (ii) by letting evolve an ensemble of initially localized perturbations. The two approaches turn out to be mutually consistent. Moreover, we find the existence of a phase transition: above a critical value n = nc of the integrated density of exponents, the zero-velocity convective exponent is strictly smaller than the corresponding Lyapunov exponent. This phenomenon is traced back to a change of concavity of the so-called temporal Lyapunov spectrum for n > nc, which, therefore, turns out to be a dynamically invariant quantity. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’.
Physical balances in subseafloor hydrothermal convection cells
Jupp, Tim E.; Schultz, Adam
2004-05-01
We use a simplified model of convection in a porous medium to investigate the balances of mass and energy within a subseafloor hydrothermal convection cell. These balances control the steady state structure of the system and allow scalings for the height, permeability, and residence time of the "reaction zone" at the base of the cell to be calculated. The scalings are presented as functions of (1) the temperature TD of the heat source driving the convection and (2) the total power output ΦU. The model is then used to illustrate how the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water may impose the observed upper limit of ˜400°C on vent temperatures. The properties of water at hydrothermal conditions are contrasted with those of a hypothetical "Boussinesq fluid" for which temperature variations in fluid properties are either linearized or ignored. At hydrothermal pressures, water transports a maximum amount of energy by buoyancy-driven advection at ˜400°C. This maximum is a consequence of the nonlinear thermodynamic properties of water and does not arise for a simple Boussinesq fluid. Inspired by the "Malkus hypothesis" and by recent work on dissipative systems, we speculate that convection cells in porous media attain a steady state in which the upwelling temperature TU maximizes the total power output of the cell. If true, this principle would explain our observation (in previous numerical simulations) that water in hydrothermal convection cells upwells at TU ˜ 400°C when driven by a heat source above ˜500°C.
Bony, Sandrine; Dufresne, Jean‐Louis; Roehrig, Romain
2016-01-01
Abstract Several studies have pointed out the dependence of low‐cloud feedbacks on the strength of the lower‐tropospheric convective mixing. By analyzing a series of single‐column model experiments run by a climate model using two different convective parametrizations, this study elucidates the physical mechanisms through which marine boundary‐layer clouds depend on this mixing in the present‐day climate and under surface warming. An increased lower‐tropospheric convective mixing leads to a reduction of low‐cloud fraction. However, the rate of decrease strongly depends on how the surface latent heat flux couples to the convective mixing and to boundary‐layer cloud radiative effects: (i) on the one hand, the latent heat flux is enhanced by the lower‐tropospheric drying induced by the convective mixing, which damps the reduction of the low‐cloud fraction, (ii) on the other hand, the latent heat flux is reduced as the lower troposphere stabilizes under the effect of reduced low‐cloud radiative cooling, which enhances the reduction of the low‐cloud fraction. The relative importance of these two different processes depends on the closure of the convective parameterization. The convective scheme that favors the coupling between latent heat flux and low‐cloud radiative cooling exhibits a stronger sensitivity of low‐clouds to convective mixing in the present‐day climate, and a stronger low‐cloud feedback in response to surface warming. In this model, the low‐cloud feedback is stronger when the present‐day convective mixing is weaker and when present‐day clouds are shallower and more radiatively active. The implications of these insights for constraining the strength of low‐cloud feedbacks observationally is discussed. PMID:28239438
Large-eddy simulation of maritime deep tropical convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A Bogenschutz
2009-12-01
Full Text Available This study represents an attempt to apply Large-Eddy Simulation (LES resolution to simulate deep tropical convection in near equilibrium for 24 hours over an area of about 205 x 205 km2, which is comparable to that of a typical horizontal grid cell in a global climate model. The simulation is driven by large-scale thermodynamic tendencies derived from mean conditions during the GATE Phase III field experiment. The LES uses 2048 x 2048 x 256 grid points with horizontal grid spacing of 100 m and vertical grid spacing ranging from 50 m in the boundary layer to 100 m in the free troposphere. The simulation reaches a near equilibrium deep convection regime in 12 hours. The simulated vertical cloud distribution exhibits a trimodal vertical distribution of deep, middle and shallow clouds similar to that often observed in Tropics. A sensitivity experiment in which cold pools are suppressed by switching off the evaporation of precipitation results in much lower amounts of shallow and congestus clouds. Unlike the benchmark LES where the new deep clouds tend to appear along the edges of spreading cold pools, the deep clouds in the no-cold-pool experiment tend to reappear at the sites of the previous deep clouds and tend to be surrounded by extensive areas of sporadic shallow clouds. The vertical velocity statistics of updraft and downdraft cores below 6 km height are compared to aircraft observations made during GATE. The comparison shows generally good agreement, and strongly suggests that the LES simulation can be used as a benchmark to represent the dynamics of tropical deep convection on scales ranging from large turbulent eddies to mesoscale convective systems. The effect of horizontal grid resolution is examined by running the same case with progressively larger grid sizes of 200, 400, 800, and 1600 m. These runs show a reasonable agreement with the benchmark LES in statistics such as convective available potential energy, convective inhibition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shatskiy, A. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D.
2015-01-01
The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shatskiy, A. A., E-mail: shatskiy@asc.rssi.ru; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Novikov, I. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
The characteristic and distinctive features of the visibility amplitude of interferometric observations for compact objects like stars in the immediate vicinity of the central black hole in our Galaxy are considered. These features are associated with the specifics of strong gravitational scattering of point sources by black holes, wormholes, or black-white holes. The revealed features will help to determine the most important topological characteristics of the central object in our Galaxy: whether this object possesses the properties of only a black hole or also has characteristics unique to wormholes or black-white holes. These studies can be used to interpret the results of optical, infrared, and radio interferometric observations.
Gaona, Jaime; Lewandowski, Jörg
2017-04-01
The quantification of groundwater-surface water interactions is not only required for budgets but also for an understanding of the complex relations between hyporheic exchange flows (HEF) and the associated chemical and biological processes that take place in hyporheic zones (HZ). Thus, there is a strong need to improve methods for flux estimation.The present study aims to quantify the vertical fluxes across the riverbed from data of temperature depth profiles recorded at the River Schlaube in East Brandenburg, Germany. In order to test the capabilities and limitations of existing methods, fluxes were calculated with an analytical (VFLUX, based on the amplitude attenuation and phase shift analysis) and a numerical (1DTempPro, parametrization based on observed values) approach for heat conduction. We conclude that the strong limitations of the flux estimates are caused by thermal and hydraulic heterogeneities of the sediment properties. Consequently, upscaling of fluxes must include other thermal techniques able to portray the spatial variability of thermal patterns, along with further developments of methods to link thermal depth profiles, thermal patterns of the surface of the streambed and all the other factors involved. Considering time and costs of temperature depth profiles of riverbeds, and the need for multiple devices to cover larger areas, it is additionally tested whether vertical fluxes can be infered from the uppermost temperature sensors of a data set. That would ease hyporheic investigations at larger scales.
Nield, Donald A
1992-01-01
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freeman, M.P.; Farrugia, C.J.; Burlaga, L.F.; Lepping, R.P.; Hairston, M.R.; Greenspan, M.E.; Ruohoniemi, J.M.
1993-01-01
This is the second of three papers which study a large interplanetary magnetic cloud, and its interaction with the earth's magnetosphere. Here the authors study flows within the ionosphere during the passage of the magnetic cloud on Jan 13-15, 1988. This is the first study of ionospheric convections during prolonged periods of stable and different IMF orientations, which result from the stable, but spatially varying field structure within the magnetic cloud. Data from IMP-8 and DMSP-F8 are analyzed for this work. This observation gave information on ionospheric responses to greater than 10 hour period of northward and southward IMF, with a gradual change from one to the other. Issues studied included strengths of peak flows for north and south IMF; changes in cross polar cap potential with IMF B z ; types and variations of convective patterns vs IMF; variations in size of the polar cap; etc
Controlling arbitrary humidity without convection.
Wasnik, Priyanka S; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Tadmor, Rafael
2015-10-01
In this paper we show a way that allows for the first time to induce arbitrary humidity of desired value for systems without convective flow. To enable this novelty we utilize a semi-closed environment in which evaporation is not completely suppressed. In this case, the evaporation rate is determined both by the outer (open) humidity and by the inner (semi-closed) geometry including the size/shape of the evaporating medium and the size/shape of the semi-closure. We show how such systems can be used to induce desired humidity conditions. We consider water droplet placed on a solid surface and study its evaporation when it is surrounded by other drops, hereon "satellite" drops and covered by a semi-closed hemisphere. The main drop's evaporation rate is proportional to its height, in agreement with theory. Surprisingly, however, the influence of the satellite drops on the main drop's evaporation suppression is not proportional to the sum of heights of the satellite drops. Instead, it shows proportionality close to the satellite drops' total surface area. The resultant humidity conditions in the semi-closed system can be effectively and accurately induced using different satellite drops combinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Internal Wave Generation by Convection
Lecoanet, Daniel Michael
In nature, it is not unusual to find stably stratified fluid adjacent to convectively unstable fluid. This can occur in the Earth's atmosphere, where the troposphere is convective and the stratosphere is stably stratified; in lakes, where surface solar heating can drive convection above stably stratified fresh water; in the oceans, where geothermal heating can drive convection near the ocean floor, but the water above is stably stratified due to salinity gradients; possible in the Earth's liquid core, where gradients in thermal conductivity and composition diffusivities maybe lead to different layers of stable or unstable liquid metal; and, in stars, as most stars contain at least one convective and at least one radiative (stably stratified) zone. Internal waves propagate in stably stratified fluids. The characterization of the internal waves generated by convection is an open problem in geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics. Internal waves can play a dynamically important role via nonlocal transport. Momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves is thought to generate the quasi-biennial oscillation of zonal wind in the equatorial stratosphere, an important physical phenomenon used to calibrate global climate models. Angular momentum transport by convectively excited internal waves may play a crucial role in setting the initial rotation rates of neutron stars. In the last year of life of a massive star, convectively excited internal waves may transport even energy to the surface layers to unbind them, launching a wind. In each of these cases, internal waves are able to transport some quantity--momentum, angular momentum, energy--across large, stable buoyancy gradients. Thus, internal waves represent an important, if unusual, transport mechanism. This thesis advances our understanding of internal wave generation by convection. Chapter 2 provides an underlying theoretical framework to study this problem. It describes a detailed calculation of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Venkatesulu
1996-01-01
Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.
Magnetic fields in non-convective regions of stars.
Braithwaite, Jonathan; Spruit, Henk C
2017-02-01
We review the current state of knowledge of magnetic fields inside stars, concentrating on recent developments concerning magnetic fields in stably stratified (zones of) stars, leaving out convective dynamo theories and observations of convective envelopes. We include the observational properties of A, B and O-type main-sequence stars, which have radiative envelopes, and the fossil field model which is normally invoked to explain the strong fields sometimes seen in these stars. Observations seem to show that Ap-type stable fields are excluded in stars with convective envelopes. Most stars contain both radiative and convective zones, and there are potentially important effects arising from the interaction of magnetic fields at the boundaries between them; the solar cycle being one of the better known examples. Related to this, we discuss whether the Sun could harbour a magnetic field in its core. Recent developments regarding the various convective and radiative layers near the surfaces of early-type stars and their observational effects are examined. We look at possible dynamo mechanisms that run on differential rotation rather than convection. Finally, we turn to neutron stars with a discussion of the possible origins for their magnetic fields.
Layered semi-convection and tides in giant planet interiors
André, Q.; Mathis, S.; Barker, A. J.
2017-12-01
Layered semi-convection could operate in giant planets, potentially explaining the constraints on the heavy elements distribution in Jupiter deduced recently from JUNO observations, and contributing to Saturn's luminosity excess or the abnormally large radius of some hot Jupiters. {This is a state consisting of} density staircases, in which convective layers are separated by thin stably stratified interfaces. The efficiency of tidal dissipation in a planet depends {strongly} on its internal structure. It is crucial to improve our understanding of the mechanisms driving this dissipation, {since it has important consequences to predict} the long-term evolution of any planetary system. In this work, our goal is to study the resulting tidal dissipation when internal waves are excited by other bodies (such as {the moons of giant planets}) in a region of layered semi-convection. We find that the rates of tidal dissipation can be significantly enhanced in a layered semi-convective medium compared to a uniformly convective medium, especially {in the astrophysically relevant sub-inertial frequency range}. Thus, layered semi-convection is a possible candidate to explain high tidal dissipation rates recently observed in Jupiter and Saturn.
Convective Flow in an Aquifer Layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dambaru Bhatta
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Here, we investigate weakly nonlinear hydrothermal two-dimensional convective flow in a horizontal aquifer layer with horizontal isothermal and rigid boundaries. We treat such a layer as a porous medium, where Darcy’s law holds, subjected to the conditions that the porous layer’s permeability and the thermal conductivity are variable in the vertical direction. This analysis is restricted to the case that the subsequent hydraulic resistivity and diffusivity have a small rate of change with respect to the vertical variable. Applying the weakly nonlinear approach, we derive various order systems and express their solutions. The solutions for convective flow quantities such as vertical velocity and the temperature that arise as the Rayleigh number exceeds its critical value are computed and presented in graphical form.
Observing convection with satellite, radar, and lightning measurements
Hamann, Ulrich; Nisi, Luca; Clementi, Lorenzo; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Gabella, Marco; Hering, Alessandro M.; Sideris, Ioannis; Trefalt, Simona; Germann, Urs
2015-04-01
Heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are the fundamental meteorological hazards associated with strong convection and thunderstorms. The thread is particularly severe in mountainous areas, e.g. it is estimated that on average between 50% and 80% of all weather-related damage in Switzerland is caused by strong thunderstorms (Hilker et al., 2010). Intense atmospheric convection is governed by processes that range from the synoptic to the microphysical scale and are considered to be one of the most challenging and difficult weather phenomena to predict. Even though numerical weather prediction models have some skills to predict convection, in general the exact location of the convective initialization and its propagation cannot be forecasted by these models with sufficient precision. Hence, there is a strong interest to improve the short-term forecast by using statistical, object oriented and/or heuristic nowcasting methods. MeteoSwiss has developed several operational nowcasting systems for this purpose such as TRT (Hering, 2008) and COALITION (Nisi, 2014). In this contribution we analyze the typical development of convection using measurements of the Swiss C-band Dual Polarization Doppler weather radar network, the MSG SEVIRI satellite, and the Météorage lighting network. The observations are complemented with the analysis and forecasts of the COSMO model. Special attention is given to the typical evolutionary stages like the pre-convective environment, convective initiation, cloud top glaciation, start, maximum, and end of precipitation and lightning activity. The pre-convective environment is examined using instability indices derived from SEVIRI observations and the COSMO forecasts. During the early development satellite observations are used to observe the rise of the cloud top, the growth of the cloud droplet or crystals, and the glaciation of the cloud top. SEVIRI brightness temperatures, channel differences, and temporal trends as suggested by
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučera, P.; Neustupa, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1564-1583 ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes equations * slip boundary conditions * regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6544/aa6166/meta
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kučera, P.; Neustupa, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 30, č. 4 (2017), s. 1564-1583 ISSN 0951-7715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier - Stokes equations * slip boundary conditions * regularity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6544/aa6166/meta
Gerken, Tobias; Bromley, Gabriel; Stoy, Paul
2017-04-01
Parts of the North American northern Great Plains have undergone a 6 W m-2 decrease in summertime radiative forcing. At the same time agricultural practices have shifted from keeping fields fallow during the summer ("summer fallow") towards no-till cropping systems that increase summertime evapotranspiration and decrease soil carbon loss. MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) for the area near Fort Peck, Montana, (a FLUXNET site established in 2000) shows a decrease of summertime (June-August) sensible heat fluxes ranging from -3.6 to -8.5 W m-2 decade-1, which is associated with an increase of latent heat fluxes of similar magnitude (5.2-9.1 W m-2 decade-1). While net radiation changed little, increasing downward longwave radiation (2.2-4.6 W m-2 decade-1) due to greater cloud cover, was mostly compensated by reduced solar irradiance. The result was a strong decrease of summer Bowen ratios from 1.5-2 in 1980 to approximately 1-1.25 in 2015. At the same time, atmospheric soundings have shown significant increases in both convective available convective energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition (CIN) for the same time span. Overall, these findings are consistent with the effects on increased summertime evapotranspiration due to reduction in summer fallow that should lead to smaller Bowen ratios and a larger build-up of moist static energy as expressed in higher values of CAPE. In order to further investigate the impact of the surface energy balance and flux partitioning on convective development and local land-atmosphere coupling in the North American prairies, a 1-dimensional mixed-layer model is used to compare the evolution of mixed-layer heights to the lifted condensation level, a necessary but not sufficient condition for the occurrence of convective precipitation. Using summertime eddy covariance data from Fort Peck and atmospheric soundings from the nearby Glasgow airport, we establish that the mixed-layer model adequately
The convection patterns in microemulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korneta, W.; Lopez Quintela, M.A.; Fernandez Novoa, A.
1991-07-01
The Rayleigh-Benard convection in the microemulsion consisting of water (7.5%), cyclohexan (oil-61.7%) and diethylenglycolmonobutylether (surfactant-30.8%) is studied from the onset of convection to the phase separation. The five classes of convection patterns are observed and recorded on the video: localized travelling waves, travelling waves, travelling waves and localized steady rolls, steady rolls and steady polygons. The Fourier transforms and histograms of these patterns are presented. The origin of any pattern is discussed. The intermittent behaviour close to the phase separation was observed. Possible applications of the obtained results are suggested. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. M. Weon
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive evaporation in nanoliter water droplets. This suggests that convection of water vapor would enhance water evaporation at nanoliter scales, for instance, on microdroplets or inside nanochannels.
Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed
Shukla, Priyanka; Ansari, I. H.; van der Meer, D.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, Meheboob
2015-11-01
The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis. Under a quasi-steady ansatz, the base state temperature decreases with increasing height away from from the vibrating plate, but the density profile consists of three distinct regions: (i) a collisional dilute layer at the bottom, (ii) a levitated dense layer at some intermediate height and (iii) a ballistic dilute layer at the top of the granular bed. For the nonlinear stability analysis, the nonlinearities up-to cubic order in perturbation amplitude are retained, leading to the Landau equation. The genesis of granular convection is shown to be tied to a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation from the Leidenfrost state. Near the bifurcation point the equilibrium amplitude is found to follow a square-root scaling law, Ae √{ ▵} , with the distance ▵ from bifurcation point. The strength of convection is maximal at some intermediate value of the shaking strength, with weaker convection both at weaker and stronger shaking. Our theory predicts a novel floating-convection state at very strong shaking.
Zimroz, Radoslaw; Bartelmus, Walter; Barszcz, Tomasz; Urbanek, Jacek
2014-05-01
Condition monitoring of bearings used in Wind Turbines (WT) is an important issue. In general, bearings diagnostics is a well recognized field of research; however, it is not the case for machines operating under non-stationary load. In the case of varying load/speed, vibration signal generated by rolling element bearings is affected by operation factors, and makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. These difficulties come from the variation of vibration-based diagnostic features caused mostly by load/speed variation (operation factors), low energy of sought-after features, and low signal-to-noise levels. Analysis of the signal from the main bearing is even more difficult due to a very low rotational speed of the main shaft. In the paper, a novel diagnostic approach is proposed for bearings used in wind turbines. As an input data we use parameters obtained from commercial diagnostic system (peak-to-peak and root mean square (RMS) of vibration acceleration, and generator power that is related to the operating conditions). The received data cover the period of several months.
Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed
Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, M.
2014-01-01
The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic
Link between convection and meridional gradient of sea surface ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Resolution. URL. SST. TMI ... In this paper, we use satellite data for SST and rainfall to show that there exists a strong relationship between convec- tion and the meridional gradient of SST in the bay. We show that convection sets in within a ...
Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... based on 'naiveBayes classifier' is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying 'Bayes' theoremwith strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classifythe rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria.
Logarithmic temperature profiles in the ultimate regime of thermal convection
Grossmann, S.; Lohse, Detlef
2012-01-01
We report on the theory of logarithmic temperature profiles in very strongly developed thermal convection in the geometry of a Rayleigh-Bénard cell with aspect ratio (defined by cell width divided by cell height) Γ = 1, and discuss the degree of agreement with the recently measured profiles in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Onishchenko
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated vortex structures (e.g. convective cells of internal gravity waves (IGWs in the earth's atmosphere with a finite vertical temperature gradient. A closed system of nonlinear equations for these waves and the condition for existence of solitary convective cells are obtained. In the atmosphere layers where the temperature decreases with height, the presence of IGW convective cells is shown. The typical parameters of such structures in the earth's atmosphere are discussed.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McWilliams, James
1999-01-01
... mechanism of water mass transformation. The resultant newly mixed deep water masses form a component of the thermohaline circulation, and hence it is essential to understand the deep convection process if the variability of the meridional...
Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.
1985-01-01
A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.
Convection-enhanced water evaporation
B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard
2011-01-01
Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...
Thermal convection in a magnetized conducting fluid with the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model
Bissell, J. J.
2016-11-01
By substituting the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model for the more usual parabolic Fourier law, we consider the impact of hyperbolic heat-flow effects on thermal convection in the classic problem of a magnetized conducting fluid layer heated from below. For stationary convection, the system is equivalent to that studied by Chandrasekhar (Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, 1961), and with free boundary conditions we recover the classical critical Rayleigh number Rc(c )(Q ) which exhibits inhibition of convection by the field according to Rc(c )→π2Q as Q →∞ , where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. However, for oscillatory convection we find that the critical Rayleigh number Rc(o )(Q ,P1,P2,C ) is given by a more complicated function of the thermal Prandtl number P1, magnetic Prandtl number P2 and Cattaneo number C. To elucidate features of this dependence, we neglect P2 (in which case overstability would be classically forbidden), and thereby obtain an expression for the Rayleigh number that is far less strongly inhibited by the field, with limiting behaviour Rc(o )→π √{Q }/ C , as Q →∞ . One consequence of this weaker dependence is that onset of instability occurs as overstability provided C exceeds a threshold value CT(Q); indeed, crucially we show that when Q is large, CT∝1 / √{Q }, meaning that oscillatory modes are preferred even when C itself is small. Similar behaviour is demonstrated in the case of fixed boundaries by means of a novel numerical solution.
Sahu, L. K.; Sheel, Varun; Kajino, M.; Deushi, M.; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Sinha, P. R.; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Devendra; Nedelec, P.; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman G.
2017-07-01
This study is based on the analysis of the measurement of ozone and water vapor by airbus in-service aircraft (MOZAIC) data of vertical ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) over Hyderabad during November 2005-March 2009. Measurements in the upper troposphere show highest values of O3 (53-75 ppbv) and CO (80-110 ppbv) during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The episodes of strong wind shears (>20 ms-1) were frequent during the monsoon/post-monsoon months, while weak shear conditions (MOZART-4 shows rapid increase with OLR indicating large overestimation of convective transport. A modified Tiedtke convective scheme provides better representation compared to the Hack/Zhang-McFarlane schemes for both O3 and CO during the monsoon season. The difference between observation and simulations were particularly large during transition from El Niño to La Niña phases. The different convection scheme and horizontal resolution in the MOZART-4 and CCM2 seem to be the major causes of disagreement between these models. Vertical profiles of both O3 and CO during extreme events such a tropical cyclones (TCs) show strong influence of the convective-dynamics over Bay of Bengal (BOB).
Shear heating in creeping faults changes the onset of convection
Tung, R.; Poulet, T.; Alevizos, S.; Veveakis, E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.
2017-10-01
The interaction between mechanical deformation of creeping faults and fluid flow in porous media has an important influence on the heat and mass transfer processes in Earth sciences. Creeping faults can act as heat sources due to the effect of shear heating and as such could be expected to alter the conditions for hydrothermal convection. In this work, we provide a finite element-based numerical framework developed to resolve the problem of heat and mass transfer in the presence of creeping faults. This framework extends the analytical approach of the linear stability analysis (LSA) frequently used to determine the bifurcation criterion for onset of convection, allowing us to study compressible cases with the option of complex geometry and/or material inhomogeneities. We demonstrate the impact of creeping faults on the onset of convection and show that shear heating—expressed through its dimensionless group the Gruntfest number Gr—has exponential influence on the critical value of the Lewis number Le (inversely proportional to the Rayleigh number Ra) required for convection: Lec ˜ Lec0 eGr. In this expression, Lec0 is the critical value of Le in the absence of shear heating. This exponential scaling shows that shear heating increases the critical Lewis number and triggers hydrothermal convection at lower permeability than in situations without it. We also show that the effect of shear heating in a fault significantly alters the pattern of convection in and around the fault zone.
Using pattern recognition to infer parameters governing mantle convection
Atkins, Suzanne; Valentine, Andrew P.; Tackley, Paul J.; Trampert, Jeannot
2016-08-01
The results of mantle convection simulations are fully determined by the input parameters and boundary conditions used. These input parameters can be for initialisation, such as initial mantle temperature, or can be constant values, such as viscosity exponents. However, knowledge of Earth-like values for many input parameters are very poorly constrained, introducing large uncertainties into the simulation of mantle flow. Convection is highly non-linear, therefore linearised inversion methods cannot be used to recover past configurations over more than very short periods of time, which makes finding both initial and constant simulation input parameters very difficult. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for making inferences about simulation input parameters from observations of the mantle temperature field after billions of years of convection. The method is fully probabilistic. We use prior sampling to construct probability density functions for convection simulation input parameters, which are represented using neural networks. Assuming smoothness, we need relatively few samples to make inferences, making this approach much more computationally tractable than other probabilistic inversion methods. As a proof of concept, we show that our method can invert the amplitude spectra of temperature fields from 2D convection simulations, to constrain yield stress, surface reference viscosity and the initial thickness of primordial material at the CMB, for our synthetic test cases. The best constrained parameter is yield stress. The reference viscosity and initial thickness of primordial material can also be inferred reasonably well after several billion years of convection.
Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canaan, R.E.
1995-12-01
Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array
Martellotta, Francesco; Álvarez-Morales, Lidia; Girón, Sara; Zamarreño, Teófilo
2018-05-01
Multi-rate sound decays are often found and studied in complex systems of coupled volumes where diffuse field conditions generally apply, although the openings connecting different sub-spaces are by themselves potential causes of non-diffuse behaviour. However, in presence of spaces in which curved surfaces clearly prevent diffuse field behaviour from being established, things become more complex and require more sophisticated tools (or, better, combinations of them) to be fully understood. As an example of such complexity, the crypt of the Cathedral of Cadiz is a relatively small space characterised by a central vaulted rotunda, with five radial galleries with flat and low ceiling. In addition, the crypt is connected to the main cathedral volume by means of several small openings. Acoustic measurements carried out in the crypt pointed out the existence of at least two decay processes combined, in some points, with flutter echoes. Application of conventional methods of analysis pointed out the existence of significant differences between early decay time and reverberation time, but was inconclusive in explaining the origin of the observed phenomena. The use of more robust Bayesian analysis permitted the conclusion that the late decay appearing in the crypt had a different rate than that observed in the cathedral, thus excluding the explanation based on acoustic coupling of different volumes. Finally, processing impulse responses collected by means of a B-format microphone to obtain directional intensity maps demonstrated that the late decay was originated from the rotunda where a repetitive reflection pattern appeared between the floor and the dome causing both flutter echoes and a longer reverberation time.
Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming
Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao
2008-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.
Unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid with Newtonian heating: Closed form solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hussanan Abid
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article investigates the unsteady free convection flow of a micropolar fluid over a vertical plate oscillating in its own plane with Newtonian heating condition. The problem is modelled in terms of partial differential equations with some physical conditions. Closed form solutions in terms of exponential and complementary error functions of Gauss are obtained by using the Laplace transform technique. They satisfy the governing equations and impose boundary and initial conditions. The present solution in the absence of microrotation reduces to well-known solutions of Newtonian fluid. Graphs are plotted to study the effects of various physical parameters on velocity and microrotation. Numerical results for skin friction and wall couple stress is computed in tables. Apart from the engineering point of view, the present article has strong advantage over the published literature as the exact solutions obtained here can be used as a benchmark for comparison with numerical/ approximate solutions and experimental data.
Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M
2015-12-01
The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow
Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.
2015-12-01
The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and
Organization of tropical convection in low vertical wind shears: Role of updraft entrainment
Tompkins, Adrian M.; Semie, Addisu G.
2017-06-01
Radiative-convective equilibrium simulations with a 2 km horizontal resolution are conducted to investigate the impact on convective organization of different parameterizations for horizontal and vertical subgrid turbulence mixing. Three standard approaches for representing horizontal diffusion produce starkly differing mixing rates, particularly for the entrainment mixing into updrafts, which differ by more than an order of magnitude between the schemes. The simulations demonstrate that the horizontal subgrid mixing of water vapor is key, with high mixing rates a necessary condition for organization of convection to occur, since entrainment of dry air into updrafts suppresses convection. It is argued that diabatic budgets, while demonstrating the role of spatially heterogeneous radiative heating rates in driving organization, can overlook the role of physical processes such as updraft entrainment. These results may partially explain previous studies that showed that organization is more likely to occur at coarser resolutions, when entrainment is solely represented by subgrid-scale turbulence schemes, highlighting the need for benchmark simulations of higher horizontal resolution. The recommendation is for the use of larger ensembles to ensure robustness of conclusions to subgrid-scale parameterization assumptions when numerically investigating convective organization, possibly through a coordinated community model intercomparison effort.Plain Language SummaryThunderstorms dry out the atmosphere since they produce rainfall. However, their efficiency at drying the atmosphere depends on how they are arranged; take a set of thunderstorms and sprinkle them randomly over the tropics and the troposphere will remain quite moist, but take that same number of thunderstorms and place them all close together in a "cluster" and the atmosphere will be much drier. Previous work has indicated that thunderstorms might start to cluster more as temperatures increase, thus drying the
Experimental study of thermocapillary convection in a germanium melt
Gorbunov, Leonid A.
1996-08-01
The present paper is dedicated to the experimental investigation of thermocapillary convection (TCC) in semiconductor melts. The investigation showed that in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions TCC could be compared to thermogravity convection (TGC) for a number of semiconductor melts such as Ge, Si, GaAs. But in comparatively thin layers with H container radius) it can dominate over TGC. The experiments were conducted with a Ge melt. Oxide particle tracers were used to measure the melt motion rate. The results obtained emphasize the significance of TCC in the process of single crystal growth under terrestrial conditions.
Evaluation of cloud convection and tracer transport in a three-dimensional chemical transport model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Feng
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate the performance of cloud convection and tracer transport in a global off-line 3-D chemical transport model. Various model simulations are performed using different meteorological (reanalyses (ERA-40, ECMWF operational and ECMWF Interim to diagnose the updraft mass flux, convective precipitation and cloud top height.
The diagnosed upward mass flux distribution from TOMCAT agrees quite well with the ECMWF reanalysis data (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim below 200 hPa. Inclusion of midlevel convection improves the agreement at mid-high latitudes. However, the reanalyses show strong convective transport up to 100 hPa, well into the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, which is not captured by TOMCAT. Similarly, the model captures the spatial and seasonal variation of convective cloud top height although the mean modelled value is about 2 km lower than observed.
The ERA-Interim reanalyses have smaller archived upward convective mass fluxes than ERA-40, and smaller convective precipitation, which is in better agreement with satellite-based data. TOMCAT captures these relative differences when diagnosing convection from the large-scale fields. The model also shows differences in diagnosed convection with the version of the operational analyses used, which cautions against using results of the model from one specific time period as a general evaluation.
We have tested the effect of resolution on the diagnosed modelled convection with simulations ranging from 5.6° × 5.6° to 1° × 1°. Overall, in the off-line model, the higher model resolution gives stronger vertical tracer transport, however, it does not make a large change to the diagnosed convective updraft mass flux (i.e., the model results using the convection scheme fail to capture the strong convection transport up to 100 hPa as seen in the archived convective mass fluxes. Similarly, the resolution of the forcing winds in the higher resolution CTM does not make a
Natural and Marangoni convection in two superposed immiscible liquid layers with horizontal heating
Napolitano, L. G.; Viviani, A.; Savino, R.
1992-06-01
Thermal Marangoni and natural convection are studied in two superposed immiscible fluid layers enclosed in a shallow rectangular cavity with differentially heated end walls. The horizontal rigid walls are considered either insulated or with a given temperature distribution. The problem was solved via the asymptotic expansions method, by expanding the field variables in power series of the small aspect ratio parameter; both the zeroth and first order approximations are given for each of the boundary conditions in the rigid horizontal walls. The solution is discussed when natural convection prevails in one layer or in both, when there is only Marangoni convection, and, finally, in the case of combined free convection.
Scaling of plate tectonic convection with pseudoplastic rheology
Korenaga, Jun
2010-11-01
The scaling of plate tectonic convection is investigated by simulating thermal convection with pseudoplastic rheology and strongly temperature-dependent viscosity. The effect of mantle melting is also explored with additional depth-dependent viscosity. Heat flow scaling can be constructed with only two parameters, the internal Rayleigh number and the lithospheric viscosity contrast, the latter of which is determined entirely by rheological properties. The critical viscosity contrast for the transition between plate tectonic and stagnant lid convection is found to be proportional to the square root of the internal Rayleigh number. The relation between mantle temperature and surface heat flux on Earth is discussed on the basis of these scaling laws, and the inverse relationship between them, as previously suggested from the consideration of global energy balance, is confirmed by this fully dynamic approach. In the presence of surface water to reduce the effective friction coefficient, the operation of plate tectonics is suggested to be plausible throughout the Earth history.
Tornado funnel-shaped cloud as convection in a cloudy layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Zavolgenskiy
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Analytical model of convection in a thick horizontal cloud layer with free upper and lower boundaries is constructed. The cloud layer is supposed to be subjected to the Coriolis force due to the cloud rotation, which is a typical condition for tornado formation. It is obtained that convection in such system can look as just one rotating cell in contrast to the usual many-cells Benard convection. The tornado-type vortex is different from spatially periodic convective cells because their amplitudes vanish with distance from the vortex axis. The lower boundary at this convection can substantially move out of the initially horizontal cloud layer forming a single vertical vortex with intense upward and downward flows. The results are also applicable to convection in water layer with negative temperature gradient.
Interannual variability of the thermohaline structure in the convective gyre of the Greenland Sea
Alekseev, G. V.; Ivanov, V. V.; Korablev, A. A.
The temporal variability of thermohaline conditions in the Greenland Sea Convective gyre is examined on the basis of the long term observational series. The existence of two stable types of winter thermohaline structure is discovered. The transition from one type to another occurs through the pre-convective state and consequent convection. The characteristic feature ofthe pre-convective state is an increased (about 0.07 PSU above normal) surface salinity, caused by the external salt water influx. Potential temperature and salinity time series joint analysis confirms the crucial role of the surface salinity in the convection realization. An explanation of the surface to bottom overturning events and of the low frequency variability of convection activity is suggested on this basis.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Xumin; Young, Clifford
simple procedures. Methods Tryptic digests of standard phosphoproteins (bovine α,β- casein) and 3 non-phosphoproteins (bovine serum albumin, bovine β-lactoglobulin, and bovine carbonic anhydrase) with different ratios (1:50, 1:200, 1:500, 1:1000) were used for Fe(III)-IMAC (Qiagen Ni-NTA) enrichment....... Results Fe(III)-IMAC using NTA-silica from Qiagen showed a better performance than two other commercially available resins under the testing conditions. Increase of the acetonitrile content to 60% in loading and washing buffer significantly improved the specificity of IMAC enrichment. It was demonstrated...
Tropical deep convective cloud morphology
Igel, Matthew R.
A cloud-object partitioning algorithm is developed. It takes contiguous CloudSat cloudy regions and identifies various length scales of deep convective clouds from a tropical, oceanic subset of data. The methodology identifies a level above which anvil characteristics become important by analyzing the cloud object shape. Below this level in what is termed the pedestal region, convective cores are identified based on reflectivity maxima. Identifying these regions allows for the assessment of length scales of the anvil and pedestal of the deep convective clouds. Cloud objects are also appended with certain environmental quantities from the ECMWF reanalysis. Simple geospatial and temporal assessments show that the cloud object technique agrees with standard observations of local frequency of deep-convective cloudiness. Additionally, the nature of cloud volume scale populations is investigated. Deep convection is seen to exhibit power-law scaling. It is suggested that this scaling has implications for the continuous, scale invariant, and random nature of the physics controlling tropical deep convection and therefore on the potentially unphysical nature of contemporary convective parameterizations. Deep-convective clouds over tropical oceans play important roles in Earth's climate system. The response of tropical, deep convective clouds to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated using this new data set. Several previously proposed feedbacks are examined: the FAT hypothesis, the Iris hypothesis, and the Thermostat hypothesis. When the data are analyzed per cloud object, each hypothesis is broadly found to correctly predict cloud behavior in nature, although it appears that the FAT hypothesis needs a slight modification to allow for cooling cloud top temperatures with increasing SSTs. A new response that shows that the base temperature of deep convective anvils remains approximately constant with increasing SSTs is introduced. These cloud-climate feedbacks are
Effect of rotation on ferro thermohaline convection
Sekar, R; Ramanathan, A
2000-01-01
The ferro thermohaline convection in a rotating medium heated from below and salted from above has been analysed. The solute is magnetic oxide, which modifies the magnetic field established as a perturbation. The effect of salinity has been included in magnetisation and in the density of the ferrofluid. The conditions for both stationary and oscillatory modes have been obtained using linear stability analysis and it has been found that stationary mode is favoured in comparison with oscillatory mode. The numerical and graphical results are presented. It has been observed that rotation stabilises the system.
Li, Yunyao; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, Dale J.; Barth, Mary C.; Bela, Megan M.; Cummings, Kristin A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Mecikalski, Retha M.; Fierro, Alexandre O.; Campos, Teresa L.; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Biggerstaff, Michael I.
2017-07-01
Deep convective transport of surface moisture and pollution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere affects the radiation budget and climate. This study analyzes the deep convective transport in three different convective regimes from the 2012 Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry field campaign: 21 May Alabama air mass thunderstorms, 29 May Oklahoma supercell severe storm, and 11 June mesoscale convective system (MCS). Lightning data assimilation within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is utilized to improve the simulations of storm location, vertical structure, and chemical fields. Analysis of vertical flux divergence shows that deep convective transport in the 29 May supercell case is the strongest per unit area, while transport of boundary layer insoluble trace gases is relatively weak in the MCS and air mass cases. The weak deep convective transport in the strong MCS is unexpected and is caused by the injection into low levels of midlevel clean air by a strong rear inflow jet. In each system, the magnitude of tracer vertical transport is more closely related to the vertical distribution of mass flux density than the vertical distribution of trace gas mixing ratio. Finally, the net vertical transport is strongest in high composite reflectivity regions and dominated by upward transport.
Large-Scale Dynamics of the Convection Zone and Tachocline
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miesch Mark S.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available The past few decades have seen dramatic progress in our understanding of solar interior dynamics, prompted by the relatively new science of helioseismology and increasingly sophisticated numerical models. As the ultimate driver of solar variability and space weather, global-scale convective motions are of particular interest from a practical as well as a theoretical perspective. Turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and stratification redistributes momentum and energy,generating differential rotation, meridional circulation, and magnetic fields through hydromagnetic dynamo processes. In the solar tachocline near the base of the convection zone, strong angular velocity shear further amplifies fields which subsequently rise to the surface to form active regions. Penetrative convection, instabilities, stratified turbulence, and waves all add to the dynamical richness of the tachocline region and pose particular modeling challenges. In this article we review observational, theoretical, and computationalinvestigations of global-scale dynamics in the solar interior. Particular emphasis is placed on high-resolution global simulations of solar convection, highlighting what we have learned from them and how they may be improved.
Extended Subadiabatic Layer in Simulations of Overshooting Convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Käpylä, Petri J.; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rheinhardt, Matthias; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Olspert, Nigul [ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, Department of Computer Science, P.O. Box 15400, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Brandenburg, Axel [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lagg, Andreas; Warnecke, Jörn [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)
2017-08-20
We present numerical simulations of hydrodynamic overshooting convection in local Cartesian domains. We find that a substantial fraction of the lower part of the convection zone (CZ) is stably stratified according to the Schwarzschild criterion while the enthalpy flux is outward directed. This occurs when the heat conduction profile at the bottom of the CZ is smoothly varying, based either on a Kramers-like opacity prescription as a function of temperature and density or a static profile of a similar shape. We show that the subadiabatic layer arises due to nonlocal energy transport by buoyantly driven downflows in the upper parts of the CZ. Analysis of the force balance of the upflows and downflows confirms that convection is driven by cooling at the surface. We find that the commonly used prescription for the convective enthalpy flux being proportional to the negative entropy gradient does not hold in the stably stratified layers where the flux is positive. We demonstrate the existence of a non-gradient contribution to the enthalpy flux, which is estimated to be important throughout the convective layer. A quantitative analysis of downflows indicates a transition from a tree-like structure where smaller downdrafts merge into larger ones in the upper parts to a structure in the deeper parts where a height-independent number of strong downdrafts persist. This change of flow topology occurs when a substantial subadiabatic layer is present in the lower part of the CZ.
Hydrothermal convection and uranium deposits in abnormally radioactive plutons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-09-01
Hydrothermal uranium deposits are often closely associated with granites of abnormally high uranium content. We have studied the question whether the heat generated within such granites can cause fluid convection of sufficient magnitude to develop hydrothermal uranium deposits. Numerical models of flow through porous media were used to calculate temperatures and fluid flow in and around plutons similar to the Conway Granite, New Hampshire, i.e. with a halfwidth of 17 km, a thickness of 6.25 km, and with a uniform internal heat generation rate of 20 x 10 -13 cal/cm 3 -sec. Fluid convection was computed for plutons with permeabilities between 0.01 and 5 millidarcies (1 x10 -13 cm 2 to 5 x 10 -11 cm 2 . Flow rates and the size and location of convection cells in and around radioactive plutons like the Conway Granite were found to depend critically on the permeability distribution within the pluton and in adjacent country rocks. The depth of burial, the distribution of heat sources within the pluton, and small rates of heat generation in the country rock are only of minor importance. Topographic relief is unlikely to effect flow rates significantly, but can have a major influence on the distribution of recharge and discharge areas. Within a few million years, the mass of water transported by steady state convection through such radioactive plutons can equal the mass of water which can convect through them during initial cooling from magmatic temperatures. If the permeability in a Conway-type pluton is on the order of 0.5 millidarcies, the rate of fluid convection is probably sufficient to develop a hydrothermal ore deposit containing 10,000 tons of uranium in a period of two million years. Such a uranium deposit is most likely to develop in an area of strong upwelling or strong downwelling flow
Complex Convective Thermal Fluxes and Vorticity Structure
Redondo, Jose M.; Tellez, Jackson; Sotillos, Laura; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar; Sanchez, Jesus M.; Furmanek, Petr; Diez, Margarita
2015-04-01
Local Diffusion and the topological structure of vorticity and velocity fields is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of convective cooling and/or heating[1,2]. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by an array of Thermoelectric devices (Peltier/Seebeck cells) these are controlled by thermal PID generating a buoyant heat flux [2]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form density interfaces and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. The set of dimensionless parameters define conditions of numeric and small scale laboratory modeling of environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients were computed and visualized [3,4]. When convective heating and cooling takes place the combination of internal waves and buoyant turbulence is much more complicated if the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers are high in order to study entrainment and mixing. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [3,5] that forms in the non-homogeneous flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [6]and gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the fronts like in removable plate experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor flows. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied
Inside the supernova: A powerful convective engine
Herant, Marc; Benz, Willy; Hix, W. Raphael; Fryer, Chris L.; Colgate, Stirling A.
1994-01-01
We present an extensive study of the inception of supernova explosions by following the evolution of the cores of two massive stars (15 and 25 Solar mass) in multidimension. Our calculations begin at the onset of core collapse and stop several hundred milliseconds after the bounce, at which time successful explosions of the appropriate magnitude have been obtained. Similar to the classical delayed explosion mechanism of Wilson, the explosion is powered by the heating of the envelope due to neutrinos emitted by the protoneutron star as it radiates the gravitational energy liberated by the collapse. However, as was shown by Herant, Benz, & Colgate, this heating generates strong convection outside the neutrinosphere, which we demonstrate to be critical to the explosion. By breaking a purely stratified hydrostatic equilibrium, convection moves the nascent supernova away from a delicate radiative equilibrium between neutrino emission and absorption, Thus, unlike what has been observed in one-dimensional calculations, explosions are rendered quite insensitive to the details of the physical input parameters such as neutrino cross sections or nuclear equation of state parameters. As a confirmation, our comparative one-dimensional calculations with identical microphysics, but in which convection cannot occur, lead to dramatic failures. Guided by our numerical results, we have developed a paradigm for the supernova explosion mechanism. We view a supernova as an open cycle thermodynamic engine in which a reservoir of low-entropy matter (the envelope) is thermally coupled and physically connected to a hot bath (the protoneutron star) by a neutrino flux, and by hydrodynamic instabilities. This paradigm does not invoke new or modified physics over previous treatments, but relies on compellingly straightforward thermodynamic arguments. It provides a robust and self-regulated explosion mechanism to power supernovae that is effective under a wide range of physical parameters.
Anomalies in relative humidity profile in the boundary layer during convective rain
Chakraborty, Rohit; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Saha, Upal; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh
2017-07-01
Radiometric observations of relative humidity profile at Kolkata show a significant fall at around 1 to 2 km height during convective rain events. An extensive investigation shows that the fall of relative humidity is not seen during calm conditions but is strongly related to the characteristics of temperature lapse rate profiles. Moreover, the phenomenon may have strong association with boundary layer structure. The reason for such anomalies in the planetary boundary layer humidity profile might be due to the release of latent heat at the mentioned altitude. The abundance of pollutant aerosols in urban regions has also been found to contribute to this relative humidity anomaly. It has also been reported that this boundary layer relative humidity is accompanied by high latent heat release and condensation of vapour to liquid which is not much prominent in other rain types as observed in stratiform rain. Hence, convective rain produces some unique boundary layer characteristics which have also been partially supported with allied satellite and multi-station observations.
Tadesse, A.; Anagnostou, E. N.
2007-05-01
Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) are cloud systems that occur from an ensemble of thunder storms and result in a precipitation that covers a huge contiguous area. They are long-lived storm system having dimensions much larger than an individual storm. Storm systems associated with MCSs over the Africa are tracked for the period July to December 2004 and their properties at different stages of their life are investigated in terms of the vertical reflectivity profile, electrification and dynamics of clouds. The research is facilitated by remote sensing data, which include instantaneous vertical reflectivity fields derived from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR), coincident 1/2-hourly observations of long-range lightning accumulation and Global IR fields. Results show a strong indication of the magnitude and intensity of electrification of a thunderstorm with the stage of its life. More vigorous dynamic conditions with intense electrification are observed during the growing stage of the storm and more or less stable situation uniform distribution of electrification has been distributed to most of the pixels in the storm during its maturity stage and less rainfall and electrification during its decaying stage was a general observation during the period. The vertical reflectivity has been found to be strongly related to the electrification and the stage of the convective life cycle in such away that the reflectivity decrease as the storm matures and decays. A good correlation is observed between the strength of vertical profile of reflectivity, which is a proxy for the ice concentration, and lightning activity.
Matsui, Toshihisa; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, Stephen E.; Satoh, Masaki; Hashino, Tempei; Kubota, Takuji
2016-01-01
A 14-year climatology of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) collocated multi-sensor signal statistics reveal a distinct land-ocean contrast as well as geographical variability of precipitation type, intensity, and microphysics. Microphysics information inferred from the TRMM precipitation radar and Microwave Imager (TMI) show a large land-ocean contrast for the deep category, suggesting continental convective vigor. Over land, TRMM shows higher echo-top heights and larger maximum echoes, suggesting taller storms and more intense precipitation, as well as larger microwave scattering, suggesting the presence of morelarger frozen convective hydrometeors. This strong land-ocean contrast in deep convection is invariant over seasonal and multi-year time-scales. Consequently, relatively short-term simulations from two global storm-resolving models can be evaluated in terms of their land-ocean statistics using the TRMM Triple-sensor Three-step Evaluation via a satellite simulator. The models evaluated are the NASA Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) and the Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Cloud Atmospheric Model (NICAM). While both simulations can represent convective land-ocean contrasts in warm precipitation to some extent, near-surface conditions over land are relatively moisture in NICAM than MMF, which appears to be the key driver in the divergent warm precipitation results between the two models. Both the MMF and NICAM produced similar frequencies of large CAPE between land and ocean. The dry MMF boundary layer enhanced microwave scattering signals over land, but only NICAM had an enhanced deep convection frequency over land. Neither model could reproduce a realistic land-ocean contrast in in deep convective precipitation microphysics. A realistic contrast between land and ocean remains an issue in global storm-resolving modeling.
Convective diffusion in protein crystal growth
Baird, J. K.; Meehan, E. J.; Xidis, A. L.; Howard, S. B.
1986-08-01
We considered a protein crystal in the form of a flat plate suspended in its parent solution so that the normal to the largest face was perpendicular to the acceleration due to gravity. For simplicity, the protein concentration in the solution adjacent to the plate was taken to be the equilibrium solubility. The bulk of the solution was supersaturated, however, which gave rise to a horizontal concentration gradient driving fluid toward the plate. We also took into account the diffusion of the dissolved protein with respect to the moving fluid. In the boundary layer next to the plate, we solved the Navier-Stokes equation and the equation for convective diffusion to determine the flow velocity and the protein mass flux. We found that, because of the convection, the local rate of growth of the plate varied strongly with depth. The variation was diminished by a factor of 1/30 when the local gravity was reduced from g to 10 -6g as occurs aboard the Space Shuttle in earth orbit. For an aqueous solution of lysozyme at a concentration of 40 mg/ml, the boundary layer at the top of a 1 mm high crystal has a thickness of 80 μm in earths gravity and 2570 μm in 10 -6g. We examined the optical transmission of the boundary layer and compared it with the "haloes" observed by Feher et al. about growing hemispherical crystals of lysozyme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. K. Dhaka
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Analyses of hourly radiosonde data of temperature, wind, and relative humidity during four days (two with convection and two with no convection as a part of an intensive observation period in CPEA-2 campaign over Koto Tabang (100.32° E, 0.20° S, Indonesia, are presented. Characteristics of gravity waves in terms of dominant wave frequencies at different heights and their vertical wavelengths are shown in the lower stratosphere during a convective and non-convective period. Gravity waves with periods ~10 h and ~4–5 h were found dominant near tropopause (a region of high stability on all days of observation. Vertical propagation of gravity waves were seen modified near heights of the three identified strong wind shears (at ~16, 20, and 25 km heights due to wave-mean flow interaction. Between 17 and 21 km heights, meridional wind fluctuations dominated over zonal wind, whereas from 22 to 30 km heights, wave fluctuations with periods ~3–5 h and ~8–10 h in zonal wind and temperature were highly associated, suggesting zonal orientation of wave propagation. Gravity waves from tropopause region to 30 km heights were analyzed. In general, vertical wavelength of 2–5 km dominated in all the mean-removed (~ weekly mean wind and temperature hourly profiles. Computed vertical wavelength spectra are similar, in most of the cases, to the source spectra (1–16 km height except that of zonal wind spectra, which is broad during active convection. Interestingly, during and after convection, gravity waves with short vertical wavelength (~2 km and short period (~2–3 h emerged, which were confined in the close vicinity of tropopause, and were not identified on non-convective days, suggesting convection to be the source for them. Some wave features near strong wind shear (at 25 km height were also observed with short vertical wavelengths in both convective and non-convective days, suggesting wind shear to be the sole cause of generation and seemingly not
Crystalline heterogeneities and instabilities in thermally convecting magma chamber
Culha, C.; Suckale, J.; Qin, Z.
2016-12-01
A volcanic vent can supply different densities of crystals over an eruption time period. This has been seen in Hawai'i's Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption; however it is not common for all Kilauea or basaltic eruptions. We ask the question: Under what conditions can homogenous magma chamber cultivate crystalline heterogeneities? In some laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, a horizontal variation is observed. The region where crystals reside is identified as a retention zone: convection velocity balances settling velocity. Simulations and experiments that observe retention zones assume crystals do not alter the convection in the fluid. However, a comparison of experiments and simulations of convecting magma with crystals suggest that large crystal volume densities and crystal sizes alter fluid flow considerably. We introduce a computational method that fully resolves the crystalline phase. To simulate basaltic magma chambers in thermal convection, we built a numerical solver of the Navier-Stoke's equation, continuity equation, and energy equation. The modeled magma is assumed to be a viscous, incompressible fluid with a liquid and solid phase. Crystals are spherical, rigid bodies. We create Rayleigh-Taylor instability through a cool top layer and hot bottom layer and update magma density while keeping crystal temperature and size constant. Our method provides a detailed picture of magma chambers, which we compare to other models and experiments to identify when and how crystals alter magma chamber convection. Alterations include stratification, differential settling and instabilities. These characteristics are dependent on viscosity, convection vigor, crystal volume density and crystal characteristics. We reveal that a volumetric crystal density variation may occur over an eruption time period, if right conditions are met to form stratifications and instabilities in magma chambers. These conditions are realistic for Kilauea Iki's 1959 eruption.
Reddy, N. Narendra; Rao, Kusuma G.
2018-01-01
An attempt has been made here to examine the contrasting variations in mean surface layer parameters including surface fluxes, and in surface layer stability between the convective and non-convective periods in the southwest monsoon season for the Bangalore experiment location (12.54° N, 77.22° E). The micrometeorological measurements analysed during 2009 and 2010 are from the instrumentation network established during the programme, "Prediction of Regional Weather using Observational meso-Network and Atmospheric Modelling (PRWONAM)". The Short Wave (SW) radiative flux at the surface is observed to be respectively at 799 ± 188 Wm-2 (772 ± 195 Wm-2) and 436 ± 113 Wm-2 (257 ± 101 Wm-2) at 12:00 LT (Local Time, UTC+05:30) during the non-convective and convective periods in 2009 (2010). The significant difference in SW radiative flux is due to the difference of cloud cover between the non-convective and convective periods. This significant reduction of 515 W m-2 at 12:00 LT in SW radiative flux caused maximum cooling in skin temperature (air temperature) by 6.2 °C (3.8 °C) at 12:00 LT (18:30 LT) from 30.8 ± 3.9 °C (27.1 ± 1.4 °C) in the non-convective period. The impact of convection on soil temperature is observed up to 0.2 m deep. The diurnal amplitudes in composites of air temperature are 8.4 °C (8.4 °C) and 5.7 °C (4.7 °C) during the non-convective and convective periods respectively in 2009 (2010); and the amplitudes in relative humidity are 41.5% (39.7%) and 29% (22.8%). Low wind speeds prevailed 63.4% of the time, all through the day and night, in the monsoon season. The diurnal variations in wind speed during the convective period showed higher variability than in non-convective period. The momentum flux varied in accordance with the strength of the wind speed during the monsoon seasons of both the years 2009 and 2010. The peak sensible heat flux in the convective period is noted to be smaller than that in the non-convective period by 128 W m-2
Chaotic travelling rolls in Rayleigh–Bénard convection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The lateral shift of the rolls may lead to a global flow reversal of the convective motion. The chaotic travelling rolls are observed in simulations with free-slip as well as no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field. We show that the travelling rolls and the flow reversal are due to an interplay between the real and imaginary ...
ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Gavrilenkov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.
Impact of irrigations on simulated convective activity over Central Greece: A high resolution study
Kotsopoulos, S.; Tegoulias, I.; Pytharoulis, I.; Kartsios, S.; Bampzelis, D.; Karacostas, T.
2014-12-01
The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of irrigations in the characteristics of convective activity simulated by the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model with the Advanced Research dynamic solver (WRF-ARW, version 3.5.1), under different upper air synoptic conditions in central Greece. To this end, 42 cases equally distributed under the six most frequent upper air synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, were utilized considering two different soil moisture scenarios. In the first scenario, the model was initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the second scenario, the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area was modified to the field capacity for the irrigated cropland. Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. The model numerical results indicate a strong dependence of convective spatiotemporal characteristics from the soil moisture difference between the two scenarios. Acknowledgements: This research is co-financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) and Greek national funds, through the action "COOPERATION 2011: Partnerships of Production and Research Institutions in Focused Research and Technology Sectors" (contract number 11SYN_8_1088 - DAPHNE) in the framework of the operational programme "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" and Regions in Transition (OPC II, NSRF 2007-2013).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebata, T.
1981-01-01
With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)
Measurement of unsteady convection in a complex fenestration using laser interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulad, M.E.; Naylor, D. [Ryerson Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Oosthuizen, P.H. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering
2009-06-15
Complex fenestration involving windows with between-panes louvered blinds is gaining interest as a means to control solar gains in buildings. However, the heat transfer performance of this type of shading system is not well understood, especially at high Rayleigh numbers. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used in this study to measure the unsteady convective heat transfer in a tall enclosure with between-panes blind that was heated to simulate absorbed solar radiation. Digital cinematography was combined with laser interferometry to make time-averaged measurements of unsteady and turbulent free convective heat transfer. This paper described the procedures used to measure the time-average local heat flux. Under strongly turbulent conditions, the average Nusselt number for the enclosure was found to compare well with empirical correlations. A total sampling time of about ten seconds was needed in this experiment to obtain a stationary time-average heat flux. The time-average heat flux was found to be relatively insensitive to the camera frame rate. The local heat flux was found to be unsteady and periodic. Heating of the blind made the flow more unstable, producing a higher amplitude heat flux variation than for the unheated blind condition. This paper reported on only a small set of preliminary measurements. This study is being extended to other blind angles and glazing spacings. The next phase will focus on flow visualization studies to characterize the nature of the flow. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.
Instability and Route to Chaos in Porous Media Convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Vadasz
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A review of the research on the instability of steady porous media convection leading to chaos, and the possibility of controlling the transition from steady convection to chaos is presented. The governing equations consisting of the continuity, the extended Darcy, and the energy equations subject to the assumption of local thermal equilibrium and the Boussinesq approximation are converted into a set of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations by assuming two-dimensional convection and expansion of the dependent variables into a truncated spectrum of modes. Analytical (weak nonlinear, computational (Adomian decomposition as well as numerical (Runge-Kutta-Verner solutions to the resulting set of equations are presented and compared to each other. The analytical solution for the transition point to chaos is identical to the computational and numerical solutions in the neighborhood of a convective fixed point and deviates from the accurate computational and numerical solutions as the initial conditions deviate from the neighborhood of a convective fixed point. The control of this transition is also discussed.
Various Numerical Applications on Tropical Convective Systems Using a Cloud Resolving Model
Shie, C.-L.; Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.
2003-01-01
In recent years, increasing attention has been given to cloud resolving models (CRMs or cloud ensemble models-CEMs) for their ability to simulate the radiative-convective system, which plays a significant role in determining the regional heat and moisture budgets in the Tropics. The growing popularity of CRM usage can be credited to its inclusion of crucial and physically relatively realistic features such as explicit cloud-scale dynamics, sophisticated microphysical processes, and explicit cloud-radiation interaction. On the other hand, impacts of the environmental conditions (for example, the large-scale wind fields, heat and moisture advections as well as sea surface temperature) on the convective system can also be plausibly investigated using the CRMs with imposed explicit forcing. In this paper, by basically using a Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model, three different studies on tropical convective systems are briefly presented. Each of these studies serves a different goal as well as uses a different approach. In the first study, which uses more of an idealized approach, the respective impacts of the large-scale horizontal wind shear and surface fluxes on the modeled tropical quasi-equilibrium states of temperature and water vapor are examined. In this 2-D study, the imposed large-scale horizontal wind shear is ideally either nudged (wind shear maintained strong) or mixed (wind shear weakened), while the minimum surface wind speed used for computing surface fluxes varies among various numerical experiments. For the second study, a handful of real tropical episodes (TRMM Kwajalein Experiment - KWAJEX, 1999; TRMM South China Sea Monsoon Experiment - SCSMEX, 1998) have been simulated such that several major atmospheric characteristics such as the rainfall amount and its associated stratiform contribution, the Qlheat and Q2/moisture budgets are investigated. In this study, the observed large-scale heat and moisture advections are continuously applied to the 2-D
How do changes in warm-phase microphysics affect deep convective clouds?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. Chen
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Understanding aerosol effects on deep convective clouds and the derived effects on the radiation budget and rain patterns can largely contribute to estimations of climate uncertainties. The challenge is difficult in part because key microphysical processes in the mixed and cold phases are still not well understood. For deep convective clouds with a warm base, understanding aerosol effects on the warm processes is extremely important as they set the initial and boundary conditions for the cold processes. Therefore, the focus of this study is the warm phase, which can be better resolved. The main question is: How do aerosol-derived changes in the warm phase affect the properties of deep convective cloud systems? To explore this question, we used a weather research and forecasting (WRF model with spectral bin microphysics to simulate a deep convective cloud system over the Marshall Islands during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX. The model results were validated against observations, showing similarities in the vertical profile of radar reflectivity and the surface rain rate. Simulations with larger aerosol loading resulted in a larger total cloud mass, a larger cloud fraction in the upper levels, and a larger frequency of strong updrafts and rain rates. Enlarged mass both below and above the zero temperature level (ZTL contributed to the increase in cloud total mass (water and ice in the polluted runs. Increased condensation efficiency of cloud droplets governed the gain in mass below the ZTL, while both enhanced condensational and depositional growth led to increased mass above it. The enhanced mass loading above the ZTL acted to reduce the cloud buoyancy, while the thermal buoyancy (driven by the enhanced latent heat release increased in the polluted runs. The overall effect showed an increased upward transport (across the ZTL of liquid water driven by both larger updrafts and larger droplet mobility. These aerosol effects were reflected in the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. E. Sandholt
2001-05-01
Full Text Available We document the activation of transient polar arcs emanating from the cusp within a 15 min long intermediate phase during the transition from a standard two-cell convection pattern, representative of a strongly southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, to a "reverse" two-cell pattern, representative of strongly northward IMF conditions. During the 2–3 min lifetime of the arc, its base in the cusp, appearing as a bright spot, moved eastward toward noon by ~ 300 km. As the arc moved, it left in its "wake" enhanced cusp precipitation. The polar arc is a tracer of the activation of a lobe convection cell with clockwise vorticity, intruding into the previously established large-scale distorted two-cell pattern, due to an episode of localized lobe reconnection. The lobe cell gives rise to strong flow shear (converging electric field and an associated sheet of outflowing field-aligned current, which is manifested by the polar arc. The enhanced cusp precipitation represents, in our view, the ionospheric footprint of the lobe reconnection process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; plasma convection
Effects of Deep Convective Mixing on the Ice Giants
Soderlund, Krista M.; Aurnou, J. M.
2007-10-01
Cloud layer observations show that the surface winds on the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, are dominated by zonal motions. The winds are retrograde near the equator and are prograde at high latitudes. Measurements of outward heat flux show that Neptune emits more than twice the heat it receives via solar insolation. This indicates a significant internal heat source. In contrast, the ratio of outward thermal emission to insolation is no greater than 1.1 for Uranus. Although this ratio is likely to be only slightly greater than unity, if the internal heat flow exceeds the interior adiabat, it may still be dynamically important. Here we present numerical simulations of Boussinesq convection in a rotating spherical shell that show that strong convection in the molecular envelopes of these planets can generate large-scale zonal winds similar to the planetary observations. The deep zonal flows in the simulated molecular envelopes of our model result from convectively-driven angular momentum mixing. Using our present modeling results, we will derive an asymptotic heat transfer scaling law for this regime in order to determine if the observed interior heat fluxes on the Ice Giants can drive vigorous deep convection. We will also examine what controls the regime transition to an Ice Giant style of zonal flow. In particular, we test the effects of rotation. Our simulations indicate that the zonal flows do not depend on the planetary rotation rate once a critical value of the Ekman number, the ratio of viscous to Coriolis forces, is reached. Finally, we will predict convective heat flow patterns of Uranus and Neptune, assuming that deep convection is a dominant heat transfer process on these planets. The authors thank NASA's PATM Program for research funding (Grant NNG06GD12G). Computational resources were provided by the San Diego Supercomputing Center.
Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers
Dixon, John M
2017-01-01
This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.
Modes of convection in the magnetotail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2002-01-01
The flow of plasma in the Earth's magnetotail cannot reach a steady state, since adiabatic convection would lead to exceedingly high pressure of the associated magnetic flux tubes closer to the Earth, the so-called pressure catastrophe. The natural way to avoid the pressure catastrophe is to significantly reduce the flux tube volume by reconnection, and observations show a near-Earth reconnection line typically around 20-25 Earth radii down tail. Earthward flows from this reconnection line are rather bursty and typically seen outside of 10 Earth radii. At this point they are strongly braked by the here dominant dipolar magnetic field. The pressure gradients piled up by the flow lead to the substorm current wedge, and possibly other substorm phenomena observed in the Earth's ionosphere. When more and more flux tubes are piled up, the dipolarization front moves tailward and finally shuts off near-Earth reconnection
Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Haaland
2008-08-01
Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s^{−1}. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A B_{y} dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.
Thermal convection of liquid metal in the titanium reduction reactor
Teimurazov, A.; Frick, P.; Stefani, F.
2017-06-01
The structure of the convective flow of molten magnesium in a metallothermic titanium reduction reactor has been studied numerically in a three-dimensional non-stationary formulation with conjugated heat transfer between liquid magnesium and solids (steel walls of the cavity and titanium block). A nonuniform computational mesh with a total of 3.7 million grid points was used. The Large Eddy Simulation technique was applied to take into account the turbulence in the liquid phase. The instantaneous and average characteristics of the process and the velocity and temperature pulsation fields are analyzed. The simulations have been performed for three specific heating regimes: with furnace heaters operating at full power, with furnace heaters switched on at the bottom of the vessel only, and with switched-off furnace heaters. It is shown that the localization of the cooling zone can completely reorganize the structure of the large-scale flow. Therefore, by changing heating regimes, it is possible to influence the flow structure for the purpose of creating the most favorable conditions for the reaction. It is also shown that the presence of the titanium block strongly affects the flow structure.
Prediction of flow instability during natural convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farhadi, Kazem
2005-01-01
The occurrence of flow excursion instability during passive heat removal for Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analyzed at low-pressure and low-mass rate of flow conditions without boiling taking place. Pressure drop-flow rate characteristics in the general case are determined upon a developed code for this purpose. The code takes into account variations of different pressure drop components caused by different powers as well as different core inlet temperatures. The analysis revealed the fact that the instability can actually occur in the natural convection mode for a range of powers per fuel plates at a predetermined inlet temperature with fixed geometry of the core. Low mass rate of flow and high sub-cooling are the two important conditions for the occurrence of static instability in the TRR. The calculated results are compared with the existing data in the literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammed, Hussein A.
2008-01-01
Laminar mixed convection heat transfer for assisted and opposed air flows in the entrance region of a vertical circular tube with the using of a uniform wall heat flux boundary condition has been experimentally investigated. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of flow direction and the effect of tube inclination on the surface temperature, local and average Nusselt numbers with Reynolds number ranged from 400 to 1600 and Grashof number from 2.0 x 10 5 to 6.2 x 10 6 . It was found that the circumferential surface temperature along the dimensionless tube length for opposed flow would be higher than that both of assisted flow and horizontal tube [Mohammed HA, Salman YK. Experimental investigation of combined convection heat transfer for thermally developing flow in a horizontal circular cylinder. Appl Therm Eng 2007;27(8-9):1522-33] due to the stronger free convective currents within the cross-section. The Nusselt number values would be lower for opposed flow than that for assisted flow. It was inferred that the behaviour of Nu x for opposed flow to be strongly dependent on the combination of Re and Gr numbers. Empirical equations expressing the average Nusselt numbers in terms of Grashof and Reynolds numbers were proposed for both assisted and opposed flow cases. The average heat transfer results were compared with previous literature and showed similar trend and satisfactory agreement
Baranowski, Dariusz; Flatau, Maria; Flatau, Piotr
2017-04-01
means that more events terminate than initiate over that region. CCKWs bring excessive precipitation to the MC region. However, the amount of anomalous precipitation due to CCKW passage is strongly modified by interactions with the MC environment itself, primarily with vivid diurnal cycle of convection over Sumatra, Borneo and surrounding seas. Analysis of the time at which a CCKW approach Sumatra shows that events, which are in phase with local diurnal cycle bring 2.5 more anomalous precipitation than events that do not account for such favorable conditions. Furthermore, analysis of the terminal longitude reveals that events phase locked with local diurnal cycle of convection have 40% better change to propagate across the MC region into the Western Pacific.
A transilient matrix for moist convection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.
2011-08-15
A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.
Savarin, A.; Chen, S. S.
2017-12-01
The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a dominant mode of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Large-scale convection fueling the MJO is initiated over the tropical Indian Ocean and propagates eastward across the Maritime Continent (MC) and into the western Pacific. Observational studies have shown that near 40-50% of the MJO events cannot pass through the MC, which is known as the MC barrier effect. Previous studies have also shown a strong diurnal cycle of convection over the islands and coastal seas, with an afternoon precipitation maximum over land and high terrain, and an early morning maximum over water and mountain valley areas. As an eastward-propagating MJO convective event passes over the MC, its nature may be altered due to the complex interaction with the large Islands and topography. In turn, the passage of an MJO event modulates local conditions over the MC. The diurnal cycle of convection over the MC and its modulation by the MJO are not well understood and poorly represented in global numerical prediction models. This study aims to improve our understanding of how the diurnal cycle of convection and the presence of islands of the MC affect the eastward propagation of the MJO over the region. To this end, we use the Unified Wave Interface-Coupled Model (UWIN-CM) in its fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration at a convection-permitting (4 km) resolution over the region. The control simulation is from the MJO event that occurred in November-December 2011, and has been verified against the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign observations, TRMM precipitation, and reanalysis products. To investigate the effects of the tropical islands on the MJO, we conduct two additional numerical experiments, one with preserved island shape but flattened topography, and one where islands are replaced by water. The difference in the diurnal cycle and convective organization among these experiments will provide some insights on the origin of the MC
Fin efficiency in 2D with convection at the tip and dissymmetry of exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouaziz, Najib
2009-01-01
To determine the overall effective surface in the heat exchangers, it is necessary to know the fin efficiency accurately. An analytical formula, taking into account the convective heat at the tip and an unequal exchange in 2D case is derived. Some differences were found between 1D and our expression. The dissymmetry of exchange has a strong effect on the fin efficiency and convection at the tip cannot be ignored.
Fin efficiency in 2D with convection at the tip and dissymmetry of exchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouaziz, Najib [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Medea, BP 164, Medea 26000 (Algeria)
2009-06-15
To determine the overall effective surface in the heat exchangers, it is necessary to know the fin efficiency accurately. An analytical formula, taking into account the convective heat at the tip and an unequal exchange in 2D case is derived. Some differences were found between 1D and our expression. The dissymmetry of exchange has a strong effect on the fin efficiency and convection at the tip cannot be ignored. (author)
Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.
1985-04-21
Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system.
Seismic Constraints on Interior Solar Convection
Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L.; DeRosa, Marc L.
2010-01-01
We constrain the velocity spectral distribution of global-scale solar convective cells at depth using techniques of local helioseismology. We calibrate the sensitivity of helioseismic waves to large-scale convective cells in the interior by analyzing simulations of waves propagating through a velocity snapshot of global solar convection via methods of time-distance helioseismology. Applying identical analysis techniques to observations of the Sun, we are able to bound from above the magnitudes of solar convective cells as a function of spatial convective scale. We find that convection at a depth of r/R(solar) = 0.95 with spatial extent l < 30, where l is the spherical harmonic degree, comprise weak flow systems, on the order of 15 m/s or less. Convective features deeper than r/R(solar) = 0.95 are more difficult to image due to the rapidly decreasing sensitivity of helioseismic waves.
A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions
Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki
2014-11-01
Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).
Numerical simulations of convection in the titanium reduction reactor
Teimurazov, A.; Frick, P.; Weber, N.; Stefani, F.
2017-11-01
We introduce a hydrodynamic model of convective flows in a titanium reduction reactor. The reactor retort is a cylindrical vessel with a radius of 0.75 m and a height up to 4 m, filled with liquid magnesium at a temperature of 850°C. The exothermic chemical reaction on the metal surface, cooling of the side wall and heating of the lower part of the retort cause strong temperature gradients in the reactor during the process. These temperature gradients cause intensive convective flows inside the reactor. As a result of the reaction, a block of titanium sponge grows at the retort bottom and the magnesium salt, whose density is close to the density of magnesium, settles down. The process of magnesium salt settling in a titanium reduction reactor was numerically studied in a two-dimensional (full size model) and three-dimensional (30% size of the real model) non-stationary formulation. A detailed analysis was performed for configurations with and without presence of convective flow due to work of furnace heaters. It has been established that magnesium salt is settling in drops with sizes from ≈ 3 cm to ≈ 10 cm. It was shown that convective flow can entrain the drop and carry it with the vortex.
Jhunjhunwala, Kishan; Shahiruddin; Hassan, M. A.
2018-02-01
Viscoplastic materials are found extensively both in natural and manmade form. In this work experimental investigation of natural convection in viscoplastic fluid with partially heated bottom wall and continuous cooling of top wall in a square cross section enclosure has been carried out. Carbopol Ultrez 20 gel of various concentrations has been used as sample viscoplastic fluid. Conduction and convection phase of heat transport are identified. The results are presented in terms of temperature distribution across the fluid for different gel concentrations and heat input. The average Nusselt numbers are also discussed for different conditions. Onset of convection is delayed and convection strength is weakened with increase in test fluid yield stress. Steady state temperature difference between hot and cold wall shows linear behaviour with heat input for conduction regime and non-linear behaviour in convection regime. Fluid temperature in enclosure shows sharp gradient closure to thermally active walls.
Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, A.
1965-03-01
This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Re b > 10 5 free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow
The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harbour, P.J.; Andrew, P.; Campbell, D.; Clement, S.; Davies, S.; Ehrenberg, J.; Erents, S.K.; Gondhalekar, A.; Gadeberg, M.; Gottardi, N.; Von Hellermann, M.; Horton, L.; Loarte, A.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C.; McCormick, K.; O`Brien, D.; Reichle, R.; Saibene, G.; Simonini, R.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Vlases, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking
1994-07-01
Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.
CRUCIB: an axisymmetric convection code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertram, L.A.
1975-03-01
The CRUCIB code was written in support of an experimental program aimed at measurement of thermal diffusivities of refractory liquids. Precise values of diffusivity are necessary to realistic analysis of reactor safety problems, nuclear waste disposal procedures, and fundamental metal forming processes. The code calculates the axisymmetric transient convective motions produced in a right circular cylindrical crucible, which is surface heated by an annular heat pulse. Emphasis of this report is placed on the input-output options of the CRUCIB code, which are tailored to assess the importance of the convective heat transfer in determining the surface temperature distribution. Use is limited to Prandtl numbers less than unity; larger values can be accommodated by replacement of a single block of the code, if desired. (U.S.)
Wei Cai; Lexian Zhu; Shilin Dong; Guozhen Xie; Junming Li
2014-01-01
The convective drying kinetics of porous medium was investigated numerically. A mathematical model for forced convective drying was established to estimate the evolution of moisture content and temperature inside multilayered porous medium. The set of coupled partial differential equations with the specified boundary and initial conditions were solved numerically using a MATLAB code. An experimental setup of convective drying had been constructed and validated the theoretical model. The tempe...
Davis, J. G.; Scoggins, J. R.
1981-01-01
Data from the Fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment were used to investigate conditions/factors responsible for the development (local time rate-of-change) of convective instability, wind shear, and vertical motion in areas with varying degrees of convective activity. AVE IV sounding data were taken at 3 or 6 h intervals during a 36 h period on 24-25 April 1975 over approximately the eastern half of the United States. An error analysis was performed for each variable studied.
Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.
2009-01-01
Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20oN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.
Generating buoyant magnetic flux ropes in solar-like convective dynamos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, N J; Miesch, M S
2014-01-01
Our Sun exhibits strong convective dynamo action which results in magnetic flux bundles emerging through the stellar surface as magnetic spots. Global-scale dynamo action is believed to generate large-scale magnetic structures in the deep solar interior through the interplay of convection, rotation and shear. Portions of these large-scale magnetic structures are then believed to rise through the convective layer, forming magnetic loops which then pierce the photosphere as sunspot pairs. Previous global simulations of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic convection in rotating spherical shells have demonstrated mechanisms whereby large-scale magnetic wreaths can be generated in the bulk of the convection zone. Our recent simulations have achieved sufficiently high levels of turbulence to permit portions of these wreaths to become magnetically buoyant and rise through the simulated convective layer through a combination of magnetic buoyancy and advection by convective giant cells. These buoyant magnetic loops are created in the bulk of the convective layer as strong Lorentz force feedback in the cores of the magnetic wreaths dampen small-scale convective motions, permitting the amplification of local magnetic energies to over 100 times the local kinetic energy. While the magnetic wreaths are largely generated the shearing of axisymmetric poloidal magnetic fields by axisymmetric rotational shear (the Ω-effect), the loops are amplified to their peak field strengths before beginning to rise by non-axisymmetric processes. This further extends and enhances a new paradigm for the generation of emergent magnetic flux bundles, which we term turbulence-enabled magnetic buoyancy. (paper)
Cryogenic helium gas convection research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, R.J.
1994-10-01
This is a report prepared by a group interested in doing research in thermal convection using the large scale refrigeration facilities available at the SSC Laboratories (SSCL). The group preparing this report consists of Michael McAshan at SSCL, Robert Behringer at Duke University, Katepalli Sreenivasan at Yale University, Xiao-Zhong Wu at Northern Illinois University and Russell Donnelly at the University of Oregon, who served as Editor for this report. This study reports the research and development opportunities in such a project, the technical requirements and feasibility of its construction and operation, and the costs associated with the needed facilities and support activities. The facility will be a unique national resource for studies of high-Reynolds-number and high-Rayleigh-number and high Rayleigh number turbulence phenomena, and is one of the six items determined as suitable for potential funding through a screening of Expressions of Interest. The proposed facility is possible only because of the advanced cryogenic technology available at the SSCL. Typical scientific issues to be addressed in the facility will be discussed. It devolved during our study, that while the main experiment is still considered to be the thermal convection experiment discussed in our original Expression of Interest, there are now a very substantial set of other, important and fundamental experiments which can be done with the large cryostat proposed for the convection experiment. We believe the facility could provide several decades of front-line research in turbulence, and shall describe why this is so
The Continental Drift Convection Cell
Whitehead, J. A.; Behn, M. D.
2014-12-01
Continents on Earth periodically assemble to form supercontinents, and then break up again into smaller continental blocks (the Wilson Cycle). Highly developed but realistic numerical models cannot resolve if continents respond passively to mantle convection or whether they modulate flow. Our simplified numerical model addresses this problem: A thermally insulating continent floats on a stress-free surface for infinite Prandtl number cellular convection with constant material properties in a chamber 8 times longer than its depth. The continent moves back and forth across the chamber driven by a "continental drift convection cell" of a form not previously described. Subduction exists at the upstream end with cold slabs dipping at an angle beneath the moving continent. Fluid moves with the continent in the upper region of this cell with return flow near the bottom. Many continent/subduction regions on Earth have these features. The drifting cell enhances vertical heat transport by approximately 30% compared to a fixed continent, especially at the core-mantle boundary, and significantly decreases lateral mantle temperature differences. However, continent drift or fixity has smaller effects on profiles of horizontally averaged temperature. Although calculations are done at Rayleigh numbers lower than expected for Earth's mantle (2x105 and 106), the drift speed extrapolates to reasonable Wilson Cycle speeds for larger Ra.
Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Grassi, Lucia; Esin, Semih; Serra, Ilaria; Scorciapino, Mariano A; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Batoni, Giovanna
2017-09-16
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The ability of the bacterium to form biofilms and the presence of a thick and stagnant mucus in the airways of CF patients largely contribute to antibiotic therapy failure and demand for new antimicrobial agents able to act in the CF environment. The present study investigated the anti- P. aeruginosa activity of lin-SB056-1, a recently described semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide, used alone and in combination with the cation chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Bactericidal assays were carried out in standard culture conditions and in an artificial sputum medium (ASM) closely resembling the CF environment. Peptide's structure and interaction with large unilamellar vesicles in media with different ionic strengths were also investigated through infrared spectroscopy. Lin-SB056-1 demonstrated fast and strong bactericidal activity against both mucoid and non-mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa in planktonic form and, in combination with EDTA, caused significant reduction of the biomass of P. aeruginosa mature biofilms. In ASM, the peptide/EDTA combination exerted a strong bactericidal effect and inhibited the formation of biofilm-like structures of P. aeruginosa . Overall, the results obtained highlight the potential of the lin-SB056-1/EDTA combination for the treatment of P. aeruginosa lung infections in CF patients.
Heat Transfer in MHD Mixed Convection Flow of a Ferrofluid along a Vertical Channel.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaiza Gul
Full Text Available This study investigated heat transfer in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD mixed convection flow of ferrofluid along a vertical channel. The channel with non-uniform wall temperatures was taken in a vertical direction with transverse magnetic field. Water with nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4 was selected as a conventional base fluid. In addition, non-magnetic (Al2O3 aluminium oxide nanoparticles were also used. Comparison between magnetic and magnetite nanoparticles were also conducted. Fluid motion was originated due to buoyancy force together with applied pressure gradient. The problem was modelled in terms of partial differential equations with physical boundary conditions. Analytical solutions were obtained for velocity and temperature. Graphical results were plotted and discussed. It was found that temperature and velocity of ferrofluids depend strongly on viscosity and thermal conductivity together with magnetic field. The results of the present study when compared concurred with published work.
Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.
El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru
2015-05-01
A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.
Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E
2010-04-01
Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth’s energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earth’s climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical “parameterizations” that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the April–May 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States
Mining key elements for severe convection prediction based on CNN
Liu, Ming; Pan, Ning; Zhang, Changan; Sha, Hongzhou; Zhang, Bolei; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Meng
2017-04-01
Severe convective weather is a kind of weather disasters accompanied by heavy rainfall, gust wind, hail, etc. Along with recent developments on remote sensing and numerical modeling, there are high-volume and long-term observational and modeling data accumulated to capture massive severe convective events over particular areas and time periods. With those high-volume and high-variety weather data, most of the existing studies and methods carry out the dynamical laws, cause analysis, potential rule study, and prediction enhancement by utilizing the governing equations from fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. In this study, a key-element mining method is proposed for severe convection prediction based on convolution neural network (CNN). It aims to identify the key areas and key elements from huge amounts of historical weather data including conventional measurements, weather radar, satellite, so as numerical modeling and/or reanalysis data. Under this manner, the machine-learning based method could help the human forecasters on their decision-making on operational weather forecasts on severe convective weathers by extracting key information from the real-time and historical weather big data. In this paper, it first utilizes computer vision technology to complete the data preprocessing work of the meteorological variables. Then, it utilizes the information such as radar map and expert knowledge to annotate all images automatically. And finally, by using CNN model, it cloud analyze and evaluate each weather elements (e.g., particular variables, patterns, features, etc.), and identify key areas of those critical weather elements, then help forecasters quickly screen out the key elements from huge amounts of observation data by current weather conditions. Based on the rich weather measurement and model data (up to 10 years) over Fujian province in China, where the severe convective weathers are very active during the summer months, experimental tests are conducted with
Convection patterns in a spherical fluid shell
Feudel, F.; Bergemann, K.; Tuckerman, L. S.; Egbers, C.; Futterer, B.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.
2011-04-01
Symmetry-breaking bifurcations have been studied for convection in a nonrotating spherical shell whose outer radius is twice the inner radius, under the influence of an externally applied central force field with a radial dependence proportional to 1/r5. This work is motivated by the GeoFlow experiment, which is performed under microgravity condition at the International Space Station where this particular central force can be generated. In order to predict the observable patterns, simulations together with path-following techniques and stability computations have been applied. Branches of axisymmetric, octahedral, and seven-cell solutions have been traced. The bifurcations producing them have been identified and their stability ranges determined. At higher Rayleigh numbers, time-periodic states with a complex spatiotemporal symmetry are found, which we call breathing patterns.
Solutocapillary convection in spherical shells
Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry
2005-01-01
A linear stability study of solutocapillary driven Marangoni instabilities in small spherical shells is presented. The shells contain a binary fluid with an evaporating solvent. The viscosity is a strong function of the solvent concentration, the inner surface of the shell is assumed impermeable and stress free, while nonlinear boundary conditions are modeled and prescribed at the receding outer boundary. A time-dependent diffusive state is possible and may lose stability through the Marangoni mechanism due to surface tension dependence on solvent concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this microscale problem). A frozen-time or quasisteady state linear stability analysis is performed to compute the critical Reynolds number and degree of surface harmonics, as well as the maximum growth rate of perturbations at specified parameters. The development of maximum growth rates in time was also computed by solving the initial value problem with random initial conditions. Results from both approaches are in good agreement except at short times where there is dependence on initial conditions. The physical problem models the manufacturing of spherical shells used as targets in inertial confinement fusion experiments where perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition. It is proposed that the Marangoni instability might be the source of observed surface roughness. Comparisons with the available experiments are made with reasonable qualitative and quantitative agreement.
Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico
Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto
2017-04-01
Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.
The convection electric field in auroral substorms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gjerløv, Jesper Wittendorff; Hoffman, R.A.
2001-01-01
Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) electric field and ion drift data are used in a statistical study of the ionospheric convection electric field in bulge-type auroral substorms. Thirty-one individual DE 2 substorm crossings were carefully selected and organized by the use of global auroral images obtained...... this database enabled us to compile a model of the ionospheric convection electric field. The characteristics of the premidnight convection reversal show a pronounced local time dependency. Far west of the surge it is a fairly well defined point reversal or convection shear. Approaching the surge and within...... the surge it is a region of weak electric fields increasing in width toward midnight that separates regions of equatorward and poleward electric fields. Therefore we adopt the term Harang region rather than the Harang discontinuity for the premidnight convection reversal. A relatively narrow convection...
The Australian Monsoon and its Mesoscale Convective Systems
Mapes, Brian E.
1992-01-01
The 1987 Australian monsoon was observed with satellites, rawinsondes, radar and aircraft. These data are presented, with theory filling the gaps, in illustration of its dynamics. The engine of the monsoon is its embedded mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Ten MCSs were explored with airborne Doppler radar. They all exhibited multicellular convection, in lines or arcs along the edges of cold pools, aging and evolving into areas of stratiform precipitation. This temporal evolution can be divided into three stages: "convective," "intermediary," and "stratiform." Doppler radar divergence profiles for each stage show remarkable consistency from one MCS to the next. Convective areas had low-level convergence, with its peak elevated off the surface, and divergence above ~8 km altitude. Intermediary areas had very little divergence through the lower troposphere, but strong convergence near 10 km altitude, associated with upper-tropospheric ascent. Stratiform areas had midlevel convergence between divergent layers. These divergence profiles indicate thermal forcing of the monsoon by the convection, in a form more useful than heating profiles. The response of the atmosphere to thermal forcing is considered in chapter 2. Thermal disturbances travel through a stratified fluid at a speed proportional to their vertical depth. A heat source with complex vertical structure excites disturbances ("buoyancy bores"), of many depths, that separate themselves out with distance from the heat source. Hence the deeper components of a heat source can be found at greater distances from the heat source, at any given moment and also in the limit of long time in a rotating or dissipative fluid. Low-level dynamical processes initiate deep convection within the active cyclonic areas of the monsoon trough, despite the warm core aloft and the consequent (small) decrease in CAPE. In 1987, four tropical cyclones were generated in the monsoon by this runaway positive feedback loop. Two forcing
Transitions Between Convective Patterns in Chemical Fronts
Wu, Y.; Vasquez, D. A.; Edwards, Boyd F.; Wilder, J. W.
1995-01-01
We present a theory for the transition from nonaxisymmetric to axisymmetric convection in iodate-arsenous acid reaction fronts propagating in a vertical slab. The transition takes place away from the onset of convection, where a convectionless flat front becomes unstable to a nonaxisymmetric convective front. The transition is studied by numerically solving a reaction-diffusion equation coupled with nonlinear hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional slab.
Natural convection with combined driving forces
Ostrach, S.
1980-01-01
The problem of free and natural convection with combined driving forces is considered in general and all possible configurations are identified. Dimensionless parameters are discussed in order to help categorize the various problems, and existing work is critically evaluated. Four distinct cases are considered for conventional convection and for the situation when the body force and the density gradient are parallel but opposed. Considerable emphasis is given to unstable convection in horizontal layers.
Convection of Moist Saturated Air: Analytical Study
Robert Zakinyan; Arthur Zakinyan; Roman Ryzhkov; Kristina Avanesyan
2016-01-01
In the present work, the steady-state stationary thermal convection of moist saturated air in a lower atmosphere has been studied theoretically. Thermal convection was considered without accounting for the Coriolis force, and with only the vertical temperature gradient. The analytical solution of geophysical fluid dynamics equations, which generalizes the formulation of the moist convection problem, is obtained in the two-dimensional case. The stream function is derived in the Boussinesq appr...
New patterns of centrifugally driven thermal convection
Jaletzky, M.; Busse, F. H.
2000-01-01
An experimental study is described of convection driven by thermal buoyancy in the annular gap between two corotating coaxial cylinders, heated from the outside and cooled from the inside. Steady convection patterns of the hexaroll and of the knot type are observed in the case of high Prandtl number fluids, for which the Coriolis force is sufficiently small. Oblique rolls and phase turbulence in the form of irregular patterns of convection can also be observed in wide regions of the parameter...
A dynamically adaptive lattice Boltzmann method for thermal convection problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feldhusen Kai
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Utilizing the Boussinesq approximation, a double-population incompressible thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM for forced and natural convection in two and three space dimensions is developed and validated. A block-structured dynamic adaptive mesh refinement (AMR procedure tailored for the LBM is applied to enable computationally efficient simulations of moderate to high Rayleigh number flows which are characterized by a large scale disparity in boundary layers and free stream flow. As test cases, the analytically accessible problem of a two-dimensional (2D forced convection flow through two porous plates and the non-Cartesian configuration of a heated rotating cylinder are considered. The objective of the latter is to advance the boundary conditions for an accurate treatment of curved boundaries and to demonstrate the effect on the solution. The effectiveness of the overall approach is demonstrated for the natural convection benchmark of a 2D cavity with differentially heated walls at Rayleigh numbers from 103 up to 108. To demonstrate the benefit of the employed AMR procedure for three-dimensional (3D problems, results from the natural convection in a cubic cavity at Rayleigh numbers from 103 up to 105 are compared with benchmark results.
Modeling of laminar forced convection in spherical- pebble packed beds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadad, Yaser; Jafarpur, Khosrow
2012-01-01
There are many parameters that have significant effects on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds, including Reynolds and Prandtl numbers of flow, porosity, pebble geometry, local flow conditions, wall and end effects. In addition, there have been many experimental investigations on forced convection heat transfer in packed beds and each have studied the effect of some of these parameters. Yet, there is not a reliable correlation that includes the effect of main parameters: at the same time, the prediction of precise correct limits for very low and high Reynolds numbers is off hand. In this article a general well-known model of convection heat transfer from isothermal bodies, next to some previous reliable experimental data has been used as a basis for a more comprehensive and accurate correlation to calculate the laminar constant temperature pebble-fluid forced convection heat transfer in a homogeneous saturated bed with spherical pebbles. Finally, for corroboration, the present results are compared with previous works and show a very good agreement for laminar flows at any Prandtl number and all porosities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilian Govone
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the second law performance of double diffusive forced convection in microreactors with the inclusion of nanofluid and radiation effects. The investigated microreactors consist of a single microchannel, fully filled by a porous medium. The transport of heat and mass are analysed by including the thick walls and a first order, catalytic chemical reaction on the internal surfaces of the microchannel. Two sets of thermal boundary conditions are considered on the external surfaces of the microchannel; (1 constant temperature and (2 constant heat flux boundary condition on the lower wall and convective boundary condition on the upper wall. The local thermal non-equilibrium approach is taken to thermally analyse the porous section of the system. The mass dispersion equation is coupled with the transport of heat in the nanofluid flow through consideration of Soret effect. The problem is analytically solved and illustrations of the temperature fields, Nusselt number, total entropy generation rate and performance evaluation criterion (PEC are provided. It is shown that the radiation effect tends to modify the thermal behaviour within the porous section of the system. The radiation parameter also reduces the overall temperature of the system. It is further demonstrated that, expectedly, the nanoparticles reduce the temperature of the system and increase the Nusselt number. The total entropy generation rate and consequently PEC shows a strong relation with radiation parameter and volumetric concentration of nanoparticles.
Laser speckle imaging based on photothermally driven convection
Regan, Caitlin; Choi, Bernard
2016-02-01
Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is an interferometric technique that provides information about the relative speed of moving scatterers in a sample. Photothermal LSI overcomes limitations in depth resolution faced by conventional LSI by incorporating an excitation pulse to target absorption by hemoglobin within the vascular network. Here we present results from experiments designed to determine the mechanism by which photothermal LSI decreases speckle contrast. We measured the impact of mechanical properties on speckle contrast, as well as the spatiotemporal temperature dynamics and bulk convective motion occurring during photothermal LSI. Our collective data strongly support the hypothesis that photothermal LSI achieves a transient reduction in speckle contrast due to bulk motion associated with thermally driven convection. The ability of photothermal LSI to image structures below a scattering medium may have important preclinical and clinical applications.
Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Zhang, Yuwei; Giangrande, Scott E.; Li, Zhanqing; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jian; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Braga, Ramon C.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Feng, Zhe; Gao, Wenhua; Gomes, Helber B.; Mei, Fan; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.
2018-01-25
Aerosol-cloud interaction remains the largest uncertainty in climate projections. Ultrafine aerosol particles (UAP; size <50nm) are considered too small to serve as cloud condensation nuclei conventionally. However, this study provides observational evidence to accompany insights from numerical simulations to support that deep convective clouds (DCCs) over Amazon have strong capability of nucleating UAP from an urban source and forming greater numbers of droplets, because fast drop coalescence in these DCCs reduces drop surface area available for condensation, leading to high vapor supersaturation. The additional droplets subsequently decrease supersaturation and release more condensational latent heating, a dominant contributor to convection intensification, whereas enhanced latent heat from ice-related processes plays a secondary role. Therefore, the addition of anthropogenic UAP may play a much greater role in modulating clouds than previously believed over the Amazon region and possibly in other relatively pristine regions such as maritime and forest locations.
Isomap nonlinear dimensionality reduction and bimodality of Asian monsoon convection
Hannachi, A.; Turner, A. G.
2013-04-01
It is known that the empirical orthogonal function method is unable to detect possible nonlinear structure in climate data. Here, isometric feature mapping (Isomap), as a tool for nonlinear dimensionality reduction, is applied to 1958-2001 ERA-40 sea-level pressure anomalies to study nonlinearity of the Asian summer monsoon intraseasonal variability. Using the leading two Isomap time series, the probability density function is shown to be bimodal. A two-dimensional bivariate Gaussian mixture model is then applied to identify the monsoon phases, the obtained regimes representing enhanced and suppressed phases, respectively. The relationship with the large-scale seasonal mean monsoon indicates that the frequency of monsoon regime occurrence is significantly perturbed in agreement with conceptual ideas, with preference for enhanced convection on intraseasonal time scales during large-scale strong monsoons. Trend analysis suggests a shift in concentration of monsoon convection, with less emphasis on South Asia and more on the East China Sea.
Edge plasma density convection during ICRH on Tore Supra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becoulet, M.; Colas, L.; Gunn, J.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Becoulet, A.; Pecoul, S.; Heuraux, S.
2001-11-01
The 2D edge plasma density distribution around ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennae is studied experimentally and numerically in the tokamak Tore Supra (TS). A local density decrease in front of the loaded ICRH antenna ('pump-out' effect) is demonstrated by Langmuir probe measurements in a low recycling regime. An up-down asymmetry in the heat-flux and in the antenna erosion is also observed, and is associated with poloidal variations of the local density. These density redistributions are ascribed to an ExB convection process linked with RF-sheaths. To assess this interpretation, the 2D transport code CELLS was developed for modeling the density distribution near an antenna. The code takes into account perpendicular diffusion, parallel transport and convection in RF-sheath-driven potentials given by the 3D-antenna code ICANT. The strong density differences obtained in simulations reproduce up-down asymmetries of the heat fluxes. (authors)
Hydromagnetic free convection currents effects on boundary layer thickness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwanza, J.K., E-mail: kwanzakioko@yahoo.co [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya); Marigi, E.M.; Kinyanjui, M. [Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, P.O. Box 62000-00200, Nairobi (Kenya)
2010-06-15
In this study we discuss an unsteady free convection MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate. We have considered the flow in the presence of a strong magnetic field and therefore the electromagnetic force is very large. This brings in the phenomenon of Hall and Ion-slip currents. The effects of these two parameters together with that of viscous dissipation and radiation absorption among others on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented. The profiles are presented graphically. As the partial differential equations governing this problem are highly non-linear they are solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is found that in presence of heating of the plate by free convection current the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases.
Hydromagnetic free convection currents effects on boundary layer thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwanza, J.K.; Marigi, E.M.; Kinyanjui, M.
2010-01-01
In this study we discuss an unsteady free convection MHD flow past semi-infinite vertical porous plate. We have considered the flow in the presence of a strong magnetic field and therefore the electromagnetic force is very large. This brings in the phenomenon of Hall and Ion-slip currents. The effects of these two parameters together with that of viscous dissipation and radiation absorption among others on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are presented. The profiles are presented graphically. As the partial differential equations governing this problem are highly non-linear they are solved numerically by a finite difference method. It is found that in presence of heating of the plate by free convection current the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases.
Titan Balloon Convection Model, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovative research effort is directed at determining, quantitatively, the convective heat transfer coefficients applicable to a Montgolfiere balloon operating...
REVERSALS IN THE 6-CELLS CONVECTION DRIVEN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Vodinchar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We describe the large-scale model geodynamo, which based on indirect data of inhomogeneities in the density of the Earth’s core. Convection structure is associated with spherical harmonic Y24 , which defines the basic poloidal component of velocity. Coriolis drift of this mode determines the toroidal component of velocity. Thus, 6 convective cells are formed. The model takes into account the feedback effect of the magnetic field on convection. It was ascertained that the model contains stable regimes of field generation. The velocity of convection and the dipole component of the magnetic field are close to the observed ones.
Effects of external environment on thermocapillary convection of high prandtl number fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Ruquan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of external environment on thermocapillary convection in high Prandtl number (Pr=68 liquid. The geometric model of physical problem is that the the liquid bridge surrounded by ambient air under zero or ground gravity. The interface velocity, temperature, heat flux and flow pattern in the liquid bridge are presented and discussed under different conditions by changing the external environment. The buoyancy convection produces a symmetrical vortex in the liquid bridge. The ambient air affects the distributions of the temperature velocity and heat flux on the interface by changing the thermocapillary convection.
Ivins, E. R.; Unti, T. W. J.; Phillips, R. J.
1982-01-01
It has long been known that the earth behaves viscoelastically. Viscoelasticity may be of importance in two aspects of mantle convection, including time-dependent behavior and local storage of recoverable work. The present investigation makes use of thermal convection in a box as a prototype of mantle flow. It is demonstrated that recoverable work can be important to the local mechanical energy balance in the descending lithosphere. It is shown that, even when assuming large viscoelastic parameters, an inherent time-dependence of viscoelastic convection appears only in local exchanges of mechanical energy. There is no strong exchange between buoyant potential energy and recoverable strain energy in the Rayleigh number range investigated. The investigation is mainly concerned with viscoelastic effects occurring on a buoyant time scale. It is found that viscoelastic effects have a negligible influence on the long term thermal energetics of mantle convection.
Interhemispheric Asymmetry of the Sunward Plasma Flows for Strongly Dominant IMF BZ > 0
Yakymenko, K. N.; Koustov, A. V.; Fiori, R. A. D.
2018-01-01
Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) convection maps obtained simultaneously in both hemispheres are averaged to infer polar cap ionospheric flow patterns under strongly dominant positive interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz component. The data set consisted of winter observations in the Northern Hemisphere simultaneously with summer observations in the Southern Hemisphere. Long-lasting high-latitude dayside reverse convection cells are shown to have faster sunward flows at near-magnetic noon hours in the summer/Southern Hemisphere. Sunward flows typically deviate from the midnight-noon meridian toward 10-11 h of magnetic local time in the summer/Southern Hemisphere and are more aligned with the midnight-noon meridian in the winter/Northern Hemisphere. Flow deviations in the winter/Northern Hemisphere can be both toward prenoon and postnoon hours, and there is no clear relationship between flow deviation and the IMF By component. No strong preference for the sunward flow occurrence depending on the IMF Bx polarity was found. In addition, the rate of the sunward flow speed increase in response to an increase in driving conditions was found to be comparable for the IMF Bx > 0 and Bx < 0.
Scale analysis of convective clouds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Micha Gryschka
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The size distribution of cumulus clouds due to shallow and deep convection is analyzed using satellite pictures, LES model results and data from the German rain radar network. The size distributions found can be described by simple power laws as has also been proposed for other cloud data in the literature. As the observed precipitation at ground stations is finally determined by cloud numbers in an area and individual sizes and rain rates of single clouds, the cloud size distributions might be used for developing empirical precipitation forecasts or for validating results from cloud resolving models being introduced to routine weather forecasts.
Characterizing Convection in Stellar Atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanner, Joel; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Robinson, Frank
2011-01-01
We perform 3D radiative hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of convection in the superadiabatic layer of stars. The simulations show differences in both the stratification and turbulent quantities for different types of stars. We extract turbulent pressure and eddy sizes, as well as the T-τ relation for different stars and find that they are sensitive to the energy flux and gravity. We also show that contrary to what is usually assumed in the field of stellar atmospheres, the structure and gas dynamics of simulations of turbulent atmospheres cannot be parameterized with T eff and log(g) alone.
Wing, A. A.; Camargo, S. J.; Sobel, A. H.
2015-12-01
"Self-aggregation" is a mode of convective organization found in idealized numerical simulations, in which there is a spontaneous transition from randomly distributed to organized convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. Self-aggregation has primarily been studied in a non-rotating framework, but it has been hypothesized to be important to tropical cyclogenesis. In numerical simulations of tropical cyclones, a broad vortex or saturated column is often used to initialize the circulation. Here, we instead allow a circulation to develop spontaneously from a homogeneous environment in 3-d cloud-resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a rotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature. The goals of this study are two-fold: to study tropical cyclogenesis in an unperturbed environment free from the influence of a prescribed initial vortex or external disturbances, and to compare cyclogenesis to non-rotating self-aggregation. We quantify the feedbacks leading to tropical cyclogenesis using a variance budget equation for the vertically integrated frozen moist static energy. In the initial development of a broad circulation, the feedback processes are similar to the initial phase of non-rotating aggregation. Sensitivity tests in which the degree of interactive radiation is modified are also performed to determine the extent to which the radiative feedbacks that are essential to non-rotating self-aggregation are important for tropical cyclogenesis. Finally, we examine the evolution of the rotational and divergent flow, to determine the point at which rotation becomes important and the cyclogenesis process begins to differ from non-rotating aggregation.
A rotating annulus driven by localized convective forcing: a new atmosphere-like experiment
Scolan, Hélène; Read, Peter L.
2017-06-01
We present an experimental study of flows in a cylindrical rotating annulus convectively forced by local heating in an annular ring at the bottom near the external wall and via a cooled circular disk near the axis at the top surface of the annulus. This new configuration is distinct from the classical thermally driven annulus analogue of the atmosphere circulation, in which thermal forcing is applied uniformly on the sidewalls, but with a similar aim to investigate the baroclinic instability of a rotating, stratified flow subjected to zonally symmetric forcing. Two vertically and horizontally displaced heat sources/sinks are arranged, so that in the absence of background rotation, statically unstable Rayleigh-Bénard convection would be induced above the source and beneath the sink, thereby relaxing strong constraints placed on background temperature gradients in previous experimental configurations based on the conventional rotating annulus. This better emulates local vigorous convection in the tropics and polar regions of the atmosphere while also allowing stably-stratified baroclinic motion in the central zone of the annulus, as in mid-latitude regions in the Earth's atmosphere. Regimes of flow are identified, depending mainly upon control parameters that in turn depend on rotation rate and the strength of differential heating. Several regimes exhibit baroclinically unstable flows which are qualitatively similar to those previously observed in the classical thermally driven annulus. However, in contrast to the classical configuration, they typically exhibit more spatio-temporal complexity. Thus, several regimes of flow demonstrate the equilibrated co-existence of, and interaction between, free convection and baroclinic wave modes. These new features were not previously observed in the classical annulus and validate the new setup as a tool for exploring fundamental atmosphere-like dynamics in a more realistic framework. Thermal structure in the fluid is
A ubiquitous ice size bias in simulations of tropical deep convection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. W. Stanford
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The High Altitude Ice Crystals – High Ice Water Content (HAIC-HIWC joint field campaign produced aircraft retrievals of total condensed water content (TWC, hydrometeor particle size distributions (PSDs, and vertical velocity (w in high ice water content regions of mature and decaying tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSs. The resulting dataset is used here to explore causes of the commonly documented high bias in radar reflectivity within cloud-resolving simulations of deep convection. This bias has been linked to overly strong simulated convective updrafts lofting excessive condensate mass but is also modulated by parameterizations of hydrometeor size distributions, single particle properties, species separation, and microphysical processes. Observations are compared with three Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations of an observed MCS using different microphysics parameterizations while controlling for w, TWC, and temperature. Two popular bulk microphysics schemes (Thompson and Morrison and one bin microphysics scheme (fast spectral bin microphysics are compared. For temperatures between −10 and −40 °C and TWC > 1 g m−3, all microphysics schemes produce median mass diameters (MMDs that are generally larger than observed, and the precipitating ice species that controls this size bias varies by scheme, temperature, and w. Despite a much greater number of samples, all simulations fail to reproduce observed high-TWC conditions ( > 2 g m−3 between −20 and −40 °C in which only a small fraction of condensate mass is found in relatively large particle sizes greater than 1 mm in diameter. Although more mass is distributed to large particle sizes relative to those observed across all schemes when controlling for temperature, w, and TWC, differences with observations are significantly variable between the schemes tested. As a result, this bias is hypothesized to partly result from
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Convective heat transfer for fluids passing through aluminum foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dyga Roman
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the experimental findings within heat transfer when heating up air, water and oil streams which are passed through a duct with internal structural packing elements in the form of metal foams. Three types of aluminum foams with different cell sizes, porosity specifications and thermal conductivities were used in the study. The test data were collected and they made it possible to establish the effect of the foam geometry, properties of fluids and flow hydrodynamic conditions on the convective heat transfer process from the heating surface to the fluid flowing by (wetting that surface. The foam was found to be involved in heat transfer to a limited extent only. Heat is predominantly transferred directly from the duct wall to a fluid, and intensity of convective heat transfer is controlled by the wall effects. The influence of foam structural parameters, like cell size and/or porosity, becomes more clearly apparent under laminar flow conditions.
Facilitating atmosphere oxidation through mantle convection
Lee, K. K. M.; Gu, T.; Creasy, N.; Li, M.; McCammon, C. A.; Girard, J.
2017-12-01
Earth's mantle connects the surface with the deep interior through convection, and the evolution of its redox state will affect the distribution of siderophile elements, recycling of refractory isotopes, and the oxidation state of the atmosphere through volcanic outgassing. While the rise of oxygen in the atmosphere, i.e., the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred 2.4 billion years ago (Ga), multiple lines of evidence point to oxygen production in the atmosphere well before 2.4 Ga. In contrast to the fluctuations of atmospheric oxygen, vanadium in Archean mantle lithosphere suggests that the mantle redox state has been constant for 3.5 Ga. Indeed, the connection between the redox state of the deep Earth and the atmosphere is enigmatic as is the effect of redox state on mantle dynamics. Here we show a redox-induced density contrast affects mantle convection and may potentially cause the oxidation of the upper mantle. We compressed two synthetic enstatite chondritic samples with identical bulk compositions but formed under different oxygen fugacities (fO2) to lower mantle pressures and temperatures and find Al2O3 forms its own phase separate from the dominant bridgmanite phase in the more reduced composition, in contrast to a more Al-rich, bridgmanite-dominated assemblage for a more oxidized starting composition. As a result, the reduced material is 1-1.5% denser than the oxidized material. Subsequent experiments on other plausible mantle compositions, which differ only in redox state of the starting glass materials, show similar results: distinct mineral assemblages and density contrasts up to 4%. Our geodynamic simulations suggest that such a density contrast causes a rapid ascent and accumulation of oxidized material in the upper mantle, with descent of the denser reduced material to the core-mantle boundary. The resulting heterogeneous redox conditions in Earth's interior may have contributed to the large low-shear velocity provinces in the lower mantle and the
Convective nature of the planimetric instability in meandering river dynamics.
Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca
2006-02-01
The convective nature of the linear instability of meandering river dynamics is analytically demonstrated and the corresponding Green's function is derived. The wave packet due to impulsive disturbance migrates along a river either downstream or upstream, depending on the subresonant or superresonant conditions. The influence of the parameters that govern the meandering process is shown and the role of the fluid dynamic detail used to describe the morphodynamic problem is discussed. A numerical simulation of the river planimetry is also developed.
Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.
1986-01-01
An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references
Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.
2006-01-01
The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented
Tectonic predictions with mantle convection models
Coltice, Nicolas; Shephard, Grace E.
2018-04-01
Over the past 15 yr, numerical models of convection in Earth's mantle have made a leap forward: they can now produce self-consistent plate-like behaviour at the surface together with deep mantle circulation. These digital tools provide a new window into the intimate connections between plate tectonics and mantle dynamics, and can therefore be used for tectonic predictions, in principle. This contribution explores this assumption. First, initial conditions at 30, 20, 10 and 0 Ma are generated by driving a convective flow with imposed plate velocities at the surface. We then compute instantaneous mantle flows in response to the guessed temperature fields without imposing any boundary conditions. Plate boundaries self-consistently emerge at correct locations with respect to reconstructions, except for small plates close to subduction zones. As already observed for other types of instantaneous flow calculations, the structure of the top boundary layer and upper-mantle slab is the dominant character that leads to accurate predictions of surface velocities. Perturbations of the rheological parameters have little impact on the resulting surface velocities. We then compute fully dynamic model evolution from 30 and 10 to 0 Ma, without imposing plate boundaries or plate velocities. Contrary to instantaneous calculations, errors in kinematic predictions are substantial, although the plate layout and kinematics in several areas remain consistent with the expectations for the Earth. For these calculations, varying the rheological parameters makes a difference for plate boundary evolution. Also, identified errors in initial conditions contribute to first-order kinematic errors. This experiment shows that the tectonic predictions of dynamic models over 10 My are highly sensitive to uncertainties of rheological parameters and initial temperature field in comparison to instantaneous flow calculations. Indeed, the initial conditions and the rheological parameters can be good enough
Mathematical Modelling of Force Convection in a Two-Phase Thermosyphon in Conjugate Formulation
Nurpeiis, Atlant Ediluly; Nee, Aleksandr Eduardovich
2016-01-01
A nonlinear non-stationary problem of the conductive-convective heat transfer is addressed (under forced convection conditions) in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross-section. The thermal energy supply is carried out through the lower horizontal border. The mathematical model is formulated in dimensionless variables of “velocity vorticity vector – current function – temperature”. The current and temperature distribution lines are obtained, illustrating the effect of the Reynolds number on t...
Non-Boussinesq Dissolution-Driven Convection in Porous Media
Amooie, M. A.; Soltanian, M. R.; Moortgat, J.
2017-12-01
Geological carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers has been increasingly recognized as a feasible technology to stabilize the atmospheric carbon concentrations and subsequently mitigate the global warming. Solubility trapping is one of the most effective storage mechanisms, which is associated initially with diffusion-driven slow dissolution of gaseous CO2 into the aqueous phase, followed by density-driven convective mixing of CO2 throughout the aquifer. The convection includes both diffusion and fast advective transport of the dissolved CO2. We study the fluid dynamics of CO2 convection in the underlying single aqueous-phase region. Two modeling approaches are employed to define the system: (i) a constant-concentration condition for CO2 in aqueous phase at the top boundary, and (ii) a sufficiently low, constant injection-rate for CO2 from top boundary. The latter allows for thermodynamically consistent evolution of the CO2 composition and the aqueous phase density against the rate at which the dissolved CO2 convects. Here we accurately model the full nonlinear phase behavior of brine-CO2 mixture in a confined domain altered by dissolution and compressibility, while relaxing the common Boussinesq approximation. We discover new flow regimes and present quantitative scaling relations for global characters of spreading, mixing, and dissolution flux in two- and three-dimensional media for the both model types. We then revisit the universal Sherwood-Rayleigh scaling that is under debate for porous media convective flows. Our findings confirm the sublinear scaling for the constant-concentration case, while reconciling the classical linear scaling for the constant-injection model problem. The results provide a detailed perspective into how the available modeling strategies affect the prediction ability for the total amount of CO2 dissolved in the long term within saline aquifers of different permeabilities.
Self-aggregation of convection in long channel geometry
Wing, Allison; Cronin, Timothy
2015-04-01
Self-aggregation is the spontaneous transition in numerical simulations from randomly distributed convection to organized convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. We explore the influence of domain geometry on the mechanisms and temperature-dependence of self-aggregation of tropical convection. Specifically, the System for Atmospheric Modeling is used to perform 3-d simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a non-rotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature. The results of simulations employing a highly elongated 3-d channel domain, in which self-aggregation takes the form of multiple moist and dry bands, are compared to that of a square domain, in which self-aggregation takes the form of a single moist cluster. For both domain types, and across a range of temperatures, we characterize the fundamental physical mechanisms that lead to self-aggregation as well as its growth rate and spatial scale. The variance budget equation for the vertically integrated frozen moist static energy is used to quantify the mechanisms governing self-aggregation and characterize its time scale. We find that diabatic processes dominate the evolution of self-aggregation in the elongated channel simulations. In contrast, in the square domain simulations, similar diabatic processes dominate the initial stages of aggregation but up-gradient advection by the circulation plays a role in the later stages. Self-aggregation occurs across a much wider range of temperatures with elongated channel geometry than with square geometry. As the sea surface temperature is increased in the channel simulations, the aggregated state is characterized by smaller spatial scales and more regularity. An advantage of the channel geometry is that a separation distance between convectively active regions can be defined, which is a prerequisite for developing a spatial scaling theory.
A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa
Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.
2017-09-01
Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.
<strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Torben
2009-01-01
Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses the rehabilitation of important chronic conditions from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method: Firstly, Ne...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines [i] This part...
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...
Improving the simulation of convective dust storms in regional-to-global models
Foroutan, Hosein; Pleim, Jonathan E.
2017-09-01
Convective dust storms have significant impacts on atmospheric conditions and air quality and are a major source of dust uplift in summertime. However, regional-to-global models generally do not accurately simulate these storms, a limitation that can be attributed to (1) using a single mean value for wind speed per grid box, i.e., not accounting for subgrid wind variability and (2) using convective parametrizations that poorly simulate cold pool outflows. This study aims to improve the simulation of convective dust storms by tackling these two issues. Specifically, we incorporate a probability distribution function for surface wind in each grid box to account for subgrid wind variability due to dry and moist convection. Furthermore, we use lightning assimilation to increase the accuracy of the convective parameterization and simulated cold pool outflows. This updated model framework is used to simulate a massive convective dust storm that hit Phoenix, AZ, on 6 July 2011. The results show that lightning assimilation provides a more realistic simulation of precipitation features, including timing and location, and the resulting cold pool outflows that generated the dust storm. When those results are combined with a dust model that accounts for subgrid wind variability, the prediction of dust uplift and concentrations are considerably improved compared to the default model results. This modeling framework could potentially improve the simulation of convective dust storms in global models, regional climate simulations, and retrospective air quality studies.
Zhang, G. J.; Song, X.
2017-12-01
The double ITCZ bias has been a long-standing problem in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. A previous study indicates that uncertainty in the projection of global warming due to doubling of CO2 is closely related to the double ITCZ biases in global climate models. Thus, reducing the double ITCZ biases is not only important to getting the current climate features right, but also important to narrowing the uncertainty in future climate projection. In this work, we will first review the possible factors contributing to the ITCZ problem. Then, we will focus on atmospheric convection, presenting recent progress in alleviating the double ITCZ problem and its sensitivity to details of convective parameterization, including trigger conditions for convection onset, convective memory, entrainment rate, updraft model and closure in the NCAR CESM1. These changes together can result in dramatic improvements in the simulation of ITCZ. Results based on both atmospheric only and coupled simulations with incremental changes of convection scheme will be shown to demonstrate the roles of convection parameterization and coupled interaction between convection, atmospheric circulation and ocean circulation in the simulation of ITCZ.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oba, T. [Department of Space and Astronautical Science/SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Iida, Y. [Department of Science and Technology/Kwansei Gakuin University, Gakuen 2-1, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shimizu, T., E-mail: oba.takayoshi@ac.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)
2017-02-10
The solar photosphere is the visible surface of the Sun, where many bright granules, surrounded by narrow dark intergranular lanes, are observed everywhere. The granular pattern is a manifestation of convective motion at the photospheric level, but its velocity structure in the height direction is poorly understood observationally. Applying bisector analysis to a photospheric spectral line recorded by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope, we derived the velocity structure of the convective motion in granular regions and intergranular lanes separately. The amplitude of motion of the convective material decreases from 0.65 to 0.40 km s{sup −1} as the material rises in granules, whereas the amplitude of motion increases from 0.30 to 0.50 km s{sup −1} as it descends in intergranular lanes. These values are significantly larger than those obtained in previous studies using bisector analysis. The acceleration of descending materials with depth is not predicted from the convectively stable condition in a stratified atmosphere. Such convective instability can be developed more efficiently by radiative cooling and/or a gas pressure gradient, which can control the dynamical behavior of convective material in intergranular lanes. Our analysis demonstrated that bisector analysis is a useful method for investigating the long-term dynamic behavior of convective material when a large number of pixels is available. In addition, one example is the temporal evolution of granular fragmentation, in which downflowing material develops gradually from a higher layer downward.
Hameg, Slimane; Lazri, Mourad; Ameur, Soltane
2016-07-01
This paper presents a new algorithm to classify convective clouds and determine their intensity, based on cloud physical properties retrieved from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The convective rainfall events at 15 min, 4 × 5 km spatial resolution from 2006 to 2012 are analysed over northern Algeria. The convective rain classification methodology makes use of the relationship between cloud spectral characteristics and cloud physical properties such as cloud water path (CWP), cloud phase (CP) and cloud top height (CTH). For this classification, a statistical method based on `naive Bayes classifier' is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying `Bayes' theorem with strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classify the rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria. The results indicate an encouraging performance of the new algorithm for intensity differentiation of convective clouds using SEVIRI data.
Ostrowski, Ziemowit; Rojczyk, Marek
2017-11-01
The energy balance and heat exchange for newborn baby in radiant warmer environment are considered. The present study was performed to assess the body dry heat loss from an infant in radiant warmer, using copper cast anthropomorphic thermal manikin and controlled climate chamber laboratory setup. The total body dry heat losses were measured for varying manikin surface temperatures (nine levels between 32.5 °C and 40.1 °C) and ambient air temperatures (five levels between 23.5 °C and 29.7 °C). Radiant heat losses were estimated based on measured climate chamber wall temperatures. After subtracting radiant part, resulting convective heat loses were compared with computed ones (based on Nu correlations for common geometries). Simplified geometry of newborn baby was represented as: (a) single cylinder and (b) weighted sum of 5 cylinders and sphere. The predicted values are significantly overestimated relative to measured ones by: 28.8% (SD 23.5%) for (a) and 40.9% (SD 25.2%) for (b). This showed that use of adopted general purpose correlations for approximation of convective heat losses of newborn baby can lead to substantial errors. Hence, new Nu number correlating equation is proposed. The mean error introduced by proposed correlation was reduced to 1.4% (SD 11.97%), i.e. no significant overestimation. The thermal manikin appears to provide a precise method for the noninvasive assessment of thermal conditions in neonatal care.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.I.; Sha, W.T.; Kasza, K.E.
1982-01-01
As a result of the uncertainties in the understanding of the influence of thermal-buoyancy effects on the flow and heat transfer in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor heat exchangers and steam generators under off-normal operating conditions, an extensive experimental program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to eliminate these uncertainties. Concurrently, a parallel analytical effort is also being pursued to develop a three-dimensional transient computer code (COMMIX-IHX) to study and predict heat exchanger performance under mixed, forced, and free convection conditions. This paper presents computational results from a heat exchanger simulation and compares them with the results from a test case exhibiting strong thermal buoyancy effects. Favorable agreement between experiment and code prediction is obtained
Convective mixing and accretion in white dwarfs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koester, D.
1976-01-01
The evolution of convection zones in cooling white dwarfs with helium envelopes and outer hydrogen layers is calculated with a complete stellar evolution code. It is shown that white dwarfs of spectral type DB cannot be formed from DA stars by convective mixing. However, for cooler temperatures (Tsub(e) [de
Diffusion in fractal wakes and convective thermoelectric flows
Vila, Teresa; Tellez, Jackson; Sanchez, Jesus Maria; Sotillos, Laura; Diez, Margarita; Redondo, Jose Manuel
2014-05-01
We calculate diffusion and scaling of the velocity ald vorticity in a thermoelectric driven heating and cooling experimental device in order to map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure and complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [1-3]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers,[4-6] Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. Diffusion is measured in the transition from a homogeneous linearly stratified fluid to a cellular or layered structure by means of stirring. Patterns arise by setting up a convective flow generated by a buoyant heat flux [5,6]. The experiments described here investigate high Prandtl number mixing using brine and fresh water in order to form a density interface and low Prandtl number mixing with temperature gradients. Using ESS and selfsimilarity structures in the velocity and vorticity fieds and intermittency [2] that forms in the flow is related to mixing and stiring. The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of the plumes and jets are examined for different configurations. We also present a detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or nonmixing front occurring at a density interface due to gravitational acceleration are analyzed considering the fractal and spectral structure of the
The response of a simulated Mesoscale Convective System to increased aerosol pollution
Clavner, Michal
This work focuses on the impacts of aerosols on the total precipitation amount, rates and spatial distribution of precipitation produced by a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS), as well as the characteristics of a derecho event. Past studies have shown that the impacts on MCS-produced precipitation to changes in aerosol concentration are strongly dependent on environmental conditions, primarily humidity and environmental wind shear. Changes in aerosol concentrations were found to alter MCS-precipitation production directly by modifying precipitation processes and indirectly by affecting the efficiency of the storm's self-propagation. Observational and numerical studies have been conducted that have examined the dynamics responsible for the generation of widespread convectively-induced windstorms, primarily focusing on environmental conditions and the MCS features that generate a derecho event. While the sensitivity of the formation of bow-echoes, the radar signature associated with derecho events, to changes in microphysics has been examined, a study on a derecho-producing MCS characteristics to aerosol concentrations has not. In this study different aerosol concentrations and their effects on precipitation and a derecho produced by an MCS are examined by simulating the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS. The MCS was simulated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated aerosol and microphysical parameterizations. Three simulations were conducted that varied in their initial aerosol concentration, distribution and hygroscopicity as determined by their emission sources. The first simulation contained aerosols from only natural sources and the second with aerosols sourced from both natural and anthropogenic emissions The third simulation contained the same aerosol distribution as in the second simulation, however multiplied by a factor of 5 in order to represent a highly polluted scenario. In all three of the
Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems
Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.
2016-06-01
Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.
Axisymmetric Marangoni convection in microencapsulation
Subramanian, Pravin; Zebib, Abdelfattah; McQuillan, Barry
2005-07-01
Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by microencapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluorobenzene (FB)) and a solute (polystyrene (PAMS)) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number solutocapillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made.
Convective evaporation of vertical films.
Boulogne, François; Dollet, Benjamin
2018-02-28
Motivated by the evaporation of soap films, which has a significant effect on their lifetime, we performed an experimental study on the evaporation of vertical surfaces with model systems based on hydrogels. From the analogy between heat and mass transfer, we adopt a model describing the natural convection in the gas phase due to a density contrast between dry and saturated air. Our measurements show a good agreement with this model, both in terms of scaling law with the Grashof number and in terms of order of magnitude. We discuss the corrections to take into account, notably the contribution of edge effects, which have a small but visible contribution when lateral and bottom surface areas are not negligible compared to the main evaporating surface area.
Effect of transient solute loading on free convection in porous media
Xie, Yueqing; Simmons, Craig T.; Werner, Adrian D.; Ward, James D.
2010-11-01
Previous studies of free convection in porous media almost exclusively consider time-invariant solute boundary conditions and neglect the transient fluctuations that are inherent in natural systems. We study the effect of transient solute loading on the migration of dense salt plumes in an unstable setting using numerical simulations of a modified form of the classic solute analogue Elder problem. The numerical results show that for the periodic solute loading case, (1) a free convection slipstream (i.e., the downward movement of groundwater associated with a convection cell behind a descending salt blob) is observed such that newly developed successor fingers may be drawn toward the tails of convection cells associated with predecessor fingers; (2) the free convection slipstream intersects the top boundary layer, creating a boundary layer convective memory during solute loading-off periods in cases with periodicity less than some critical transitional convective periodicity (approximately 5 to 10 years for the current setting); and (3) the boundary layer convective memory causes newly developed successor fingers to form in the same locations and to migrate along the same pathways as their predecessor fingers (mutual dependence between successor and predecessor finger sets) and subsequently reinforce old fingers and enhance solute transport. Results from both quantitative diagnostics (e.g., Sherwood number, total mass of solute, vertical center of mass) and qualitative inspection clearly demonstrate that the periodicity of the solute-loading function controls the fingering process and the total solute transport behavior. Transient solute loading is more important in unstable free convection processes than has previously been recognized.
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-01-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem. (letter)
Actively convected liquid metal divertor
Shimada, Michiya; Hirooka, Yoshi
2014-12-01
The use of actively convected liquid metals with j × B force is proposed to facilitate heat handling by the divertor, a challenging issue associated with magnetic fusion experiments such as ITER. This issue will be aggravated even more for DEMO and power reactors because the divertor heat load will be significantly higher and yet the use of copper would not be allowed as the heat sink material. Instead, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel alloys with heat conductivities substantially lower than that of copper, will be used as the structural materials. The present proposal is to fill the lower part of the vacuum vessel with liquid metals with relatively low melting points and low chemical activities including Ga and Sn. The divertor modules, equipped with electrodes and cooling tubes, are immersed in the liquid metal. The electrode, placed in the middle of the liquid metal, can be biased positively or negatively with respect to the module. The j × B force due to the current between the electrode and the module provides a rotating motion for the liquid metal around the electrodes. The rise in liquid temperature at the separatrix hit point can be maintained at acceptable levels from the operation point of view. As the rotation speed increases, the current in the liquid metal is expected to decrease due to the v × B electromotive force. This rotating motion in the poloidal plane will reduce the divertor heat load significantly. Another important benefit of the convected liquid metal divertor is the fast recovery from unmitigated disruptions. Also, the liquid metal divertor concept eliminates the erosion problem.
Fan, J.; Han, B.; Varble, A.; Morrison, H.; North, K.; Kollias, P.; Chen, B.; Dong, X.; Giangrande, S. E.; Khain, A.; Lin, Y.; Mansell, E.; Milbrandt, J.; Stenz, R.; Thompson, G.; Wang, Y.
2016-12-01
The large spread in CRM model simulations of deep convection and aerosol effects on deep convective clouds (DCCs) makes it difficult to (1) further our understanding of deep convection and (2) define "benchmarks" and then limit their use in parameterization developments. A constrained model intercomparsion study on a mid-latitude mesoscale squall line is performed using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model at 1-km horizontal grid spacing with eight cloud microphysics schemes to understand specific processes that lead to the large spreads of simulated convection and precipitation. Various observational data are employed to evaluate the baseline simulations. All simulations tend to produce a wider convective area but a much narrower stratiform area. The magnitudes of virtual potential temperature drop, pressure rise, and wind speed peak associated with the passage of the gust front are significantly smaller compared with the observations, suggesting simulated cool pools are weaker. Simulations generally overestimate the vertical velocity and radar reflectivity in convective cores compared with the retrievals. The modeled updraft velocity and precipitation have a significant spread across eight schemes. The spread of updraft velocity is the combination of both low-level pressure perturbation gradient (PPG) and buoyancy. Both PPG and thermal buoyancy are small for simulations of weak convection but both are large for those of strong convection. Ice-related parameterizations contribute majorly to the spread of updraft velocity, while they are not the reason for the large spread of precipitation. The understandings gained in this study can help to focus future observations and parameterization development.
Hodzic, Alma; Duvel, Jean Philippe
2018-01-01
A coupled weather-aerosol model is used to study the effect of biomass burning aerosols on deep convection over the Borneo Island and surrounding oceans. Simulations are performed at the convection-permitting scale (4 km) for 40 days during the boreal summer and include interactive fire emissions and the aerosol effect on radiative and microphysical processes. Intense burning occurs daily in the southern part of the island, and smoke propagates northward to regions of deep convection. The model captures well the observed diurnal cycle of precipitation and high cloud cover. Cloud microphysics and radiative aerosol impacts are considered separately. Modifications of the cloud microphysics by smoke aerosols reinforce deep convection near the central Borneo mountainous region. This reinforced convection is due to reduced shallow precipitation in the afternoon that leads to a warm planetary boundary layer anomaly at sunset enhancing deep convection at night. Aerosol absorptive properties strongly affect local and synoptic atmospheric responses. The radiative processes of moderately absorbing aerosols tend to reduce deep convection over most regions due to local surface cooling and atmosphere warming that increase the static stability. For more absorbing aerosols, however, the impact is reversed with increased nighttime convection over most regions. This is partly related to changes in the vertical water vapor divergence profiles that decrease the convergence toward Borneo for moderately absorbing aerosols and increase it for more absorbing ones. These changes in the synoptic circulation due to large-scale aerosol perturbations are as important as local processes to explain the observed rainfall perturbation patterns.
Convective and Stratiform Components of the Precipitation-Water Vapor Relationship
Ahmed, F.; Schumacher, C.
2015-12-01
The empirical relationship between tropical oceanic precipitation in a grid and the moisture content in the column atop the grid is well established. There exists a critical value of column moisture below which the mean precipitation is negligible, and above which it rises rapidly or "picks-up". We re-examine this relationship with a closer look at its convective and stratiform aspects, using data from the DYNAMO field campaign, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA). On daily and hourly time scales, and across all tropical ocean basins, we find that the pick-up is pronounced for stratiform rainfall, while convective rainfall, in contrast only displays a weak pick-up above column moisture. The non-linearity of the precipitation-column moisture curves and the differences between convective and stratiform curves relax at the monthly timescale. We conclude that the environmental moisture content is a stronger constraint on stratiform than convective rain. We also speculate that mesoscale dynamics are responsible for producing the strong non-linearity of the stratiform precipitation curve. These findings suggest that to accurate capture sub-grid scale convection in Global Climate Models (GCMs), we must make strides towards parameterizing mesoscale convective systems (MCSs).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adolfo Ribeiro
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Planets and stars are often capable of generating their own magnetic fields. This occurs through dynamo processes occurring via turbulent convective stirring of their respective molten metal-rich cores and plasma-based convection zones. Present-day numerical models of planetary and stellar dynamo action are not carried out using fluids properties that mimic the essential properties of liquid metals and plasmas (e.g., using fluids with thermal Prandtl numbers Pr < 1 and magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm ≪ 1. Metal dynamo simulations should become possible, though, within the next decade. In order then to understand the turbulent convection phenomena occurring in geophysical or astrophysical fluids and next-generation numerical models thereof, we present here canonical, end-member examples of thermally-driven convection in liquid gallium, first with no magnetic field or rotation present, then with the inclusion of a background magnetic field and then in a rotating system (without an imposed magnetic field. In doing so, we demonstrate the essential behaviors of convecting liquid metals that are necessary for building, as well as benchmarking, accurate, robust models of magnetohydrodynamic processes in Pm ≪ Pr < 1 geophysical and astrophysical systems. Our study results also show strong agreement between laboratory and numerical experiments, demonstrating that high resolution numerical simulations can be made capable of modeling the liquid metal convective turbulence needed in accurate next-generation dynamo models.
Model of two-temperature convective transfer in porous media
Gruais, Isabelle; Poliševski, Dan
2017-12-01
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behaviour of the solution of a convective heat transfer boundary problem in an ɛ -periodic domain which consists of two interwoven phases, solid and fluid, separated by an interface. The fluid flow and its dependence with respect to the temperature are governed by the Boussinesq approximation of the Stokes equations. The tensors of thermal diffusion of both phases are ɛ -periodic, as well as the heat transfer coefficient which is used to describe the first-order jump condition on the interface. We find by homogenization that the two-scale limits of the solutions verify the most common system used to describe local thermal non-equilibrium phenomena in porous media (see Nield and Bejan in Convection in porous media, Springer, New York, 1999; Rees and Pop in Transport phenomena in porous media III, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005). Since now, this system was justified only by volume averaging arguments.
Periodic convection in liquid 4He close to onset
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lees, M.J.Matthew J.; Thurlow, M.S.Michael S.; Seddon, J.R.T.James R.T.; Lucas, P.G.J.Peter G.J.
2003-01-01
High resolution images of convective flow patterns in a vertical axis cylindrical layer of normal fluid helium of diameter 18.25 mm and height 0.56 mm have been obtained near the Prandtl number minimum of 0.5 at 2.6 K. The primary stationary pattern close to the convection threshold is a robust state of straight parallel rolls signalling that the boundary conditions are close to ideal. A periodic response exists at slightly higher Rayleigh numbers in which dislocations climb periodically along the roll axes through the skew-varicose mechanism. Correlated with this regime are periodic oscillations of amplitude 100 μK and period of the same order as the horizontal thermal diffusion time. The dynamics of the periodically varying pattern and of more chaotic patterns at higher Rayleigh numbers are revealed using time-lapse movie sequences of the images
Influence of different convection parameterisations in a GCM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Tost
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In global models of the atmosphere convection is parameterised, since the typical scale of this process is smaller than the model resolution. Here we address some of the uncertainties arising from the selection of different algorithms to simulate this process. Four different parameterisations for atmospheric convection, all used in state-of-the-art models, are implemented in the model system ECHAM5/MESSy for a consistent inter-comparison and evaluation against observations. Relatively large differences are found in the simulated precipitation patterns, whereas simulated water vapour columns distributions are quite similar and close to observations. The effects on the hydrological cycle and on the simulated meteorological conditions are discussed.
Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Rasmus; Bruus, Henrik; Callisen, Thomas H.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical and computational investigation of convection, diffusion, and adsorption in surface-based biosensors. In particular, we study the transport dynamics in a model geometry of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The work, however, is equally relevant for other...... microfluidic surface-based biosensors, operating under flow conditions. A widely adopted approximate quasi-steady theory to capture convective and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression of the Damköhler number is derived in terms of the nondimensional...... concentration to the maximum surface capacity is critical for reliable use of the quasi-steady theory. Finally, our results provide users of surface-based biosensors with a tool for correcting experimentally obtained adsorption rate constants....
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian, E-mail: camila@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Niceno, Bojan, E-mail: bojan.niceno@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Nuclear Energy and Safety
2013-07-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 15}. Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu{sub i}). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v{sup 2} -f (commonly called as v{sup 2}-f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Computational simulation of turbulent natural convection in a corium pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, Camila B.; Su, Jian; Niceno, Bojan
2013-01-01
After a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the total thermal loading on the vessel of a nuclear reactor is controlled by the convective heat transfer. Taking that fact into account, this work aimed to analyze the turbulent natural convection inside a representative lower head cavity. By means of an open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM (Open Field Operation and Manipulation), numerical simulations were performed to investigate a volumetrically heated fluid (Pr = 7.0) at internal Rayleigh (Ra) numbers ranging from 10 8 to 10 15 . Bearing in mind that severe accident scenario and the physical-chemical effects are many and complex, the fluid analyzed was considered Newtonian, with constant physical properties, homogeneous and single phase. Even working with that simplifications, the modeling of turbulent natural convection has posed a considerable challenge for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations based models, not only because of the complete unsteadiness of the flow and the strong turbulence effects in the near wall regions, but also because of the correct treatment of the turbulent heat fluxes (θu i ). So, this work outlined three approaches for treating the turbulent heat fluxes: the Simple Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (SGDH), the Generalized Gradient Diffusion Hypothesis (GGDH) and the Algebraic Flux Model (AFM). Simulations performed at BALI test based geometry with a four equations model, k-ε-v 2 -f (commonly called as v 2 -f and V2-f), showed that despite of AFM and GGDH have provided reasonable agreement with experimental data for turbulent natural convection in a differentially heated cavity, they proved to be very unstable for buoyancy-driven flows with internal source in comparison to SGDH model. (author)
Laminar convective heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluids with constant wall temperature
Hojjat, M.; Etemad, S. Gh.; Bagheri, R.; Thibault, J.
2011-02-01
Nanofluids are obtained by dispersing homogeneously nanoparticles into a base fluid. Nanofluids often exhibit higher heat transfer rate in comparison with the base fluid. In the present study, forced convection heat transfer under laminar flow conditions was investigated experimentally for three types of non-Newtonian nanofluids in a circular tube with constant wall temperature. CMC solution was used as the base fluid and γ-Al2O3, TiO2 and CuO nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed to create nanodispersions of different concentrations. Nanofluids as well as the base fluid show shear thinning (pseudoplastic) rheological behavior. Results show that the presence of nanoparticles increases the convective heat transfer of the nanodispersions in comparison with the base fluid. The convective heat transfer enhancement is more significant when both the Peclet number and the nanoparticle concentration are increased. The increase in convective heat transfer is higher than the increase caused by the augmentation of the effective thermal conductivity.
Mixed convective low flow pressure drop in core fuel assemblies for FBRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naohara, Nobuyuki; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Ueda, Nobuyuki
1993-01-01
During natural circulation decay heat removal operation for FBRs, a flow rate of coolant in core fuel assemblies becomes a few percents of rated operation flow rate. Under such a low flow condition, thermal hydraulic behavior surroundings fuel pins is complex, because both forced and natural convection exist, and it is called a mixed convection. In order to evaluate the performance of the decay heat removal by natural circulation exactly, thermal hydraulic behavior in fuel assemblies must be clarified. In the first step of a research, an experimental study have been conducted to evaluate a friction factor in the annulus flow pass under the mixed convection with a buoyancy force. As the results, the mixed convection friction factors are obtained, and those data are arranged by a ratio of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The friction factors are varied by a buoyancy force induced velocity profile change. (author)
Damping of Solute Convection During Crystal Growth by Applying Magnetic Field Gradients
Wakayama, Nobuko I.
2005-06-01
One of the advantages of crystal growth under microgravity conditions is the damping of solute convection that affects crystal quality. The mechanism of the dampening effect of magnetic field gradients, B(dB/dz), on solute convection was studied, and the magnitude of B(dB/dz) required for dampening was calculated. When the absolute value of mass magnetic susceptibility, χg, of a solute is about 70% of that of a solvent (e.g., KCl crystal growth from an aqueous solution) and the weight ratio is 0.26, the gradient to damp convection considerably is estimated to be -3018 T2/m. On the other hand, when the χg of the solute is nearly equal to that of the solvent [protein crystal growth (lysozyme)], a gradient of -1394 T2/m damps convection completely on the earth.
Numerical investigation of convection-induced MHD waves interacting with a null point in 2D
Tarr, Lucas A.; Linton, Mark G.; Leake, James
2015-04-01
We use the LaRe2D MHD code to investigate the propagation of waves in a 2D geometry that includes a quadrupolar magnetic field with a single nullpoint. The simulation box spans the upper convection zone to the corona (y=[-3Mm,35.4Mm] ) and includes a stratified atmosphere. We model the upper convection zone by introducing an energy flux at the lower boundary, an ad-hoc Newton-cooling term to simulate the effect of radiation at the photosphere (y=0), and an initial condition that includes density and internal energy perturbations throughout the convection zone. This sets up the superadiabatic temperature gradient necessary to sustain convection and generate waves. We discuss the dynamic properties of these waves as they propagate through the atmosphere and interact at topologically important features of the magnetic field. This work is funded by the Chief of Naval Research.
Phase-field-lattice Boltzmann study for lamellar eutectic growth in a natural convection melt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ang Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of natural convection on the lamellar eutectic growth is determined by a phase-field-lattice Boltzmann study for Al-Cu eutectic alloy. The mass difference resulting from concentration difference led to the fluid flow, and a robust parallel and adaptive mesh refinement algorithm was employed to improve the computational efficiency without any compromising accuracy. Results show that the existence of natural convection would affect the growth undercooling and thus control the interface shape by adjusting the lamellar width. In particular, by alternating the magnitude of the solute expansion coefficient, the strength of the natural convection is changed. Corresponding microstructure patterns are discussed and compared with those under no-convection conditions.
Convection anomalies associated with warm eddy at the coastal area
Shi, R.; Wang, D.
2017-12-01
A possible correlation between a warm eddy and thunderstorms and convective precipitations are investigated at the coastal area in the northwestern South China Sea. Compared to the climatological mean in August from 2006 to 2013, an extreme enhancement of thunderstorm activities and precipitation rate are identified at the southern offshore area of Hainan island in August 2010 when a strong and long-live warm eddy was observed near the coastline at the same time. The 3 hourly satellite data (TRMM) indicate that the nocturnal convections is strong offshore and that could be responsible for the extreme positive anomalies of thunderstorms and rainfall in August 2010. The TRMM data also show a small reduction of thunderstorm activities and rainfall on the island in the afternoon. Meanwhile, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was applied to simulate the change of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation of rainfall rate is comparable with the observation results while there is some difference in the spatial distribution. The WRF simulation successfully captured the strong offshore rainfall and the diurnal variation of rainfall in August 2010. The WRF simulation indicated that the different convergence induced by sea/land breeze could be one essential reason for the adjustment of thunderstorms and rainfall in 2010. The substantial connection between sea/land breeze and upper layer heat content modified by the warm eddy is still on ongoing and will be reported in the future work.
Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark
2010-01-01
Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.
Capillary pressure studies under low gravity conditions.
Kovalchuk, V I; Ravera, F; Liggieri, L; Loglio, G; Pandolfini, P; Makievski, A V; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Krägel, J; Javadi, A; Miller, R
2010-12-15
For the understanding of short-time adsorption phenomena and high-frequency relaxations at liquid interfaces particular experimental techniques are needed. The most suitable method for respective studies is the capillary pressure tensiometry. However, under gravity conditions there are rather strong limitations, in particular due to convections and interfacial deformations. This manuscript provides an overview of the state of the art of experimental tools developed for short-time and high-frequency investigations of liquid drops and bubbles under microgravity. Besides the brief description of instruments, the underlying theoretical basis will be presented and limits of the applied methods under ground and microgravity conditions will be discussed. The results on the role of surfactants under highly dynamic conditions will be demonstrated by some selected examples studied in two space shuttle missions on Discovery in 1998 and Columbia in 2003. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Clifford, Corey; Kimber, Mark
2017-11-01
Over the last 30 years, an industry-wide shift within the nuclear community has led to increased utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to supplement nuclear reactor safety analyses. One such area that is of particular interest to the nuclear community, specifically to those performing loss-of-flow accident (LOFA) analyses for next-generation very-high temperature reactors (VHTR), is the capacity of current computational models to predict heat transfer across a wide range of buoyancy conditions. In the present investigation, a critical evaluation of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling techniques is conducted based on CFD validation data collected from the Rotatable Buoyancy Tunnel (RoBuT) at Utah State University. Four different experimental flow conditions are investigated: (1) buoyancy-aided forced convection; (2) buoyancy-opposed forced convection; (3) buoyancy-aided mixed convection; (4) buoyancy-opposed mixed convection. Overall, good agreement is found for both forced convection-dominated scenarios, but an overly-diffusive prediction of the normal Reynolds stress is observed for the RANS-based turbulence models. Low-Reynolds number RANS models perform adequately for mixed convection, while higher-order RANS approaches underestimate the influence of buoyancy on the production of turbulence.
Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary
2016-04-01
fresh water in order to form density interfaces. The Reynolds number can be reduced adding Glicerine the set of dimensionless parameters define different conditions of both numeric and small scale laboratory applied often in modeling environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients are computed using advanced visualization [8 9]. Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. When convective heating and cooling takes place the patterns depend on the parameter space region of the initial conditions We also map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure with several complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [2-4]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers, [4-6] The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or non-mixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [12] can be compared with the convective fronts. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied taking into account the dependence on the initial modes at the early stages, Self-similar information [13]. Spectral and Fractal analysis on the images seems very useful in order to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoo, B. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN) - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Universite de Versailles, 78 - Versailles (France)
1997-12-31
This report is devoted to the S.I.L.V.A. process, (Isotope Separation by Laser of Atomic Vapors) developed by the Cea for uranium enrichment. one problem met with it, is this one of the evaporation rate, that determines the technique performance. The evaporation rate is not a linear function of the heat power. Taking into account of limits conditions that the liquid bath undergoes it has been estimated that the thermo gravity and the thermo-capillary convection that takes place, absorbs at least the half power necessary to the evaporation. So, here is studied the thermo-hydraulics of a liquid bath model put down a heating concentrated on its free surface. Little viscous oil is used as work liquid. This study concerns the S.I.L.V.A. process but it can have an interest for others applications as welding or crystal growth. (N.C.).
Convective Replica-Exchange in Ergodic Regimes.
Signorini, Giorgio F; Giovannelli, Edoardo; Spill, Yannick G; Nilges, Michael; Chelli, Riccardo
2014-03-11
In a recent article (J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 132-140), convective replica-exchange (convective-RE) has been presented as an alternative to the standard even-odd transition scheme. Computations on systems of various complexity have shown that convective-RE may increase the number of replica round-trips in temperature space with respect to the standard exchange scheme, leading to a more effective sampling of energy basins. Moreover, it has been shown that the method may prevent the formation of bottlenecks in the diffusive walk of replicas through the space of temperature states. By using an ideal temperature-RE model and a classical harmonic-oscillator RE scheme, we study the performances of convective-RE when ergodicity is not broken and convergence of acceptance probabilities is attained. In this dynamic regime, the round-trip ratio between convective and standard-RE is at maximum ∼ 1.5, a value much smaller than that observed in nonergodic simulations. For large acceptance probabilities, the standard-RE outperforms convective-RE. Our observations suggest that convective-RE can safely be used in either ergodic or non-ergodic regimes; however, convective-RE is advantageous only when bottlenecks occur in the state-space diffusion of replicas, or when acceptance probabilities are globally low. We also show that decoupling of the state-space dynamics of the stick replica from the dynamics of the remaining replicas improves the efficiency of convective-RE at low acceptance probability regimes.
Telescoping, multimodel approaches to evaluate extreme convective weather under future climates
Trapp, Robert J.; Halvorson, Brooke A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.
2007-10-01
Understanding of the possible response of severe convective precipitating storms to elevated greenhouse gas concentrations remains elusive. To address this problem, telescoping, multimodel approaches are proposed, which allow representation of a broad range of processes that could regulate convective storm behavior. In the global-cloud approach (G-C), the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis Project (NNRP) global data set provides initial and boundary conditions for short-term integrations of a mesoscale model and nested convective-cloud-permitting domain. In the global-regional-cloud approach (G-R-C), the NNRP data set provides initial and boundary conditions for long-term integrations of a regional climate model, which in turn forces short-term integrations of a mesoscale model and nested convective-cloud-permitting domain. Upon applying these approaches to historical extreme convective storm events, it was found that the global-scale data could be dynamically downscaled to produce realistic convective-scale solutions. In particular, tornado proxies computed from the model-simulated winds were shown to compare well in relative numbers to those of tornado observations on many of the days considered. This supports the telescoping modeling concept as a viable means to address effects of elevated greenhouse gas concentrations on convective-scale phenomena. In an evaluation of the two approaches, it was also found that simulations of the historical events by the G-C were superior to those by the G-R-C. Sensitivity of the convective-scale processes to details in the downscaled synoptic-scale flow, and to the placement of the mesoscale model domain within the regional climate model, reduced the effectiveness of the G-R-C.
Granular convection driven by shearing inertial forces.
Rodríguez-Liñán, G M; Nahmad-Molinari, Y
2006-01-01
Convection velocity measurements in vertically vibrated granular materials are presented. The convection velocity close to the walls grows quadratically with the difference between the maximum and critical, or excess, amplitude (proposed as a dynamic parameter to describe related problems) and it is shown numerically that the average bed-bottom relative velocity during the distancing between them, grows linearly with the squared as well. This is interpreted as the signature of an inertial shearing force or momentum transfer proportional to the bed-container relative velocity, acting mainly during the bed-plate distancing part of each cycle which leads to the formation of the convective flux.
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Barton; Schultz, Richard
2015-01-01
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-10-19
The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.
Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model
Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C.
2016-12-01
We study non-linear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals (10-2-1). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than 10-6, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of the interaction of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of 10-8. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than 1000, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis (E = 10-6, Pr =10-2). Non-linear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for E = 10-7 and Pr = 10-1.
Subcritical convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model
Guervilly, Céline; Cardin, Philippe
2016-12-01
We study nonlinear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals ($Pr\\in[10^{-2},10^{-1}]$). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than $10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of $10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than $10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the nonlinear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis ($Ek=10^{-6}$, $Pr=10^{-2}$). Nonlinear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for $Ek=10^{-7}$ and $Pr=10^{-1}$.
Rotating turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection subject to harmonically forced flow reversals
Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kunnen, Rudie P.J.
2014-01-01
The characteristics of turbulent flow in a cylindrical Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell which can be modified considerably in case rotation is included in the dynamics. By incorporating the additional effects of an Euler force, i.e., effects induced by non-constant rotation rates, a remarkably strong
Effects of Hall current on convective heat generating fluid in slip flow regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, S.S.; Ram, P.C. (Kenyatta Univ., Nairobi (KE). Dept. of Mathematics); Stower, G.X. (Jomo Kenyatta Univ. College of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (KE). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)
1992-08-01
The problem of free convection flow of a viscous heat generating rarefied gas is considered for the case when a strong magnetic field is imposed perpendicularly to the plane of flow. Analytical expressions for the velocity field and temperature are obtained, and the influence of the Hall currents m and the heat source parameter {delta} on the velocity field and temperature are discussed. (Author).
Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators
2016-02-03
Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or
Isenberg, James
2017-01-01
The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.
Convection in complex shaped vessel; Convection dans des enceintes de forme complexe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2000-07-01
The 8 november 2000, the SFT (Societe Francaise de Thermique) organized a technical day on the convection in complex shaped vessels. Nine papers have been presented in the domains of the heat transfers, the natural convection, the fluid distribution, the thermosyphon effect, the steam flow in a sterilization cycle and the transformers cooling. Eight papers are analyzed in ETDE and one paper dealing with the natural convection in spent fuels depository is analyzed in INIS. (A.L.B.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Grignon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the deep water formed and the winter surface fluxes support the description of convection as a process that transfers the heat and salt contents from the top and intermediate layers to the deep layer. A proxy for the rate of transfer is given by the final convective mixed layer depth, that is shown to depend equally on the surface fluxes and on the preconditioning. In particular, it is found that deep convection in winter 2004–2005 would have happened even with normal winter conditions, due to low pre-winter stratification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Wright
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The factors that control the influence of deep convective detrainment on water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere are examined using observations from multiple satellites in conjunction with a trajectory model. Deep convection is confirmed to act primarily as a moisture source to the upper troposphere, modulated by the ambient relative humidity (RH. Convective detrainment provides strong moistening at low RH and offsets drying due to subsidence across a wide range of RH. Strong day-to-day moistening and drying takes place most frequently in relatively dry transition zones, where between 0.01% and 0.1% of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar observations indicate active convection. Many of these strong moistening events in the tropics can be directly attributed to detrainment from recent tropical convection, while others in the subtropics appear to be related to stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The temporal and spatial limits of the convective source are estimated to be about 36–48 h and 600–1500 km, respectively, consistent with the lifetimes of detrainment cirrus clouds. Larger amounts of detrained ice are associated with enhanced upper tropospheric moistening in both absolute and relative terms. In particular, an increase in ice water content of approximately 400% corresponds to a 10–90% increase in the likelihood of moistening and a 30–50% increase in the magnitude of moistening.
Fuzzy logic controllers and chaotic natural convection loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theler, German
2007-01-01
The study of natural circulation loops is a subject of special concern for the engineering design of advanced nuclear reactors, as natural convection provides an efficient and completely passive heat removal system. However, under certain circumstances thermal-fluid-dynamical instabilities may appear, threatening the reactor safety as a whole.On the other hand, fuzzy logic controllers provide an ideal framework to approach highly non-linear control problems. In the present work, we develop a software-based fuzzy logic controller and study its application to chaotic natural convection loops.We numerically analyse the linguistic control of the loop known as the Welander problem in such conditions that, if the controller were not present, the circulation flow would be non-periodic unstable.We also design a Taka gi-Sugeno fuzzy controller based on a fuzzy model of a natural convection loop with a toroidal geometry, in order to stabilize a Lorenz-chaotic behaviour.Finally, we show experimental results obtained in a rectangular natural circulation loop [es
Mixed convection heat transfer experiments using analogy concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Bong Jin; Chung, Bum Jin; Lee, Won Jea
2009-01-01
A Series of the turbulent mixed convective heat transfer experiments in a vertical cylinder was carried out. In order to achieve high Gr and/or Ra with small scale test rigs, the analogy concept was adopted. Using the concept, heat transfer systems were simulated by mass transfer systems, and large Grashof numbers could be achieved with reasonable facility heights. The tests were performed with buoyancy-aided flow and opposed flow for Reynolds numbers from 4,000 to 10,000 with a constant Grashof number, Gr H of 6.2 x 10 9 and Prandtl number of about 2,000. The test results reproduced the typical of the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation and agree well with the experimental study performed by Y. Palratan et al. The analogy experimental method simulated the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena successfully and seems to be a useful tool for heat transfer studies for VHTR as well as the systems with high buoyancy condition and high Prandtl number
Ramey, Holly S.; Robertson, Franklin R.
2010-01-01
Intraseasonal variability of deep convection represents a fundamental mode of variability in the organization of tropical convection. While most studies of intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) have focused on the spatial propagation and dynamics of convectively coupled circulations, we examine the projection of ISOs on the tropically-averaged temperature and energy budget. The area of interest is the global oceans between 20degN/S. Our analysis then focuses on these questions: (i) How is tropospheric temperature related to tropical deep convection and the associated ice cloud fractional amount (ICF) and ice water path (IWP)? (ii) What is the source of moisture sustaining the convection and what role does deep convection play in mediating the PBL - free atmospheric temperature equilibration? (iii) What affect do convectively generated upper-tropospheric clouds have on the TOA radiation budget? Our methodology is similar to that of Spencer et al., (2007) with some modifications and some additional diagnostics of both clouds and boundary layer thermodynamics. A composite ISO time series of cloud, precipitation and radiation quantities built from nearly 40 events during a six-year period is referenced to the atmospheric temperature signal. The increase of convective precipitation cannot be sustained by evaporation within the domain, implying strong moisture transports into the tropical ocean area. While there is a decrease in net TOA radiation that develops after the peak in deep convective rainfall, there seems little evidence that an "Infrared Iris"- like mechanism is dominant. Rather, the cloud-induced OLR increase seems largely produced by weakened convection with warmer cloud tops. Tropical ISO events offer an accessible target for studying ISOs not just in terms of propagation mechanisms, but on their global signals of heat, moisture and radiative flux feedback processes.
Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake
Zhilin, A. A.
2017-10-01
The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.
Natural convection type BWR reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobimatsu, Toshimi.
1990-01-01
In a natural convection type BWR reactor, a mixed stream of steams and water undergo a great flow resistance. In particular, pressure loss upon passing from an upper plenum to a stand pipe and pressure loss upon passing through rotational blades are great. Then, a steam dryer comprising laminated dome-like perforated plates and a drain pipe for flowing down separated water to a downcomer are disposed above a riser. The coolants heated in the reactor core are boiled, uprise in the riser as a gas-liquid two phase flow containing voids, release steams containing droplets from the surface of the gas-liquid two phase, flow into the steam dryer comprising the perforated plates and are separated into a gas and a liquid. The dried steams flow to a turbine passing through a main steam pipe and the condensated droplets flow down through the drain pipe and the downcomer to the lower portion of the reactor core. In this way, the conventional gas-liquid separator can be saved without lowering the quality of steam drying to reduce the pressure loss and to improve the operation performance. (N.H.)
Added value of convection-permitting reanalyses
Wahl, S.; Keller, J. D.; Ohlwein, C.; Hense, A.; Friederichs, P.; Crewell, S.
2016-12-01
Atmospheric reanalyses are a state-of-the-art tool to generate consistent and realistic state estimates of the atmospheric system. They are used for validation of meteorological and hydrological models, climate monitoring, and renewable energy applications, amongst others. Current reanalyses are mainly global, while regional reanalyses are emerging for North America, the polar region, and most recently for Europe. Due to the horizontal resolution used, deep convection is still parameterized even in the regional reanalyses. However, convective parameterization is a major source of errors and uncertainties in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is expected that convection permitting reanalysis systems are able to adequately simulate the mechanisms leading to high-impact weather, notably heavy precipitation and winds related to deep moist convection. A novel convective-scale regional reanalysis system for Central Europe (COSMO-REA2) has been developed by the Hans-Ertel Center for Weather Research - Climate Monitoring Branch. The system is based on the COSMO model and uses a nudging scheme for the assimilation of observational data. In addition, radar-derived rain rates are assimilated through a latent heat nudging scheme. With a horizontal grid-spacing of 2 km, the model parameterization for deep moist convective processes is turned off. As we expect the largest benefit of the convection-permitting system for precipitation, the evaluation focuses on this essential climate variable (ECV). Furthermore, precipitation is crucial for climate monitoring purposes, e.g., in the form of extreme precipitation which is an major cause of severe damages and societal costs in Europe. This study illustrates the added value of the convective-scale reanalysis compared to coarser gridded regional European and global reanalyses.
Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter
Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.
2002-01-01
A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.
Continuous Cropping and Moist Deep Convection on the Canadian Prairies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Devon E. Worth
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Summerfallow is cropland that is purposely kept out of production during a growing season to conserve soil moisture. On the Canadian Prairies, a trend to continuous cropping with a reduction in summerfallow began after the summerfallow area peaked in 1976. This study examined the impact of this land-use change on convective available potential energy (CAPE, a necessary but not sufficient condition for moist deep convection. All else being equal, an increase in CAPE increases the probability-of-occurrence of convective clouds and their intensity if they occur. Representative Bowen ratios for the Black, Dark Brown, and Brown soil zones were determined for 1976: the maximum summerfallow year, 2001: our baseline year, and 20xx: a hypothetical year with the maximum-possible annual crop area. Average mid-growing-season Bowen ratios and noon solar radiation were used to estimate the reduction in the lifted index (LI from land-use weighted evapotranspiration in each study year. LI is an index of CAPE, and a reduction in LI indicates an increase in CAPE. The largest reductions in LI were found for the Black soil zone. They were −1.61 ± 0.18, −1.77 ± 0.14 and −1.89 ± 0.16 in 1976, 2001 and 20xx, respectively. These results suggest that, all else being equal, the probability-of-occurrence of moist deep convection in the Black soil zone was lower in 1976 than in the base year 2001, and it will be higher in 20xx when the annual crop area reaches a maximum. The trend to continuous cropping had less impact in the drier Dark Brown and Brown soil zones.
Air Cushion Convection Inhibiting Icing of Self-Cleaning Surfaces.
Yang, Qin; Luo, Zhuangzhu; Jiang, Faming; Luo, Yimin; Tan, Sheng; Lu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Liu, Weimin
2016-10-26
Anti-icing surfaces/interfaces are of considerable importance in various engineering fields under natural freezing environment. Although superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces show good anti-icing potentials, promotion of these surfaces in engineering applications seems to enter a "bottleneck" stage. One of the key issues is the intrinsic relationship between superhydrophobicity and icephobicity is unclear, and the dynamic action mechanism of "air cushion" (a key internal factor for superhydrophobicity) on icing suppression was largely ignored. Here we report that icing inhibition (i.e., icing-delay) of self-cleaning surfaces is mainly ascribed to air cushion and its convection. We experimentally found air cushion on the porous self-cleaning coating under vacuum environments and on the water/ice-coating interface at low temperatures. The icing-delay performances of porous self-cleaning surfaces compared with bare substrate, up to 10-40 min under 0 to ∼-4 °C environments close to freezing rain, have been accurately real-time recorded by a novel synergy method including high-speed photography and strain sensing voltage. Based on the experimental results, we innovatively propose a physical model of "air cushion convection inhibiting icing", which envisages both the static action of trapped air pocket without air flow and dynamic action of air cushion convection. Gibbs free energy of water droplets increased with the entropy of air derived from heat and mass transfer between warmer air underneath water droplets and colder surrounding air, resulting in remarkable ice nucleation delay. Only when air cushion convection disappears can ice nucleation be triggered on suitable Gibbs free energy conditions. The fundamental understanding of air cushion on anti-icing is an important step toward designing optimal anti-icing surfaces for practical engineering application.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.
2017-01-01
In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine...
CONVECTION IN CONDENSIBLE-RICH ATMOSPHERES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, F. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Pierrehumbert, R. T., E-mail: fding@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)
2016-05-01
Condensible substances are nearly ubiquitous in planetary atmospheres. For the most familiar case—water vapor in Earth’s present climate—the condensible gas is dilute, in the sense that its concentration is everywhere small relative to the noncondensible background gases. A wide variety of important planetary climate problems involve nondilute condensible substances. These include planets near or undergoing a water vapor runaway and planets near the outer edge of the conventional habitable zone, for which CO{sub 2} is the condensible. Standard representations of convection in climate models rely on several approximations appropriate only to the dilute limit, while nondilute convection differs in fundamental ways from dilute convection. In this paper, a simple parameterization of convection valid in the nondilute as well as dilute limits is derived and used to discuss the basic character of nondilute convection. The energy conservation properties of the scheme are discussed in detail and are verified in radiative-convective simulations. As a further illustration of the behavior of the scheme, results for a runaway greenhouse atmosphere for both steady instellation and seasonally varying instellation corresponding to a highly eccentric orbit are presented. The latter case illustrates that the high thermal inertia associated with latent heat in nondilute atmospheres can damp out the effects of even extreme seasonal forcing.
Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
on peristaltic flow of couple-stress fluid in an inclined asymmetric channel. T HAYAT1,2, MARYAM IQBAL1, HUMAIRA YASMIN1,∗,. FUAD E ALSAADI2 and HUIJUN GAO3. 1Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, ...
Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ureters, food material through the digestive tract, semen in vas deferens, spermatozoa in ductus efferentes, blood circulation in small blood vessels, cilia movement, bile flow, etc. obey the principle of peristalsis. The process of peristaltic mechanism is also useful in heart lung machine, dialysis machine, roller and finger ...
Simultaneous effects of Hall and convective conditions on peristaltic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Change in email domain name. Posted on 26 August 2016. The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to ...
Characterizing the summer convective clouds and precipitation over Tibetan Plateau
Guo, X.; Chang, Y.
2016-12-01
Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in regional even in global water cycle, ecosystem and atmospheric circulation. China has conducted the Third Tibetan Plateau Experiment-Observation of Boundary Layer and Troposphere (2014-2017) Project in order to reveal the physical process of meteorology and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau. The field campaign used state-of-the-art observational instruments for observing clouds and precipitation processes including multiband radar system such as the C-band continuous wave radar and Ka-band millimetre wave cloud radar, as well as raindrop disdrometer and lidar ceilometer etc. Here, we characterize the summer convective clouds and precipitation and raindrop size distribution based on observation data and FY-2E satellite TBB data from July 1 to August 31, 2014. The result shows that the summer convective activities mainly distributed in the central and southeast regions over the Tibetan Plateau, and the precipitation process had a quasi-two-week cycle during the observational period. Due to the strong solar heating effect over the plateau, both convective clouds and precipitation processes had obvious daily variation. The convections first appeared at 11:00 in the morning, and the first peak of precipitation occurred at around 12:00, which was mainly caused by local thermal convection with relative lower cloud-top height and wider drop spectrum. The mean cloud-top height was around 11.5 km (ASL), and its maximum value exceeded 19 km, and the mean cloud-base height was 6.88 km (ASL) during the observation period. The precipitation in summer time over the plateau was mainly short-lasting and showery, and usually lasted less than 1 h, and the mean precipitation intensity was around 1.2 mm/h. The result also shows that the raindrop size distribution over the Tibetan Plateau was wider than that over plain at the same latitude and season, because of which the rainfall could be more easily produced over the plateau than that over
Neelin, J. D.; Kuo, Y. H.; Schiro, K. A.; Langenbrunner, B.; Mechoso, C. R.; Sahany, S.; Bernstein, D. N.
2015-12-01
Previous work by various authors has pointed to the role of humidity in the lower free troposphere in affecting the onset of deep convection in the tropics. Empirical relations between column water vapor and the onset of precipitation have been inferred to be related to this. Evidence includes deep-convective conditional instability calculations for entraining plumes, in which the lower free-tropospheric environment affects the onset of deep convection due to the impact on buoyancy of turbulent entrainment of dry versus moist air. Tropical Western Pacific in situ observations, and tropical ocean basin satellite retrievals in comparison to climate model diagnostics each indicate that substantial entrainment is required to explain the observed relationship. In situ observations from the GoAmazon field campaign confirm that the basic relationship holds over tropical land much as it does over tropical ocean (although with greater additional sensitivity to boundary layer variations and to freezing processes). The relationship between deep convection and water vapor is, however, a two-way street, with convection moistening the free troposphere. One might thus argue that there has not yet been a smoking gun in terms of establishing the causality of the precipitation-water vapor relationship. Parameter perturbation experiments in the coupled Community Earth System Model show that when the deep convective scheme has low values of entrainment, the set of statistics associated with the transition to deep convection are radically altered, and the observed pickup of precipitation with column water vapor is no longer seen. In addition to cementing the dominant direction of causality in the fast timescale precipitation-column water vapor relationship, the results point to impacts of this mechanism on the climatology. Because at low entrainment the convection can fire before the lower troposphere is moistened, the climatology of water vapor remains lower than observed. These
Hydrodynamical simulation of the core helium flash with two-dimensional convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cole, P.W.
1981-01-01
The thermonuclear runaway of helium reactions under the condition of electron degeneracy in the hot, dense central regions of a low mass Population II red giant is investigated. A two-dimensional finite difference approach to time dependent convection has been applied to a peak energy production model of this phenomenon called the core helium flash. The dynamical conservation equations are integrated in two spatial dimensions and time which allow the horizontal variations of the dynamical variables to be followed explicitly. The unbalanced bouyancy forces in convectively unstable regions lead to mass flow (i.e., convective energy transport) by calculation of the velocity flow patterns produced by the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy without recourse to any phenomenological theory of convection. The initial phase of this hydrodynamical simulation is characterized by a thermal readjustment via downward convective energy transport into the neutrino cooled core in a series of convection modulated thermal pulses. Each of these pulses is driven by the thermal runaway and quenched by the convective energy transport when the actual temperature gradient in the flash region becomes sufficiently superadiabatic. These convection modulated thermal pulses are observed throughout 95% of the calculation, the duration of which is approximately 570,000 cycles or nearly 96,000 seconds of evolution. After this initial thermal restructuring, there ensues in the simulation a dynamic phase in which the thermonuclear runaway becomes violent. The degree of violence, the final composition, and the peak temperature depend sensitively on the nuclear energy generation rates of those reactions involving alpha particle captures
Review of Mixed Convection Flow Regime Map of a Vertical pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chae, Myeong-Seon; Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Gyeong-Uk
2015-01-01
In a vertical pipe, the natural convective force due to buoyancy acts upward only, but forced convective force can be either upward or downward. This determines buoyancy-aided and buoyancy-opposed flows depending on the direction of forced flow with respect to the buoyancy forces. Furthermore, depending on the exchange mechanism, the flow condition is classified into laminar and turbulent. In laminar mixed convection, buoyancy-aided flow presents enhanced heat transfer compared to the pure forced convection and buoyancy-opposed flow shows impaired heat transfer as the flow velocity affected by the buoyancy forces. However, in turbulent mixed convection, buoyancy-aided flow shows an impairment of the heat transfer rate for small buoyancy, and a gradational enhancement for large buoyancy. In this study, the existing flow regime map on mixed convection in a vertical pipe was reviewed through an analysis of literatures. Using the investigated data and heat transfer correlations, the flow regime map was reconstructed independently, and compared with the existing one. This study reviewed the limitations of the classical mixed convection flow regime map. Using the existing data and heat transfer correlations by Martinelli and Boelter and Watzinger and Johnson, the flow regime map was reconstructed independently. The results revealed that the existing map used the data selectively among the experimental and theoretical results, and a detailed description for lines forming mixed convection and transition regime were not given. And the information about uncertainty analysis and the evidentiary data were given insufficiently. The flow regime map and investigator commonly used the diameter as the characteristic length for both Re and Gr in place of the height of the heated wall, though the buoyancy forces are proportional to the third power of the height of heated wall
Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana
2012-01-01
A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....
3D nonlinear numerical simulation of the current-convective instability in detached diverter plasma
Stepanenko, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei
2017-10-01
One of the possible mechanisms responsible for strong radiation fluctuations observed in the recent experiments with detached plasmas at ASDEX Upgrade [Potzel et al., Nuclear Fusion, 2014] can be related to the onset of the current-convective instability (CCI) driven by strong asymmetry of detachment in the inner and outer tokamak divertors [Krasheninnikov and Smolyakov, PoP, 2016]. In this study we present the first results of 3D nonlinear numerical simulations of the CCI in divertor plasma for the conditions relevant to the AUG experiment. The general physical model used to simulate the CCI, qualitative estimates for the instability characteristic growth rate and transverse wavelengths derived for plasma, which is spatially inhomogeneous both across and along the magnetic field lines, are presented. The simulation results, demonstrating nonlinear dynamics of the CCI, provide the frequency spectra of turbulent divertor plasma fluctuations showing good agreement with the available experimental data. This material is based upon the work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD and by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science Grant No. 14.Y26.31.0008 at MEPhI.
Self-Consistent Generation of Primordial Continental Crust in Global Mantle Convection Models
Jain, C.; Rozel, A.; Tackley, P. J.
2017-12-01
We present the generation of primordial continental crust (TTG rocks) using self-consistent and evolutionary thermochemical mantle convection models (Tackley, PEPI 2008). Numerical modelling commonly shows that mantle convection and continents have strong feedbacks on each other. However in most studies, continents are inserted a priori while basaltic (oceanic) crust is generated self-consistently in some models (Lourenco et al., EPSL 2016). Formation of primordial continental crust happened by fractional melting and crystallisation in episodes of relatively rapid growth from late Archean to late Proterozoic eras (3-1 Ga) (Hawkesworth & Kemp, Nature 2006) and it has also been linked to the onset of plate tectonics around 3 Ga. It takes several stages of differentiation to generate Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite (TTG) rocks or proto-continents. First, the basaltic magma is extracted from the pyrolitic mantle which is both erupted at the surface and intruded at the base of the crust. Second, it goes through eclogitic transformation and then partially melts to form TTGs (Rudnick, Nature 1995; Herzberg & Rudnick, Lithos 2012). TTGs account for the majority of the Archean continental crust. Based on the melting conditions proposed by Moyen (Lithos 2011), the feasibility of generating TTG rocks in numerical simulations has already been demonstrated by Rozel et al. (Nature, 2017). Here, we have developed the code further by parameterising TTG formation. We vary the ratio of intrusive (plutonic) and extrusive (volcanic) magmatism (Crisp, Volcanol. Geotherm. 1984) to study the relative volumes of three petrological TTG compositions as reported from field data (Moyen, Lithos 2011). Furthermore, we systematically vary parameters such as friction coefficient, initial core temperature and composition-dependent viscosity to investigate the global tectonic regime of early Earth. Continental crust can also be destroyed by subduction or delamination. We will investigate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
In fast reactors, for removing decay heat after the reactors are shut off by natural circulation, various heat exchangers have been devised, but because the flow rate in this case is very small, the state of flow becomes the coexistence of forced and natural convections. In this research, by using numerical calculation technique, investigation was carried out on the heat transfer by coexisting forced and natural convections around a circular cylinder which is inserted perpendicularly in the flow in the channel between parallel plates in low Reynolds number region, and the flow characteristics. As for the techniques of numerical analysis, calculation domain, basic equations, grid, finite difference method, algorithm, initial conditions, boundary conditions and calculation conditions are explained. As the results of calculation, Nusselt number distribution and velocity distribution are reported. The mean Nusselt number of coexisting convections takes the same value as that of pure forced convection in low Rayleigh number region, and as Rayleigh number becomes higher, it decreases to the minimum value, and thereafter, increases rapidly, and approaches to the value of pure natural convection. (K.I.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
On the Role of Convection and Turbulence for Tropospheric Ozone and its Precursors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olivie, D.J.L.
2005-01-01
The aim of the work in this thesis is to investigate the convective and diffusive transport in the TM chemistry transport model, and to investigate some aspects of the consequences for NOx. The large inaccuracy and uncertainty in the description of processes like convection and turbulent diffusion, the strong dependence of the radiative forcing of ozone on its vertical distribution, and the strong dependence of the ozone production on the distribution of NOx, are the main motivation. The availability of the ERA-40 data, where convective data and vertical diffusion coefficients are archived, allows a study of the effect of different convective mass flux sets, and different vertical diffusion coefficients on the model-simulated distribution of tracers. In this thesis the following questions are addressed : (1) How large is the sensitivity of the (model simulated) distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides on (the) convection (parameterisation)?; (2) What requirements should be fulfilled by diffusive transport parameterisations in order to simulate the diurnal cycle in trace gas concentrations?; (3) How large are the differences in concentrations between simulations with archived and off-line diagnosed physical parameterisations?; (4) How do the results of different parameterisations of nitrogen oxide production by lightning compare?; (5) What is the effect of an explicit description of the effect of convective redistribution on the vertical distribution of lightning produced NOx? In Chapter 2, the first question and part of the third question are addressed. Because convection can bring reactive trace gases to the upper troposphere where they can live longer, and possibly are transported to remote regions, it is important to well describe the convective transport. The archival of convective mass fluxes in the ERA-40 data set allows us to drive the convective transport in the TM model. We compare these archived fluxes with the standard off-line diagnosed fluxes used in
Bilal Ashraf, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Hayat, T.; Shehzad, S. A.
2017-06-01
Heat and mass transfer effects in the three-dimensional mixed convection flow of a viscoelastic fluid with internal heat source/sink and chemical reaction have been investigated in the present work. The flow generation is because of an exponentially stretching surface. Magnetic field normal to the direction of flow is considered. Convective conditions at the surface are also encountered. Appropriate similarity transformations are utilized to reduce the boundary layer partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. The homotopy analysis method is used to develop the solution expressions. Impacts of different controlling parameters such as ratio parameter, Hartman number, internal heat source/sink, chemical reaction, mixed convection, concentration buoyancy parameter and Biot numbers on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed. The local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are sketched and examined.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, K.Y.; Todreas, N.E.; Robsenow, W.M.
1987-01-01
An experimental study has been conducted to confirm and validate the predictive models and correlations for low flow frictional pressure loss in vertical rod bundle geometries under natural circulation conditions. An experimental procedure has been developed to measure low magnitude differential pressures under mixed convection conditions in 19 heated rod bare and wire-wrapped assemblies. The proposed model has been found to successfully predict the effects of wire wrapping, power skew, transition from laminar regime, developing and interacting global and local flow redistributions, and rod number on the mixed convection friction loss characteristics of rod bundles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Calore, L.; Cavinato, g.; Canton, P.; Peruzzo, L.; Banavali, R.; Jeřábek, Karel; Corain, B.
2012-01-01
Roč. 391, AUG 30 (2012), s. 114-120 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : strongly acidic cross-linked polymer * frameworks * gold(0) nanoclusters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2012
Krisna, T. C.; Ehrlich, A.; Werner, F.; Wendisch, M.
2015-12-01
Deep Convective Clouds (DCCs) have key role in the tropical region. Despite they only have small spatial coverage, but they account most of the total precipitation in these region which often make flooding. There are such of aviation accidents caused by strong vertical wind, hailing, icing and lightning inside the clouds. Pollutions caused by biomass burning and land degradation can change the aerosol properties as well as cloud properties, therefore will influence the radiation and formation of the DCCs. Those are the major reasons that better understanding of DCCs formation and life cycle are necessary. Between Sept. 01 - Oct. 14, ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Concevtive Clouds Systems) campaign was conducted over Amazonia. It is suitable area to be the site-study due to has strong contrast environtment (pristine and polluted), regular convection activities and stable meteorological condition. In this study we focus on the 2 satellite validation missions designed to fly collocated but in different altitude with A-TRAIN constellation. In order to study DCCs-solar radiation interaction, we use SMART (Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation Measurements System) installed on HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) which measures spectral Irradiance (F) and Radiance (I) at the wavelength between 300-2200 nm corresponding to satellite. Due to the limitation in spatial and temporal, airborne measurements only give snapshots of atmosphere condition and DCCs formation, therefore we use multi-satellite data as DCCs have high vertical and horizontal distance, long temporal development and complex form. The comparison of AQUA MODIS and SMART Radiance at 645 nm (non-absorbing) in the clear-sky condition gives strong agreement, but in the multilayer-cloud condition gives worse and results in high underestimation (-86%) in SMART data especially at lower altitude. The bias is caused by interference from clouds
A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers
Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.
2009-12-01
Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.
Convectively Driven Tropopause-Level Cooling and Its Influences on Stratospheric Moisture
Kim, Joowan; Randel, William J.; Birner, Thomas
2018-01-01
Characteristics of the tropopause-level cooling associated with tropical deep convection are examined using CloudSat radar and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS radio occultation measurements. Extreme deep convection is sampled based on the cloud top height (>17 km) from CloudSat, and colocated temperature profiles from COSMIC are composited around the deep convection. Response of moisture to the tropopause-level cooling is also examined in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using microwave limb sounder measurements. The composite temperature shows an anomalous warming in the troposphere and a significant cooling near the tropopause (at 16-19 km) when deep convection occurs over the western Pacific, particularly during periods with active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The composite of the tropopause cooling has a large horizontal scale ( 6,000 km in longitude) with minimum temperature anomaly of -2 K, and it lasts more than 2 weeks with support of mesoscale convective clusters embedded within the envelope of the MJO. The water vapor anomalies show strong correlation with the temperature anomalies (i.e., dry anomaly in the cold anomaly), showing that the convectively driven tropopause cooling actively dehydrate the lower stratosphere in the western Pacific region. The moisture is also affected by anomalous Matsuno-Gill-type circulation associated with the cold anomaly, in which dry air spreads over a wide range in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). These results suggest that convectively driven tropopause cooling and associated transient circulation play an important role in the large-scale dehydration process in the TTL.
Convection and exchangers in variable regime; Convection et echangeurs en regime variable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagui, F.; Abdelghani-Idrissi, M.A. [Rouen Univ. IUT, Centre de Developpement Durable, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Bagui, F. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs CESI, 76 - Mont Saint Aignan (France); Desmet, B.; Lalot, S.; Harmand, S. [Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis Univ., Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Maillet, D. [Institut National Polytechnique, INPL-UHP Nancy-1, LEMTA-CNRS UMR 7563, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)
2005-07-01
This session about convection and exchangers in variable regime gathers three articles dealing with: the transient regimes of tubular heat exchangers; heat exchangers and convection in non-permanent regime; and the limitations of the H coefficient: two short-time and short-scale examples. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jakob, Christian [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
2015-02-26
This report summarises an investigation into the relationship of tropical thunderstorms to the atmospheric conditions they are embedded in. The study is based on the use of radar observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Darwin run under the auspices of the DOE Atmospheric Systems Research program. Linking the larger scales of the atmosphere with the smaller scales of thunderstorms is crucial for the development of the representation of thunderstorms in weather and climate models, which is carried out by a process termed parametrisation. Through the analysis of radar and wind profiler observations the project made several fundamental discoveries about tropical storms and quantified the relationship of the occurrence and intensity of these storms to the large-scale atmosphere. We were able to show that the rainfall averaged over an area the size of a typical climate model grid-box is largely controlled by the number of storms in the area, and less so by the storm intensity. This allows us to completely rethink the way we represent such storms in climate models. We also found that storms occur in three distinct categories based on their depth and that the transition between these categories is strongly related to the larger scale dynamical features of the atmosphere more so than its thermodynamic state. Finally, we used our observational findings to test and refine a new approach to cumulus parametrisation which relies on the stochastic modelling of the area covered by different convective cloud types.
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
On the convective instability of finitely conducting viscous model chromosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sankhla, V.D.; Bhatia, P.K.
1980-01-01
The convective stability of a simple model chromosphere, consisting of protons, electrons and hydrogen atoms in the ground state, has been studied in the presence of a vertically upward uniform magnetic field to include the effects of FLR, Hall-currents, finite conductivity and ionization. The ionization in the chromosphere is collisional and the recombination is radiative. It is found that the Schwarzchild criterion should necessarily be satisfied for the stability together with the condition that v > 2 v 0 , where v is kinematic viscosity and v 0 is gyroviscosity. Some special cases have also been investigated. (orig.)
Statistics and scaling in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Ching, Emily SC
2013-01-01
This Brief addresses two issues of interest of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection. The first issue is the characterization and understanding of the statistics of the velocity and temperature fluctuations in the system. The second issue is the revelation and understanding of the nature of the scaling behavior of the velocity temperature structure functions. The problem under the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is formulated. The statistical tools, including probability density functions (PDF) and conditional statistics, for studying fluctuations are introduced, and implicit PDF formulae for
Gozzini, B.; Melani, S.; Pasi, F.; Ortolani, A.
2010-09-01
The increasing damages caused by natural disasters, a great part of them being direct or indirect effects of severe convective storms (SCS), seem to suggest that extreme events occur with greater frequency, also as a consequence of climate changes. A better comprehension of the genesis and evolution of SCS is then necessary to clarify if and what is changing in these extreme events. The major reason to go through the mechanisms driving such events is given by the growing need to have timely and precise predictions of severe weather events, especially in areas that show to be more and more sensitive to their occurrence. When dealing with severe weather events, either from a researcher or an operational point of view, it is necessary to know precisely the conditions under which these events take place to upgrade conceptual models or theories, and consequently to improve the quality of forecasts as well as to establish effective warning decision procedures. The Mediterranean basin is, in general terms, a sea of small areal extent, characterised by the presence of several islands; thus, a severe convection phenomenon originating over the sea, that lasts several hours, is very likely to make landfall during its lifetime. On the other hand, these storms are quasi-stationary or very slow moving so that, when convection happens close to the shoreline, it is normally very dangerous and in many cases can cause very severe weather, with flash floods or tornadoes. An example of these extreme events is one of the case study analysed in this work, regarding the flash flood occurred in Giampileri (Sicily, Italy) the evening of 1st October 2009, where 18 people died, other 79 injured and the historical centre of the village seriously damaged. Severe weather systems and strong convection occurring in the Mediterranean basin have been investigated for two years (2008-2009) using geostationary (MSG) and polar orbiting (AVHRR) satellite data, supported by ECMWF analyses and severe