Diffraction scattering of strongly bound system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmichev, V.E.
1982-04-01
The scattering of a hadron on a strongly bound system of two hadrons (dihadron) is considered in the high-energy limit for the relative hadron-dihadron motion. The dihadron scatterer motion and the internal interaction are included in our consideration. It is shown that only small values of the internal transfer momentum of dihadron particles bring the principal contribution to the three-particle propagator in eikonal approximation. On the basis of the exact analytical solution of the integral equation for the total Green function the scattering amplitude is derived. It is shown that the scattering amplitude contains only single, double, and triple scattering terms. The three new terms to the Glauber formula for the total cross section are obtained. These terms decrease both the true total hadron-hadron cross section and the screening correction. (orig.)
A strongly quasiconvex PAC-Bayesian bound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thiemann, Niklas; Igel, Christian; Wintenberger, Olivier
2017-01-01
We propose a new PAC-Bayesian bound and a way of constructing a hypothesis space, so that the bound is convex in the posterior distribution and also convex in a trade-off parameter between empirical performance of the posterior distribution and its complexity. The complexity is measured by the Ku...
Unexpected strong attraction in the presence of continuum bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delfino, A.; Frederico, T.
1992-06-01
The result of few-particle ground-state calculation employing a two-particle non-local potential supporting a continuum bound state in addition to a negative-energy bound state has occasionally revealed unexpected large attraction in producing a very strongly bound ground state. In the presence of the continuum bound state the difference of phase shift between zero and infinite energies has an extra jump of φ as in the presence of an additional bound state. The wave function of the continuum bound state is identical with that of a strongly bound negative-energy state, which leads us to postulate a pseudo bound state in the two-particle system in order to explain the unexpected attraction. The role of the Pauli forbidden states is expected to be similar to these pseudo states. (author)
Bound states in strongly correlated magnetic and electronic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trebst, S.
2002-02-01
A novel strong coupling expansion method to calculate two-particle spectra of quantum lattice models is developed. The technique can be used to study bosonic and fermionic models and in principle it can be applied to systems in any dimension. A number of strongly correlated magnetic and electronic systems are examined including the two-leg spin-half Heisenberg ladder, the dimerized Heisenberg chain with a frustrating next-nearest neighbor interaction, coupled Heisenberg ladders, and the one-dimensional Kondo lattice model. In the various models distinct bound states are found below the two-particle continuum. Quantitative calculations of the dispersion, coherence length and binding energy of these bound states are used to describe spectroscopic experiments on (Ca,La) 14 Cu 24 O 41 and NaV 2 O 5 . (orig.)
Upper bound on compositeness scale from strong CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, A.; Stanford Univ., CA
1988-01-01
In this letter I estimate the size of corrections to the neutron electric dipole moment in composite-technicolor models. The natural size of the electric dipole moment is about 10 -25 e cm (f/3.5 TeV) 24 , where f is the compositeness scale. The current experimental bound of 1.2x10 -25 e cm on the electric dipole moment of the neutron provides an upper bound on the compositeness scale of 3.5 TeV. (orig.)
Influence of strong perturbations on wall-bounded flows
Buxton, O. R. H.; Ewenz Rocher, M.; Rodríguez-López, E.
2018-01-01
Single-point hot-wire measurements are made downstream of a series of spanwise repeating obstacles that are used to generate an artificially thick turbulent boundary layer. The measurements are made in the near field, in which the turbulent boundary layer is beginning to develop from the wall-bounded wakes of the obstacles. The recent paper of Rodríguez-López et al. [E. Rodríguez-López et al., Phys. Rev. Fluids 1, 074401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevFluids.1.074401] broadly categorized the mechanisms by which canonical turbulent boundary layers eventually develop from wall-bounded wakes into two distinct mechanisms, the wall-driven and wake-driven mechanisms. In the present work we attempt to identify the geometric parameters of tripping arrays that trigger these two mechanisms by examining the spectra of the streamwise velocity fluctuations and the intermittent outer region of the flow. Using a definition reliant upon the magnitude of the velocity fluctuations, an intermittency function is devised that can discriminate between turbulent and nonturbulent flow. These results are presented along with the spectra in order to try to ascertain which aspects of a trip's geometry are more likely to favor the wall-driven or wake-driven mechanism. The geometrical aspects of the trips tested are the aspect ratio, the total blockage, and the blockage at the wall. The results indicate that the presence, or not, of perforations is the most significant factor in affecting the flow downstream. The bleed of fluid through the perforations reenergizes the mean recirculation and leads to a narrower intermittent region with a more regular turbulent-nonturbulent interface. The near-wall turbulent motions are found to recover quickly downstream of all of the trips with a wall blockage of 50%, but a clear influence of the outer fluctuations, generated by the tip vortices of the trips, is observed in the near-wall region for the high total blockage trips. The trip with 100% wall blockage is
Bozeman, Trevor C; Nanjunda, Rupesh; Tang, Chenhong; Liu, Yang; Segerman, Zachary J; Zaleski, Paul A; Wilson, W David; Hecht, Sidney M
2012-10-31
Recent studies involving DNAs bound strongly by bleomycins have documented that such DNAs are degraded by the antitumor antibiotic with characteristics different from those observed when studying the cleavage of randomly chosen DNAs in the presence of excess Fe·BLM. In the present study, surface plasmon resonance has been used to characterize the dynamics of BLM B(2) binding to a strongly bound hairpin DNA, to define the effects of Fe(3+), salt, and temperature on BLM-DNA interaction. One strong primary DNA binding site, and at least one much weaker site, were documented. In contrast, more than one strong cleavage site was found, an observation also made for two other hairpin DNAs. Evidence is presented for BLM equilibration between the stronger and weaker binding sites in a way that renders BLM unavailable to other, less strongly bound DNAs. Thus, enhanced binding to a given site does not necessarily result in increased DNA degradation at that site; i.e., for strongly bound DNAs, the facility of DNA cleavage must involve other parameters in addition to the intrinsic rate of C-4' H atom abstraction from DNA sugars.
Fusion and direct reactions for strongly and weakly bound projectiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hugi, M.; Lang, J.; Mueller, R.; Ungricht, E.; Bodek, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Magiera, A.; Strzalkowski, A.; Willim, G.
1981-01-01
The interaction of 6 Li, 9 Be and 12 C projectiles with a 28 Si target was investigated by measuring the angular distributions of the elasitcally scattered projectiles and of the emitted protons, deuterons and α-particles. The experiment was perfomred in order to deduce direct and compound nucleus process contributions to the total reaction cross section and to study the influence of the projectile structure on the relative importance of these two mechanisms. Optical model parameters and therefore the total reaction cross section are strongly influenced by the binding energy of the projectile. The parameters of the Glas-Mosel describing the fusion reaction vary smoothly with the atomic number. In the system 9 B + 28 Si around 50% of all reactions are direct processes even at energies near the Coulomb barrier, whereas in the other systeme the direct part amounts to 15% ( 12 C) and 30% ( 6 Li) only. (orig.)
The Bekenstein bound in strongly coupled O(N) scalar field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magalhaes, T. Santos; Svaiter, N.F.; Menezes, G.
2009-09-01
We discuss the O(N) self-interacting scalar field theory, in the strong-coupling regime and also in the limit of large N. Considering that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature β -1 , we assume the presence of macroscopic boundaries conning the field in a hypercube of side L. Using the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, we generalize previous results, i.e., we obtain the renormalized mean energy E and entropy S for the system in rst order of the strong-coupling perturbative expansion, presenting an analytical proof that the specific entropy also satisfies in some situations a quantum bound. When considering the low temperature behavior of the specific entropy, the sign of the renormalized zero-point energy can invalidate this quantum bound. If the renormalized zero point-energy is a positive quantity, at intermediate temperatures and in the low temperature limit, there is a quantum bound. (author)
The QCD mass gap and quark deconfinement scales as mass bounds in strong gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Nanyang Technological University, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Singapore (Singapore); Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand)
2017-11-15
Though not a part of mainstream physics, Salam's theory of strong gravity remains a viable effective model for the description of strong interactions in the gauge singlet sector of QCD, capable of producing particle confinement and asymptotic freedom, but not of reproducing interactions involving SU(3) color charge. It may therefore be used to explore the stability and confinement of gauge singlet hadrons, though not to describe scattering processes that require color interactions. It is a two-tensor theory of both strong interactions and gravity, in which the strong tensor field is governed by equations formally identical to the Einstein equations, apart from the coupling parameter, which is of order 1 GeV{sup -1}. We revisit the strong gravity theory and investigate the strong gravity field equations in the presence of a mixing term which induces an effective strong cosmological constant, Λ{sub f}. This introduces a strong de Sitter radius for strongly interacting fermions, producing a confining bubble, which allows us to identify Λ{sub f} with the 'bag constant' of the MIT bag model, B ≅ 2 x 10{sup 14} g cm{sup -3}. Assuming a static, spherically symmetric geometry, we derive the strong gravity TOV equation, which describes the equilibrium properties of compact hadronic objects. From this, we determine the generalized Buchdahl inequalities for a strong gravity 'particle', giving rise to upper and lower bounds on the mass/radius ratio of stable, compact, strongly interacting objects. We show, explicitly, that the existence of the lower mass bound is induced by the presence of Λ{sub f}, producing a mass gap, and that the upper bound corresponds to a deconfinement phase transition. The physical implications of our results for holographic duality in the context of the AdS/QCD and dS/QCD correspondences are also discussed. (orig.)
Strong Convergence Bound of the Pareto Index Estimator under Right Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Zuoxiang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed random variables with common Pareto-type distribution function as , where represents a slowly varying function at infinity. In this note we study the strong convergence bound of a kind of right censored Pareto index estimator under second-order regularly varying conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huilin Huang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study strong limit theorems for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees. We mainly establish the strong law of large numbers for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees and give the strong limit law of the conditional sample entropy rate.
Strong Convergence Bound of the Pareto Index Estimator under Right Censoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bao Tao
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let {Xn,n≥1} be a sequence of positive independent and identically distributed random variables with common Pareto-type distribution function F(x=1−x−1/γlF(x as γ>0, where lF(x represents a slowly varying function at infinity. In this note we study the strong convergence bound of a kind of right censored Pareto index estimator under second-order regularly varying conditions.
Bound-state β decay of a neutron in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.
2005-01-01
The β decay of a neutron into a bound (pe - ) state and an antineutrino in the presence of a strong uniform magnetic field (B > or approx. 10 13 G) is considered. The β decay process is treated within the framework of the standard model of weak interactions. A Bethe-Salpeter formalism is employed for description of the bound (pe - ) system in a strong magnetic field. For the field strengths 10 13 18 G the estimate for the ratio of the bound-state decay rate w b and the usual (continuum-state) decay rate w c is derived. It is found that in such strong magnetic fields w b /w c ∼0.1-0.4. This is in contrast to the field-free case, where w b /w c ≅4.2x10 -6 [J. N. Bahcall, Phys. Rev. 124, 495 (1961); L. L. Nemenov, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 15, 582 (1972); X. Song, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Phys. 13, 1023 (1987)]. The dependence of the ratio w b /w c on the magnetic field strength B exhibits a logarithmiclike behavior. The obtained results can be important for applications in astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2011-01-01
The dispersion relation for the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma cylindrical waveguide is derived, accounting for strong electrostatic interactions between charged dust grains. It is found that the boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW. The present result should be helpful for understanding the frequency spectrum of the DAW in a dusty plasma waveguide with strongly coupled charged dust grains. - Highlights: → We study the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a bounded plasma. → We account for interactions between dust grains. → The boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW.
Strong Wilson polygons from the lodge of free and bound mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonini, Alfredo; Fioravanti, Davide [Sezione INFN di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Piscaglia, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza,Arcavacata di Rende, 87036 Cosenza (Italy)
2016-04-05
Previously predicted by the S-matrix bootstrap of the excitations over the GKP quantum vacuum, the appearance of a new particle at strong coupling — formed by one fermion and one anti-fermion — is here confirmed: this two-dimensional meson shows up, along with its infinite tower of bound states, while analysing the fermionic contributions to the Operator Product Expansion (collinear regime) of the Wilson null polygon loop. Moreover, its existence, free and bound, turns out to be a powerful idea in re-summing all the contributions (at large coupling) for a general n-gon (n≥6) to a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, which is proven to be equivalent to the known one and suggests new structures for a special Y-system.
High precision hyperfine measurements in Bismuth challenge bound-state strong-field QED.
Ullmann, Johannes; Andelkovic, Zoran; Brandau, Carsten; Dax, Andreas; Geithner, Wolfgang; Geppert, Christopher; Gorges, Christian; Hammen, Michael; Hannen, Volker; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Litvinov, Yuri A; Lochmann, Matthias; Maaß, Bernhard; Meisner, Johann; Murböck, Tobias; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Schmidt, Matthias; Schmidt, Stefan; Steck, Markus; Stöhlker, Thomas; Thompson, Richard C; Trageser, Christian; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried
2017-05-16
Electrons bound in highly charged heavy ions such as hydrogen-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+ experience electromagnetic fields that are a million times stronger than in light atoms. Measuring the wavelength of light emitted and absorbed by these ions is therefore a sensitive testing ground for quantum electrodynamical (QED) effects and especially the electron-nucleus interaction under such extreme conditions. However, insufficient knowledge of the nuclear structure has prevented a rigorous test of strong-field QED. Here we present a measurement of the so-called specific difference between the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen-like and lithium-like bismuth 209 Bi 82+,80+ with a precision that is improved by more than an order of magnitude. Even though this quantity is believed to be largely insensitive to nuclear structure and therefore the most decisive test of QED in the strong magnetic field regime, we find a 7-σ discrepancy compared with the theoretical prediction.
Strongly bound excitons in monolayer PtS2 and PtSe2
Sajjad, M.
2018-01-22
Based on first-principles calculations, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of monolayers PtS2 and PtSe2 are investigated. The bond stiffnesses and elastic moduli are determined by means of the spring constants and strain-energy relations, respectively. Dynamic stability is confirmed by calculating the phonon spectra, which shows excellent agreement with experimental reports for the frequencies of the Raman-active modes. The Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof functional results in electronic bandgaps of 2.66 eV for monolayer PtS2 and 1.74 eV for monolayer PtSe2. G0W0 calculations combined with the Bethe-Salpeter equation are used to predict the optical spectra and exciton binding energies (0.78 eV for monolayer PtS2 and 0.60 eV for monolayer PtSe2). It turns out that the excitons are strongly bound and therefore very stable against external perturbations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bao Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study the strong law of large numbers for the frequencies of occurrence of states and ordered couples of states for countable Markov chains indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degree, which extends the corresponding results of countable Markov chains indexed by a Cayley tree and generalizes the relative results of finite Markov chains indexed by a uniformly bounded tree.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juergen Saal
2007-02-01
Full Text Available It is proved under mild regularity assumptions on the data that the Navier-Stokes equations in bounded and unbounded noncylindrical regions admit a unique local-in-time strong solution. The result is based on maximal regularity estimates for the in spatial regions with a moving boundary obtained in [16] and the contraction mapping principle.
Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Olovsson, Weine [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Mizoguchi, Teruyasu, E-mail: teru@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)
2017-07-15
Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO{sub 3}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and BaTiO{sub 3}, together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO{sub 2}, were investigated using a first-principles Bethe–Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti–O–Ti bonds. - Highlights: • Excitonic interaction in oxygen-K edge is investigated. • Strong excitonic interaction is found in the oxygen-K edge of perovskite oxides. • The strong excitonic interaction is ascribed to the low-dimensional and confined electronic structure.
A k-Bounded Symbolic Execution for Checking Strong Heap Properties of Open Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Jooyong; Deng, Xianghua; Bogor, Robby
2006-01-01
This paper presents Kiasan, a bounded technique to reason about open systems based on a path sensitive, relatively sound and complete symbolic execution instead of the usual compositional reasoning through weakest precondition calculation that summarizes all execution paths. Kiasan is able to che...... framework and observed that its performance is comparable to ESC/Java on similar scales of problems and behavioral coverage, while providing the ability to check much stronger specifications...
Prochniewicz, Ewa; Chin, Harvey F.; Henn, Arnon; Hannemann, Diane E.; Olivares, Adrian O.; Thomas, David D.; De La Cruz, Enrique M.
2010-01-01
SUMMARY We have used transient phosphorescence anisotropy (TPA) to detect the microsecond rotational dynamics of erythrosin iodoacetamide (ErIA)-labeled actin strongly bound to single-headed fragments of muscle myosin (muscle S1) and non-muscle myosin V (MV). The conformational dynamics of actin filaments in solution are markedly influenced by the isoform of bound myosin. Both myosins increase the final anisotropy of actin at sub-stoichiometric binding densities, indicating long-range, non-nearest neighbor cooperative restriction of filament rotational dynamics amplitude, but the cooperative unit is larger with MV than muscle S1. Both myosin isoforms also cooperatively affect the actin filament rotational correlation time, but with opposite effects; muscle S1 decreases rates of intrafilament torsional motion, while binding of MV increases the rates of motion. The cooperative effects on the rates of intrafilament motions correlate with the kinetics of myosin binding to actin filaments such that MV binds more rapidly, and muscle myosin more slowly, to partially decorated filaments than to bare filaments. The two isoforms also differ in their effects on the phosphorescence lifetime of the actin-bound ErIA; while muscle S1 increases the lifetime, suggesting decreased aqueous exposure of the probe, MV does not induce a significant change. We conclude that the dynamics and structure of actin in the strongly bound actomyosin complex is determined by the isoform of the bound myosin, in a manner likely to accommodate the diverse functional roles of actomyosin in muscle and non-muscle cells. PMID:19962990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eminov, P.A., E-mail: peminov@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Sciences, 20 Stromynka Street, Moscow 2107996 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 3/12 Bolshoy Trekhsvyatskiy pereulok, Moscow 109028 (Russian Federation)
2013-10-01
Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term.
Bound states in the continuum on periodic structures surrounded by strong resonances
Yuan, Lijun; Lu, Ya Yan
2018-04-01
Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are trapped or guided modes with their frequencies in the frequency intervals of the radiation modes. On periodic structures, a BIC is surrounded by a family of resonant modes with their quality factors approaching infinity. Typically the quality factors are proportional to 1 /|β - β*|2 , where β and β* are the Bloch wave vectors of the resonant modes and the BIC, respectively. But for some special BICs, the quality factors are proportional to 1 /|β - β*|4 . In this paper, a general condition is derived for such special BICs on two-dimensional periodic structures. As a numerical example, we use the general condition to calculate special BICs, which are antisymmetric standing waves, on a periodic array of circular cylinders, and show their dependence on parameters. The special BICs are important for practical applications, because they produce resonances with large quality factors for a very large range of β .
Strongly regular family of boundary-fitted tetrahedral meshes of bounded C^2 domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hošek, Radim
2016-01-01
Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 233-251 ISSN 0862-7940 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : boundary fitted mesh * strongly regular family * Sommerville tetrahedron Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/145699
Meson-meson bound state in a 2+1 lattice QCD model with two flavors and strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael; Neto, Antonio Francisco
2005-01-01
We consider the existence of bound states of two mesons in an imaginary-time formulation of lattice QCD. We analyze an SU(3) theory with two flavors in 2+1 dimensions and two-dimensional spin matrices. For a small hopping parameter and a sufficiently large glueball mass, as a preliminary, we show the existence of isoscalar and isovector mesonlike particles that have isolated dispersion curves (upper gap up to near the two-particle threshold ∼-4lnκ). The corresponding meson masses are equal up to and including O(κ 3 ) and are asymptotically of order -2lnκ-κ 2 . Considering the zero total isospin sector, we show that there is a meson-meson bound state solution to the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a ladder approximation, below the two-meson threshold, and with binding energy of order bκ 2 ≅0.02359κ 2 . In the context of the strong coupling expansion in κ, we show that there are two sources of meson-meson attraction. One comes from a quark-antiquark exchange. This is not a meson exchange, as the spin indices are not those of the meson particle, and we refer to this as a quasimeson exchange. The other arises from gauge field correlations of four overlapping bonds, two positively oriented and two of opposite orientation. Although the exchange part gives rise to a space range-one attractive potential, the main mechanism for the formation of the bound state comes from the gauge contribution. In our lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation approach, this mechanism is manifested by an attractive distance-zero energy-dependent potential. We recall that no bound state appeared in the one-flavor case, where the repulsive effect of Pauli exclusion is stronger
Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides.
Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro; Olovsson, Weine; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu
2017-07-01
Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO 3 , SrTiO 3 , and BaTiO 3 , together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO 2 , were investigated using a first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti-O-Ti bonds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O'Carroll, Michael
2006-01-01
We determine baryon-baryon bound states in (3+1)-dimensional SU(3) lattice QCD with two flavors, 4x4 spin matrices, and in an imaginary time formulation. For small hopping parameter κ>0 and large glueball mass (strong coupling), we show the existence of three-quark isospin 1/2 particles (proton and neutron) and isospin 3/2 baryons (delta particles), with asymptotic masses -3lnκ and isolated dispersion curves. Baryon-baryon bound states of isospin zero are found with binding energy of order κ 2 , using a ladder approximation to a lattice Bethe-Salpeter equation. The dominant baryon-baryon interaction is an energy-independent spatial range-one attractive potential with an O(κ 2 ) strength. There is also attraction arising from gauge field correlations associated with six overlapping bonds, but it is counterbalanced by Pauli repulsion to give a vanishing zero-range potential. The overall range-one potential results from a quark, antiquark exchange with no meson exchange interpretation; the repulsive or attractive nature of the interaction depends on the isospin and spin of the two-baryon state
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus M.M. Bisschops
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.
Strong Dependence of Hydration State of F-Actin on the Bound Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) Ions.
Suzuki, Makoto; Imao, Asato; Mogami, George; Chishima, Ryotaro; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Takaya; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Wazawa, Tetsuichi
2016-07-21
Understanding of the hydration state is an important issue in the chemomechanical energetics of versatile biological functions of polymerized actin (F-actin). In this study, hydration-state differences of F-actin by the bound divalent cations are revealed through precision microwave dielectric relaxation (DR) spectroscopy. G- and F-actin in Ca- and Mg-containing buffer solutions exhibit dual hydration components comprising restrained water with DR frequency f2 (fw). The hydration state of F-actin is strongly dependent on the ionic composition. In every buffer tested, the HMW signal Dhyme (≡ (f1 - fw)δ1/(fwδw)) of F-actin is stronger than that of G-actin, where δw is DR-amplitude of bulk solvent and δ1 is that of HMW in a fixed-volume ellipsoid containing an F-actin and surrounding water in solution. Dhyme value of F-actin in Ca2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Ca(2+)) is markedly higher than in Mg2.0-buffer (containing 2 mM Mg(2+)). Moreover, in the presence of 2 mM Mg(2+), the hydration state of F-actin is changed by adding a small fraction of Ca(2+) (∼0.1 mM) and becomes closer to that of the Ca-bound form in Ca2.0-buffer. This is consistent with the results of the partial specific volume and the Cotton effect around 290 nm in the CD spectra, indicating a change in the tertiary structure and less apparent change in the secondary structure of actin. The number of restrained water molecules per actin (N2) is estimated to be 1600-2100 for Ca2.0- and F-buffer and ∼2500 for Mg2.0-buffer at 10-15 °C. These numbers are comparable to those estimated from the available F-actin atomic structures as in the first water layer. The number of HMW molecules is roughly explained by the volume between the equipotential surface of -kT/2e and the first water layer of the actin surface by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation using UCSF Chimera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukov, V.V.; Osovskij, V.D.; Ptushnikov, Yu.G.; Sukretnyj, V.G.; Chujkov, B.A.
1986-01-01
A molecular beam technique with an effusion source operating at T=200 K is used to study the adsorption interaction of oxygen with W(100) and (110) faces in the range of the simple temperatures from 5 to 340 K. Three weakly-bound adsorption states of oxygen are detected corresponding to adsorption in the second, third and forth monolayer. These states are characterized by adsorption energies of 0.13, 0.08 and 0.07 eV and desorption temperatures of 45, 27 and 25 K, respectively. The kinetics of filling of these states is almost similar for both faces, whereas the adsorption kinetics in the first monolayer is essentially different. A dissociative nature of adsorption at T >or approx. 5 K and a jump migration mechanism of the admolecules in the precursor state to the stationary adsorption sites are suggested
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Y J; Tian, Y P; Zhang, Z T; Li, R H; Cai, L J; Gao, J Y
2013-01-01
Reactive oxygen species solution produced by strong ionization discharging plasma was used to kill Escherichia coli by spraying. Several effect factors such as pH value, solution temperature, spraying time and exposure time were observed in this study, and their effects on killing rate of Escherichia coli were discussed and analysed. Results show that the treating efficiency of ROS solution for Escherichia coli is higher in alkaline solution than that in acid solution. The killing rate of Escherichia coli increases while the spraying time and exposure time are longer and the temperature is lower. The effects of different factors on killing rate of Escherichia coli are as follows: spraying time > pH value > exposure time > solution temperature.
Putschew, A.; Schaeffer-Reiss, C.; Schaeffer, P.; Koopmans, M.P.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.; Maxwell, J.R.
1998-01-01
An immature sulfur-rich marl from the Gessosso-solfifera Formation of the Vena del Gesso Basin (Messinian, Italy) has been subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (160 to 330??C) to simulate maturation under natural conditions. The kerogen of the unheated and heated samples was isolated and the hydrocarbons released by selective chemical degradation (Li/EtNH2 and HI/LiAIH4) were analysed to allow a study of the fate of sulfur- and oxygen-bound species with increasing temperature. The residues from the chemical treatments were also subjected to pyrolysis-GC to follow structural changes in the kerogens. In general, with increasing hydrous pyrolysis temperature, the amounts of sulfide- and ether-bound components in the kerogen decreased significantly. At the temperature at which the generation of expelled oil began (260??C), almost all of the bound components initially present in the unheated sample were released from the kerogen. Comparison with an earlier study of the extractable organic matter using a similar approach and the same samples provides molecular evidence that, with increasing maturation, solvent-soluble macromolecular material was initially released from the kerogen, notably as a result of thermal cleavage of weak Carbon-heteroatom bonds (sulfide, ester, ether) even at temperatures as low as 220??C. This solvent-soluble macromolecular material then underwent thermal cleavage to generate hydrocarbons at higher temperatures. This early generation of bitumen may explain the presence of unusually high amounts of extractable organic matter of macromolecular nature in very immature S-rich sediments.
Prieto, Gonzalo
2017-03-22
Under specific scenarios, the catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2 with renewable hydrogen is considered a suitable route for the chemical recycling of this environmentally harmful and chemically refractory molecule into added-value energy carriers and chemicals. The hydrogenation of CO 2 into C 1 products, such as methane and methanol, can be achieved with high selectivities towards the corresponding hydrogenation product. More challenging, however, is the selective production of high (C 2+ ) hydrocarbons and oxygenates. These products are desired as energy vectors, owing to their higher volumetric energy density and compatibility with the current fuel infrastructure than C 1 compounds, and as entry platform chemicals for existing value chains. The major challenge is the optimal integration of catalytic functionalities for both reductive and chain-growth steps. This Minireview summarizes the progress achieved towards the hydrogenation of CO 2 to C 2+ hydrocarbons and oxygenates, covering both solid and molecular catalysts and processes in the gas and liquid phases. Mechanistic aspects are discussed with emphasis on intrinsic kinetic limitations, in some cases inevitably linked to thermodynamic bounds through the concomitant reverse water-gas-shift reaction, which should be considered in the development of advanced catalysts and processes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arsenyev, S. A.; Koryagin, S. A., E-mail: koryagin@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)
2012-06-15
A classical analysis is presented of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by positive-energy electrons performing bound motion in the Coulomb field of a nucleus at rest in a strong uniform magnetic field. Bounded trajectories exist and span a wide range of velocity directions near the nucleus (compared to free trajectories with similar energies) when the electron Larmor radius is smaller than the distance at which the electron-nucleus Coulomb interaction energy is equal to the mechanical energy of an electron. The required conditions occur in magnetic white dwarf photospheres and have been achieved in experiments on production of antihydrogen. Under these conditions, the radiant power per unit volume emitted by positive-energy bound electrons is much higher than the analogous characteristic of bremsstrahlung (in particular, in thermal equilibrium) at frequencies that are below the electron cyclotron frequency but higher than the inverse transit time through the interaction region in a close collision in the absence of a magnetic field. The quantum energy discreteness of positive-energy bound states restricts the radiation from an ensemble of bound electrons (e.g., in thermal equilibrium) to nonoverlapping spectral lines, while continuum radiative transfer is dominated by linearly polarized bremsstrahlung.
Ramel, Fanny; Brasseur, Gael; Pieulle, Laetitia; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Fardeau, Marie Laure; Dolla, Alain
2015-01-01
Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/o)o3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox) and double deletion (Δcoxbd) mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97%) but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining reducing conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fanny Ramel
Full Text Available Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/oo3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox and double deletion (Δcoxbd mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97% but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, J.D.
1995-02-01
This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems
The nuclear magnetic moment of 208Bi and its relevance for a test of bound-state strong-field QED
Schmidt, S.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Plunien, G.; Sailer, S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Volotka, A. V.; Yang, X. F.
2018-04-01
The hyperfine structure splitting in the 6p3 3/2 4S → 6p2 7 s 1/2 4P transition at 307 nm in atomic 208Bi was measured with collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. The hyperfine A and B factors of both states were determined with an order of magnitude improved accuracy. Based on these measurements, theoretical input for the hyperfine structure anomaly, and results from hyperfine measurements on hydrogen-like and lithium-like 209Bi80+,82+, the nuclear magnetic moment of 208Bi has been determined to μ (208Bi) = + 4.570 (10)μN. Using this value, the transition energy of the ground-state hyperfine splitting in hydrogen-like and lithium-like 208Bi80+,82+ and their specific difference of -67.491(5)(148) meV are predicted. This provides a means for an experimental confirmation of the cancellation of nuclear structure effects in the specific difference in order to exclude such contributions as the cause of the hyperfine puzzle, the recently reported 7-σ discrepancy between experiment and bound-state strong-field QED calculations of the specific difference in the hyperfine structure splitting of 209Bi80+,82+.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
2009-07-01
Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.; Novikov, V.A.; Shifman, M.A.
1975-01-01
Bounds on the masses of charmed particles are derived from the calculation of the amplitudes of the Ksub(L) → 2μ and Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) transitions within the framework of the Weinberg-Salam model. The strong interactions are assumed to be connected with the color SU(3) group and mediated by octet of massless gluons. The account of strong interactions is shown to have almost no effect on the bound on the masses of charmed particles μsub(c). From the Ksub(L) → 2μ decay rate the upper bound on μsub(c) is μsub(c) (<=) 8 GeV, and from the Ksub(L)-Ksub(S) mass difference the bound is found to be μsub(c) (<=) 2.3 GeV
Kim, H; Lipscomb, W N
1990-06-12
O-[[(1R)-[[N-(Phenylmethoxycarbonyl)-L-alanyl]amino]ethyl] hydroxyphosphinyl]-L-3-phenyllacetate [ZAAP(O)F], an analogue of (benzyloxycarbonyl)-Ala-Ala-Phe or (benzyloxycarbonyl)-Ala-Ala-phenyllactate, binds to carboxypeptidase A with great affinity (Ki = 3 pM). Similar phosphonates have been shown to be transition-state analogues of the CPA-catalyzed hydrolysis [Hanson, J. E., Kaplan, A. P., & Bartlett, P. A. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 6294-6305]. In the present study, the structure of the complex of this phosphonate with carboxypeptidase A has been determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.0 A. The complex crystallizes in the space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with cell dimensions a = 61.9 A, b = 67.2 A, and c = 76.2 A. The structure of the complex was solved by molecular replacement. Refinement of the structure against 20,776 unique reflections between 10.0 and 2.0 A yields a crystallographic residual of 0.193, including 140 water molecules. The two phosphinyl oxygens of the inhibitor bind to the active-site zinc at 2.2 A on the electrophilic (Arg-127) side and 3.1 A on the nucleophilic (Glu-270) side. Various features of the binding mode of this phosphonate inhibitor are consistent with the hypothesis that carboxypeptidase A catalyzed hydrolysis proceeds through a general-base mechanism in which the carbonyl carbon of the substrate is attacked by Zn-hydroxyl (or Zn-water). An unexpected feature of the bound inhibitor, the cis carbamoyl ester bond at the benzyloxycarbonyl linkage to alanine, allows the benzyloxycarbonyl phenyl ring of the inhibitor to interact favorably with Tyr-198. This complex structure is compared with previous structures of carboxypeptidase A, including the complexes with the potato inhibitor, a hydrated keto methylene substrate analogue, and a phosphonamidate inhibitor. Comparisons are also made with the complexes of thermolysin with some phosphonamidate inhibitors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blacha-Grzechnik, Agata, E-mail: agata.blacha@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Piwowar, Katarzyna; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Koscielniak, Piotr; Szuber, Jacek [Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Zak, Jerzy K. [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, Strzody 9, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • The selected group of four NH{sub 2}-derivatives of phenothiazine was grafted to Glassy Carbon (GC) surface. • The grafted phenothiazines are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the radiation. • Such modified solid surfaces may find their application in the wastewater treatment. - Abstract: The selected group of four amine-derivatives of phenothiazine was covalently grafted to the glassy carbon surface in the four-step procedure consisting of the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium salt followed by the electrochemical and chemical post-modification steps. The proposed strategy involves the bonding of linker molecule to which the photosensitizer is attached. The synthesized organic layers were characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry, XPS and Raman Spectroscopy. It was shown that the phenothiazines immobilized via proposed strategy retain their photochemical properties and are able to generate {sup 1}O{sub 2} when activated by the laser radiation. The effectiveness of in situ singlet oxygen generation by those new solid photoactive materials was determined by means of UVVis spectroscopy. The reported, covalently modified solid surfaces may find their application as the singlet oxygen photogenerators in the fine chemicals’ synthesis or in the wastewater treatment.
Xue, Y J; Pursley, Janice; Arnold, Mark
2007-04-11
BMS-299897 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor that is being developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have been developed and validated for the quantitation of BMS-299897 in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both methods utilized (13)C6-BMS-299897, the stable label isotope analog, as the internal standard. For the human plasma extraction method, two incubation steps were required after the addition of 5 mM ammonium acetate and the internal standard in acetonitrile to release the analyte bound to proteins prior to LLE with toluene. For the human CSF extraction method, after the addition of 0.5 N HCl and the internal standard, CSF samples were extracted with toluene and no incubation was required. The organic layers obtained from both extraction methods were removed and evaporated to dryness. The residues were reconstituted and injected into the LC/MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on a MetaChem C18 Hypersil BDS column (2.0 mm x 50 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase contained 10 mM ammonium acetate pH 5 and acetonitrile. Detection was by negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The standard curves ranged from 1 to 1000 ng/ml for human plasma and 0.25-100 ng/ml for human CSF. Both standard curves were fitted to a 1/x weighted quadratic regression model. For both methods, the intra-assay precision was within 8.2% CV, the inter-assay precision was within 5.4% CV, and assay accuracy was within +/-7.4% of the nominal values. The validation and sample analysis results demonstrated that both methods had acceptable precision and accuracy across the calibration ranges.
Yang, Yongqiang; Yin, Li-Chang; Gong, Yue; Niu, Ping; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Gu, Lin; Chen, Xingqiu; Liu, Gang; Wang, Lianzhou; Cheng, Hui-Ming
2018-02-01
Increasing visible light absorption of classic wide-bandgap photocatalysts like TiO 2 has long been pursued in order to promote solar energy conversion. Modulating the composition and/or stoichiometry of these photocatalysts is essential to narrow their bandgap for a strong visible-light absorption band. However, the bands obtained so far normally suffer from a low absorbance and/or narrow range. Herein, in contrast to the common tail-like absorption band in hydrogen-free oxygen-deficient TiO 2 , an unusual strong absorption band spanning the full spectrum of visible light is achieved in anatase TiO 2 by intentionally introducing atomic hydrogen-mediated oxygen vacancies. Combining experimental characterizations with theoretical calculations reveals the excitation of a new subvalence band associated with atomic hydrogen filled oxygen vacancies as the origin of such band, which subsequently leads to active photo-electrochemical water oxidation under visible light. These findings could provide a powerful way of tailoring wide-bandgap semiconductors to fully capture solar light. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Zhou, Jun; Zotter, Peter; Bruns, Emily A.; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bhattu, Deepika; Brown, Samuel; Bertrand, Amelie; Marchand, Nicolas; Lamkaddam, Houssni; Slowik, Jay G.; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Nussbaumer, Thomas; El-Haddad, Imad; Dommen, Josef
2018-05-01
Wood combustion emissions can induce oxidative stress in the human respiratory tract by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the aerosol particles, which are emitted either directly or formed through oxidation in the atmosphere. To improve our understanding of the particle-bound ROS (PB-ROS) generation potential of wood combustion emissions, a suite of smog chamber (SC) and potential aerosol mass (PAM) chamber experiments were conducted under well-determined conditions for different combustion devices and technologies, different fuel types, operation methods, combustion regimes, combustion phases, and aging conditions. The PB-ROS content and the chemical properties of the aerosols were quantified by a novel ROS analyzer using the DCFH (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin) assay and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). For all eight combustion devices tested, primary PB-ROS concentrations substantially increased upon aging. The level of primary and aged PB-ROS emission factors (EFROS) were dominated by the combustion device (within different combustion technologies) and to a greater extent by the combustion regimes: the variability within one device was much higher than the variability of EFROS from different devices. Aged EFROS under bad combustion conditions were ˜ 2-80 times higher than under optimum combustion conditions. EFROS from automatically operated combustion devices were on average 1 order of magnitude lower than those from manually operated devices, which indicates that automatic combustion devices operated at optimum conditions to achieve near-complete combustion should be employed to minimize PB-ROS emissions. The use of an electrostatic precipitator decreased the primary and aged ROS emissions by a factor of ˜ 1.5 which is however still within the burn-to-burn variability. The parameters controlling the PB-ROS formation in secondary organic aerosol were investigated by employing a regression model, including the fractions of
Bound-Electron Nonlinearity Beyond the Ionization Threshold
Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S.; Bahl, A.; Kolesik, M.; Milchberg, H. M.
2018-05-01
We present absolute space- and time-resolved measurements of the ultrafast laser-driven nonlinear polarizability in argon, krypton, xenon, nitrogen, and oxygen up to ionization fractions of a few percent. These measurements enable determination of the strongly nonperturbative bound-electron nonlinear polarizability well beyond the ionization threshold, where it is found to remain approximately quadratic in the laser field, a result normally expected at much lower intensities where perturbation theory applies.
Cahalan, Margaret; Goodwin, David
2014-01-01
In January 2009, in the last week of the Bush Administration, the U.S. Department of Education (ED), upon orders from the departing political appointee staff, published the final report in a long running National Evaluation of Upward Bound (UB). The study was conducted by the contractor, Mathematica Policy Research. After more than a year in…
Conductivity bound from dirty black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem, E-mail: bitaghsir@shahroodut.ac.ir
2016-11-10
We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.
Cheng, Y; Lin, H; Xue, D; Li, R; Wang, K
2001-02-14
The changes in structure and function of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate-hemoglobin (2,3-DPG-Hb) induced by Ln(3+) binding were studied by spectroscopic methods. The binding of lanthanide cations to 2,3-DPG is prior to that to Hb. Ln(3+) binding causes the hydrolysis of either one from the two phosphomonoester bonds in 2,3-DPG non-specifically. The results using the ultrafiltration method indicate that Ln(3+) binding sites for Hb can be classified into three categories: i.e. positive cooperative sites (N(I)), non-cooperative strong sites (N(S)) and non-cooperative weak sites (N(W)) with binding constants in decreasing order: K(I)>K(S)>K(W). The total number of binding sites amounts to about 65 per Hb tetramer. Information on reaction kinetics was obtained from the change of intrinsic fluorescence in Hb monitored by stopped-flow fluorometry. Fluctuation of fluorescence dependent on Ln(3+) concentration and temperature was observed and can be attributed to the successive conformational changes induced by Ln(3+) binding. The results also reveal the bidirectional changes of the oxygen affinity of Hb in the dependence on Ln(3+) concentration. At the range of [Ln(3+)]/[Hb]<2, the marked increase of oxygen affinity (P(50) decrease) with the Ln(3+) concentration can be attributed to the hydrolysis of 2,3-DPG, while the slight rebound of oxygen affinity in higher Ln(3+) concentration can be interpreted by the transition to the T-state of the Hb tetramer induced by Ln(3+) binding. This was indicated by the changes in secondary structure characterized by the decrease of alpha-helix content.
Mohri, Mehryar; Rostamizadeh, Afshin
2013-01-01
We present a brief survey of existing mistake bounds and introduce novel bounds for the Perceptron or the kernel Perceptron algorithm. Our novel bounds generalize beyond standard margin-loss type bounds, allow for any convex and Lipschitz loss function, and admit a very simple proof.
Circuit lower bounds in bounded arithmetics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pich, Ján
2015-01-01
Roč. 166, č. 1 (2015), s. 29-45 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * circuit lower bounds Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.582, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007214000888
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1984-10-01
Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)
Measurement of the Magnetic Moment of the Negative Muon Bound in Different Atoms
Mamedov, T N; Gritsaj, K I; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Stoikov, A V; Zimmermann, U
2001-01-01
Theoretical calculations show that the magnetic moment of the electron and the negative muon in a bound state in an atom should be different from the magnetic moment of the free particle due to their relativistic motion. There are also additional radiative corrections to the magnetic moment of a bound electron (muon) due to the presence of the strong Coulomb field of the atomic nucleus. The results of the measurements of the magnetic moment of the negative muon in carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, and zinc are presented. The accuracy of the measurements makes it possible to prove the dependence of the relativistic correction to the magnetic moment of a bound muon on Z of the atom.
Spectrum of gluino bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanowitz, M.; Sharpe, S.; California Univ., Berkeley
1983-01-01
Using the bag model to first order in αsub(s) we find that if light gluinos exist they will appear as constituents of electrically charged bound states which are stable against strong interaction decay. We review the present experimental constraints and conclude that light, long-lived charged hadrons containing gluinos might exist with lifetimes between 2x10 - 8 and 10 - 14 s. (orig.)
Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Dean L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-03-19
This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, J.; Ohtaka, K.
2004-01-01
We study virtual bound states in photonics, which are a vectorial extension of electron virtual bound states. The condition for these states is derived. It is found that the Mie resonant state which satisfies the condition that the size parameter is less than the angular momentum should be interpreted as a photon virtual bound state. In order to confirm the validity of the concept, we compare the photonic density of states, the width of which represents the lifetime of the photon virtual bound states, with numerical results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Emiris, Ioannis Z.; Mourrain, Bernard; Tsigaridas, Elias
2010-01-01
) resultant by means of mixed volume, as well as recent advances on aggregate root bounds for univariate polynomials, and are applicable to arbitrary positive dimensional systems. We improve upon Canny's gap theorem [7] by a factor of O(dn-1), where d bounds the degree of the polynomials, and n is the number...... bound on the number of steps that subdivision-based algorithms perform in order to isolate all real roots of a polynomial system. This leads to the first complexity bound of Milne's algorithm [22] in 2D....
Coulomb plus strong interaction bound states - momentum space numerical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heddle, D.P.; Tabakin, F.
1985-01-01
The levels and widths of hadronic atoms are calculated in momentum space using an inverse algorithm for the eigenvalue problem. The Coulomb singularity is handled by the Lande substraction method. Relativistic, nonlocal, complex hadron-nucleus interactions are incorporated as well as vacuum polarization and finite size effects. Coordinate space wavefunctions are obtained by employing a Fourier Bessel transformation. (orig.)
Effective bounds on strong unicity in L1-approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo B.
In this paper we present another case study in the general project of Proof Mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation (developed in [17]) t...
Photochemistry of triarylmethane dyes bound to proteins
Indig, Guilherme L.
1996-04-01
Triarylmethanes represent a class of cationic dyes whose potential as photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy of neoplastic diseases has never been comprehensively evaluated. Here, the laser-induced photodecomposition of three triarylmethane dyes, crystal violet, ethyl violet, and malachite green, non-covalently bound to bovine serum albumin (a model biological target) was investigated. Upon laser excitation at 532 nm, the bleaching of the corresponding dye-protein molecular complexes follows spectroscopic patterns that suggest the formation of reduced forms of the dyes as major reaction photoproducts. That implies that an electron or hydrogen atom transfer from the protein to the dye's moiety within the guest-host complex is the first step of the photobleaching process. Since the availability of dissolved molecular oxygen was not identified as a limiting factor for the phototransformations to occur, these dyes can be seen as potential phototherapeutic agents for use in hypoxic areas of tumors. These triarylmethane dyes strongly absorb at relatively long wavelengths (absorption maximum around 600 nm; (epsilon) max approximately equals 105 M-1 cm-1), and only minor changes in their absorption characteristics are observed upon binding to the protein. However the binding event leads to a remarkable increase in their fluorescence quantum yield and photoreactivity.
Bounded Gaussian process regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Larsen, Jan
2013-01-01
We extend the Gaussian process (GP) framework for bounded regression by introducing two bounded likelihood functions that model the noise on the dependent variable explicitly. This is fundamentally different from the implicit noise assumption in the previously suggested warped GP framework. We...... with the proposed explicit noise-model extension....
Bounded Intention Planning Revisited
Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte
2014-01-01
Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.
Bounding species distribution models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].
Bounding Species Distribution Models
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
2011-01-01
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Katajainen, Jyrki
2008-01-01
In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...
O{sup -} bound small polarons in oxide materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirmer, O F [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, D-49076 Osnabrueck (Germany)
2006-11-01
Holes bound to acceptor defects in oxide crystals are often localized by lattice distortion at just one of the equivalent oxygen ligands of the defect. Such holes thus form small polarons in symmetric clusters of a few oxygen ions. An overview on mainly the optical manifestations of those clusters is given. The article is essentially divided into two parts: the first one covers the basic features of the phenomena and their explanations, exemplified by several paradigmatic defects; in the second part numerous oxide materials are presented which exhibit bound small polaron optical properties. The first part starts with summaries on the production of bound hole polarons and the identification of their structure. It is demonstrated why they show strong, wide absorption bands, usually visible, based on polaron stabilization energies of typically 1 eV. The basic absorption process is detailed with a fictitious two-well system. Clusters with four, six and twelve equivalent ions are realized in various oxide compounds. In these cases several degenerate optically excited polaron states occur, leading to characteristic final state resonance splittings. The peak energies of the absorption bands as well as the sign of the transfer energy depend on the topology of the clusters. A special section is devoted to the distinction between interpolaron and intrapolaron optical transitions. The latter are usually comparatively weak. The oxide compounds exhibiting bound hole small polaron absorptions include the alkaline earth oxides (e.g. MgO), BeO and ZnO, the perovskites BaTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}, quartz, the sillenites (e.g. Bi{sub 12}TiO{sub 20}), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, LiNbO{sub 3}, topaz and various other materials. There are indications that the magnetic crystals NiO, doped with Li, and LaMnO{sub 3}, doped with Sr, also show optical features caused by bound hole polarons. Beyond being elementary paradigms for the properties of small polarons in general, the defect species treated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froissart, Marcel
1976-01-01
Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diabate, S.; Strack, S.
1993-01-01
Tritium released into the environment may be incorporated into organic matter. Organically bound tritium in that case will show retention times in organisms that are considerably longer than those of tritiated water which has significant consequences on dose estimates. This article reviews the most important processes of organically bound tritium production and transport through food networks. Metabolic reactions in plant and animal organisms with tritiated water as a reaction partner are of great importance in this respect. The most important production process, in quantitative terms, is photosynthesis in green plants. The translocation of organically bound tritium from the leaves to edible parts of crop plants should be considered in models of organically bound tritium behavior. Organically bound tritium enters the human body on several pathways, either from the primary producers (vegetable food) or at a higher tropic level (animal food). Animal experiments have shown that the dose due to ingestion of organically bound tritium can be up to twice as high as a comparable intake of tritiated water in gaseous or liquid form. In the environment, organically bound tritium in plants and animals is often found to have higher specific tritium concentrations than tissue water. This is not due to some tritium enrichment effects but to the fact that no equilibrium conditions are reached under natural conditions. 66 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toki, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu
1989-01-01
The standard method of pionic atom formation does not produce deeply bound pionic atoms. A study is made on the properties of deeply bound pionic atom states by using the standard pion-nucleus optical potential. Another study is made to estimate the cross sections of the formation of ls pionic atom states by various methods. The pion-nucleus optical potential is determined by weakly bound pionic atom states and pion nucleus scattering. Although this potential may not be valid for deeply bound pionic atoms, it should provide some hint on binding energies and level widths of deeply bound states. The width of the ls state comes out to be 0.3 MeV and is well separated from the rest. The charge dependence of the ls state is investigated. The binding energies and the widths increase linearly with Z azbove a Z of 30. The report then discusses various methods to populate deeply bound pionic atoms. In particular, 'pion exchange' reactions are proposed. (n, pπ) reaction is discussed first. The cross section is calculated by assuming the in- and out-going nucleons on-shell and the produced pion in (n1) pionic atom states. Then, (n, dπ - ) cross sections are estimated. (p, 2 Heπ - ) reaction would have cross sections similar to the cross section of (n, dπ - ) reaction. In conclusion, it seems best to do (n, p) experiment on heavy nuclei for deeply bound pionic atom. (Nogami, K.)
Bounded Rationality and Budgeting
Ibrahim, Mukdad
2016-01-01
This article discusses the theory of bounded rationality which had been introduced by Herbert Simon in the 1950s. Simon introduced the notion of bounded rationality stating that while decision-makers strive for rationality, they are limited by the effect of the environment, their information process capacity and by the constraints on their information storage and retrieval capabilities. Moreover, this article tries to specifically blend this notion into budgeting, using the foundations of inc...
Tate, Stephen James
2013-10-01
In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orzalesi, C.A.
1979-01-01
In relativistic quantum theory, bound states generate forces in the crossed channel; such forces can affect the binding and self-consistent solutions should be sought for the bound-state problem. The author investigates how self-consistency can be achieved by successive approximations, in a simple scalar model and with successive relativistic eikonal approximations (EAs). Within the generalized ladder approximation, some exact properties of the resulting ''first generation'' bound states are discussed. The binding energies in this approximation are rather small even for rather large values of the primary coupling constant. The coupling of the constituent particles to the first-generation reggeon is determined by a suitable EA and a new generalized ladder amplitude is constructed with rungs given either by the primary gluons or by the first-generation reggeons. The resulting new (second-generation) bound states are found in a reggeized EA. The size of the corrections to the binding energies due to the rebinding effects is surprisingly large. The procedure is then iterated, so as to find - again in an EA - the third-generation bound states. The procedure is found to be self-consistent already at this stage: the third-generation bound states coincide with those of second generation, and no further rebinding takes place in the higher iterations of the approximation method. Features - good and bad - of the model are discussed, as well as the possible relevance of rebinding mechanisms in hadron dynamics. (author)
The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions
El-Bennich, Bruno
2018-01-01
We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay
2013-01-01
Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.......g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary......-protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secure even if the adversary can arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. We show...
Massive Galileon positivity bounds
de Rham, Claudia; Melville, Scott; Tolley, Andrew J.; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2017-09-01
The EFT coefficients in any gapped, scalar, Lorentz invariant field theory must satisfy positivity requirements if there is to exist a local, analytic Wilsonian UV completion. We apply these bounds to the tree level scattering amplitudes for a massive Galileon. The addition of a mass term, which does not spoil the non-renormalization theorem of the Galileon and preserves the Galileon symmetry at loop level, is necessary to satisfy the lowest order positivity bound. We further show that a careful choice of successively higher derivative corrections are necessary to satisfy the higher order positivity bounds. There is then no obstruction to a local UV completion from considerations of tree level 2-to-2 scattering alone. To demonstrate this we give an explicit example of such a UV completion.
Appell, Jürgen; Merentes Díaz, Nelson José
2013-01-01
This monographis a self-contained exposition of the definition and properties of functionsof bounded variation and their various generalizations; the analytical properties of nonlinear composition operators in spaces of such functions; applications to Fourier analysis, nonlinear integral equations, and boundary value problems. The book is written for non-specialists. Every chapter closes with a list of exercises and open problems.
Kahneman, Daniel
2002-01-01
The work cited by the Nobel committee was done jointly with the late Amos Tversky (1937-1996) during a long and unusually close collaboration. Together, we explored the psychology of intuitive beliefs and choices and examined their bounded rationality. This essay presents a current perspective on the three major topics of our joint work: heuristics of judgment, risky choice, and framing effects. In all three domains we studied intuitions - thoughts and preferences that come to mind quickly an...
Bounded Satisfiability for PCTL
Bertrand, Nathalie; Fearnley, John; Schewe, Sven
2012-01-01
While model checking PCTL for Markov chains is decidable in polynomial-time, the decidability of PCTL satisfiability, as well as its finite model property, are long standing open problems. While general satisfiability is an intriguing challenge from a purely theoretical point of view, we argue that general solutions would not be of interest to practitioners: such solutions could be too big to be implementable or even infinite. Inspired by bounded synthesis techniques, we turn to the more appl...
Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor
Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.
Yukawa Bound States and Their LHC Phenomenology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enkhbat Tsedenbaljir
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present the current status on the possible bound states of extra generation quarks. These include phenomenology and search strategy at the LHC. If chiral fourth-generation quarks do exist their strong Yukawa couplings, implied by current experimental lower bound on their masses, may lead to formation of bound states. Due to nearly degenerate 4G masses suggested by Precision Electroweak Test one can employ “heavy isospin” symmetry to classify possible spectrum. Among these states, the color-octet isosinglet vector ω 8 is the easiest to be produced at the LHC. The discovery potential and corresponding decay channels are covered in this paper. With possible light Higgs at ~125 GeV two-Higgs doublet version is briefly discussed.
Universal bounds on current fluctuations.
Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C; Seifert, Udo
2016-05-01
For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.
Photophysics of aggregated 9-methylthiacarbocyanine bound to polyanions
Chibisov, Alexander K.; Görner, Helmut
2002-05-01
The photophysical properties of 3,3 '-diethyl-9-methylthiacarbocyanine (DTC) were studied in the presence of polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMA). The absorption spectra reflect a monomer/dimer equilibrium in neat aqueous solution and a shift towards bound H-aggregates, bound dimers and bound monomers on increasing the ratio of polyanion residue to dye concentrations ( r). These equilibria also determine the photodeactivation modes of DTC. The fluorescence intensity is reduced, when dimers and aggregates are present and strongly enhanced for low dye loading ( r=10 4). In contrast, the quantum yield of intersystem crossing is enhanced for bound dimers ( r=10 3).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. A. van der Westhuizen
1990-07-01
Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biological processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States); Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford, Douglas [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ (United States)
2016-08-17
We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent λ{sub L}≤2πk{sub B}T/ℏ. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.
Bound states in weakly disordered spin ladders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arlego, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)]. E-mail: arlego@venus.fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Brenig, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Cabra, D.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Heidrich-Meisner, F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Honecker, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany); Rossini, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 67 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)
2005-04-30
We study the appearance of bound states in the spin gap of spin-12 ladders induced by weak bond disorder. Starting from the strong-coupling limit, i.e., the limit of weakly coupled dimers, we perform a projection on the single-triplet subspace and derive the position of bound states for the single impurity problem of one modified coupling as well as for small impurity clusters. The case of a finite concentration of impurities is treated with the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the strong-coupling limit and compared with numerical results. Further, we analyze the details in the structure of the density of states and relate their origin to the influence of impurity clusters.
Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed
Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1977-06-01
Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, Burke
2006-01-01
The Hamiltonian for Dirac's second-order equation depends nonlinearly on the potential V and the energy E. For this reason the magnetic contribution to the Hamiltonian for s-waves, which has a short range, is attractive for a repulsive Coulomb potential (V>0) and repulsive for an attractive Coulomb potential (V 2 . Usually solutions are found in the regime E=mc 2 +ε , where except for high Z, ε 2 . Here it is shown that for V>0 the attractive magnetic term and the linear repulsive term combine to support a bound state near E=0.5mc 2 corresponding to a binding energy E b =-ε =0.5mc 2
... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonnie Solmes
2000-01-01
Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.
Bounding approaches to system identification
Norton, John; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Éric
1996-01-01
In response to the growing interest in bounding error approaches, the editors of this volume offer the first collection of papers to describe advances in techniques and applications of bounding of the parameters, or state variables, of uncertain dynamical systems. Contributors explore the application of the bounding approach as an alternative to the probabilistic analysis of such systems, relating its importance to robust control-system design.
Market access through bound tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Yalcin, Erdal; Schröder, Philipp
2010-01-01
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...
Market Access through Bound Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...
Quivers of Bound Path Algebras and Bound Path Coalgebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Intan Muchtadi
2010-09-01
Full Text Available bras and coalgebras can be represented as quiver (directed graph, and from quiver we can construct algebras and coalgebras called path algebras and path coalgebras. In this paper we show that the quiver of a bound path coalgebra (resp. algebra is the dual quiver of its bound path algebra (resp. coalgebra.
TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS SUB-DIFFUSION ON BOUNDED DOMAINS
MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; NANE, ERKAN; VELLAISAMY, P.
2012-01-01
This paper develops strong solutions and stochastic solutions for the tempered fractional diffusion equation on bounded domains. First the eigenvalue problem for tempered fractional derivatives is solved. Then a separation of variables, and eigenfunction expansions in time and space, are used to write strong solutions. Finally, stochastic solutions are written in terms of an inverse subordinator.
Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics
Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.
2018-03-01
Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.
Bounds for Asian basket options
Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle
2008-09-01
In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.
Product differentiation under bounded rationality
Vermeulen, B.; Poutré, La J.A.; Kok, de A.G.; Pyka, A.; Handa, H.; Ishibuchi, H.; Ong, Y.-S.; Tan, K.-C.
2015-01-01
We study product differentiation equilibria and dynamics on the Salop circle under bounded rationality. Due to bounded rationality, firms tend to agglomerate in pairs. Upon adding a second tier of component suppliers, downstream assemblers may escape pairwise horizontal agglomeration. Moreover, we
An upper bound on Q-star masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochron, D.R.; Selipsky, S.B.
1992-06-01
Q-stars (the gravitational generalization of Q-balls, strongly bound bulk matter that an appear in field theories of strongly interacting hadrons) are the only known impact objects consistent with the known bulk structure of nuclei and chiral symmetry that evade the Rhoades-Ruffini upper bound of 3.2M circle-dot . Generic bounds are quite weak: M Q-star circle-dot . If, however, we assume that the 1.558 ms pulsar is a Q-star, equilibrium. A stability criteria of rotating fluids place a much stronger upper bound of M c ≤ 5.3M circle-dot on such models under certain special assumptions. This has important implications for heavy compact objects such as Cygnus X-1
Metabolism of organically bound tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travis, C.C.
1984-01-01
The classic methodology for estimating dose to man from environmental tritium ignores the fact that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs may be directly assimilated in the bound compartment of tissues without previous oxidation. We propose a four-compartment model consisting of a free body water compartment, two organic compartments, and a small, rapidly metabolizing compartment. The utility of this model lies in the ability to input organically bound tritium in foodstuffs directly into the organic compartments of the model. We found that organically bound tritium in foodstuffs can increase cumulative total body dose by a factor of 1.7 to 4.5 times the free body water dose alone, depending on the bound-to-loose ratio of tritium in the diet. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements of tritium in human urine and tissue samples, and appear to be in close agreement. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables
Infinite Horizon Discrete Time Control Problems for Bounded Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We establish Pontryagin Maximum Principles in the strong form for infinite horizon optimal control problems for bounded processes, for systems governed by difference equations. Results due to Ioffe and Tihomirov are among the tools used to prove our theorems. We write necessary conditions with weakened hypotheses of concavity and without invertibility, and we provide new results on the adjoint variable. We show links between bounded problems and nonbounded ones. We also give sufficient conditions of optimality.
Curvature bound from gravitational catalysis
Gies, Holger; Martini, Riccardo
2018-04-01
We determine bounds on the curvature of local patches of spacetime from the requirement of intact long-range chiral symmetry. The bounds arise from a scale-dependent analysis of gravitational catalysis and its influence on the effective potential for the chiral order parameter, as induced by fermionic fluctuations on a curved spacetime with local hyperbolic properties. The bound is expressed in terms of the local curvature scalar measured in units of a gauge-invariant coarse-graining scale. We argue that any effective field theory of quantum gravity obeying this curvature bound is safe from chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational catalysis and thus compatible with the simultaneous existence of chiral fermions in the low-energy spectrum. With increasing number of dimensions, the curvature bound in terms of the hyperbolic scale parameter becomes stronger. Applying the curvature bound to the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions translates into bounds on the matter content of particle physics models.
Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zura Kakushadze
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.
Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.
2012-01-01
by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...... and Rosenberg's theorem), are also hard for dynamic range searching in the group model. This theorem allows us to reuse decades of research on range reporting lower bounds to immediately obtain a range of new group model lower bounds. Amongst others, this includes an improved lower bound for the fundamental...
Quarks as quasiparticles of bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tyapkin, A.A.
1977-01-01
Interpretation of quarks as strongly bound subsystems of the baryon structure, being in various states with integer the quantum numbers Q and B, is considered. Three original quark states, distinguished by Q, B, and J, are unambiguously determined from the condition that the quarks have the corresponding fractional quantum numbers while the integer quantum numbers for the whole system are known. With this in view the new quantum number ''colour'' is interpreted as a quantity, specifying the appearance of the subsystems in various eigen-states. Basing on the generalized Sakata model, the self-consistency of change of the colour states in the three-quark system is explained
Schulz, Marc Daniel; Dusuel, Sébastien; Vidal, Julien
2016-11-01
We discuss the emergence of bound states in the low-energy spectrum of the string-net Hamiltonian in the presence of a string tension. In the ladder geometry, we show that a single bound state arises either for a finite tension or in the zero-tension limit depending on the theory considered. In the latter case, we perturbatively compute the binding energy as a function of the total quantum dimension. We also address this issue in the honeycomb lattice where the number of bound states in the topological phase depends on the total quantum dimension. Finally, the internal structure of these bound states is analyzed in the zero-tension limit.
On functions of bounded semivariation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Monteiro, Giselle Antunes
2015-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 2 (2015), s. 233-276 ISSN 0147-1937 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : semivariation * functions of bounded variation * regulated functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rae/1491271216
Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Computational Lower Bounds Using Diagonalization - Languages, Turing Machines and Complexity Classes. M V Panduranga Rao. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 682-690 ...
A theory of the strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.
1979-01-01
The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)
Proton-bound cluster ions in ion mobility spectrometry
Ewing, R. G.; Eiceman, G. A.; Stone, J. A.
1999-01-01
Gaseous oxygen and nitrogen bases, both singly and as binary mixtures, have been introduced into ion mobility spectrometers to study the appearance of protonated molecules, and proton-bound dimers and trimers. At ambient temperature it was possible to simultaneously observe, following the introduction of molecule A, comparable intensities of peaks ascribable to the reactant ion (H2O)nH+, the protonated molecule AH+ and AH+ H2O, and the symmetrical proton bound dimer A2H+. Mass spectral identification confirmed the identifications and also showed that the majority of the protonated molecules were hydrated and that the proton-bound dimers were hydrated to a much lesser extent. No significant peaks ascribable to proton-bound trimers were obtained no matter how high the sample concentration. Binary mixtures containing molecules A and B, in some cases gave not only the peaks unique to the individual compounds but also peaks due to asymmetrical proton bound dimers AHB+. Such ions were always present in the spectra of mixtures of oxygen bases but were not observed for several mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen bases. The dimers, which were not observable, notable for their low hydrogen bond strengths, must have decomposed in their passage from the ion source to the detector, i.e. in a time less than approximately 5 ms. When the temperature was lowered to -20 degrees C, trimers, both homogeneous and mixed, were observed with mixtures of alcohols. The importance of hydrogen bond energy, and hence operating temperature, in determining the degree of solvation of the ions that will be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer is stressed. The possibility is discussed that a displacement reaction involving ambient water plays a role in the dissociation.
Effect of Bound Entanglement on the Convertibility of Pure States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2004-01-01
I show that bound entanglement strongly influences the quantum entanglement processing of pure states: If N distant parties share appropriate bound entangled states with positive partial transpose, all N-partite pure entangled states become inter-convertible by stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) at the single copy level. This implies that the Schmidt rank of a bipartite pure entangled state can be increased, and that two incomparable tripartite entanglement of the GHZ and W type can be inter-converted by the assistance of bound entanglement. Further, I propose the simplest experimental scheme for the demonstration of the corresponding bound-entanglement-assisted SLOCC. This scheme does not need quantum gates and is feasible for the current experimental technology of linear optics
Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ
Golub, Aleksander S.; Pittman, Roland N.
2012-01-01
The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po...
Simulation bounds for system availability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tietjen, G.L.; Waller, R.A.
1976-01-01
System availability is a dominant factor in the practicality of nuclear power electrical generating plants. A proposed model for obtaining either lower bounds or interval estimates on availability uses observed data on ''n'' failure-to-repair cycles of the system to estimate the parameters in the time-to-failure and time-to-repair models. These estimates are then used in simulating failure/repair cycles of the system. The availability estimate is obtained for each of 5000 samples of ''n'' failure/repair cycles to form a distribution of estimates. Specific percentile points of those simulated distributions are selected as lower simulation bounds or simulation interval bounds for the system availability. The method is illustrated with operational data from two nuclear plants for which an exponential time-to-failure and a lognormal time-to-repair are assumed
XPS studies of water and oxygen on iron-sputtered natural ilmenite
Schulze, P. D.; Neil, T. E.; Shaffer, S. L.; Smith, R. W.; Mckay, D. S.
1985-01-01
The adsorption of D2O and O2 on polycrystalline FeTiO3 (natural ilmenite) has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Oxygen was found to absorb reactively with Fe(0) on Ar(+)-sputtered surfaces at and above 150 K while D2O was found to adsorb molecularly or in ice layers below 170 K on both Ar(+) and O2(+) ion-bombarded ilmenite. The D2O desorbs at 170 K with either the formation of an OD complex or a strongly bound molecular layer of water.
Testing strong interaction theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, J.
1979-01-01
The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)
Water Induced Surface Reconstruction of the Oxygen (2x1) covered Ru(0001)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maier, Sabine; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Stass, Ingeborg; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel
2010-08-06
Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) were used to study the adsorption of water on a Ru(0001) surface covered with half monolayer of oxygen. The oxygen atoms occupy hcp sites in an ordered structure with (2x1) periodicity. DFT predicts that water is weakly bound to the unmodified surface, 86 meV compared to the ~;;200 meV water-water H-bond. Instead, we found that water adsorption causes a shift of half of the oxygen atoms from hcp sites to fcc sites, creating a honeycomb structure where water molecules bind strongly to the exposed Ru atoms. The energy cost of reconstructing the oxygen overlayer, around 230 meV per displaced oxygen atom, is more than compensated by the larger adsorption energy of water on the newly exposed Ru atoms. Water forms hydrogen bonds with the fcc O atoms in a (4x2) superstructure due to alternating orientations of the molecules. Heating to 185 K results in the complete desorption of the water layer, leaving behind the oxygen honeycomb structure, which is metastable relative to the original (2x1). This stable structure is not recovered until after heating to temperatures close to 260K.
Relativistic bound state wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zouzou, S.
1986-01-01
In the framework of simple non-relativistic potential models, we examine the system consisting of two quarks and two antiquarks with equal or unequal masses. We search for possible bound states below the threshold for the spontaneous dissociation into two mesons. We solve the four body problem by empirical or systematic variational methods and we include the virtual meson-meson components of the wave function. With standard two-body potentials, there is no proliferation of multiquarks. With unequal quark masses, we obtain however exotic (anti Qanti Qqq) bound states with a baryonic antidiquark-quark-quark structure very analogous to the heavy flavoured (Q'qq) baryons. (orig.)
Bound entanglement and local realism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr
2002-01-01
We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation
Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.
2005-03-01
Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.
Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.
2005-01-01
High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields
P2-16: Dual-Bound Model and the Role of Time Bound in Perceptual Decision Making
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daeseob Lim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The diffusion model (DM encapsulates the dynamics of perceptual decision within a ‘diffusion field’ that is defined by a basis with sensory-evidence (SE and time vectors. At the core of the DM, it assumes that a decision is not made until an evidence particle drifts in the diffusion field and eventually hits one of the two pre-fixed bounds defined in the SE axis. This assumption dictates when and which choice is made by referring to when and which bound will be hit by the evidence particle. What if urgency pressures the decision system to make a choice even when the evidence particle has yet hit the SE bound? Previous modeling attempts at coping with time pressure, despite differences in detail, all manipulated the coordinate of SE bounds. Here, we offer a novel solution by adopting another bound on the time axis. This ‘dual-bound’ model (DBM posits that decisions can also be made when the evidence particle hits a time bound, which is determined on a trial-by-trial basis by a ‘perceived time interval’ – how long the system can stay in the ‘diffusion’ field. The classic single-bound model (SBM exhibited systematic errors in predicting both the reaction time distributions and the time-varying bias in choice. Those errors were not corrected by previously proposed variants of the SBM until the time bound was introduced. The validity of the DBM was further supported by the strong across-individual correlation between observed precision of interval timing and the predicted trial-by-trial variability of the time bound.
Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor
Boardman, Alan James
New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate
Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, H.; Weidl, T.
2016-01-01
Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 1650002 ISSN 0129-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : magnetic Laplacian * discrete spectrum * eigenvalue bounds Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.426, year: 2016
Positivity bounds for Sivers functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang Zhongbo; Soffer, Jacques
2011-01-01
We generalize a positivity constraint derived initially for parity-conserving processes to the parity-violating ones, and use it to derive non-trivial bounds on several Sivers functions, entering in the theoretical description of single spin asymmetry for various processes.
Bound states of 'dressed' particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
1994-01-01
A new approach to the problem of bound states in relativistic quantum field theories is suggested. It uses the creation - destruction operators of 'dresses' particles which have been granted by Faddeev's (1963) 'dressing' formalism. Peculiarities of the proposed approach as compared to the known ones are discussed. 8 refs. (author)
Quantum lower bound for sorting
Shi, Yaoyun
2000-01-01
We prove that \\Omega(n log(n)) comparisons are necessary for any quantum algorithm that sorts n numbers with high success probability and uses only comparisons. If no error is allowed, at least 0.110nlog_2(n) - 0.067n + O(1) comparisons must be made. The previous known lower bound is \\Omega(n).
Unconditional lower bounds against advice
Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Santhanam, R.
2009-01-01
We show several unconditional lower bounds for exponential time classes against polynomial time classes with advice, including: (1) For any constant c, NEXP not in P^{NP[n^c]} (2) For any constant c, MAEXP not in MA/n^c (3) BPEXP not in BPP/n^{o(1)}. It was previously unknown even whether NEXP in
... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...
Binding energies of two deltas bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroshi; Saito, Koichi.
1982-06-01
Bound states of the two-deltas system are investigated by employing the realistic one boson exchange potential. It is found that there exist many bound states in each isospin channel and also found that the tensor interaction plays important role in producing these bound states. Relationship between these bound states and dibaryon resonances is discussed. (J.P.N.)
... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...
A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes
Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.
2006-01-01
The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound
More loosely bound hadron molecules at CDF?
Bignamini, C; Piccinini, F; Polosa, A D; Riquer, V; Sabelli, C
2010-01-01
In a recent paper we have proposed a method to estimate the prompt production cross section of X(3872) at the Tevatron assuming that this particle is a loosely bound molecule of a D and a D*bar meson. Under this hypothesis we find that it is impossible to explain the high prompt production cross section found by CDF at sigma(X(3872)) \\sim 30-70 nb as our theoretical prediction is about 300 times smaller than the measured one. Following our work, Artoisenet and Braaten, have suggested that final state interactions in the DD*bar system might be so strong to push the result we obtained for the cross section up to the experimental value. Relying on their conclusions we show that the production of another very narrow loosely bound molecule, the X_s=D_s D_s*bar, could be similarly enhanced. X_s should then be detectable at CDF with a mass of 4080 MeV and a prompt production cross section of sigma(X_s) \\sim 1-3 nb.
Generalized bounds for convex multistage stochastic programs
Künzi, H; Fandel, G; Trockel, W; Basile, A; Drexl, A; Dawid, H; Inderfurth, K; Kürsten, W; Schittko, U
2005-01-01
This work was completed during my tenure as a scientific assistant and d- toral student at the Institute for Operations Research at the University of St. Gallen. During that time, I was involved in several industry projects in the field of power management, on the occasion of which I was repeatedly c- fronted with complex decision problems under uncertainty. Although usually hard to solve, I quickly learned to appreciate the benefit of stochastic progr- ming models and developed a strong interest in their theoretical properties. Motivated both by practical questions and theoretical concerns, I became p- ticularly interested in the art of finding tight bounds on the optimal value of a given model. The present work attempts to make a contribution to this important branch of stochastic optimization theory. In particular, it aims at extending some classical bounding methods to broader problem classes of practical relevance. This book was accepted as a doctoral thesis by the University of St. Gallen in June 2004.1...
Measurement of strong interaction effects in antiprotonic helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, J.D.; Gorringe, T.P.; Lowe, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Playfer, S.M.; Pyle, G.J.; Squier, G.T.A.
1984-01-01
The strong interaction shift and width for the 2 p level and the width for the 3d level have been measured for antiprotonic helium atoms. The results are compared with optical model calculations. The possible existence of strongly bound antiproton states in nuclei is discussed. (orig.)
Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der
2005-01-01
Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)
Surface-bound states in nanodiamonds
Han, Peng; Antonov, Denis; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Bester, Gabriel
2017-05-01
We show via ab initio calculations and an electrostatic model that the notoriously low, but positive, electron affinity of bulk diamond becomes negative for hydrogen passivated nanodiamonds and argue that this peculiar situation (type-II offset with a vacuum level at nearly midgap) and the three further conditions: (i) a surface dipole with positive charge on the outside layer, (ii) a spherical symmetry, and (iii) a dielectric mismatch at the surface, results in the emergence of a peculiar type of surface state localized just outside the nanodiamond. These states are referred to as "surface-bound states" and have consequently a strong environmental sensitivity. These type of states should exist in any nanostructure with negative electron affinity. We further quantify the band offsets of different type of nanostructures as well as the exciton binding energy and contrast the results with results for "conventional" silicon quantum dots.
Thermodynamic Bounds on Precision in Ballistic Multiterminal Transport
Brandner, Kay; Hanazato, Taro; Saito, Keiji
2018-03-01
For classical ballistic transport in a multiterminal geometry, we derive a universal trade-off relation between total dissipation and the precision, at which particles are extracted from individual reservoirs. Remarkably, this bound becomes significantly weaker in the presence of a magnetic field breaking time-reversal symmetry. By working out an explicit model for chiral transport enforced by a strong magnetic field, we show that our bounds are tight. Beyond the classical regime, we find that, in quantum systems far from equilibrium, the correlated exchange of particles makes it possible to exponentially reduce the thermodynamic cost of precision.
N=2 central charge bounds from 2d chiral algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemos, Madalena [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Liendo, Pedro [IMIP, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, IRIS Adlershof,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)
2016-04-01
We study protected correlation functions in N=2 SCFT whose description is captured by a two-dimensional chiral algebra. Our analysis implies a new analytic bound for the c-anomaly as a function of the flavor central charge k, valid for any theory with a flavor symmetry. Combining our result with older bounds in the literature puts strong constraints on the parameter space of N=2 theories. In particular, it singles out a special set of models whose value of c is uniquely fixed once k is given. This set includes the canonical rank one N=2 SCFTs given by Kodaira’s classification.
Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Di Nucci, Ezio
2009-01-01
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, M.V.
1984-01-01
After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)
Computer simulation of bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, W.S.
1987-01-01
The problems of simulating a one-dimensional bounded plasma system using particles in a gridded space are systematically explored and solutions to them are given. Such problems include the injection of particles at the boundaries, the solution of Poisson's equation, and the inclusion of an external circuit between the confining boundaries. A recently discovered artificial cooling effect is explained as being a side-effect of quiet injection, and its potential for causing serious but subtle errors in bounded simulation is noted. The methods described in the first part of the thesis are then applied to the simulation of an extension of the Pierce diode problem, specifically a Pierce diode modified by an external circuit between the electrodes. The results of these simulations agree to high accuracy with theory when a theory exists, and also show some interesting chaotic behavior in certain parameter regimes. The chaotic behavior is described in detail
Bounded Rationality in Transposition Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vollaard, Hans; Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg
2014-01-01
Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first that con......Studies explaining the timeliness and correctness of the transposition of EU directives into national legislation have provided rather inconclusive findings. They do not offer a clear-cut prediction concerning the transposition of the patients’ rights directive, which is one of the first...... that concerns the organisation and financing of national healthcare systems. This article applies the perspective of bounded rationality to explain (irregularities in) the timely and correct transposition of EU directives. The cognitive and organisational constraints long posited by the bounded rationality...
2013-03-26
...; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report AGENCY: The Office... considered public records. Title of Collection: Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance...) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department is requesting a new APR because of...
Cyclotron transitions of bound ions
Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.
2017-06-01
A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.
Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.
1979-06-01
The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de
A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle irradiation of Bi-2212
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bandyopadhyay, S.K.; Sen, Pintu; Barat, P.; Mukherjee, P.; Das, S.K.; Ghosh, B.
1996-01-01
A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle (α and proton) irradiation of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x (Bi-2212) is proposed on the basis of Monte Carlo TRIM calculations. In Bi-2212, the loosely bound excess oxygen is vulnerable to be displaced by particle irradiation. Binding energy and hence, displacement energy of this loosely bound excess oxygen is less compared to that of stoichiometric lattice bound oxygen and other atoms. The displaced or knocked out oxygen goes to pores or intergranular region and generates large pressure inside the sample. Because of porosity of the material, this displaced oxygen diffuses out and there is a net reduction of oxygen content of the sample. The irradiation induced oxygen knock-out is dominant in the bulk where nonionizing energy loss is maximum. (author). 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs
Pairing from strong repulsion in triangular lattice Hubbard model
Zhang, Shang-Shun; Zhu, Wei; Batista, Cristian D.
2018-04-01
We propose a pairing mechanism between holes in the dilute limit of doped frustrated Mott insulators. Hole pairing arises from a hole-hole-magnon three-body bound state. This pairing mechanism has its roots on single-hole kinetic energy frustration, which favors antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations around the hole. We demonstrate that the AFM polaron (hole-magnon bound state) produced by a single hole propagating on a field-induced polarized background is strong enough to bind a second hole. The effective interaction between these three-body bound states is repulsive, implying that this pairing mechanism is relevant for superconductivity.
Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil
2014-01-01
We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.
2011-01-01
The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au 3 + and Ag 3 + clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au 3 + the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO 2 from N 2 O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag 3 O x + (n= 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N 2 O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.
Popolan, Denisia M.; Bernhardt, Thorsten M.
2011-03-01
The oxidation of carbon monoxide with nitrous oxide on mass-selected Au3+ and Ag3+ clusters has been investigated under multicollision conditions in an octopole ion trap experiment. The comparative study reveals that for both gold and silver cations carbon dioxide is formed on the clusters. However, whereas in the case of Au3+ the cluster itself acts as reactive species that facilitates the formation of CO2 from N2O and CO, for silver the oxidized clusters Ag3Ox+ (n = 1-3) are identified as active in the CO oxidation reaction. Thus, in the case of the silver cluster cations N2O is dissociated and one oxygen atom is suggested to directly react with CO, whereas a second kind of oxygen strongly bound to silver is acting as a substrate for the reaction.
Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management
Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel
2011-01-01
The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.
Properties of a Bound Polaron under a Perpendicular Magnetic Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jia; Chen Ziyu; Xiao Jinglin; Huo Shufen
2007-01-01
We investigate the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field on a bound polaron near the interface of a polar-polar semiconductor with Rashba effect. The external magnetic field strongly changes the ground state binding energy of the polaron and the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction originating from the inversion asymmetry in the heterostructure splits the ground state binding energy of the bound polaron. In this paper, we have shown how the ground state binding energy will be with the change of the external magnetic field, the location of a single impurity, the wave vector of the electron and the electron areal density, taking into account the SO coupling. Due to the presence of the phonons, whose energy gives negative contribution to the polaron's, the spin-splitting states of the bound polaron are more stable, and we find that in the condition of week magnetic field, the Zeeaman effect can be neglected.
Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo
2015-01-01
A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...
Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency
Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger
2014-01-01
The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...
Strong gravity and supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.
1977-11-01
A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V.
2013-01-01
Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.
Contribution of Bound States to the Harmonic Generation in Hydrogen at Moderate Laser Intensities
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Davis, Jack
2002-01-01
.... The disappearance of bound parabolic states with large electric dipole moments in moderately strong fields leads to the simplification of the expression for the total time-dependent dipole moment of the atom...
The algebras of bounded and essentially bounded Lebesgue measurable functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mortini Raymond
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Let X be a set in ℝn with positive Lebesgue measure. It is well known that the spectrum of the algebra L∞(X of (equivalence classes of essentially bounded, complex-valued, measurable functions on X is an extremely disconnected compact Hausdorff space.We show, by elementary methods, that the spectrum M of the algebra ℒb(X, ℂ of all bounded measurable functions on X is not extremely disconnected, though totally disconnected. Let ∆ = { δx : x ∈ X} be the set of point evaluations and let g be the Gelfand topology on M. Then (∆, g is homeomorphic to (X, Τdis,where Tdis is the discrete topology. Moreover, ∆ is a dense subset of the spectrum M of ℒb(X, ℂ. Finally, the hull h(I, (which is homeomorphic to M(L∞(X, of the ideal of all functions in ℒb(X, ℂ vanishing almost everywhere on X is a nowhere dense and extremely disconnected subset of the Corona M \\ ∆ of ℒb(X, ℂ.
The mystery of gold's chemical activity: local bonding, morphology and reactivity of atomic oxygen.
Baker, Thomas A; Liu, Xiaoying; Friend, Cynthia M
2011-01-07
Recently, gold has been intensely studied as a catalyst for key synthetic reactions. Gold is an attractive catalyst because, surprisingly, it is highly active and very selective for partial oxidation processes suggesting promise for energy-efficient "green" chemistry. The underlying origin of the high activity of Au is a controversial subject since metallic gold is commonly thought to be inert. Herein, we establish that one origin of the high activity for gold catalysis is the extremely reactive nature of atomic oxygen bound in 3-fold coordination sites on metallic gold. This is the predominant form of O at low concentrations on the surface, which is a strong indication that it is most relevant to catalytic conditions. Atomic oxygen bound to metallic Au in 3-fold sites has high activity for CO oxidation, oxidation of olefins, and oxidative transformations of alcohols and amines. Among the factors identified as important in Au-O interaction are the morphology of the surface, the local binding site of oxygen, and the degree of order of the oxygen overlayer. In this Perspective, we present an overview of both theory and experiments that identify the reactive forms of O and their associated charge density distributions and bond strengths. We also analyze and model the release of Au atoms induced by O binding to the surface. This rough surface also has the potential for O(2) dissociation, which is a critical step if Au is to be activated catalytically. We further show the strong parallels between product distributions and reactivity for O-covered Au at low pressure (ultrahigh vacuum) and for nanoporous Au catalysts operating at atmospheric pressure as evidence that atomic O is the active species under working catalytic conditions when metallic Au is present. We briefly discuss the possible contributions of oxidants that may contain intact O-O bonds and of the Au-metal oxide support interface in Au catalysis. Finally, the challenges and future directions for fully
Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes
Sang, E. T. K.
2015-10-01
We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).
Sensitivity analysis using probability bounding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferson, Scott; Troy Tucker, W.
2006-01-01
Probability bounds analysis (PBA) provides analysts a convenient means to characterize the neighborhood of possible results that would be obtained from plausible alternative inputs in probabilistic calculations. We show the relationship between PBA and the methods of interval analysis and probabilistic uncertainty analysis from which it is jointly derived, and indicate how the method can be used to assess the quality of probabilistic models such as those developed in Monte Carlo simulations for risk analyses. We also illustrate how a sensitivity analysis can be conducted within a PBA by pinching inputs to precise distributions or real values
Bounded Densities and Their Derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.
2009-01-01
This paper describes how one can compute interval-valued statistical measures given limited information about the underlying distribution. The particular focus is on a bounded derivative of a probability density function and its combination with other available statistical evidence for computing ...... quantities of interest. To be able to utilise the evidence about the derivative it is suggested to adapt the ‘conventional’ problem statement to variational calculus and the way to do so is demonstrated. A number of examples are given throughout the paper....
Removal of bound metal fasteners
Kramer, R. F.
1981-04-01
This project explored the removal of bound metal fasteners through the use of ultrasonically assisted wrenches. Two wrenches were designed, fabricated and tested. Previous studies had indicated an increase in thread tension for a given torque application under the influence of ultrasonics. Based on this, the loosening of seized and corroded fasteners with the aid of ultrasonics was explored. Experimental data confirmed our prior analysis of the torque-tension relationship under the influence of ultrasonics; however, our progress did not satisfy the requirements necessary to loosen seized studs in a shipyard environment.
Space mappings with bounded distortion
Reshetnyak, Yu G
1989-01-01
This book is intended for researchers and students concerned with questions in analysis and function theory. The author provides an exposition of the main results obtained in recent years by Soviet and other mathematicians in the theory of mappings with bounded distortion, an active direction in contemporary mathematics. The mathematical tools presented can be applied to a broad spectrum of problems that go beyond the context of the main topic of investigation. For a number of questions in the theory of partial differential equations and the theory of functions with generalized derivatives, this is the first time they have appeared in an internationally distributed monograph.
Bounding the space of holographic CFTs with chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perlmutter, Eric [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-10-13
Thermal states of quantum systems with many degrees of freedom are subject to a bound on the rate of onset of chaos, including a bound on the Lyapunov exponent, λ{sub L}≤2π/β. We harness this bound to constrain the space of putative holographic CFTs and their would-be dual theories of AdS gravity. First, by studying out-of-time-order four-point functions, we discuss how λ{sub L}=2π/β in ordinary two-dimensional holographic CFTs is related to properties of the OPE at strong coupling. We then rule out the existence of unitary, sparse two-dimensional CFTs with large central charge and a set of higher spin currents of bounded spin; this implies the inconsistency of weakly coupled AdS{sub 3} higher spin gravities without infinite towers of gauge fields, such as the SL(N) theories. This fits naturally with the structure of higher-dimensional gravity, where finite towers of higher spin fields lead to acausality. On the other hand, unitary CFTs with classical W{sub ∞}[λ] symmetry, dual to 3D Vasiliev or hs[λ] higher spin gravities, do not violate the chaos bound, instead exhibiting no chaos: λ{sub L}=0. Independently, we show that such theories violate unitarity for |λ|>2. These results encourage a tensionless string theory interpretation of the 3D Vasiliev theory.
Determining Normal-Distribution Tolerance Bounds Graphically
Mezzacappa, M. A.
1983-01-01
Graphical method requires calculations and table lookup. Distribution established from only three points: mean upper and lower confidence bounds and lower confidence bound of standard deviation. Method requires only few calculations with simple equations. Graphical procedure establishes best-fit line for measured data and bounds for selected confidence level and any distribution percentile.
On semidefinite programming bounds for graph bandwidth
de Klerk, E.; Nagy, M.; Sotirov, R.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we propose two new lower bounds on graph bandwidth and cyclic bandwidth based on semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations of the quadratic assignment problem. We compare the new bounds with two other SDP bounds reported in [A. Blum, G. Konjevod, R. Ravi, and S. Vempala,
Observational Bounds on Cosmic Doomsday
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shmakova, Marina
2003-07-11
Recently it was found, in a broad class of models, that the dark energy density may change its sign during the evolution of the universe. This may lead to a global collapse of the universe within the time t{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} years. Our goal is to find what bounds on the future lifetime of the universe can be placed by the next generation of cosmological observations. As an example, we investigate the simplest model of dark energy with a linear potential V({phi}) = V{sub 0}(1 + {alpha}{phi}). This model can describe the present stage of acceleration of the universe if {alpha} is small enough. However, eventually the field {phi} rolls down, V({phi}) becomes negative, and the universe collapses. The existing observational data indicate that the universe described by this model will collapse not earlier than t{sub c} {approx_equal} 10 billion years from the present moment. We show that the data from SNAP and Planck satellites may extend the bound on the ''doomsday'' time to tc 40 billion years at the 95% confidence level.
Quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás
2009-02-01
We have determined the maximum quantum violation of 241 tight bipartite Bell inequalities with up to five two-outcome measurement settings per party by constructing the appropriate measurement operators in up to six-dimensional complex and eight-dimensional real-component Hilbert spaces using numerical optimization. Out of these inequalities 129 have been introduced here. In 43 cases higher-dimensional component spaces gave larger violation than qubits, and in three occasions the maximum was achieved with six-dimensional spaces. We have also calculated upper bounds on these Bell inequalities using a method proposed recently. For all but 20 inequalities the best solution found matched the upper bound. Surprisingly, the simplest inequality of the set examined, with only three measurement settings per party, was not among them, despite the high dimensionality of the Hilbert space considered. We also computed detection threshold efficiencies for the maximally entangled qubit pair. These could be lowered in several instances if degenerate measurements were also allowed.
Moessbauer spectroscopic study of polymer-bound heme complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuchida, Eishun; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Hidenari; Shirai, Tsuneo.
1984-01-01
Moessbauer spectra were measured on the heme complexes of poly(1-vinyl- and 1-vinyl-2-methylimidazole)(PVI and PMI) and heme derivatives with covalently bound imidazoleligand (IH) and 2-methylimidazole-ligand (MIH) embedded in poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) film. Quadrupole splitting (ΔE sub(Q)) for the carbon monoxide adduct of PMI-heme indicated large electronic field gradient at the iron nucleus, probably due to steric hindrance of the polymer chain, and this behavior agreed with its low affinity with carbon monoxide. PMI-heme formed an oxygen adduct and its isomer shift and ΔE sub(Q) values were obtained. (author)
Strongly interacting Fermi gases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakr W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marier, D.
1992-01-01
This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders
Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.
Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O
1989-01-01
Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing ...
Distributed-order fractional diffusions on bounded domains
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Nane, Erkan; Vellaisamy, P.
2011-01-01
In a fractional Cauchy problem, the usual first order time derivative is replaced by a fractional derivative. The fractional derivative models time delays in a diffusion process. The order of the fractional derivative can be distributed over the unit interval, to model a mixture of delay sources. In this paper, we provide explicit strong solutions and stochastic analogues for distributed-order fractional Cauchy problems on bounded domains with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Stochastic solutio...
Capacity Bounds for Parallel Optical Wireless Channels
Chaaban, Anas; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
A system consisting of parallel optical wireless channels with a total average intensity constraint is studied. Capacity upper and lower bounds for this system are derived. Under perfect channel-state information at the transmitter (CSIT), the bounds have to be optimized with respect to the power allocation over the parallel channels. The optimization of the lower bound is non-convex, however, the KKT conditions can be used to find a list of possible solutions one of which is optimal. The optimal solution can then be found by an exhaustive search algorithm, which is computationally expensive. To overcome this, we propose low-complexity power allocation algorithms which are nearly optimal. The optimized capacity lower bound nearly coincides with the capacity at high SNR. Without CSIT, our capacity bounds lead to upper and lower bounds on the outage probability. The outage probability bounds meet at high SNR. The system with average and peak intensity constraints is also discussed.
VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. T. K. Sang
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.
Spectral computations for bounded operators
Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan
2001-01-01
Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Plasmons in strong superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.
2011-01-01
We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.
Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid
Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman
2016-11-01
Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 108 times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.
Strongly bound excitons in monolayer PtS2 and PtSe2
Sajjad, M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2018-01-01
Based on first-principles calculations, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of monolayers PtS2 and PtSe2 are investigated. The bond stiffnesses and elastic moduli are determined by means of the spring constants and strain
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petaja, Tuukka; Sipila, Mikko; Paasonen, Pauli
2011-01-01
rate was clearly higher than the measured new particle formation rate at similar to 1.5 nmsuggesting that the rate limiting step for the nucleation takes place after the dimerization step. The quantum chemical calculations suggested that even in the ultraclean conditions there exist (a) stabilizing...... compound(s) with (a) concentration(s) high enough to prevent the dimer evaporation. Such a stabilizing compound should be abundant enough in any natural environment and would therefore not limit the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the atmosphere....
Structure Biology of Membrane Bound Enzymes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Dax [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). School of Medicine. Dept. of Physiology
2016-11-30
The overall goal of the proposed research is to understand the membrane-associated active processes catalyzed by an alkane $\\square$-hydroxylase (AlkB) from eubacterium Pseudomonase oleovorans. AlkB performs oxygenation of unactivated hydrocarbons found in crude oils. The enzymatic reaction involves energy-demanding steps in the membrane with the uses of structurally unknown metal active sites featuring a diiron [FeFe] center. At present, a critical barrier to understanding the membrane-associated reaction mechanism is the lack of structural information. The structural biology efforts have been challenged by technical difficulties commonly encountered in crystallization and structural determination of membrane proteins. The specific aims of the current budget cycle are to crystalize AlkB and initiate X-ray analysis to set the stage for structural determination. The long-term goals of our structural biology efforts are to provide an atomic description of AlkB structure, and to uncover the mechanisms of selective modification of hydrocarbons. The structural information will help elucidating how the unactivated C-H bonds of saturated hydrocarbons are oxidized to initiate biodegradation and biotransformation processes. The knowledge gained will be fundamental to biotechnological applications to biofuel transformation of non-edible oil feedstock. Renewable biodiesel is a promising energy carry that can be used to reduce fossil fuel dependency. The proposed research capitalizes on prior BES-supported efforts on over-expression and purification of AlkB to explore the inner workings of a bioenergy-relevant membrane-bound enzyme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.
2011-01-01
Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.
Strong-coupling approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, R.B.
1984-03-01
Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures
Instanton bound states in ABJM theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics
2013-06-15
The partition function of the ABJM theory receives non-perturbative corrections due to instanton effects. We study these non-perturbative corrections, including bound states of worldsheet instantons and membrane instantons, in the Fermi-gas approach. We require that the total non-perturbative correction should be always finite for arbitrary Chern-Simons level. This finiteness is realized quite non-trivially because each bound state contribution naively diverges at some levels. The poles of each contribution should be canceled out in total. We use this pole cancellation mechanism to find unknown bound state corrections from known ones. We conjecture a general expression of the bound state contribution. Summing up all the bound state contributions, we find that the effect of bound states is simply incorporated into the worldsheet instanton correction by a redefinition of the chemical potential in the Fermi-gas system. Analytic expressions of the 3- and 4-membrane instanton corrections are also proposed.
Strongly disordered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muttalib, K.A.
1982-01-01
We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects
Dvali, Gia
2009-01-01
We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...
Tensor squeezed limits and the Higuchi bound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bordin, Lorenzo [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Mirbabayi, Mehrdad [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Noreña, Jorge, E-mail: lbordin@sissa.it, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: mehrdadm@ias.edu, E-mail: jorge.norena@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile)
2016-09-01
We point out that tensor consistency relations—i.e. the behavior of primordial correlation functions in the limit a tensor mode has a small momentum—are more universal than scalar consistency relations. They hold in the presence of multiple scalar fields and as long as anisotropies are diluted exponentially fast. When de Sitter isometries are approximately respected during inflation this is guaranteed by the Higuchi bound, which forbids the existence of light particles with spin: de Sitter space can support scalar hair but no curly hair. We discuss two indirect ways to look for the violation of tensor consistency relations in observations, as a signature of models in which inflation is not a strong isotropic attractor, such as solid inflation: (a) graviton exchange contribution to the scalar four-point function; (b) quadrupolar anisotropy of the scalar power spectrum due to super-horizon tensor modes. This anisotropy has a well-defined statistics which can be distinguished from cases in which the background has a privileged direction.
Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.
Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye
2013-09-13
We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.
Bounded elements in Locally C*-algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Harti, Rachid
2001-09-01
In order to get more useful information about Locally C*-algebras, we introduce in this paper the notion of bounded elements. First, we study the connection between bounded elements and spectrally bounded elements. Some structural results of Locally C*-algebras are established in Theorems 1 , 2 and 3. As an immediate consequence of Theorem 3, we give a characterization of the connected component of the identity in the group of unitary elements for a Locally C*-algebra. (author)
Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com
2008-04-15
This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.
Majorana bound states in a disordered quantum dot chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, P; Nori, Franco
2016-01-01
We study Majorana bound states in a disordered chain of semiconductor quantum dots proximity-coupled to an s -wave superconductor. By calculating its topological quantum number, based on the scattering-matrix method and a tight-binding model, we can identify the topological property of such an inhomogeneous one-dimensional system. We study the robustness of Majorana bound states against disorder in both the spin-independent terms (including the chemical potential and the regular spin-conserving hopping) and the spin-dependent term, i.e., the spin-flip hopping due to the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We find that the Majorana bound states are not completely immune to the spin-independent disorder, especially when the latter is strong. Meanwhile, the Majorana bound states are relatively robust against spin-dependent disorder, as long as the spin-flip hopping is of uniform sign (i.e., the varying spin-flip hopping term does not change its sign along the chain). Nevertheless, when the disorder induces sign-flip in spin-flip hopping, the topological-nontopological phase transition takes place in the low-chemical-potential region. (paper)
PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.
2012-07-01
make use of 'small' electrons packed to the highest possible density. These are by definition 'strongly correlated'. For example: good photovoltaics must be efficient optical absorbers, which means that photons will generate tightly bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) that must then be ionised at a heterointerface and transported to contacts; efficient solid state refrigeration depends on substantial entropy changes in a unit cell, with large local electrical or magnetic moments; efficient lighting is in a real sense the inverse of photovoltaics; the limit of an efficient battery is a supercapacitor employing mixed valent ions; fuel cells and solar to fuel conversion require us to understand electrochemistry on the scale of a single atom; and we already know that the only prospect for effective high temperature superconductivity involves strongly correlated materials. Even novel IT technologies are now seen to have value not just for novel function but also for efficiency. While strongly correlated electron systems continue to excite researchers and the public alike due to the fundamental science issues involved, it seems increasingly likely that support for the science will be leveraged by its impact on energy and sustainability. Strongly correlated electron systems contents Strongly correlated electron systemsSiddharth S Saxena and P B Littlewood Magnetism, f-electron localization and superconductivity in 122-type heavy-fermion metalsF Steglich, J Arndt, O Stockert, S Friedemann, M Brando, C Klingner, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Wirth, S Kirchner and Q Si High energy pseudogap and its evolution with doping in Fe-based superconductors as revealed by optical spectroscopyN L Wang, W Z Hu, Z G Chen, R H Yuan, G Li, G F Chen and T Xiang Structural investigations on YbRh2Si2: from the atomic to the macroscopic length scaleS Wirth, S Ernst, R Cardoso-Gil, H Borrmann, S Seiro, C Krellner, C Geibel, S Kirchner, U Burkhardt, Y Grin and F Steglich Confinement of chiral magnetic
Bounded cohomology of discrete groups
Frigerio, Roberto
2017-01-01
The author manages a near perfect equilibrium between necessary technicalities (always well motivated) and geometric intuition, leading the readers from the first simple definition to the most striking applications of the theory in 13 very pleasant chapters. This book can serve as an ideal textbook for a graduate topics course on the subject and become the much-needed standard reference on Gromov's beautiful theory. -Michelle Bucher The theory of bounded cohomology, introduced by Gromov in the late 1980s, has had powerful applications in geometric group theory and the geometry and topology of manifolds, and has been the topic of active research continuing to this day. This monograph provides a unified, self-contained introduction to the theory and its applications, making it accessible to a student who has completed a first course in algebraic topology and manifold theory. The book can be used as a source for research projects for master's students, as a thorough introduction to the field for graduate student...
Strong density of a class of simple operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Somasundaram, S.; Mohammad, N.
1991-08-01
An algebra of simple operators has been shown to be strongly dense in the algebra of all bounded linear operators on function spaces of a compact (not necessarily abelian) group. Further, it is proved that the same result is also true for L 2 (G) if G is a locally compact (not necessarily compact) abelian group. (author). 6 refs
Some Improved Nonperturbative Bounds for Fermionic Expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohmann, Martin, E-mail: marlohmann@gmail.com [Universita di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)
2016-06-15
We reconsider the Gram-Hadamard bound as it is used in constructive quantum field theory and many body physics to prove convergence of Fermionic perturbative expansions. Our approach uses a recursion for the amplitudes of the expansion, discovered in a model problem by Djokic (2013). It explains the standard way to bound the expansion from a new point of view, and for some of the amplitudes provides new bounds, which avoid the use of Fourier transform, and are therefore superior to the standard bounds for models like the cold interacting Fermi gas.
Antonella Del Rosso
2016-01-01
Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO. The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...
Strongly interacting Higgs bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.
1980-01-01
The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Chang-Bae; Krommes, J.A.
1988-08-01
The work of Krommes and Smith on rigorous upper bounds for the turbulent transport of a passively advected scalar [/ital Ann. Phys./ 177:246 (1987)] is extended in two directions: (1) For their ''reference model,'' improved upper bounds are obtained by utilizing more sophisticated two-time constraints which include the effects of cross-correlations up to fourth order. Numerical solutions of the model stochastic differential equation are also obtained; they show that the new bounds compare quite favorably with the exact results, even at large Reynolds and Kubo numbers. (2) The theory is extended to take account of a finite spatial autocorrelation length L/sub c/. As a reasonably generic example, the problem of particle transport due to statistically specified stochastic magnetic fields in a collisionless turbulent plasma is revisited. A bound is obtained which reduces for small L/sub c/ to the quasilinear limit and for large L/sub c/ to the strong turbulence limit, and which provides a reasonable and rigorous interpolation for intermediate values of L/sub c/. 18 refs., 6 figs
Variational lower bound on the scattering length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1975-01-01
The scattering length A characterizes the zero-energy scattering of one system by another. It was shown some time ago that a variational upper bound on A could be obtained using methods, of the Rayleigh-Ritz type, which are commonly employed to obtain upper bounds on energy eigenvalues. Here we formulate a method for obtaining a variational lower bound on A. Once again the essential idea is to express the scattering length as a variational estimate plus an error term and then to reduce the problem of bounding the error term to one involving bounds on energy eigenvalues. In particular, the variational lower bound on A is rigorously established provided a certin modified Hamiltonian can be shown to have no discrete states lying below the level of the continuum threshold. It is unfortunately true that necessary conditions for the existence of bound states are not available for multiparticle systems in general. However, in the case of positron-atom scattering the adiabatic approximation can be introduced as an (essentially) solvable comparison problem to rigorously establish the nonexistence of bound states of the modified Hamiltonian. It has recently been shown how the validity of the variational upper bound on A can be maintained when the target ground-state wave function is imprecisely known. Similar methods can be used to maintain the variational lower bound on A. Since the bound is variational, the error in the calculated scattering length will be of second order in the error in the wave function. The use of the adiabatic approximation in the present context places no limitation in principle on the accuracy achievable
Huang, C. J.; Yeager, E.; Ogrady, W. E.
1975-01-01
The effects were studied of anions and cations on hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation on Pt by linear sweep voltammetry, and on oxygen generation on Pt by potentiostatic overpotential measurement. The hydrogen chemisorption and anodic oxide film formation regions are greatly influenced by anion adsorption. In acids, the strongly bound hydrogen occurs at more cathodic potential when chloride and sulfate are present. Sulfate affects the initial phase of oxide film formation by produced fine structure while chloride retards the oxide-film formation. In alkaline solutions, both strongly and weakly bound hydrogen are influenced by iodide, cyanide, and barium and calcium cations. These ions also influence the oxide film formation. Factors considered to explain these effects are discussed. The Tafel slope for oxygen generation was found to be independent on the oxide thickness and the presence of cations or anions. The catalytic activity indicated by the exchange current density was observed decreasing with increasing oxide layer thickness, only a minor dependence on the addition of certain cations and anions was found.
Strong-interaction nonuniversality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.
1989-01-01
The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements
Wickens, F
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...
Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma
Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...
Pair condensation and bound states in fermionic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedrakian, Armen; Clark, John W.
2006-01-01
We study the finite temperature-density phase diagram of an attractive fermionic system that supports two-body (dimer) and three-body (trimer) bound states in free space. Using interactions characteristic for nuclear systems, we obtain the critical temperature T c2 for the superfluid phase transition and the limiting temperature T c3 for the extinction of trimers. The phase diagram features a Cooper-pair condensate in the high-density, low-temperature domain which, with decreasing density, crosses over to a Bose condensate of strongly bound dimers. The high-temperature, low-density domain is populated by trimers whose binding energy decreases toward the density-temperature domain occupied by the superfluid and vanishes at a critical temperature T c3 >T c2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei-Bing; Chen, Chuan
2015-01-01
Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces has been proposed as one of the most promising methods for large-scale preparation of high-quality graphene. However, the presence of the substrate could significantly affect the intrinsic electronic structure of graphene and intercalation of metals is an established route for decoupling the graphene from the substrate. Taking a graphene/Ni(1 1 1) surface as an example, we suggest reactive oxygen as an effective intercalation element to recover the linear dispersion of graphene based on density functional theory calculation, in which vdW interactions are treated using the optB88-vdW functional. The possible intercalation configurations at different coverage are considered and the geometry and electronic structure are analyzed in detail. Our results indicate that the energy favorable structures change from top-fcc to bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation and the binding between the graphene and the O/Ni(1 1 1) substrate becomes stronger at high oxygen coverage even than pure Ni(1 1 1) substrate. Most interestingly, the electronic structure of pristine graphene is found to be almost restored, especially for the bridge-top configuration after oxygen intercalation, and the Dirac points move towards the high energy region relative to the Fermi level. A graphene/oxygen/Ni (1 1 1) system is thus suggested as a p-type doped strongly bound Dirac system. Detailed analysis using projected energy band and differential charge density indicates that the intercalated oxygen atoms react with the Ni (1 1 1) surface strongly, which not only blocks the strong interaction between Ni and graphene but also passivates oxygen 2p states. The intercalation mechanisms distinguished from the conventional metal intercalation will be useful to understand other complex intercalation systems. (paper)
Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BASUDEB DATTA
2011-11-20
Nov 20, 2011 ... Preliminaries. Lower bound theorem. On going work. Definitions. An n-simplex is a convex hull of n + 1 affinely independent points. (called vertices) in some Euclidean space R. N . Stacked spheres and lower bound theorem. Basudeb Datta. Indian Institute of Science. 2 / 27 ...
On the range of completely bounded maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard I. Loebl
1978-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that if every bounded linear map from a C*-algebra α to a von Neumann algebra β is completely bounded, then either α is finite-dimensional or β⫅⊗Mn, where is a commutative von Neumann algebra and Mn is the algebra of n×n complex matrices.
Bounds in the location-allocation problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juel, Henrik
1981-01-01
Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....
Experimental evidence for bounds on quantum correlations.
Bovino, F A; Castagnoli, G; Degiovanni, I P; Castelletto, S
2004-02-13
We implemented the experiment proposed by Cabello in the preceding Letter to test the bounds of quantum correlation. As expected from the theory we found that, for certain choices of local observables, Tsirelson's bound of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality (2 x square root of 2) is not reached by any quantum states.
Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration
Fearnley, John
2010-01-01
We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.
No-arbitrage bounds for financial scenarios
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geyer, Alois; Hanke, Michael; Weissensteiner, Alex
2014-01-01
We derive no-arbitrage bounds for expected excess returns to generate scenarios used in financial applications. The bounds allow to distinguish three regions: one where arbitrage opportunities will never exist, a second where arbitrage may be present, and a third, where arbitrage opportunities...
Energy condition bounds and their confrontation with supernovae data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, M. P.; Vitenti, S.; Reboucas, M. J.
2008-01-01
The energy conditions play an important role in the understanding of several properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible existence of the so-called phantom fields. We show that the integrated bounds provided by the energy conditions on cosmological observables such as the distance modulus μ(z) and the lookback time t L (z) are not sufficient (or necessary) to ensure the local fulfillment of the energy conditions, making explicit the limitation of these bounds in the confrontation with observational data. We recast the energy conditions as bounds on the deceleration and normalized Hubble parameters, obtaining new bounds which are necessary and sufficient for the local fulfillment of the energy conditions. A statistical confrontation, with 1σ-3σ confidence levels, between our bounds and supernovae data from the gold and combined samples is made for the recent past. Our analyses indicate, with 3σ confidence levels, the fulfillment of both the weak energy condition (WEC) and dominant energy condition (DEC) for z≤1 and z < or approx. 0.8, respectively. In addition, they suggest a possible recent violation of the null energy condition (NEC) with 3σ, i.e. a very recent phase of superacceleration. Our analyses also show the possibility of violation of the strong energy condition (SEC) with 3σ in the recent past (z≤1), but interestingly the q(z)-best-fit curve crosses the SEC--fulfillment divider at z≅0.67, which is a value very close to the beginning of the epoch of cosmic acceleration predicted by the standard concordance flat ΛCDM scenario.
Manganese and iron as oxygen carriers to anoxie estuarine sediment
Brayner, F. M. M.; Matvienko, B.
2003-05-01
We studied the concentration of a series of transition metals including Mn and Fe in an estuarine fishpond. The pond is situated at latitude 8°10'S and longitude 34°55'W, in the Capibaribe River estuary, within the Recife city boundaries, which is located in Pernambuco, a state of the Brazilian Northeast Pond area is 1.5 ha and it bas a 0.5 m depth. It is separated from the river by dikes. Water temperature at 28° C is stable throughout the year. Light breezes keep the water aerated, but intense ongoing decomposition makes the sediment anoxie. The area, originally of mangrove type, has been changed by antropic action on its fauna and vegetation. The study focuses on changes in behaviour of heavy metals. Samples of bottom sediments wore collected by Eckman dredge sediment sampler and total metal concentration was determined by the lithium borate fusion method. Water, recent sediment, and consolidated sediment were examined in this fishpond where Mn and Fe are brought in periodically by water and then gradually go into the sediment at respective rates of 10.52 and 1332 mg m^{-2}a^{-1}. Strong bioturbation re-suspends sediment while simultaneously re-dissolution of these ions is going on fhrough reduction in the anoxie sédiment. As soluble species these ions migrate from sediment to water and are there continually oxidized by dissolved oxygen, becoming insoluble. With their precipitation, chemically bound oxygen is carried down to the sediment, constituting a parallel channel of transport in addition to migration into the sediment bydiffusion of the oxygen dissolved in the water. The estimated flow rates are 3.25 and 76 mg O2 m^{-2}a^{-1} due to Mn and Fe respectively. The rates were established using natural silicon as a tracer.
SHARP ENTRYWISE PERTURBATION BOUNDS FOR MARKOV CHAINS.
Thiede, Erik; VAN Koten, Brian; Weare, Jonathan
For many Markov chains of practical interest, the invariant distribution is extremely sensitive to perturbations of some entries of the transition matrix, but insensitive to others; we give an example of such a chain, motivated by a problem in computational statistical physics. We have derived perturbation bounds on the relative error of the invariant distribution that reveal these variations in sensitivity. Our bounds are sharp, we do not impose any structural assumptions on the transition matrix or on the perturbation, and computing the bounds has the same complexity as computing the invariant distribution or computing other bounds in the literature. Moreover, our bounds have a simple interpretation in terms of hitting times, which can be used to draw intuitive but rigorous conclusions about the sensitivity of a chain to various types of perturbations.
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2006-01-01
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-01-01
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Hierarchical order in wall-bounded shear turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carbone, F.; Aubry, N.
1996-01-01
Since turbulence at realistic Reynolds numbers, such as those occurring in the atmosphere or in the ocean, involve a high number of modes that cannot be resolved computationally in the foreseeable future, there is a strong motivation for finding techniques which drastically decrease the number of such required modes, particularly under inhomogeneous conditions. The significance of this work is to show that wall-bounded shear turbulence, in its strongly inhomogeneous direction (normal to the wall), can be decomposed into one (or a few) space endash time mother mode(s), with each mother generating a whole family of modes by stretching symmetry. In other words, the generated modes are similar, dilated copies of their mother. In addition, we show that the nature of all previous modes strongly depends on the symmetry itself. These findings constitute the first scaling theory of inhomogeneous turbulence. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.
1988-01-01
Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)
A remark on partial linear spaces of girth 5 with an application to strongly regular graphs
Brouwer, A.E.; Neumaier, A.
1988-01-01
We derive a lower bound on the number of points of a partial linear space of girth 5. As an application, certain strongly regular graphs with=2 are ruled out by observing that the first subconstituents are partial linear spaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schans, G.P. van der; Vos, O.; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.; Lohman, P.H.M.
1986-05-01
Treatment of mammalian cells with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM) results in a decrease in the intracellular GSH (glutathione) and NPSH (non-protein-bound SH) levels. The effect of depletion of GSH and NPSH on radiosensitivity was studied in relation to the concentration of oxygen during irradiation. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks (ssb and dsb) and cell killing were used as criteria for radiation damage. Under aerobic conditions, BSO and DEM treatment gave a small sensitization of 10-20% for the 3 types of radiation damage. Also under severely hypoxic conditions (0.01 μM oxygen in the medium) the sensitizing effect of both compounds on the induction of ssb and dsb and on cell killing was small (0-30%). At somewhat higher concentrations of oxygen (0.5-10 μM) however, the sensitization amounted to about 90% for the induction of ssb and dsb and about 50% for cell killing. These results strengthen the widely accepted idea that intracellular SH-compounds compete with oxygen and other electron-affinic radiosensitizers with respect to reaction with radiation-induced damage, thus preventing the fixation of DNA damages by oxygen. These results imply that the extent to which SH-compounds affect the radiosensitivity of cells in vivo depends strongly on the local concentration of oxygen. (Auth.)
Artificial oxygen transport protein
Dutton, P. Leslie
2014-09-30
This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.
Singlet oxygen-mediated damage to proteins and its consequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davies, Michael Jonathan
2003-01-01
by the transfer of energy to ground state (triplet) molecular oxygen by either protein-bound, or other, chromophores. Singlet oxygen can also be generated by a range of other enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions including processes mediated by heme proteins, lipoxygenases, and activated leukocytes, as well...... the absorption of UV radiation by the protein, or bound chromophore groups, thereby generating excited states (singlet or triplets) or radicals via photo-ionisation. The second major process involves indirect oxidation of the protein via the formation and subsequent reactions of singlet oxygen generated...... as radical termination reactions. This paper reviews the data available on singlet oxygen-mediated protein oxidation and concentrates primarily on the mechanisms by which this excited state species brings about changes to both the side-chains and backbone of amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Recent work...
Strong monotonicity in mixed-state entanglement manipulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaka, Satoshi
2006-01-01
A strong entanglement monotone, which never increases under local operations and classical communications (LOCC), restricts quantum entanglement manipulation more strongly than the usual monotone since the usual one does not increase on average under LOCC. We propose strong monotones in mixed-state entanglement manipulation under LOCC. These are related to the decomposability and one-positivity of an operator constructed from a quantum state, and reveal geometrical characteristics of entangled states. These are lower bounded by the negativity or generalized robustness of entanglement
Continuous bounded cohomology of locally compact groups
2001-01-01
Recent research has repeatedly led to connections between important rigidity questions and bounded cohomology. However, the latter has remained by and large intractable. This monograph introduces the functorial study of the continuous bounded cohomology for topological groups, with coefficients in Banach modules. The powerful techniques of this more general theory have successfully solved a number of the original problems in bounded cohomology. As applications, one obtains, in particular, rigidity results for actions on the circle, for representations on complex hyperbolic spaces and on Teichmüller spaces. A special effort has been made to provide detailed proofs or references in quite some generality.
Positivity bounds on double parton distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas
2013-03-01
Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.
Remarks on Bousso's covariant entropy bound
Mayo, A E
2002-01-01
Bousso's covariant entropy bound is put to the test in the context of a non-singular cosmological solution of general relativity found by Bekenstein. Although the model complies with every assumption made in Bousso's original conjecture, the entropy bound is violated due to the occurrence of negative energy density associated with the interaction of some the matter components in the model. We demonstrate how this property allows for the test model to 'elude' a proof of Bousso's conjecture which was given recently by Flanagan, Marolf and Wald. This corroborates the view that the covariant entropy bound should be applied only to stable systems for which every matter component carries positive energy density.
The bound state problem and quark confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichian, M.; Demichev, A.P.; Nelipa, N.F.
1980-01-01
A quantum field-theoretic model in which quark is confined is considered. System of equations for the Green functions of colour singlet and octet bound states is obtained. The method is based on the nonperturbative Schwinger-Dyson equations with the use of Slavnov-Taylor identities. It is shown that in the framework of the model if there exist singlet, then also exist octet bound states of the quark-antiquark system. Thus in general, confinement of free quarks does not mean absence of their coloured bound states. (author)
Quasi-bound states in continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Hiroaki; Hatano, Naomichi; Garmon, Sterling; Petrosky, Tomio
2007-08-01
We report the prediction of quasi-bound states (resonant states with very long lifetimes) that occur in the eigenvalue continuum of propagating states for a wide region of parameter space. These quasi-bound states are generated in a quantum wire with two channels and an adatom, when the energy bands of the two channels overlap. A would-be bound state that lays just below the upper energy band is slightly destabilized by the lower energy band and thereby becomes a resonant state with a very long lifetime (a second QBIC lays above the lower energy band). (author)
Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase from the archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.
Skórko, R; Osipiuk, J; Stetter, K O
1989-09-01
Glycogen-bound polyphosphate kinase has been isolated from a crude extract of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. Divalent cations (Mn2+ greater than Mg2+) stimulated the reaction. The enzyme does not require the presence of histones for its activity; it is inhibited strongly by phosphate and slightly by fluoride. The protein from the glycogen complex migrated in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a 57-kilodalton protein band; after isoelectric focusing it separated into several spots in the pH range of 5.6 to 6.7.
Compton scattering, meson exchange, and the polarizabilities of bound nucleons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, G.; Mellendorf, K.E.; Eisenstein, R.A.; Federspiel, F.J.; Garino, G.; Igarashi, R.; Kolb, N.R.; Lucas, M.A.; MacGibbon, B.E.; Mize, W.K.; Nathan, A.M.; Pywell, R.E.; Wells, D.P.
1996-01-01
Elastic photon scattering cross sections on 16 O have been measured in the energy range 27 endash 108 MeV. These data are inconsistent with a conventional interpretation in which the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of the bound nucleon are unchanged from the free values and the meson-exchange seagull amplitude is taken in the zero-energy limit. Agreement with the data can be achieved by invoking either strongly modified polarizabilities or a substantial energy dependence to the meson-exchange seagull amplitude. It is argued that these seemingly different explanations are experimentally indistinguishable and probably physically equivalent. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Chok
Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.
Electron Capture Dissociation of Weakly Bound Polypeptide Polycationic Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haselmann, Kim F; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Budnik, Bogdan A
2002-01-01
as well as specific complexes of modified glycopeptide antibiotics with their target peptide. The weak nature of bonding is substantiated by blackbody infrared dissociation, low-energy collisional excitation and force-field simulations. The results are consistent with a non-ergodic ECD cleavage mechanism.......We have previously reported that, in electron capture dissociation (ECD), rupture of strong intramolecular bonds in weakly bound supramolecular aggregates can proceed without dissociation of weak intermolecular bonds. This is now illustrated on a series of non-specific peptide-peptide dimers...
Strongly Coupled Chameleons and the Neutronic Quantum Bouncer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Pignol, Guillaume
2011-01-01
We consider the potential detection of chameleons using bouncing ultracold neutrons. We show that the presence of a chameleon field over a planar plate would alter the energy levels of ultracold neutrons in the terrestrial gravitational field. When chameleons are strongly coupled to nuclear matter, β > or approx. 10 8 , we find that the shift in energy levels would be detectable with the forthcoming GRANIT experiment, where a sensitivity of the order of 1% of a peV is expected. We also find that an extremely large coupling β > or approx. 10 11 would lead to new bound states at a distance of order 2 μm, which is already ruled out by previous Grenoble experiments. The resulting bound, β 11 , is already 3 orders of magnitude better than the upper bound, β 14 , from precision tests of atomic spectra.
Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications
Stottlemyer, Alan L.
intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.
Strong Interactions, (De)coherence and Quarkonia
Bellucci, Stefano; Tiwari, Bhupendra Nath
2011-01-01
Quarkonia are the central objects to explore the non-perturbative nature of non-abelian gauge theories. We describe the confinement-deconfinement phases for heavy quarkonia in a hot QCD medium and thereby the statistical nature of the inter-quark forces. In the sense of one-loop quantum effects, we propose that the "quantum" nature of quark matters follows directly from the thermodynamic consideration of Richardson potential. Thereby we gain an understanding of the formation of hot and dense states of quark gluon plasma matter in heavy ion collisions and the early universe. In the case of the non-abelian theory, the consideration of the Sudhakov form factor turns out to be an efficient tool for soft gluons. In the limit of the Block-Nordsieck resummation, the strong coupling obtained from the Sudhakov form factor yields the statistical nature of hadronic bound states, e.g. kaons and Ds particles.
Strongly-MDS convolutional codes
Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Rosenthal, J; Smarandache, R
Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes have the property that their free distance is maximal among all codes of the same rate and the same degree. In this paper, a class of MDS convolutional codes is introduced whose column distances reach the generalized Singleton bound at the
Tight Bounds for Distributed Functional Monitoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodruff, David P.; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
$, our bound resolves their main open question. Our lower bounds are based on new direct sum theorems for approximate majority, and yield significant improvements to problems in the data stream model, improving the bound for estimating $F_p, p > 2,$ in $t$ passes from $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{2/p......} t))$ to $\\tilde{\\Omega}(n^{1-2/p}/(\\eps^{4/p} t))$, giving the first bound for estimating $F_0$ in $t$ passes of $\\Omega(1/(\\eps^2 t))$ bits of space that does not use the gap-hamming problem, and showing a distribution for the gap-hamming problem with high external information cost or super...
Redshift-space limits of bound structures
Duenner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andres; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hernan
2007-01-01
An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called 'island universes'. This new scenario reformulates the question
Enzymatic Digestion of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions Bound to Soil
SAUNDERS, SAMUEL E.; BARTZ, JASON C.; VERCAUTEREN, KURT C.; BARTELT-HUNT, SHANNON L.
2010-01-01
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) and sheep scrapie can be transmitted via indirect environmental routes, and it is known that soil can serve as a reservoir of prion infectivity. Given the strong interaction between the prion protein (PrP) and soil, we hypothesized that binding to soil enhances prion resistance to enzymatic digestion, thereby facilitating prion longevity in the environment and providing protection from host degradation. We characterized the performance of a commercially available subtilisin enzyme, the Prionzyme, to degrade soil-bound and unbound CWD and HY TME PrP as a function of pH, temperature, and treatment time. The subtilisin enzyme effectively degraded PrP adsorbed to a wide range of soils and soil minerals below the limits of detection. Signal loss occurred rapidly at high pH (12.5) and within 7 d under conditions representative of the natural environment (pH 7.4, 22°C). We observed no apparent difference in enzyme effectiveness between bound and unbound CWD PrP. Our results show that although adsorbed prions do retain relative resistance to enzymatic digestion compared with other brain homogenate proteins, they can be effectively degraded when bound to soil. Our results also suggest a topical application of a subtilisin enzyme solution may be an effective decontamination method to limit disease transmission via environmental ‘hot spots’ of prion infectivity. PMID:20450190
Measurement of organically bound tritium in urine and feces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.
1993-11-01
A bioassay method was developed for directly measuring organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine and feces. Samples first undergo low-temperature distillation and vacuum separation to isolate tritiated water (HTO) and exchangeable tritium. This is followed by converting the non-exchangeable tritium (i.e., OBT) into HTO through oxygen combustion. The method was investigated to: optimise the sample preparation procedures; establish OBT recovery (64% ± 7% for urine and 71% ± 8% for feces); and, determine the detection limit for OBT in urine (0.3 Bq · g -1 ) and feces (5 Bq · g -1 ). The method was evaluated for error sources that are associated with the exchange between HTO and OBT. It is concluded that this bioassay method can reliably measure OBT in urine and feces within the range of ± 10%
Prescribing Oxygen for Cluster Headache: A Guide for the Provider.
Tepper, Stewart J; Duplin, Jessica; Nye, Barbara; Tepper, Deborah E
2017-10-01
Oxygen is the standard of care for acute treatment of cluster headache. CMS, the US Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, has made the indefensible decision to not cover oxygen for cluster headache for patients with Medicaid and Medicare insurance, despite the evidence and professional guidelines. Commercial insurance generally covers oxygen for cluster headache. This is a "how-to" guide for successfully prescribing oxygen in the US. Prescription information is provided that can be incorporated as dot phrases, smart sets, or other standard templates for prescribing oxygen for cluster patients. In many states, oxygen is affordable and can be prescribed for Medicaid and Medicare patients who wish to pay cash. Welding or nonmedical grade industrial oxygen is almost the same cost as medical oxygen. However, it is less pure, lacks the same inspection of tanks, and is delivered without regulators to provide appropriate flow rates. Patients who pay cash should be strongly encouraged to buy medical oxygen. © 2017 American Headache Society.
Error Bounds: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Outrata, Jiří; Kruger, A.Y.; Fabian, Marián; Henrion, R.
2010-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2010), s. 121-149 ISSN 1877-0533 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Error bounds * Calmness * Subdifferential * Slope Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-error bounds necessary and sufficient conditions.pdf
Malabsorption of protein bound vitamin B12.
Dawson, D W; Sawers, A H; Sharma, R K
1984-01-01
Patients with subnormal serum vitamin B12 concentrations were tested for absorption of protein bound vitamin B12 and compared with controls. Absorption of the protein bound vitamin appeared to decrease with increasing age in healthy subjects. Differences between the result of this test and the result of the Schilling test in patients who had undergone gastric surgery were confirmed; such differences were also seen in some patients who had iron deficiency anaemia, an excessive alcohol intake, ...
New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....
Automatic bounding estimation in modified NLMS algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahtalebi, K.; Doost-Hoseini, A.M.
2002-01-01
Modified Normalized Least Mean Square algorithm, which is a sign form of Nlm based on set-membership (S M) theory in the class of optimal bounding ellipsoid (OBE) algorithms, requires a priori knowledge of error bounds that is unknown in most applications. In a special but popular case of measurement noise, a simple algorithm has been proposed. With some simulation examples the performance of algorithm is compared with Modified Normalized Least Mean Square
Strong white photoluminescence from annealed zeolites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai, Zhenhua; Fujii, Minoru; Imakita, Kenji; Hayashi, Shinji
2014-01-01
The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated for the first time. The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence (PL) under ultraviolet light excitation. With increasing annealing temperature, the emission intensity of annealed zeolites first increases and then decreases. At the same time, the PL peak red-shifts from 495 nm to 530 nm, and then returns to 500 nm. The strongest emission appears when the annealing temperature is 500 °C. The quantum yield of the sample is measured to be ∼10%. The PL lifetime monotonously increases from 223 μs to 251 μs with increasing annealing temperature. The origin of white PL is ascribed to oxygen vacancies formed during the annealing process. -- Highlights: • The optical properties of zeolites annealed at various temperatures are investigated. • The annealed zeolites exhibit strong white photoluminescence. • The maximum PL enhancement reaches as large as 62 times. • The lifetime shows little dependence on annealing temperature. • The origin of white emission is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies
Absolute Lower Bound on the Bounce Action
Sato, Ryosuke; Takimoto, Masahiro
2018-03-01
The decay rate of a false vacuum is determined by the minimal action solution of the tunneling field: bounce. In this Letter, we focus on models with scalar fields which have a canonical kinetic term in N (>2 ) dimensional Euclidean space, and derive an absolute lower bound on the bounce action. In the case of four-dimensional space, we show the bounce action is generically larger than 24 /λcr, where λcr≡max [-4 V (ϕ )/|ϕ |4] with the false vacuum being at ϕ =0 and V (0 )=0 . We derive this bound on the bounce action without solving the equation of motion explicitly. Our bound is derived by a quite simple discussion, and it provides useful information even if it is difficult to obtain the explicit form of the bounce solution. Our bound offers a sufficient condition for the stability of a false vacuum, and it is useful as a quick check on the vacuum stability for given models. Our bound can be applied to a broad class of scalar potential with any number of scalar fields. We also discuss a necessary condition for the bounce action taking a value close to this lower bound.
Generalized surface tension bounds in vacuum decay
Masoumi, Ali; Paban, Sonia; Weinberg, Erick J.
2018-02-01
Coleman and De Luccia (CDL) showed that gravitational effects can prevent the decay by bubble nucleation of a Minkowski or AdS false vacuum. In their thin-wall approximation this happens whenever the surface tension in the bubble wall exceeds an upper bound proportional to the difference of the square roots of the true and false vacuum energy densities. Recently it was shown that there is another type of thin-wall regime that differs from that of CDL in that the radius of curvature grows substantially as one moves through the wall. Not only does the CDL derivation of the bound fail in this case, but also its very formulation becomes ambiguous because the surface tension is not well defined. We propose a definition of the surface tension and show that it obeys a bound similar in form to that of the CDL case. We then show that both thin-wall bounds are special cases of a more general bound that is satisfied for all bounce solutions with Minkowski or AdS false vacua. We discuss the limit where the parameters of the theory attain critical values and the bound is saturated. The bounce solution then disappears and a static planar domain wall solution appears in its stead. The scalar field potential then is of the form expected in supergravity, but this is only guaranteed along the trajectory in field space traced out by the bounce.
Evaluating risk using bounding calculations and limited data; TOPICAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
COWLEY, W.L.
1999-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for estimating the potential risk to workers and the public from igniting organic solvents in any of the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The Hanford Site is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's former production facilities for nuclear materials. The tanks contain mixed radioactive wastes. Risk is measured by calculating toxicological and radiological accident consequences and frequencies and comparing the results to established regulatory guidelines. Available sample data is insufficient to adequately characterize the waste and solvent, so a model that maximizes releases from the tanks (bounding case) is used. Maximizing releases (and thus consequences) is a standard technique used in safety analysis to compensate for lack of information. The model predicts bounding values of fire duration, the time at which the fire extinguishes because of lack of oxygen, and a pressure history of a fire in a tank. The model output is used to calculate mass and volume release rates of material from the tanks. The mass and volume release rates permit calculation of radiological and toxicological consequences. The resulting consequence calculations demonstrate that risk from an organic solvent fire in the tanks is within regulatory guidelines
Estimating risk using bounding calculations and limited data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
COWLEY, W.L.
1999-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for estimating the potential risk to workers and the public from igniting organic solvents in any of the 177 underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state. The Hanford Site is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's former production facilities for nuclear materials. The tanks contain mixed radioactive wastes. Risk is measured by calculating toxicological and radiological accident consequences and frequencies and comparing the results to established regulatory guidelines. Available sample data is insufficient to adequately characterize the waste and solvent, so a model that maximizes releases from the tanks (bounding case) is used. Maximizing releases (and thus consequences) is a standard technique used in safety analysis to compensate for lack of information. The model predicts bounding values of fire duration, the time at which the fire extinguishes because of lack of oxygen, and a pressure history of a fire in a tank. The model output is used to calculate mass and volume release rates of material from the tanks. The mass and volume release rates permit calculation of radiological and toxicological consequences. The resulting consequence calculations demonstrate that risk from an organic solvent fire in the tanks is within regulatory guidelines
Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away
Meysman, F.J.R.
2014-01-01
Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....
Enhanced stability of bound pairs at nonzero lattice momenta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornilovitch, Pavel
2004-01-01
A two-body problem on the square lattice is analyzed. The interaction potential consists of strong on-site repulsion and nearest-neighbor attraction. The exact pairing conditions are derived for s-, p-, and d-symmetric bound states. The pairing conditions are strong functions of the total pair momentum K. It is found that the stability of pairs increases with K. At weak attraction, the pairs do not form at the Γ point but stabilize at lattice momenta close to the Brillouin zone boundary. The phase boundaries in the momentum space, which separate stable and unstable pairs, are calculated. It is found that the pairs are formed easier along the (π,0) direction than along the (π,π) direction. This might lead to the appearance of 'hot pairing spots' on the K x and K y axes
Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canfield, Donald Eugene
2014-01-01
This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....
Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.
2016-09-06
An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.
Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.
Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A
2012-01-13
The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11) GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.
Abdel Kafi, S
2010-09-01
In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.
2012-02-01
An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen
Ob the Froissart-Martin bound in spaces with compact dimensions
Petrov, V A
2002-01-01
It is shown by the example of the 5-dimensional space-time, that by availability of the additional compact (space-time-like) measurements to the general Minkowski space all the conditions for proving the Froissart-Martin bound retain their force. Thus, by the circumference R -> 0 the theory smoothly transfers to the theory of the neutral scalar field in the 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time. It was assumed in this work, that the masses are bound from below by the non-zero value. The bounds for elastic scattering by absence of the mass gap are trivial, however in this case it is obviously possible to obtain also nontrivial bounds for complete inelastic cross sections. It takes place in the Regge-eikonal approach though there exist no strong proof for it
Tunable hybridization of Majorana bound states at the quantum spin Hall edge
Keidel, Felix; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Björn
2018-02-01
Confinement at the helical edge of a topological insulator is possible in the presence of proximity-induced magnetic (F) or superconducting (S) order. The interplay of both phenomena leads to the formation of localized Majorana bound states (MBS) or likewise (under certain resonance conditions) the formation of ordinary Andreev bound states (ABS). We investigate the properties of bound states in junctions composed of alternating regions of F or S barriers. Interestingly, the direction of magnetization in F regions and the relative superconducting phase between S regions can be exploited to hybridize MBS or ABS at will. We show that the local properties of MBS translate into a particular nonlocal superconducting pairing amplitude. Remarkably, the symmetry of the pairing amplitude contains information about the nature of the bound state that it stems from. Hence this symmetry can in principle be used to distinguish MBS from ABS, owing to the strong connection between local density of states and nonlocal pairing in our setup.
Bounds on poloidal kinetic energy in plane layer convection
Tilgner, A.
2017-12-01
A numerical method is presented that conveniently computes upper bounds on heat transport and poloidal energy in plane layer convection for infinite and finite Prandtl numbers. The bounds obtained for the heat transport coincide with earlier results. These bounds imply upper bounds for the poloidal energy, which follow directly from the definitions of dissipation and energy. The same constraints used for computing upper bounds on the heat transport lead to improved bounds for the poloidal energy.
Bounds for nonlinear composites via iterated homogenization
Ponte Castañeda, P.
2012-09-01
Improved estimates of the Hashin-Shtrikman-Willis type are generated for the class of nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases distributed randomly with prescribed two-point correlations, as determined by the H-measure of the microstructure. For this purpose, a novel strategy for generating bounds has been developed utilizing iterated homogenization. The general idea is to make use of bounds that may be available for composite materials in the limit when the concentration of one of the phases (say phase 1) is small. It then follows from the theory of iterated homogenization that it is possible, under certain conditions, to obtain bounds for more general values of the concentration, by gradually adding small amounts of phase 1 in incremental fashion, and sequentially using the available dilute-concentration estimate, up to the final (finite) value of the concentration (of phase 1). Such an approach can also be useful when available bounds are expected to be tighter for certain ranges of the phase volume fractions. This is the case, for example, for the "linear comparison" bounds for porous viscoplastic materials, which are known to be comparatively tighter for large values of the porosity. In this case, the new bounds obtained by the above-mentioned "iterated" procedure can be shown to be much improved relative to the earlier "linear comparison" bounds, especially at low values of the porosity and high triaxialities. Consistent with the way in which they have been derived, the new estimates are, strictly, bounds only for the class of multi-scale, nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases that are distributed with prescribed H-measure at each stage in the incremental process. However, given the facts that the H-measure of the sequential microstructures is conserved (so that the final microstructures can be shown to have the same H-measure), and that H-measures are insensitive to length scales, it is conjectured
Induced photoassociation in the field of a strong electomagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaretskij, D.F.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Lyul'ka, V.A.
1979-01-01
The quantum-mechanical problem of the stimulated transition of a system in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave from the continuous spectrum to a bound state possessing a finite lifetime is considered. The expressions obtained are employed to calculate stimulated production of mesic atoms and mesic molecules (ddμ). It is demonstrated that in an external electromagnetic field the probability for production of this type may considerably increase
Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians
Temme, Kristan
2017-03-01
We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))}, where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.
Universal bounds in even-spin CFTs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qualls, Joshua D. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University,Taipei, Taiwan (China)
2015-12-01
We prove using invariance under the modular S− and ST−transformations that every unitary two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) having only even-spin primary operators (with no extended chiral algebra and with right- and left-central charges c,c̃>1) contains a primary operator with dimension Δ{sub 1} satisfying 0<Δ{sub 1}<((c+c̃)/24)+0.09280…. After deriving both analytical and numerical bounds, we discuss how to extend our methods to bound higher conformal dimensions before deriving lower and upper bounds on the number of primary operators in a given energy range. Using the AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} dictionary, the bound on Δ{sub 1} proves the lightest massive excitation in appropriate theories of 3D matter and gravity with cosmological constant Λ<0 can be no heavier than 1/8G{sub N}+O(√(−Λ)); the bounds on the number of operators are related via AdS/CFT to the entropy of states in the dual gravitational theory. In the flat-space approximation, the limiting mass is exactly that of the lightest BTZ black hole.
NOx emissions from high swirl turbulent spray flames with highly oxygenated fuels
Bohon, Myles; Roberts, William L.
2013-01-01
Combustion of fuels with fuel bound oxygen is of interest from both a practical and a fundamental viewpoint. While a great deal of work has been done studying the effect of oxygenated additives in diesel and gasoline engines, much less has been done
A theoretical model for oxygen transport in skeletal muscle under conditions of high oxygen demand.
McGuire, B J; Secomb, T W
2001-11-01
Oxygen transport from capillaries to exercising skeletal muscle is studied by use of a Krogh-type cylinder model. The goal is to predict oxygen consumption under conditions of high demand, on the basis of a consideration of transport processes occurring at the microvascular level. Effects of the decline in oxygen content of blood flowing along capillaries, intravascular resistance to oxygen diffusion, and myoglobin-facilitated diffusion are included. Parameter values are based on human skeletal muscle. The dependence of oxygen consumption on oxygen demand, perfusion, and capillary density are examined. When demand is moderate, the tissue is well oxygenated and consumption is slightly less than demand. When demand is high, capillary oxygen content declines rapidly with axial distance and radial oxygen transport is limited by diffusion resistance within the capillary and the tissue. Under these conditions, much of the tissue is hypoxic, consumption is substantially less than demand, and consumption is strongly dependent on capillary density. Predicted consumption rates are comparable with experimentally observed maximal rates of oxygen consumption.
Griesbeck, Axel G; Bartoschek, Anna; Neudörfl, Jörg; Miara, Claus
2006-01-01
The ene reaction of chiral allylic alcohols is applied as a tool for the investigation of intrapolymer effects by means of the stereoselectivity of the singlet-oxygen addition. The diastereo selectivity strongly depends on the structure of the polymer, the substrate loading degree and also on the degree of conversion demonstrating additional supramolecular effects evolving during the reaction. The efficiency and the stability of polymer-bound sensitizers were evaluated by the ene reaction of singlet oxygen with citronellol. The ene reaction with chiral ammonium salts of tiglic acid was conducted under solution phase conditions or in polystyrene beads under chiral contact ion-pair conditions. The products thus obtained precipitate during the photoreaction as ammonium salts. Moderate asymmetric induction was observed for this procedure for the first time.
Electron transfer pathways in microbial oxygen biocathodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freguia, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Tsujimura, Seiya, E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan); Kano, Kenji, E-mail: kkano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.j [Bio-analytical and Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8205 (Japan)
2010-01-01
The ability of some bacteria to enhance the rate of cathodic oxygen reduction to water has been recently discovered, opening the way to an entirely renewable and environmentally friendly concept of biocathode. In this study we reveal that several mechanisms may induce catalytic effects by bacteria. These comprise mechanisms that are putatively beneficial to the bacteria as well as mechanisms which are merely side effects, including quinone autoxidation and direct O{sub 2} reduction by heme compounds. Here we showed that 1 muM of ACNQ is able to generate a significant catalytic wave for oxygen reduction, with onset at approximately 0 V vs. SHE. Similarly, adsorption of hemin on a carbon surface catalyses O{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with an onset of +0.2 V vs. SHE. To evaluate the catalytic pathways of live cells on cathodic oxygen reduction, two species of electrochemically active bacteria were selected as pure cultures, namely Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The former appears to exploit a self-excreted redox compound with redox characteristics matching those of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) for extracellular electron transfer. The latter appears to utilise outer membrane-bound redox compounds. Interaction of quinones and cytochromes with the membrane-bound electron transfer chain is yet to be proven.
Oxygen configurations in silica
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.
2000-01-01
We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling
Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira
2017-12-01
We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.
Bounded Gaps between Products of Special Primes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ping Ngai Chung
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In their breakthrough paper in 2006, Goldston, Graham, Pintz and Yıldırım proved several results about bounded gaps between products of two distinct primes. Frank Thorne expanded on this result, proving bounded gaps in the set of square-free numbers with r prime factors for any r ≥ 2, all of which are in a given set of primes. His results yield applications to the divisibility of class numbers and the triviality of ranks of elliptic curves. In this paper, we relax the condition on the number of prime factors and prove an analogous result using a modified approach. We then revisit Thorne’s applications and give a better bound in each case.
Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Heydarzade
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.
Energy conditions bounds and supernovae data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, M.P.; Vitenti, S.D.P.; Reboucas, M.J.
2008-01-01
The energy conditions play an important role in the description of some important properties of the Universe, including the current accelerating expansion phase and the possible recent phase of super-acceleration. In a recent work we have provided a detailed study of the energy conditions for the recent past by deriving bounds from energy conditions and by making the confrontation of the bounds with supernovae data. Here, we extend and update these results in two different ways. First, by carrying out a new statistical analysis for q(z) estimates needed for the confrontation between the bounds and supernovae data. Second, by providing a new picture of the energy conditions fulfillment and violation in the light of the recently compiled Union set of 307 type Ia supernovae and by using two different statistical approaches
Bound water in Kevlar 49 fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garza, R.G.; Pruneda, C.O.; Morgan, R.J.
1981-01-01
From elemental analyses, thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy studies and re-evaluation of previous water diffusion studies in Kevlar 49 fibers it is concluded that these fibers can contain two types of sorbed moisture. The fibers can absorb up to approx. 6 wt % loosely bound water with an activation energy for outgassing by desorption of 6 kcal/mole. This loosely bound water is a direct result of the presence of Na 2 SO 4 impurities and the perturbations they induce on the packing of the rod-like poly (p-phenylene terephthalamide) macromolecules. Kevlar 49 fibers also inherently contain up to 30 wt % additional water which is tightly bound within the crystal lattice. This water exhibits an activation energy for outgassing by diffusion of approx. 40 kcal/mole and is only evolved from the fiber in significant quantities at t > 350 0 C over a period of hours
Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)
2017-05-01
We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-01
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-14
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Cooperation between bound waters and hydroxyls in controlling isotope-exchange rates
Panasci, Adele F.; McAlpin, J. Gregory; Ohlin, C. André; Christensen, Shauna; Fettinger, James C.; Britt, R. David; Rustad, James R.; Casey, William H.
2012-02-01
upon deprotonation of one of the bound waters in complex [ 1] because of the close proximity of a transferable proton that can convert the bound hydroxyl to a bound water. This interconversion allows the oxygen to exchange as a bound water, rather than as a bound hydroxyl, which is slow at near-neutral pH conditions.
de Klerk, Etienne; Laurent, Monique
We consider the problem of minimizing a continuous function f over a compact set K. We compare the hierarchy of upper bounds proposed by Lasserre in [SIAM J. Optim. 21(3) (2011), pp. 864-885] to bounds that may be obtained from simulated annealing. We show that, when f is a polynomial and K a convex
Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Hood, Michelle
2010-01-01
We surveyed 506 Australian high school students on career development (exploration, planning, job-knowledge, decision-making, indecision), personal functioning (well-being, self-esteem, life satisfaction, school satisfaction) and control variables (parent education, school achievement), and tested differences among work-bound, college-bound and…
Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods
Bresten, Christopher; Gottlieb, Sigal; Grant, Zachary; Higgs, Daniel; Ketcheson, David I.; Né meth, Adrian
2015-01-01
High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.
Explicit strong stability preserving multistep Runge–Kutta methods
Bresten, Christopher
2015-10-15
High-order spatial discretizations of hyperbolic PDEs are often designed to have strong stability properties, such as monotonicity. We study explicit multistep Runge-Kutta strong stability preserving (SSP) time integration methods for use with such discretizations. We prove an upper bound on the SSP coefficient of explicit multistep Runge-Kutta methods of order two and above. Numerical optimization is used to find optimized explicit methods of up to five steps, eight stages, and tenth order. These methods are tested on the linear advection and nonlinear Buckley-Leverett equations, and the results for the observed total variation diminishing and/or positivity preserving time-step are presented.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Alonso-Izquierdo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
A note on BPS vortex bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)
2016-02-10
In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.
[Membrane-bound cytokine and feedforward regulation].
Wu, Ke-Fu; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Song, Yu-Hua
2013-10-01
Feedback and feedforward widely exist in life system, both of them are the basic processes of control system. While the concept of feedback has been widely used in life science, feedforward regulation was systematically studied in neurophysiology, awaiting further evidence and mechanism in molecular biology and cell biology. The authors put forward a hypothesis about the feedforward regulation of membrane bound macrophage colony stimulation factor (mM-CSF) on the basis of their previous work. This hypothesis might provide a new direction for the study on the biological effects of mM-CSF on leukemia and solid tumors, and contribute to the study on other membrane bound cytokines.
The covariant entropy bound in gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Sijie; Lemos, Jose P. S.
2004-01-01
We study the covariant entropy bound in the context of gravitational collapse. First, we discuss critically the heuristic arguments advanced by Bousso. Then we solve the problem through an exact model: a Tolman-Bondi dust shell collapsing into a Schwarzschild black hole. After the collapse, a new black hole with a larger mass is formed. The horizon, L, of the old black hole then terminates at the singularity. We show that the entropy crossing L does not exceed a quarter of the area of the old horizon. Therefore, the covariant entropy bound is satisfied in this process. (author)
Bound states in curved quantum waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Exner, P.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
We study free quantum particle living on a curved planar strip Ω of a fixed width d with Dirichlet boundary conditions. It can serve as a model for electrons in thin films on a cylindrical-type substrate, or in a curved quantum wire. Assuming that the boundary of Ω is infinitely smooth and its curvature decays fast enough at infinity, we prove that a bound state with energy below the first transversal mode exists for all sufficiently small d. A lower bound on the critical width is obtained using the Birman-Schwinger technique. (orig.)
Lower Bounds for External Memory Dictionaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf
2003-01-01
We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N < M insertions perform at most δ · N/B I/Os, then......We study trade-offs between the update time and the query time for comparison based external memory dictionaries. The main contributions of this paper are two lower bound trade offs between the I/O complexity of member queries and insertions: If N
Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
1999-01-01
. In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....
Bound constrained quadratic programming via piecewise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Pinar, M. C.
1999-01-01
of a symmetric, positive definite matrix, and is solved by Newton iteration with line search. The paper describes the algorithm and its implementation including estimation of lambda/sub 1/ , how to get a good starting point for the iteration, and up- and downdating of Cholesky factorization. Results of extensive......We consider the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bounded variables. A dual problem is derived using Lagrange duality. The dual problem is the minimization of an unconstrained, piecewise quadratic function. It involves a lower bound of lambda/sub 1/ , the smallest eigenvalue...
Quantum Kolmogorov complexity and bounded quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyadera, Takayuki
2011-01-01
The effect of bounded quantum memory in a primitive information protocol has been examined using the quantum Kolmogorov complexity as a measure of information. We employed a toy two-party protocol in which Bob, by using a bounded quantum memory and an unbounded classical memory, estimates a message that was encoded in qubits by Alice in one of the bases X or Z. Our theorem gave a nontrivial effect of the memory boundedness. In addition, a generalization of the uncertainty principle in the presence of quantum memory has been obtained.
A role for haemolymph oxygen capacity in heat tolerance of eurythermal crabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Folco eGiomi
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Heat tolerance in aquatic ectotherms is constrained by a mismatch, occurring at high temperatures, between oxygen delivery and demand which compromises the maintenance of aerobic scope. The present study analyses how the wide thermal tolerance range of an eurythermal model species, the green crab Carcinus maenas is supported and limited by its ability to sustain efficient oxygen transport to tissues. Similar to other eurytherms, C. maenas sustains naturally occurring acute warming events through the integrated response of circulatory and respiratory systems. The response of C. maenas to warming is characterized by two phases. During initial warming, oxygen consumption and heart rate increase while stroke volume and haemolymph oxygen partial pressures decrease. During further warming, dissolved oxygen levels in the venous compartment decrease below the threshold of full haemocyanin oxygen saturation. The progressive release of haemocyanin bound oxygen with further warming follows an exponential pattern, thereby saving energy in oxygen transport and causing an associated leveling off of metabolic rate. According to the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance, this indicates that the thermal tolerance window is widened by the increasing contribution of haemocyanin oxygen transport and associated energy savings in cardiocirculation. Haemocyanin bound oxygen sustains cardiac performance to cover the temperature range experienced by C. maenas in the field. To our knowledge this is the first study providing evidence of a relationship between thermal tolerance and blood (haemolymph oxygen transport in eurythermal invertebrates.
A role for haemolymph oxygen capacity in heat tolerance of eurythermal crabs.
Giomi, Folco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto
2013-01-01
Heat tolerance in aquatic ectotherms is constrained by a mismatch, occurring at high temperatures, between oxygen delivery and demand which compromises the maintenance of aerobic scope. The present study analyses how the wide thermal tolerance range of an eurythermal model species, the green crab Carcinus maenas is supported and limited by its ability to sustain efficient oxygen transport to tissues. Similar to other eurytherms, C. maenas sustains naturally occurring acute warming events through the integrated response of circulatory and respiratory systems. The response of C. maenas to warming can be characterized by two phases. During initial warming, oxygen consumption and heart rate increase, while stroke volume and haemolymph oxygen partial pressure decrease. During further warming, dissolved oxygen levels in the venous compartment decrease below the threshold of full haemocyanin oxygen saturation. The progressive release of haemocyanin bound oxygen with further warming follows an exponential pattern, thereby saving energy in oxygen transport and causing an associated leveling off of metabolic rate. According to the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT), this indicates that the thermal tolerance window is widened by the increasing contribution of haemocyanin oxygen transport and associated energy savings in cardiocirculation. Haemocyanin bound oxygen sustains cardiac performance to cover the temperature range experienced by C. maenas in the field. To our knowledge this is the first study providing evidence of a relationship between thermal tolerance and blood (haemolymph) oxygen transport in a eurythermal invertebrate.
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas
Kalman, G J
2003-01-01
The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.
Robustness of Majorana bound states in the short-junction limit
Sticlet, D.C.; Nijholt, B.; Akhmerov, A.R.
2017-01-01
We study the effects of strong coupling between a superconductor and a semiconductor nanowire on the creation of the Majorana bound states, when the quasiparticle dwell time in the normal part of the nanowire is much shorter than the inverse superconducting gap. This "short-junction" limit is
Models of bounded rationality under certainty
Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.
2015-01-01
Purpose This chapter reviews models of decision-making and choice under conditions of certainty. It allows readers to position the contribution of the other chapters in this book in the historical development of the topic area. Theory Bounded rationality is defined in terms of a strategy to simplify
Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910
Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.
1971-01-01
Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is o...
Bogomol'nyi bounds for cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comtet, A.; Gibbons, G.W.; Cambridge Univ.
1987-09-01
We establish Bogomol'nyi inequalities for the deficit angle of some cylindrically symmetric asymptotically local flat (CALF) spacetimes containing cosmic strings. These results prove the stability against arbitrary cylindrical deformations of those configurations which saturate the bound. Such configurations satisfy first order equations which can, in some cases, be solved exactly
Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian
2011-01-01
Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...
Bound States in the Mirror TBA
Arutyunov, G.E.; Frolov, S.; van Tongeren, S.J.
2012-01-01
The spectrum of the light-cone AdS_5 \\times S^5 superstring contains states composed of particles with complex momenta including in particular those which turn into bound states in the decompactification limit. We propose the mirror TBA description for these states. We focus on a three-particle
Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xin, Y.L.
1994-06-01
A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs
Scattering theory methods for bound state problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raphael, R.B.; Tobocman, W.
1978-01-01
For the analysis of the properties of a bound state system one may use in place of the Schroedinger equation the Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation for the wave function or the LS equation for the reactance operator. Use of the LS equation for the reactance operator constrains the solution to have correct asymptotic behaviour, so this approach would appear to be desirable when the bound state wave function is to be used to calculate particle transfer form factors. The Schroedinger equation based N-level analysis of the s-wave bound states of a square well is compared to the ones based on the LS equation. It is found that the LS equation methods work better than the Schroedinger equation method. The method that uses the LS equation for the wave function gives the best results for the wave functions while the method that uses the LS equation for the reactance operator gives the best results for the binding energies. The accuracy of the reactance operator based method is remarkably insensitive to changes in the oscillator constant used for the harmonic oscillator function basis set. It is also remarkably insensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state wave function. (Auth.)
Lower bounds on scintillation detector timing performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Hero, A.O. III.; Petrick, N.A.
1990-01-01
Fundamental method-independent limits on the timing performance of scintillation detectors are useful for identifying regimes in which either present timing methods are nearly optimal or where a considerable performance gain might be realized using better pulse processing techniques. Several types of lower bounds on mean-squared timing error (MSE) performance have been developed and applied to scintillation detectors. The simple Cramer-Rao (CR) bound can be useful in determining the limiting MSE for scintillators having a relatively high rate of photon problction such as BaF 2 and NaI(Tl); however, it tends to overestimate the achievalbe performance for scintillators with lower rates such as BGO. For this reason, alternative bounds have been developed using rate-distortion theory or by assuming that the conversion of energy to scintillation light must pass through excited states which have exponential lifetime densities. The bounds are functions of the mean scintillation pulse shape, the scintillation intensity, and photodetector characteristics; they are simple to evaluate and can be used to conveniently assess the limiting timing performance of scintillation detectors. (orig.)
Efficiency gains, bounds, and risk in finance
Sarisoy, Cisil
2015-01-01
This thesis consists of three chapters. The first chapter analyzes efficiency gains in the estimation of expected returns based on asset pricing models and examines the economic implications of such gains in portfolio allocation exercises. The second chapter provides nonparametric efficiency bounds
Book Selection, Collection Development, and Bounded Rationality.
Schwartz, Charles A.
1989-01-01
Reviews previously proposed schemes of classical rationality in book selection, describes new approaches to rational choice behavior, and presents a model of book selection based on bounded rationality in a garbage can decision process. The role of tacit knowledge and symbolic content in the selection process are also discussed. (102 references)…
Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larry Landau
2000-07-01
Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.
Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers
Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.
2008-01-01
We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating
Bounded Rationality of Generalized Abstract Fuzzy Economies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using a nonlinear scalarization technique, the bounded rationality model M for generalized abstract fuzzy economies in finite continuous spaces is established. Furthermore, by using the model M, some new theorems for structural stability and robustness to (λ,ϵ-equilibria of generalized abstract fuzzy economies are proved.
Bounded Rationality in Individual Decision Making
Camerer, Colin F.
1998-01-01
The main objectives of this paper are: (i) To give a pithy, opinionated summary of what has been learned about bounded rationality in individual decision making from experiments in economics and psychology (drawing on my 1995 Handbook of Experimental Economics chapter); and (ii) mention some promising new directions for research which would be included if that chapter were written today.
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars
Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.
2018-05-01
Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.
Sharp Bounds for Symmetric and Asymmetric Diophantine Approximation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cornelis KRAAIKAMP; Ionica SMEETS
2011-01-01
In 2004,Tong found bounds for the approximation quality of a regular continued fraction convergent to a rational number,expressed in bounds for both the previous and next approximation.The authors sharpen his results with a geometric method and give both sharp upper and lower bounds.The asymptotic frequencies that these bounds occur are also calculated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeSantis, G.N.
1995-01-01
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch
Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant
Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan
2014-06-17
An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.
Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ho Joong Sung
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.
NOx emissions from high swirl turbulent spray flames with highly oxygenated fuels
Bohon, Myles
2013-01-01
Combustion of fuels with fuel bound oxygen is of interest from both a practical and a fundamental viewpoint. While a great deal of work has been done studying the effect of oxygenated additives in diesel and gasoline engines, much less has been done examining combustion characteristics of fuels with extremely high mass fractions of fuel bound oxygen. This work presents an initial investigation into the very low NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of a model, high oxygen mass fraction fuel. Glycerol was chosen as a model fuel with a fuel bound oxygen mass fraction of 52%, and was compared with emissions measured from diesel combustion at similar conditions in a high swirl turbulent spray flame. This work has shown that high fuel bound oxygen mass fractions allow for combustion at low global equivalence ratios with comparable exhaust gas temperatures due to the significantly lower concentrations of diluting nitrogen. Despite similar exhaust gas temperatures, NOx emissions from glycerol combustion were up to an order of magnitude lower than those measured using diesel fuel. This is shown to be a result not of specific burner geometry, but rather is influenced by the presence of higher oxygen and lower nitrogen concentrations at the flame front inhibiting NOx production. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.
Bounds on fluid permeability for viscous flow through porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1985-01-01
General properties of variational bounds on Darcy's constant for slow viscous flow through porous media are studied. The bounds are also evaluated numerically for the penetrable sphere model. The bound of Doi depending on two-point correlations and the analytical bound of Weissberg and Prager give comparable results in the low density limit but the analytical bound is superior for higher densities. Prager's bound depending on three-point correlation functions is worse than the analytical bound at low densities but better (although comparable to it) at high densities. A procedure for methodically improving Prager's three point bound is presented. By introducing a Gaussian trial function, the three-point bound is improved by an order of magnitude for moderate values of porosity. The new bounds are comparable in magnitude to the Kozeny--Carman empirical relation for porous materials
Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans
2003-01-01
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...
Wave Tank Studies of Strong Modulation of Wind Ripples Due To Long Waves
Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.
Modulation of wind capillary-gravity ripples due to long waves has been studied in wave tank experiment at low wind speeds using Ka-band radar. The experiments were carried out both for clean water and the water surface covered with surfactant films. It is obtained that the modulation of radar signals is quite strong and can increase with surfactant concentration and fetch. It is shown that the hydrodynamic Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) calculated for free wind ripples and taking into account the kinematic (straining) effect, variations of the wind stress and variations of surfactant concentration strongly underestimates experimental MTF-values. The effect of strong modulation is assumed to be connected with nonlinear harmonics of longer dm-cm- scale waves - bound waves ("parasitic ripples"). The intensity of bound waves depends strongly on the amplitude of decimetre-scale waves, therefore even weak modulation of the dm-scale waves due to long waves results to strong ("cascade") modulation of bound waves. Modulation of the system of "free/bound waves" is estimated using results of wave tank studies of bound waves generation and is shown to be in quali- tative agreement with experiment. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).
Fano effect and Andreev bound states in T-shape double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calle, A.M.; Pacheco, M.; Orellana, P.A.
2013-01-01
In this Letter, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot coupled to two normal metal leads left and right and a superconducting lead. Analytical expressions of Andreev transmission and local density of states of the system at zero temperature have been obtained. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot. We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. Our results show that as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect, the transmission from normal to normal lead exhibits Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states. We find that this interference effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. - Highlights: • Transport properties of a double quantum dot coupled in T-shape configuration to conducting and superconducting leads are studied. • We report Fano antiresonances in the normal transmission due to the Andreev reflections in the superconducting lead. • We report for first time the Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot. • Fano effect allows us to study the Andreev bound states in the changes in the conductance between two normal leads. • Andreev bound states survives even for strong dot-superconductor coupling
Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis
P. Biemond (Pieter)
1986-01-01
textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment
Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal
2014-01-01
We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups...... that results in circuits using a more generalized gate library. Starting from an upper bound for this library we derive new bounds which improve the existing bound by around 77%....
Strong solutions for an incompressible Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system with different densities
Li, Yinghua; Huang, Mingxia
2018-06-01
In this paper, we investigate a coupled Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system describing a diffuse interface model for two-phase flow of viscous incompressible fluids with different densities in a bounded domain Ω \\subset R^N(N=2,3). We prove the existence and uniqueness of local strong solutions to the initial boundary value problem when the initial density function ρ _0 has a positive lower bound.
Electron transfer. 88. Cobalt(III)-bound phosphite and hypophosphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linn, D.E. Jr.; Gould, E.S.
1987-01-01
Phosphite and hypophosphite coordinate to cobalt(III) in (NH 3 ) 5 Co/sup III/ through oxygen, rather than through phosphorus. The resulting complexes undergo electron-transfer reactions with Ru(NH 3 ) 6 2+ much more slowly than with Eu 2+ or V 2+ , indicating that the latter two reactants preferentially utilize ligand bridging. Reductions with Cr 2+ are shown to accompanied by transfer of the phosphorus-containing ligands, and reaction of the protonated phosphito (biphosphito) derivative (pK/sub A/ = 3.06 at 23 0 C) proceeds through a combination of acid-independent and inverse-acid paths, both routes yielding the same phosphito-bound Cr(III) product. The hypophosphito, but not the biphosphito, complex reacts with Ce(IV), producing Co 2+ in an induced electron-transfer process. The yield of Co 2+ falls off progressively as [Ce/sup IV/] is increased, pointing to a sequence in which a Co(III)-bound P(II) radical is formed in initial attack by Ce(IV) but subsequently undergoes partition between competing reaction paths, i.e. internal electron transfer to Co(III) vs external oxidation by a second Ce(IV) center. The hypophosphito complex, but not the biphosphito complex, smoothly decomposes in basic media via an internal redox reaction, yielding Co(II) quantitatively, along with a 1:1 mixture of phosphite, and hypophosphite. This transformation, which fails with mixtures of (NH 3 ) 5 Co(H 2 O) 3+ and H 2 PO 2 - appears to be catalyzed specifically by OH - . Deuterium-labeling experiments disclose a solvent isotope effect. Reaction mechanisms are suggested for all the observed results. 54 references, 5 tables
Crossover from bound to free states in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lankin, Alexander V; Norman, Genri E
2009-01-01
A self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states in strongly coupled plasmas is presented. The existence of two problems is emphasized. The first one is a well-known restriction of the number of atomic excited states. Another one is a description of the smooth crossover from bound pair electron-ion excited states to collective excitations of free electrons. The fluctuation approach is developed to study the spectrum domain intermediate between low-lying excited atoms and free electron continuous energy levels. The molecular dynamics method is applied to study the plasma model since the method is able to distinguish all kinds of fluctuations. The electron-ion interaction is described by the temperature-independent cut-off Coulomb potential. The diagnostics of pair electron-ion fluctuations is developed. The concept of pair fluctuations elucidates the smooth vanishing of atomic states near the ionization limit. The approach suggested removes the artificial break of the electron state density at the ionization limit: atomic state density divergent at the negative energy side and free electron state density starting from zero density at the positive energy side
Bounded authority: Expanding "appropriate" police behavior beyond procedural justice.
Trinkner, Rick; Jackson, Jonathan; Tyler, Tom R
2018-06-01
This paper expands previous conceptualizations of appropriate police behavior beyond procedural justice. The focus of the current study is on the notion of bounded authority-that is, acting within the limits of one's rightful authority. According to work on legal socialization, U.S. citizens come to acquire three dimensions of values that determine how authorities ought to behave: (a) neutral, consistent, and transparent decision-making; (b) interpersonal treatment that conveys respect, dignity, and concern; and (c) respecting the limits of one's rightful power. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults, we show that concerns over bounded authority, respectful treatment, and neutral decision-making combine to form a strong predictor of police and legal legitimacy. We also find that legal legitimacy is associated with greater compliance behavior, controlling for personal morality and perceived likelihood of sanctions. We discuss the implications of a boundary perspective with respect to ongoing debates over the appropriate scope of police power and the utility of concentrated police activities. We also highlight the need for further research specifically focused on the psychological mechanisms underlying the formation of boundaries and why they shape the legitimacy of the police and law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Bounds for percolation thresholds on directed and undirected graphs
Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid
2015-03-01
Percolation theory is an efficient approach to problems with strong disorder, e.g., in quantum or classical transport, composite materials, and diluted magnets. Recently, the growing role of big data in scientific and industrial applications has led to a renewed interest in graph theory as a tool for describing complex connections in various kinds of networks: social, biological, technological, etc. In particular, percolation on graphs has been used to describe internet stability, spread of contagious diseases and computer viruses; related models describe market crashes and viral spread in social networks. We consider site-dependent percolation on directed and undirected graphs, and present several exact bounds for location of the percolation transition in terms of the eigenvalues of matrices associated with graphs, including the adjacency matrix and the Hashimoto matrix used to enumerate non-backtracking walks. These bounds correspond t0 a mean field approximation and become asymptotically exact for graphs with no short cycles. We illustrate this convergence numerically by simulating percolation on several families of graphs with different cycle lengths. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.
Accurate calculations of bound rovibrational states for argon trimer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandon, Drew; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)
2014-07-21
This work presents a comprehensive quantum dynamics calculation of the bound rovibrational eigenstates of argon trimer (Ar{sub 3}), using the ScalIT suite of parallel codes. The Ar{sub 3} rovibrational energy levels are computed to a very high level of accuracy (10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} or better), and up to the highest rotational and vibrational excitations for which bound states exist. For many of these rovibrational states, wavefunctions are also computed. Rare gas clusters such as Ar{sub 3} are interesting because the interatomic interactions manifest through long-range van der Waals forces, rather than through covalent chemical bonding. As a consequence, they exhibit strong Coriolis coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom, as well as highly delocalized states, all of which renders accurate quantum dynamical calculation difficult. Moreover, with its (comparatively) deep potential well and heavy masses, Ar{sub 3} is an especially challenging rare gas trimer case. There are a great many rovibrational eigenstates to compute, and a very high density of states. Consequently, very few previous rovibrational state calculations for Ar{sub 3} may be found in the current literature—and only for the lowest-lying rotational excitations.
Rigorous upper bounds for transport due to passive advection by inhomogeneous turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.
1987-05-01
A variational procedure, due originally to Howard and explored by Busse and others for self-consistent turbulence problems, is employed to determine rigorous upper bounds for the advection of a passive scalar through an inhomogeneous turbulent slab with arbitrary generalized Reynolds number R and Kubo number K. In the basic version of the method, the steady-state energy balance is used as a constraint; the resulting bound, though rigorous, is independent of K. A pedagogical reference model (one dimension, K = ∞) is described in detail; the bound compares favorably with the exact solution. The direct-interaction approximation is also worked out for this model; it is somewhat more accurate than the bound, but requires considerably more labor to solve. For the basic bound, a general formalism is presented for several dimensions, finite correlation length, and reasonably general boundary conditions. Part of the general method, in which a Green's function technique is employed, applies to self-consistent as well as to passive problems, and thereby generalizes previous results in the fluid literature. The formalism is extended for the first time to include time-dependent constraints, and a bound is deduced which explicitly depends on K and has the correct physical scalings in all regimes of R and K. Two applications from the theory of turbulent plasmas ae described: flux in velocity space, and test particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields. For the velocity space problem the simplest bound reproduces Dupree's original scaling for the strong turbulence diffusion coefficient. For the case of stochastic magnetic fields, the scaling of the bounds is described for the magnetic diffusion coefficient as well as for the particle diffusion coefficient in the so-called collisionless, fluid, and double-streaming regimes
Strong converse theorems using Rényi entropies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leditzky, Felix; Datta, Nilanjana [Statistical Laboratory, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Computation and Technology, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)
2016-08-15
We use a Rényi entropy method to prove strong converse theorems for certain information-theoretic tasks which involve local operations and quantum (or classical) communication between two parties. These include state redistribution, coherent state merging, quantum state splitting, measurement compression with quantum side information, randomness extraction against quantum side information, and data compression with quantum side information. The method we employ in proving these results extends ideas developed by Sharma [preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.5940 [quant-ph] (2014)], which he used to give a new proof of the strong converse theorem for state merging. For state redistribution, we prove the strong converse property for the boundary of the entire achievable rate region in the (e, q)-plane, where e and q denote the entanglement cost and quantum communication cost, respectively. In the case of measurement compression with quantum side information, we prove a strong converse theorem for the classical communication cost, which is a new result extending the previously known weak converse. For the remaining tasks, we provide new proofs for strong converse theorems previously established using smooth entropies. For each task, we obtain the strong converse theorem from explicit bounds on the figure of merit of the task in terms of a Rényi generalization of the optimal rate. Hence, we identify candidates for the strong converse exponents for each task discussed in this paper. To prove our results, we establish various new entropic inequalities, which might be of independent interest. These involve conditional entropies and mutual information derived from the sandwiched Rényi divergence. In particular, we obtain novel bounds relating these quantities, as well as the Rényi conditional mutual information, to the fidelity of two quantum states.
Refractive effects in the scattering of loosely bound nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carstoiu, F.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Carstoiu, F.
2004-07-01
A study of the interaction of the loosely bound nuclei 6,7 Li at 9 and 19 MeV/nucleon with light targets has been undertaken. With the determination of unambiguous optical potentials in mind, elastic data for four projectile-target combinations and one neutron transfer reaction 13 C( 7 Li, 8 Li) 12 C have been measured over a large angular range. The kinematical regime encompasses a region where the mean field (optical potential) has a marked variation with mass and energy, but turns out to be sufficiently surface transparent to allow strong refractive effects to be manifested in elastic scattering data at intermediate angles. The identified exotic feature, a 'plateau' in the angular distributions at intermediate angles, is fully confirmed in four reaction channels and is interpreted as a pre-rainbow oscillation resulting from the interference of the barrier and internal barrier far-side scattering sub-amplitudes. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lukkassen, D.
1996-12-31
When partial differential equations are set up to model physical processes in strongly heterogeneous materials, effective parameters for heat transfer, electric conductivity etc. are usually required. Averaging methods often lead to convergence problems and in homogenization theory one is therefore led to study how certain integral functionals behave asymptotically. This mathematical doctoral thesis discusses (1) means and bounds connected to homogenization of integral functionals, (2) reiterated homogenization of integral functionals, (3) bounds and homogenization of some particular partial differential operators, (4) applications and further results. 154 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.
Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-04-05
We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.
The asymptotic behavior of Frobenius-Perron operator with local lower-bound function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ding Yiming
2003-01-01
Let (X,Σ,μ) be a σ-finite measure space, S:X→X be a nonsingular transformation and P S :L 1 →L 1 be the Frobenius-Perron operator associated with S. It is proved that if P S satisfies the local lower-bound function condition then for every f is a subset of D the sequence {P S n f} converges strongly to a stationary density of P S as n→∞. The statistical stability of S is also concerned via the local lower-bound function method
Optima and bounds for irreversible thermodynamic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffmann, K.H.
1990-01-01
In this paper bounds and optima for irreversible thermodynamic processes and their application in different fields are discussed. The tools of finite time thermodynamics are presented and especially optimal control theory is introduced. These methods are applied to heat engines, including models of the Diesel engine and a light-driven engine. Further bounds for irreversible processes are introduced, discussing work deficiency and its relation to thermodynamic length. Moreover the problem of dissipation in systems composed of several subsystems is studied. Finally, the methods of finite time thermodynamics are applied to thermodynamic processes described on a more microscopic level. The process used as an example is simulated annealing. It is shown how optimal control theory is applied to find the optimal cooling schedule for this important stochastic optimization method
Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
2008-06-15
Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.
Optimal Bounds in Parametric LTL Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Zimmermann
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We consider graph games of infinite duration with winning conditions in parameterized linear temporal logic, where the temporal operators are equipped with variables for time bounds. In model checking such specifications were introduced as "PLTL" by Alur et al. and (in a different version called "PROMPT-LTL" by Kupferman et al.. We present an algorithm to determine optimal variable valuations that allow a player to win a game. Furthermore, we show how to determine whether a player wins a game with respect to some, infinitely many, or all valuations. All our algorithms run in doubly-exponential time; so, adding bounded temporal operators does not increase the complexity compared to solving plain LTL games.
Asymptotic Sharpness of Bounds on Hypertrees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Yi
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The hypertree can be defined in many different ways. Katona and Szabó introduced a new, natural definition of hypertrees in uniform hypergraphs and investigated bounds on the number of edges of the hypertrees. They showed that a k-uniform hypertree on n vertices has at most (nk−1$\\left( {\\matrix{n \\cr {k - 1} } } \\right$ edges and they conjectured that the upper bound is asymptotically sharp. Recently, Szabó verified that the conjecture holds by recursively constructing an infinite sequence of k-uniform hypertrees and making complicated analyses for it. In this note we give a short proof of the conjecture by directly constructing a sequence of k-uniform k-hypertrees.
A holographic bound for D3-brane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood; Myrzakul, Aizhan; Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian National University, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Eurasian National University, Department of General Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we will regularize the holographic entanglement entropy, holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for a configuration of D3-branes. We will also study the regularization of the holographic complexity from the action for a configuration of D3-branes. It will be demonstrated that for a spherical shell of D3-branes the regularized holographic complexity is always greater than or equal to the regularized fidelity susceptibility. Furthermore, we will also demonstrate that the regularized holographic complexity is related to the regularized holographic entanglement entropy for this system. Thus, we will obtain a holographic bound involving regularized holographic complexity, regularized holographic entanglement entropy and regularized fidelity susceptibility of a configuration of D3-brane. We will also discuss a bound for regularized holographic complexity from action, for a D3-brane configuration. (orig.)
Entanglement detection with bounded reference frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Caslav; Harrigan, Nicholas; Rudolph, Terry
2009-01-01
Quantum experiments usually assume the existence of perfect, classical reference frames (RFs), which allow for the specification of measurement settings (e.g. orientation of the Stern-Gerlach magnet in spin measurements) with arbitrary precision. If the RFs are 'bounded' (i.e. quantum systems themselves, having a finite number of degrees of freedom), only limited precision can be attained. Using spin coherent states as bounded RFs, we have found the minimum size needed for them to violate local realism for entangled spin systems. For composite systems of spin 1/2 particles, RFs of very small size are sufficient for the violation; however, to see this violation for macroscopic entangled spins, the size of the RF must be at least quadratically larger than that of the spins. The unavailability of such RFs gives a possible explanation for the non-observance of violation of local realism in everyday experience.
A proof of the conformal collider bounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofman, Diego M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li, Daliang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Meltzer, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2016-06-20
In this paper, we prove that the “conformal collider bounds” originally proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/012 hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in dimensions d≥3. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval (31/18)≥(a/c)≥(1/3). For superconformal theories this is further reduced to (3/2)≥(a/c)≥(1/2). The proof relies only on CFT first principles — in particular, bootstrap methods — and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
Strongly correlated electrons on two coupled chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weihong, Z.; Oitmaa, J.; Hamer, C.J.
2000-01-01
Full text: The discovery of materials containing S = 1/2 ions which form a 2-leg ladder structure has led to much current research on ladder systems. Pure spin ladders show an unexpected difference between odd-legged ladders (including the single chain) which are gapless with long-range correlations and even-legged ladders which have a spin gap and short range correlations. Even more interesting behaviour occurs when these systems are doped, creating a system of strongly correlated mobile holes, as in the cuprate superconductors. The simplest models in this context are the Hubbard model and the t-J model. Considerable work has been reported on both of these models, using both numerical calculations and approximate analytic theories. We have used series expansion methods to study both of these systems. Our results, in some cases, confirm those of other approaches. In other cases we are able to probe regions of the phase diagram inaccessible to other methods, or to obtain results of increased precision. In this paper we focus on:- 1. The energy and dispersion relation of 1-hole states. 2.The existence of a 2-hole bound state and its energy and dispersion. 3. Spin and charge gaps and the question of phase separation
Bound states and molecular structure of systems with hyperons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akaishi, Y.
1992-01-01
Microscopic calculations are done for Σ-hypernuclear few-body systems by a method named ATMS. Among two- to five-body systems, only the Σ 4 He(0 + ) and Σ 4 H(0 + ) hypernuclei are expected to be bound: The binding energy and the width of the former are calculated to be 3.7 ∼ 4.6 MeV and 4.5 ∼ 7.9 MeV, respectively. The observation of Σ 4 He at KEK is in good agreement with the above prediction. The nucleus-Σ potential has a strong Lane term and a repulsive bump at short distance. The Lane term makes the system bound and the bump suppresses the ΣN → ΛN conversion. X-ray measurement of level shifts in the 4 He-Σ - , 3 He-Σ - and 3 H-Σ - atoms can provide another information on the Lane term. In 208 Pb, there may exist a peculiar state, Coulomb-assisted (atomnucleus) hybrid state, where Σ - is trapped in the surface region by the strong interaction with the aid of the inner centrifugal repulsion and the outer Coulomb attraction. An analysis is given for new data of Ξ -.12 C atomic or nuclear systems from the emulsion-counter experiment at KEK. The double-Λ hypernucleus formation rate is calculated for a stopped Ξ - on 4 He. A high branching ratio of 37% is obtained for the ΛΛ 4 H formation from a Ξ -.4 He atom. The detection of about 2.3 MeV neutron is proposed to search for lightest double-Λ hypernucleus ΛΛ 4 H. (author)
Efficiency bounds for nonequilibrium heat engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehta, Pankaj; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2013-01-01
We analyze the efficiency of thermal engines (either quantum or classical) working with a single heat reservoir like an atmosphere. The engine first gets an energy intake, which can be done in an arbitrary nonequilibrium way e.g. combustion of fuel. Then the engine performs the work and returns to the initial state. We distinguish two general classes of engines where the working body first equilibrates within itself and then performs the work (ergodic engine) or when it performs the work before equilibrating (non-ergodic engine). We show that in both cases the second law of thermodynamics limits their efficiency. For ergodic engines we find a rigorous upper bound for the efficiency, which is strictly smaller than the equivalent Carnot efficiency. I.e. the Carnot efficiency can be never achieved in single reservoir heat engines. For non-ergodic engines the efficiency can be higher and can exceed the equilibrium Carnot bound. By extending the fundamental thermodynamic relation to nonequilibrium processes, we find a rigorous thermodynamic bound for the efficiency of both ergodic and non-ergodic engines and show that it is given by the relative entropy of the nonequilibrium and initial equilibrium distributions. These results suggest a new general strategy for designing more efficient engines. We illustrate our ideas by using simple examples. -- Highlights: ► Derived efficiency bounds for heat engines working with a single reservoir. ► Analyzed both ergodic and non-ergodic engines. ► Showed that non-ergodic engines can be more efficient. ► Extended fundamental thermodynamic relation to arbitrary nonequilibrium processes
Bounding probabilistic safety assessment probabilities by reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fragola, J.R.; Shooman, M.L.
1991-01-01
The investigation of the failure in systems where failure is a rare event makes the continual comparisons between the developed probabilities and empirical evidence difficult. The comparison of the predictions of rare event risk assessments with historical reality is essential to prevent probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) predictions from drifting into fantasy. One approach to performing such comparisons is to search out and assign probabilities to natural events which, while extremely rare, have a basis in the history of natural phenomena or human activities. For example the Segovian aqueduct and some of the Roman fortresses in Spain have existed for several millennia and in many cases show no physical signs of earthquake damage. This evidence could be used to bound the probability of earthquakes above a certain magnitude to less than 10 -3 per year. On the other hand, there is evidence that some repetitive actions can be performed with extremely low historical probabilities when operators are properly trained and motivated, and sufficient warning indicators are provided. The point is not that low probability estimates are impossible, but continual reassessment of the analysis assumptions, and a bounding of the analysis predictions by historical reality. This paper reviews the probabilistic predictions of PSA in this light, attempts to develop, in a general way, the limits which can be historically established and the consequent bounds that these limits place upon the predictions, and illustrates the methodology used in computing such limits. Further, the paper discusses the use of empirical evidence and the requirement for disciplined systematic approaches within the bounds of reality and the associated impact on PSA probabilistic estimates
Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel
2009-01-01
Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.
Closed form bound-state perturbation theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ollie J. Rose
1980-01-01
Full Text Available The perturbed Schrödinger eigenvalue problem for bound states is cast into integral form using Green's Functions. A systematic algorithm is developed and applied to the resulting equation giving rise to approximate solutions expressed as functions of the given perturbation parameter. As a by-product, convergence radii for the traditional Rayleigh-Schrödinger and Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theories emerge in a natural way.
Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco
2013-01-01
The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory
The organically bound tritium: an analyst vision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansoborlo, E.; Baglan, N.
2009-01-01
The authors report the work of a work group on tritium analysis. They recall the different physical forms of tritium: gas (HT, hydrogen-tritium), water vapour (HTO or tritiated water) or methane (CH3T), but also in organic compounds (OBT, organically bound tritium) which are either exchangeable or non-exchangeable. They evoke measurement techniques and methods, notably to determine the tritium volume activity. They discuss the possibilities to analyse and distinguish exchangeable and non-exchangeable OBTs
New approach to calculate bound state eigenvalues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerck, E.; Gallas, J.A.C.
1983-01-01
A method of solving the radial Schrodinger equation for bound states is discussed. The method is based on a new piecewise representation of the second derivative operator on a set of functions that obey the boundary conditions. This representation is trivially diagonalised and leads to closed form expressions of the type E sub(n)=E(ab+b+c/n+...) for the eigenvalues. Examples are given for the power-law and logarithmic potentials. (Author) [pt
A sorting network in bounded arithmetic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2011-01-01
Roč. 162, č. 4 (2011), s. 341-355 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : bounded arithmetic * sorting network * proof complexity * monotone sequent calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007210001272
Heterogeneity, Bounded Rationality and Market Dysfunctionality
Xue-Zhong He; Lei Shi
2008-01-01
As the main building blocks of the modern finance theory, homogeneity and rational expectation have faced difficulty in explaining many market anomalies, stylized factors, and market inefficiency in empirical studies. As a result, heterogeneity and bounded rationality have been used as an alterative paradigm of asset price dynamics and this paradigm has been widely recognized recently in both academic and financial market practitioners. Within the framework of Chiarella, Dieci and He (2006a, ...
Kinetic simulation on collisional bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, S.P.; Sato, Tetsuya; Tomita, Yukihiro; Hatori, Tadatsugu
1998-01-01
A self-consistent kinetic simulation model on collisional bounded plasma is presented. The electric field is given by solving Poisson equation and collisions among particles (including charged particles and neutral particles) are included. The excitation and ionization of neutral particle, and recombination are also contained in the present model. The formation of potential structure near a boundary for a discharge system was used as an application of this model. (author)
Oxygen enrichment incineration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung
2000-10-01
Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested
Oxygen enrichment incineration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung
2000-10-01
Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.
Analysis of the organically bound tritium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baglan, N.; Alanic, G.
2011-01-01
In environmental samples, tritium is very often combined with the fraction of bulk water accumulated in the sample but also in the form of organically bound tritium. When the tritium is organically bound, 2 forms can coexist: the exchangeable fraction and the non-exchangeable fraction. The analysis of the different forms of tritium present in the sample is necessary to assess the sanitary hazards due to tritium. The total tritium is obtained from the analysis of the water released when the fresh sample is burnt while the organically bound tritium is obtained from the analysis of the water released when the dry extract of the sample is burnt. The measurement of the exchangeable fraction and the non-exchangeable fraction requires an additional stage of labile exchange. The exchangeable fraction is determined from the analysis of the water released during the labile exchange and the non-exchangeable fraction is determined from the water released during the combustion of the dry extract of the labile exchange
Search for quasi bound η mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machner, H
2015-01-01
The search for a quasi bound η meson in atomic nuclei is reviewed. This tentative state is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. The theory starts from elastic η nucleon scattering which is derived from production data within some models. From this interaction the η nucleus interaction is derived. Model calculations predict binding energies and widths of the quasi bound state. Another method is to derive the η nucleus interaction from excitation functions of η production experiments. The s wave interaction is extracted from such data via final state interaction (FSI) theorem. We give the derivation of s wave amplitudes in partial wave expansion and in helicity amplitudes and their relation to observables. Different experiments extracting the FSI are discussed as are production experiments. So far only three experiments give evidence for the existence of the quasi bound state: a pion double charge exchange experiment, an effective mass measurement, and a transfer reaction at recoil free kinematics with observation of the decay of the state. (topical review)
Coping with cyclic oxygen availability: evolutionary aspects.
Flück, Martin; Webster, Keith A; Graham, Jeffrey; Giomi, Folco; Gerlach, Frank; Schmitz, Anke
2007-10-01
Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years after the origin of life, dramatically altered cell biology and set the stage for the appearance of multicelluar life forms in the Vendian (Ediacaran) Period of the Neoproterozoic Era. Over much of the Paleozoic, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere was near the present atmospheric level (21%). In the Late Paleozoic, however, there were extended times during which the level of atmospheric oxygen was either markedly lower or markedly higher than 21%. That these Paleozoic shifts in atmospheric oxygen affected the biota is suggested by the correlations between: (1) Reduced oxygen and the occurrences of extinctions, a lowered biodiversity and shifts in phyletic succession, and (2) During hyperoxia, the corresponding occurrence of phenomena such as arthropod gigantism, the origin of insect flight, and the evolution of vertebrate terrestriality. Basic similarities in features of adaptation to hyopoxia, manifest in living organisms at levels ranging from genetic and cellular to physiological and behavioral, suggest the common and early origin of a suite of adaptive mechanisms responsive to fluctuations in ambient oxygen. Comparative integrative approaches addressing the molecular bases of phenotypic adjustments to cyclic oxygen fluctuation provide broad insight into the incremental steps leading to the early evolution of homeostatic respiratory mechanisms and to the specialization of organismic respiratory function.
Lower bounds for the minimum distance of algebraic geometry codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, Peter
, such as the Goppa bound, the Feng-Rao bound and the Kirfel-Pellikaan bound. I will finish my talk by giving several examples. Especially for two-point codes, the generalized order bound is fairly easy to compute. As an illustration, I will indicate how a lower bound can be obtained for the minimum distance of some...... description of these codes in terms of order domains has been found. In my talk I will indicate how one can use the ideas behind the order bound to obtain a lower bound for the minimum distance of any AG-code. After this I will compare this generalized order bound with other known lower bounds...
[Recent technical advances in portable oxygen delivery systems].
Machida, K; Kawabe, Y; Mori, M; Haga, T
1992-08-01
According to a Japanese national survey (June 30, 1990), the number of patients receiving home oxygen therapy (HOT) has been greater than 18,000 since March 1985, when HOT was first covered by health insurance. The oxygen concentrator, especially the molecular sieve type, is the most common method of delivery (more than 90%). In April 1988, the portable oxygen cylinder was acknowledged by health insurance, and the liquid oxygen supply system in April 1990. Three types of portable oxygen delivery systems are available; oxygen cyclinder, liquid oxygen system, and oxygen concentrator (membrane type), of which the oxygen cylinder is most commonly used. In our hospital, portable oxygen supply systems were used in 80% of 168 HOT cases in 1990, and the use of 400 L aluminum oxygen cylinders at a flow rate of 1-2 L/min has been most popular. There is an strong desire from patients for lighter portable oxygen supply system of longer duration. In 19 patients with chronic respiratory failure, we evaluated a newly designed demand oxygen delivery system (DODS), which weighs 2.4 kg including the DOD device (TER-20 Teijin), 1.1 L oxygen cylinder made of ultressor, nasal cannula, and carrier. Arterial blood gases at rest (room air) were PaO2 61.9 +/- 6.3 torr, PaCO2 63.8 +/- 9.4 torr and pH 7.40 +/- 0.04. A crossover trial was performed under three conditions; breathing room air with no weight, and pulse oxygen flow and continuous oxygen flow each carrying 2.4 kg of weight. Both 6 minute walking (E1) and walking on a slow speed treadmill (E2) were studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Approximation of fixed points of strongly pseudo-contractive mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1991-10-01
Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Let T:K→K be a continuous strongly pseudocontractive mapping of K into itself. Let {c n } n=1 ∞ be a real sequence satisfying: (i) 0 n n=1 ∞ c n =∞; and (iii) Σ n=1 ∞ c n b(c n ) n } n=1 ∞ generated by x 1 is an element of K. x n+1 =(1-c n )x n +c n Tx n , n≥1, converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when T is Lipschitzian and strongly pseudocontractive. (author). 28 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Ken-ichi
1988-01-01
Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)
Strong interactions at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.
1995-01-01
Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Strong-field dissociation dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.
1993-01-01
The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs
Qi, Xuejun; Song, Wenwu; Shi, Jianwei
2017-01-01
Density functional theory was used to study the effects of different types of oxygen-containing functional groups on the adsorption of oxygen molecules and single active oxygen atoms on carbonaceous materials. During gasification or combustion reactions of carbonaceous materials, oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl(-OH), carbonyl(-CO), quinone(-O), and carboxyl(-COOH) are often present on the edge of graphite and can affect graphite's chemical properties. When oxygen-containing functional groups appear on a graphite surface, the oxygen molecules are strongly adsorbed onto the surface to form a four-member ring structure. At the same time, the O-O bond is greatly weakened and easily broken. The adsorption energy value indicates that the adsorption of oxygen molecules changes from physisorption to chemisorption for oxygen-containing functional groups on the edge of a graphite surface. In addition, our results indicate that the adsorption energy depends on the type of oxygen-containing functional group. When a single active oxygen atom is adsorbed on the bridge site of graphite, it gives rise to a stable epoxy structure. Epoxy can cause deformation of the graphite lattice due to the transition of graphite from sp2 to sp3 after the addition of an oxygen atom. For quinone group on the edge of graphite, oxygen atoms react with carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. Similarly, the single active oxygen atoms of carbonyl groups can interact with edge carbon atoms to form the precursor of CO2. The results show that oxygen-containing functional groups on graphite surfaces enhance the activity of graphite, which promotes adsorption on the graphite surface.
NEXAFS characterization of DNA components and molecular-orientation of surface-bound DNA oligomers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samuel, Newton T.; Lee, C.-Y.; Gamble, Lara J.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Castner, David G.
2006-01-01
Single stranded DNA oligomers (ssDNA) immobilized onto solid surfaces forms the basis for several biotechnological applications such as DNA microarrays, affinity separations, and biosensors. Surface structure of Surface-bound oligomers is expected to significantly influence their biological activity and interactions with the environment. In this study near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) is used to characterize the components of DNA (nucleobases, nucleotides and nucleosides) and the orientation information of surface-bound ssDNA. The K-edges of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have spectra with features that are characteristic of the different chemical species present in the nucleobases of DNA. The effect of addition of the DNA sugar and phosphate components on the NEXAFS K-edge spectra was also investigated. The polarization-dependent nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS data show significant changes for different orientations of surface bound ssDNA. These results establish NEXAFS as a powerful technique for chemical and structural characterization of surface-bound DNA oligomers
Strong Decomposition of Random Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.
2007-01-01
A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models
Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
1997-04-01
The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.
The colours of strong interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)
Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolak, A.
1987-01-01
Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis
Computational Investigation of Amine–Oxygen Exciplex Formation
Haupert, Levi M.; Simpson, Garth J.; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V.
2012-01-01
It has been suggested that fluorescence from amine-containing dendrimer compounds could be the result of a charge transfer between amine groups and molecular oxygen [Chu, C.-C.; Imae, T. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2009, 30, 89.]. In this paper we employ equation-of-motion coupled cluster computational methods to study the electronic structure of an ammonia–oxygen model complex to examine this possibility. The results reveal several bound electronic states with charge transfer character with emission energies generally consistent with previous observations. However, further work involving confinement, solvent, and amine structure effects will be necessary for more rigorous examination of the charge transfer fluorescence hypothesis. PMID:21812447
Synthesis and stability of strongly acidic benzamide derivatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diness, Frederik; Bjerrum, Niels J.; Begtrup, Mikael
2018-01-01
Reactivity studies of strong organic acids based on the replacement of one or both of the oxygens in benzoic acids with the trifluoromethanesulfonamide group are reported. Novel derivatives of these types of acids were synthesized in good yields. The generated N-triflylbenzamides were further...... functionalized through cross-coupling and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions. All compounds were stable in dilute aqueous solutions. Studies of stability under acidic and basic conditions are also reported....
OPRA capacity bounds for selection diversity over generalized fading channels
Hanif, Muhammad Fainan; Yang, Hongchuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
, lower and upper bounds on OPRA capacity for selection diversity scheme are presented. These bounds hold for variety of fading channels including log-normal and generalized Gamma distributed models and have very simple analytic expressions for easy
Bounded Perturbation Regularization for Linear Least Squares Estimation
Ballal, Tarig; Suliman, Mohamed Abdalla Elhag; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of selecting the regularization parameter for linear least-squares estimation. We propose a new technique called bounded perturbation regularization (BPR). In the proposed BPR method, a perturbation with a bounded
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
- ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...
High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucian A. Lucia
2005-11-15
Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch
2005-01-01
The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Autor, Anne Pomeroy
1982-01-01
This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...
... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Autor, Anne Pomeroy
1982-01-01
.... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oset, E.; Cabrera, D.; Li, Q.B.; Magas, V.K.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.
2005-01-01
We study the binding energy and the width of the Θ + in nuclei, associated to the KN and KπN components. The first one leads to negligible contributions while the second one leads to a sizeable attraction, enough to bind the Θ + in nuclei. Pauli blocking and binding effects on the KN decay reduce considerably the Θ + decay width in nuclei and medium effects associated to the KπN component also lead to a very small width, as a consequence of which one finds separation between the bound levels considerably larger than the width of the states
Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)
2017-04-15
This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)
Magnetic moment of a bound electron
Czarnecki, Andrzej; Mondejar, Jorge; Piclum, Jan H
2010-01-01
Theoretical predictions underlying determinations of the fine structure constant alpha and the electron-to-proton mass ratio m_e/m_p are reviewed, with the emphasis on the bound electron magnetic anomaly g-2. The theory of the interaction of hydrogen-like ions with a magnetic field is discussed. The status of efforts aimed at the determination of O(alpha (Z alpha)^5) and O(alpha^2 (Z alpha)^5) corrections to the g factor is presented. The reevaluation of analogous corrections to the Lamb shift and the hyperfine splitting is summarized.
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Y.; Leggett, A. J.
2014-01-01
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it
Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.
Uniformly bounded representations of the Lorentz groups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brega, A.O.
1982-01-01
For the Lorentz group G = SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to 2) the author constructs a family of uniformly bounded representations by means of analytically continuing a certain normalization of the unitary principal series. The method the author uses relies on an analysis of various operators under a Mellin transform and extends earlier work of E.N. Wilson. In a series of papers Kunze and Stein initiated the theory of uniformly bounded representations of semisimple Lie groups; the starting point is the unitary principal series T(sigma,s) obtained in a certain subgroup M of G and a purely imaginary number s. From there Kunze and Stein constructed families of representations R(sigma,s) depending analytically on a parameter s in a domain D of C containing the imaginary axis which are unitarily equilvalent to T(sigma,s) for s contained in the set of imaginary numbers and whose operator norms are uniformly bounded for each s in D. In the case of the Lorentz groups SO/sub e/(n + 1, 1)(ngreater than or equal to2) and the trivial representation 1 of M, E.N. Wilson obtained such a family R(1,s) for the domain D = [s contained in the set of C: absolute value Re(s) Vertical Bar2]. For this domain D and for any representation sigma of M the author provides a family R(sigma,s) of uniformly bounded representations analytically continuing T(sigma,s), thereby generalizing Wilson's work. The author has also investigated certain symmetry properties of the representations R(sigma,s) under the action of the Weyl group. The trivial representation is Weyl group invariant and the family R(1,s) obtained by Wilson satisfies R(1,s) = R(1,-s) reflecting this. Obtained was the analogous result R(sigma,s) = R(sigma,-s) for some well known representations sigma that are Weyl group invariant. This involves the explicit computation of certain constants arising in the Fourier transforms of intertwining operators
BOUND PERIODICAL HOLDINGS BATTELLE - NORTHWEST LIBRARY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1967-05-01
This report lists the bound periodicals in the Technical Library at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. It was prepared from a computer program and is arranged in two parts. Part one is an alphabetical list of journals by title; part two is an arrangement of the journals by subject. The list headings are self-explanatory, with the exception of the title code, which is necessary in the machine processing. The listing is complete through June, 1966 and updates an earlier publication issued in March, 1965.
Total-variation regularization with bound constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt
2009-01-01
We present a new algorithm for bound-constrained total-variation (TV) regularization that in comparison with its predecessors is simple, fast, and flexible. We use a splitting approach to decouple TV minimization from enforcing the constraints. Consequently, existing TV solvers can be employed with minimal alteration. This also makes the approach straightforward to generalize to any situation where TV can be applied. We consider deblurring of images with Gaussian or salt-and-pepper noise, as well as Abel inversion of radiographs with Poisson noise. We incorporate previous iterative reweighting algorithms to solve the TV portion.
Bound Alternative Direction Optimization for Image Deblurring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangrong Zeng
2014-01-01
the ℓp regularizer by a novel majorizer and then, based on a variable splitting, to reformulate the bound unconstrained problem into a constrained one, which is then addressed via an augmented Lagrangian method. The proposed algorithm actually combines the reweighted ℓ1 minimization method and the alternating direction method of multiples (ADMM such that it succeeds in extending the application of ADMM to ℓp minimization problems. The conducted experimental studies demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm for the synthesis ℓp minimization over the state-of-the-art algorithms for the synthesis ℓ1 minimization on image deblurring.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T
2000-01-01
To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....
Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten
2009-01-01
We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...
Intraportal islet oxygenation.
Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K
2014-05-01
Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.
Bounds on heat transport in rapidly rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grooms, Ian; Whitehead, Jared P
2015-01-01
The heat transport in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection is considered in the limit of rapid rotation (small Ekman number E) and strong thermal forcing (large Rayleigh number Ra). The analysis proceeds from a set of asymptotically reduced equations appropriate for rotationally constrained dynamics; the conjectured range of validity for these equations is Ra ≲ E −8/5 . A rigorous bound on heat transport of Nu ⩽ 20.56Ra 3 E 4 is derived in the limit of infinite Prandtl number using the background method. We demonstrate that the exponent in this bound cannot be improved on using a piece-wise monotonic background temperature profile like the one used here. This is true for finite Prandtl numbers as well, i.e. Nu ≲ Ra 3 is the best upper bound for this particular setup of the background method. The feature that obstructs the availability of a better bound in this case is the appearance of small-scale thermal plumes emanating from (or entering) the thermal boundary layer. The derived upper bound is consistent with, although significantly higher than the observed behaviour in simulations of the reduced equations, which find at most Nu ∼ Ra 2 E 8/3 . (paper)
Lower bound on inconclusive probability of unambiguous discrimination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng
2002-01-01
We derive a lower bound on the inconclusive probability of unambiguous discrimination among n linearly independent quantum states by using the constraint of no signaling. It improves the bound presented in the paper of Zhang, Feng, Sun, and Ying [Phys. Rev. A 64, 062103 (2001)], and when the optimal discrimination can be reached, these two bounds coincide with each other. An alternative method of constructing an appropriate measurement to prove the lower bound is also presented
Strong magnetic fields, galaxy formation, and the Galactic engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greyber, H.D.
1989-01-01
The strong-magnetic-field model proposed as an energy source for AGN and quasars by Greyber (1961, 1962, 1964, 1967, 1984, 1988, and 1989) is discussed. The basic principles of the model are reviewed; its advantages (in explaining the observed features of AGN and quasars) over models based on a rotating accretion disk are indicated in a table; and its implications for galaxy and quasar formation are explored. The gravitationally bound current loops detected in nearby spiral galaxies are interpreted as weak remnants of the current loops present during their formation. An observational search for a similar loop near the Galactic center is proposed. 27 refs
Variational energy for Θ+ - 2H bound state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoeb, Mohammad; Naz, Tabassum; Siddiqah, Mariyah
2015-01-01
Pentaquark is considered to be a exotic particle with valency structure of four quarks and antiquark. Diakonov et. al. have made a prediction for the existence of strangeness S= +1 and isospin zero pentaquark Θ + (uudds¯) of mass 1.54 GeV with a narrow width and j p = 1/2 + which is a member of an antidecuplet. Small width is assumed to be a consequence of even parity. We may point out that many experimental searches for the existence of Θ + that have been made in the past have remained inconclusive. Miller has proposed a schematic model where coherent interaction of us¯ and ds¯ pairs leads to very large attractive residual interaction which in turn produces a strongly attractive Θ-nucleon spin-independent local potential, sufficient to produce a bound state of Θ-nuclear matter that is stable against strong decay. In the model under discussion the Θ has been regarded as a collective vibration of nucleon
Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan
2006-01-01
Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state
Lieb-Robinson Bound and the Butterfly Effect in Quantum Field Theories.
Roberts, Daniel A; Swingle, Brian
2016-08-26
As experiments are increasingly able to probe the quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom, it is interesting to probe fundamental bounds on the dynamics of quantum information. We elaborate on the relationship between one such bound-the Lieb-Robinson bound-and the butterfly effect in strongly coupled quantum systems. The butterfly effect implies the ballistic growth of local operators in time, which can be quantified with the "butterfly" velocity v_{B}. Similarly, the Lieb-Robinson velocity places a state-independent ballistic upper bound on the size of time evolved operators in nonrelativistic lattice models. Here, we argue that v_{B} is a state-dependent effective Lieb-Robinson velocity. We study the butterfly velocity in a wide variety of quantum field theories using holography and compare with free-particle computations to understand the role of strong coupling. We find that v_{B} remains constant or decreases with decreasing temperature. We also comment on experimental prospects and on the relationship between the butterfly velocity and signaling.
Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures
Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui
2012-01-01
to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...
Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence
Jacobs, Bruce A.; Wright, Richard
2010-01-01
Drawing from in-depth interviews with 52 active street criminals, this article examines the grounded theoretic implications of bounded rationality for retaliatory street violence. The bounds on rationality that this article explores are anger, uncertainty, and time pressure. These bounds create imperfections in the retaliatory decision-making…
Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods
Avella, Adolfo
2012-01-01
The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...
Strongly correlated systems numerical methods
Mancini, Ferdinando
2013-01-01
This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...
Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques
Mancini, Ferdinando
2015-01-01
The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Nanxia; Xue Jukui
2006-01-01
Taking into account the boundary, particle collisions, and dust charging effects, dust-acoustic waves in a uniform cylindrically bounded dusty plasma is investigated analytically, and the dispersion relation for the dust-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of boundary, dust charge variation, particle collision, and dust size on the dust-acoustic wave are discussed in detail. Due to the bounded cylindrical boundary effects, the radial wave number is discrete, i.e., the spectrum is discrete. It is shown that the discrete spectrum, the adiabatic dust charge variation, dust grain size, and the particle collision have significant effects on the dust-acoustic wave
Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification
Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven
1998-01-01
We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.
String dynamics at strong coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1996-01-01
The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma
2017-01-01
saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.49, p = 0.023), but no significant correlations could be demonstrated with frontal and whole brain cerebral blood flow. These results suggest that measuring oxygen saturation by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation is feasible, even in neonates. Strong...... sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p ..., and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p
Analytic quantum bounds on Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipp, S.; Svozil, K.
2005-01-01
Full text: Can realism be combined with the quantum world? An important tool to investigate in this question are Bell's inequalities and violations thereof - they represent a cornerstone of our present understanding of quantum mechanics and therefore the description of nature. Here we present a simple algebraic method to calculate violations for any measurement arrangements that are maximal in the sense that quantum mechanics does not allow a stronger violation. Having two or more polarization analyzers available and a source producing photon-pairs in arbitrary polarization states Bell-type inequalities tell us which probabilities for measuring the polarization in particular directions are viable in a deterministic theory. Quantum mechanics does not obey these rules, but yields a violation of these inequalities. The questions is to what extent the inequalities are violated. Making use of a min-max principle analytical expressions can be found for the 'fine structure' of the maximal violations of arbitrary Bell-like inequalities, i. e. the upper bound reachable by any state when the analyzers measure in given directions. Knowing these bounds is useful for experimental tests of the validity of quantum mechanics and can serve as a prerequisite to answer the even more pressing question, why no stronger violation has been observed until now. (author)
Electromagnetic structure of a bound nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nogami, Y.
1977-01-01
The effect of binding on the electromagnetic (e.m.) structure of a nucleon in a nucleus is examined by means of a model consisting of a single nucleon which is bound in a harmonic oscillator potential and also coupled to the pion field through the Chew-Low interaction. The 'two-pion contribution' to the e.m. structure is considered. This is the part which is probably most susceptible to the binding effect. By the binding effect it is meant the one which arises because the nucleon wave functions, in the intermediate state as well as in the initial and final states, are distorted by the potential in which the nucleon is bound. This may be compared to a similar correction to the impulse approximation for pion-nucleus scattering. Unlike the latter which is likely to be quite appreciable, the binding correction to the e.m. structure of the nucleon is found to be negligibly small. The so-called quenching effect due to the Pauli principle when there are other nucleons is also discussed [pt
Dynamic bounds coupled with Monte Carlo simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajabalinejad, M., E-mail: M.Rajabalinejad@tudelft.n [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Meester, L.E. [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Vrijling, J.K. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2011-02-15
For the reliability analysis of engineering structures a variety of methods is known, of which Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is widely considered to be among the most robust and most generally applicable. To reduce simulation cost of the MC method, variance reduction methods are applied. This paper describes a method to reduce the simulation cost even further, while retaining the accuracy of Monte Carlo, by taking into account widely present monotonicity. For models exhibiting monotonic (decreasing or increasing) behavior, dynamic bounds (DB) are defined, which in a coupled Monte Carlo simulation are updated dynamically, resulting in a failure probability estimate, as well as a strict (non-probabilistic) upper and lower bounds. Accurate results are obtained at a much lower cost than an equivalent ordinary Monte Carlo simulation. In a two-dimensional and a four-dimensional numerical example, the cost reduction factors are 130 and 9, respectively, where the relative error is smaller than 5%. At higher accuracy levels, this factor increases, though this effect is expected to be smaller with increasing dimension. To show the application of DB method to real world problems, it is applied to a complex finite element model of a flood wall in New Orleans.
Phenomenological bounds in inclusive neutrino interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aubrecht, G.J. II; Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, K.
1975-01-01
Using expressions for the ν and anti ν charged and neutral current cross sections and the electroproduction structure function integral and positivity requirements of the sea contribution, bounds are obtained on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup anti nu N/, and sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc//sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ in the standard model. A bound on sigma/sup anti nu N//sigma/sup nu N/ obtained with a V + A term anti p'γ/sub mu/(1-γ 5 )n is used to rule out such a term in the current. A plot of sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ + sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ versus sigma/sup nu N//sub nc/ - sigma/sup anti nu N//sub nc/ is introduced to analyze the neutral current data. A new relation connecting moments of y and y distributions at a particular point y/sub n/ for ν and anti ν interactions is found. The results do not depend on the neutral current data
Search for a bound K− pp system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camerini P.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Data from the K− absorption reaction on 6,7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O have recently been collected by FINUDA at the DAΦNE φ-factory (Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati-INFN, following an earlier lower statitics run on 12C and some other targets. FINUDA is a high acceptance magnetic spectrometer which performed a wide range of studies by detecting the charged particles and neutrons exiting the targets after the absorption event. In this paper it is discussed about the study of the A(K− , Λp reaction in the context of the search for deeply bound $ar{K}$ - nuclear states. The observation of a bump in the Λp invariant mass distribution is discussed in terms of a possible signature of a deeply bound K− pp kaonic cluster as well as of more conventional physics. An overview of the experimental situation in this ﬁeld will be given.
Thermal dark matter co-annihilating with a strongly interacting scalar
Biondini, S.; Laine, M.
2018-04-01
Recently many investigations have considered Majorana dark matter co-annihilating with bound states formed by a strongly interacting scalar field. However only the gluon radiation contribution to bound state formation and dissociation, which at high temperatures is subleading to soft 2 → 2 scatterings, has been included. Making use of a non-relativistic effective theory framework and solving a plasma-modified Schrödinger equation, we address the effect of soft 2 → 2 scatterings as well as the thermal dissociation of bound states. We argue that the mass splitting between the Majorana and scalar field has in general both a lower and an upper bound, and that the dark matter mass scale can be pushed at least up to 5…6TeV.
NMR spectroscopic studies of membrane-bound biological systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hohlweg, W.
2013-01-01
In the course of this thesis, biological NMR spectroscopy was employed in studying membrane-bound peptides and proteins, for which structural information is still comparatively hard to obtain. Initial work focused on various model peptides bound to membrane-mimicking micelles, studying the protonation state of arginine in a membrane environment. Strong evidence for a cation-π complex was found in TM7, a peptide which forms the seventh transmembrane helix of subunit a of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPase is a physiologically highly relevant proton pump, which is present in intracellular membranes of all eukaryotic organisms, as well as the plasma membrane of several specialized cells. Loss of functional V-ATPase is associated with human diseases such as osteopetrosis, distal renal tubular acidosis or the spreading of cancer. V-ATPase is considered a potential drug target in the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer, or in the development of novel contraceptives. Results from NMR solution structure determination, NMR titration experiments, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy confirm the existence of a buried cation-? complex formed between arginine residue R735, which is essential for proton transport, and neighbouring tryptophan and tyrosine residues. In vivo experiments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using selective growth tests and fluorescence microscopy showed that formation of the cation-π complex is essential for V-ATPase function. Deletion of both aromatic residues, as well as only the one tryptophan residue leads to growth defects and inability to maintain vacuolar pH homeostasis. These findings shine new light on the still elusive mechanism of proton transport in V-ATPase, and show that arginine R735 may be directly involved in proton transfer across the membrane. (author) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, S E; Hopkins, R C; Blanchette, C; Walsworth, V; Sumbad, R; Fischer, N; Kuhn, E; Coleman, M; Chromy, B; Letant, S; Hoeprich, P; Adams, M W; Henderson, P T
2008-10-22
Hydrogenases constitute a promising class of enzymes for ex vivo hydrogen production. Implementation of such applications is currently hindered by oxygen sensitivity and, in the case of membrane-bound hydrogenases (MBH), poor water solubility. Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs), formed from apolipoproteins and phospholipids, offer a novel means to incorporate MBH into in a well-defined water-soluble matrix that maintains the enzymatic activity and is amenable to incorporation into more complex architectures. We report the synthesis, hydrogen-evolving activity and physical characterization of the first MBH-NLP assembly. This may ultimately lead to the development of biomimetic hydrogen production devices.
Crotty, Patrick; García-Bellido, Juan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Riazuelo, Alain
2003-10-24
We obtain very stringent bounds on the possible cold dark matter, baryon, and neutrino isocurvature contributions to the primordial fluctuations in the Universe, using recent cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data. Neglecting the possible effects of spatial curvature, tensor perturbations, and reionization, we perform a Bayesian likelihood analysis with nine free parameters, and find that the amplitude of the isocurvature component cannot be larger than about 31% for the cold dark matter mode, 91% for the baryon mode, 76% for the neutrino density mode, and 60% for the neutrino velocity mode, at 2sigma, for uncorrelated models. For correlated adiabatic and isocurvature components, the fraction could be slightly larger. However, the cross-correlation coefficient is strongly constrained, and maximally correlated/anticorrelated models are disfavored. This puts strong bounds on the curvaton model.
Reducing Conservatism of Analytic Transient Response Bounds via Shaping Filters
Kwan, Aiyueh; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jan, Jiann-Woei; Grigoriadis, Karolos; Hua, Tuyen (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
Recent results show that the peak transient response of a linear system to bounded energy inputs can be computed using the energy-to-peak gain of the system. However, analytically computed peak response bound can be conservative for a class of class bounded energy signals, specifically pulse trains generated from jet firings encountered in space vehicles. In this paper, shaping filters are proposed as a Methodology to reduce the conservatism of peak response analytic bounds. This Methodology was applied to a realistic Space Station assembly operation subject to jet firings. The results indicate that shaping filters indeed reduce the predicted peak response bounds.
Degenerate quantum codes and the quantum Hamming bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Klappenecker, Andreas
2010-01-01
The parameters of a nondegenerate quantum code must obey the Hamming bound. An important open problem in quantum coding theory is whether the parameters of a degenerate quantum code can violate this bound for nondegenerate quantum codes. In this article we show that Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, over a prime power alphabet q≥5, cannot beat the quantum Hamming bound. We prove a quantum version of the Griesmer bound for the CSS codes, which allows us to strengthen the Rains' bound that an [[n,k,d
Osmotic phenomena in application for hyperbaric oxygen treatment.
Babchin, A; Levich, E; Melamed M D, Y; Sivashinsky, G
2011-03-01
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment defines the medical procedure when the patient inhales pure oxygen at elevated pressure conditions. Many diseases and all injuries are associated with a lack of oxygen in tissues, known as hypoxia. HBO provides an effective method for fast oxygen delivery in medical practice. The exact mechanism of the oxygen transport under HBO conditions is not fully identified. The objective of this article is to extend the colloid and surface science basis for the oxygen transport in HBO conditions beyond the molecular diffusion transport mechanism. At a pressure in the hyperbaric chamber of two atmospheres, the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood plasma increases 10 times. The sharp increase of oxygen concentration in the blood plasma creates a considerable concentration gradient between the oxygen dissolved in the plasma and in the tissue. The concentration gradient of oxygen as a non-electrolyte solute causes an osmotic flow of blood plasma with dissolved oxygen. In other words, the molecular diffusion transport of oxygen is supplemented by the convective diffusion raised due to the osmotic flow, accelerating the oxygen delivery from blood to tissue. A non steady state equation for non-electrolyte osmosis is solved asymptotically. The solution clearly demonstrates two modes of osmotic flow: normal osmosis, directed from lower to higher solute concentrations, and anomalous osmosis, directed from higher to lower solute concentrations. The fast delivery of oxygen from blood to tissue is explained on the basis of the strong molecular interaction between the oxygen and the tissue, causing an influx of oxygen into the tissue by convective diffusion in the anomalous osmosis process. The transport of the second gas, nitrogen, dissolved in the blood plasma, is also taken into the consideration. As the patient does not inhale nitrogen during HBO treatment, but exhales it along with oxygen and carbon dioxide, the concentration of nitrogen in blood
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gál, A.; Hansen, A. K.; Koucký, Michal; Pudlák, Pavel; Viola, E.
2013-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 10 (2013), s. 6611-6627 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded-depth circuits * error-correcting codes * hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6578188
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gál, A.; Hansen, A. K.; Koucký, Michal; Pudlák, Pavel; Viola, E.
2013-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 10 (2013), s. 6611-6627 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded-depth circuits * error -correcting codes * hashing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2013 http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6578188
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'Huillier, A.
2002-01-01
When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)
Structure and dynamics of weakly bound complexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skouteris, D.
1998-01-01
The present thesis deals with the spectroscopic and theoretical investigation of weakly bound complexes involving a methane molecule. Studies of these Van der Waals complexes can give valuable information on the relevant intermolecular dynamics and promote the understanding of the interactions between molecules (which can ultimately lead to chemical reactions). Especially interesting are complexes involving molecules of high symmetry (e.g. tetrahedral, such as methane) because of the unusual effects arising from it (selection rules, nuclear Spin statistical weights etc.). The infrared spectrum of the Van der Waals complex between a CH 4 and a N 2 O molecule has been recorded and most of it has been assigned in the region of the N - O stretch (approximately 2225.0 cm -1 ). Despite the fact that this is really a weakly bound complex, it is nevertheless rigid enough so that the standard model for asymmetric top spectra can be applied to it with the usual quantum numbers. From the value of the inertial defect, it turns out that the methane unit is locked in a rigid configuration within the complex rather than freely rotating. The intermolecular distance as well as the tilting angle of the N 2 O linear unit are determined from the rotational constants. The complex itself turns out to have a T - shaped configuration. The infrared spectrum of the Ar - CH 4 complex at the ν 4 (bending) band of methane is also assigned. This is different from the previous one in that the methane unit rotates almost freely Within the complex. As a result, the quantum numbers used to classify rovibrational energy levels include these of the free unit. The concept of 'overall symmetry' is made use of to rationalise selection rules in various sub-bands of the spectrum. Moreover, new terms in the potential anisotropy Hamiltonian are calculated through the use of the overall symmetry concept. These are termed 'mixed anisotropy' terms since they involve both rotational and vibrational degrees of
Rydberg atoms in strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.
1985-01-01
Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented
Strong versions of Bell's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1994-01-01
Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption
Strongly interacting light dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-07-01
In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.
Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Robles
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))
1992-07-09
We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).
Scalar strong interaction hadron theory
Hoh, Fang Chao
2015-01-01
The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.
Estimation of strong ground motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Makoto
1993-01-01
Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event
Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)
2011-10-29
We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.
Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation
2017-08-01
were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galindo, S.; Urena-Nunez, F.
1997-01-01
The feasibility of practical boron-containing alanine ESR dosimeters for gamma-neutron mixed field irradiation dosimeters depends in part on whether the γ response characteristics of these silicone-bound dosimeters are comparable to those of a commercially available dosimeter that has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (International Dose Assurance Service) as a transfer reference dosimeter. This work presents the results of the comparison of 3 batches of silicone-bound alanine dosimeters. The first batch consists of a mixture of alanine and boric acid; the second, alanine and borax; and the last contains only alanine. Results indicate that γ response characteristics of the silicone-bound samples are comparable to those of the commercial, polystyrene-bound, alanine dosimeter and that silicone has a strong potential as a binding substance for alanine ESR dosimetry. (Author)
Strongly coupled gauge theories: What can lattice calculations teach us?
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Electroweak symmetry breaking and the dynamical origin of the Higgs boson are central questions today. Strongly coupled systems predicting the Higgs boson as a bound state of a new gauge-fermion interaction are candidates to describe beyond Standard Model physics. The phenomenologically viable models are strongly coupled, near the conformal boundary, requiring non-perturbative studies to reveal their properties. Lattice studies show that many of the beyond-Standard Model candidates have a relatively light isosinglet scalar state that is well separated from the rest of the spectrum. When the scale is set via the vev of electroweak symmetry breaking, a 2 TeV vector resonance appears to be a general feature of many of these models with several other resonances that are not much heavier.
Iterative solution of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chidume, C.E.
1991-10-01
Let E be a real Banach space with a uniformly convex dual, and let K be a nonempty closed convex and bounded subset of E. Suppose T:K→K is a strongly accretive map such that for each f is an element of K the equation Tx=f has a solution in K. It is proved that each of the two well known fixed point iteration methods (the Mann and Ishikawa iteration methods) converges strongly to a solution of the equation Tx=f. Furthermore, our method shows that such a solution is necessarily unique. Explicit error estimates are given. Our results resolve in the affirmative two open problems (J. Math. Anal. Appl. Vol 151(2) (1990), p. 460) and generalize important known results. (author). 32 refs
The strong CP problem and the visibility of invisible axions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.
1986-12-01
The main subject of these lectures are general properties of axions and recent suggestions of how to detect invisible axions. After a brief review of the strong CP problem and the Peccei-Quinn mechanism in sects. 2 and 3, we discuss axion properties by means of an effective lagrangian approach in sect. 4. Experimental bounds on axion production and decays are reviewed in sect. 5. Sect. 6 deals briefly with the recently proposed variant axion models, and in sect. 7 we discuss the possible relevance of supersymmetry to the strong CP problem. In sect. 8 we then review the different proposals for the detection of invisible axions. Some conclusions are given in sect. 9. (orig./HSI)
Effective lagrangian for strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, P.
1988-01-01
We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields
Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir
1990-01-01
This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso lution laser spectroscop...
Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, J.
2008-01-01
The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)
Frenetic Bounds on the Entropy Production
Maes, Christian
2017-10-01
We give a systematic derivation of positive lower bounds for the expected entropy production (EP) rate in classical statistical mechanical systems obeying a dynamical large deviation principle. The logic is the same for the return to thermodynamic equilibrium as it is for steady nonequilibria working under the condition of local detailed balance. We recover there recently studied "uncertainty" relations for the EP, appearing in studies about the effectiveness of mesoscopic machines. In general our refinement of the positivity of the expected EP rate is obtained in terms of a positive and even function of the expected current(s) which measures the dynamical activity in the system, a time-symmetric estimate of the changes in the system's configuration. Also underdamped diffusions can be included in the analysis.
Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Anders Fjendbo
2016-01-01
Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...... set. An individual is said to demonstrate bounded rational behaviour if he/she does not systematically consider all attributes deemed relevant for the decision problem at hand, does not consider all choice options and/or does not choose the best choice alternative. Such simplified representation...
Transient response in granular bounded heap flows
Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.
2017-11-01
Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.
Similarity problems and completely bounded maps
Pisier, Gilles
2001-01-01
These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...
'Critical' behaviour of weakly bound systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassaut, M.; Lombard, R.J.; Bulboaca, I.
1995-11-01
The class of 3-dimensional finite range or similar potentials λW(r) is discussed, depending on a strength constant λ. The behaviour of the eigenvalue E as function of λ-λ c is studied, where λ c is the critical value at the transition from 0 → 1 bound state. For the l=0 case, E α (λ-λ c ) 2 was found, whereas the relationship is linear for l≥1. Treating l as a continuous parameter in the radial Schroedinger equation, the evolution of the power-law between l=0 and l=1 is given. Besides spherically symmetric scalar potentials, the case of a repulsive scalar potential combined with a spin-orbit component of the Thomas form is also discussed. (author)
Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states
Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán
2018-04-01
The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.
Dilation volumes of sets of bounded perimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan
, this derivative coincides up to sign with the directional derivative of the covariogram of A in direction u. By known results for the covariogram, this derivative can therefore be expressed by the cosine transform of the surface area measure of A. We extend this result to sets Q that are at most countable and use...... it to determine the derivative of the contact distribution function of a stationary random closed set at zero. A variant for uncountable Q is given, too. The proofs are based on approximation of the characteristic function of A by smooth functions of bounded variation and showing corresponding formulas for them....
Hyperquarks and bosonic preon bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmid, Michael L.; Buchmann, Alfons J.
2009-01-01
In a model in which leptons, quarks, and the recently introduced hyperquarks are built up from two fundamental spin-(1/2) preons, the standard model weak gauge bosons emerge as preon bound states. In addition, the model predicts a host of new composite gauge bosons, in particular, those responsible for hyperquark and proton decay. Their presence entails a left-right symmetric extension of the standard model weak interactions and a scheme for a partial and grand unification of nongravitational interactions based on, respectively, the effective gauge groups SU(6) P and SU(9) G . This leads to a prediction of the Weinberg angle at low energies in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, using evolution equations for the effective coupling strengths, we calculate the partial and grand unification scales, the hyperquark mass scale, as well as the mass and decay rate of the lightest hyperhadron.
Factorization Procedure for Harmonically Bound Brownian Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omolo, JK.
2006-01-01
The method of factorization to solve the problem of the one-dimensional harmonically bound Brownian particle was applied. Assuming the the rapidily fluctuating random force is Gaussian and has an infinitely short correlation time, explicit expressions for the position-position,velocity-velocity, and the position-velocity correlation functions, which are also use to write down appropriate distribution functions were used. The correlation and distribution functions for the complex quantity (amplititude) which provides the expressions for the position and velocity of the particle are calculated. Finally, Fokker-Planck equations for the joint probability distribution functions for the amplititude and it's complex conjugate as well as for the position and velocity of the particle are obtained. (author)
Lower complexity bounds for lifted inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jaeger, Manfred
2015-01-01
instances of the model. Numerous approaches for such “lifted inference” techniques have been proposed. While it has been demonstrated that these techniques will lead to significantly more efficient inference on some specific models, there are only very recent and still quite restricted results that show...... the feasibility of lifted inference on certain syntactically defined classes of models. Lower complexity bounds that imply some limitations for the feasibility of lifted inference on more expressive model classes were established earlier in Jaeger (2000; Jaeger, M. 2000. On the complexity of inference about...... that under the assumption that NETIME≠ETIME, there is no polynomial lifted inference algorithm for knowledge bases of weighted, quantifier-, and function-free formulas. Further strengthening earlier results, this is also shown to hold for approximate inference and for knowledge bases not containing...
Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thanaya I.N.A.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.
EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems
Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian
2011-03-01
Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed
Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.
Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael
2015-06-09
A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the
Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard
Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...
Resignation syndrome: Catatonia? Culture-bound?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl eSallin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Resignation syndrome (RS designates a long-standing disorder predominately affecting psychologically traumatised children and adolescents in the midst of a strenuous and lengthy migration process. Typically a depressive onset is followed by gradual withdrawal progressing via stupor into a state that prompts tube feeding and is characterised by failure to respond even to painful stimuli. The patient is seemingly unconscious. Recovery ensues within months to years and is claimed to be dependent on the restoration of hope to the family.Descriptions of disorders resembling RS can be found in the literature and the condition is unlikely novel. Nevertheless, the magnitude and geographical distribution stand out. Several hundred cases have been reported exclusively in Sweden in the past decade prompting the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to recognise RS as a separate diagnostic entity. The currently prevailing stress hypothesis fails to account for the regional distribution and contributes little to treatment. Consequently, a re-evaluation of diagnostics and treatment is required. Psychogenic catatonia is proposed to supply the best fit with the clinical presentation. Treatment response, altered brain metabolism or preserved awareness would support this hypothesis.Epidemiological data suggests culture-bound beliefs and expectations to generate and direct symptom expression and we argue that culture-bound psychogenesis can accommodate the endemic distribution.Last, we review recent models of predictive coding indicating how expectation processes are crucially involved in the placebo and nocebo effect, delusions and conversion disorders. Building on this theoretical framework we propose a neurobiological model of RS in which the impact of overwhelming negative expectations are directly causative of the down-regulation of higher order and lower order behavioural systems in particularly vulnerable individuals.
Models for light QCD bound states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaCourse, D.P.
1992-01-01
After a brief overview of Regge, tower, and heavy-quark experimental data, this thesis examines two massless wave equations relevant to quark bound states. We establish general conditions on the Lorentz scalar and Lorentz vector potentials which yield arbitrary leading Regge trajectories for the case of circular classical motion. A semi-classical approximation which includes radial motion reproduces remarkably well the exact solutions. Conditions for tower structure are examined, and found to be incompatible with conditions which give a Nambu stringlike Regge slope. The author then proposes a generalization of the usual potential model of quark bound states in which the confining flux tube is a dynamical object carrying both angular momentum and energy. The Q bar Q-string system with spinless quarks is quantized using an implicit operator technique and the resulting relativistic wave equation is solved. For heavy quarks the usual Schroedinger valence-quark model is recovered. The Regge slope with light quarks agree with the classical rotating-string result and is significantly larger and the effects of short-range forces are also considered. A relativistic generalization of the quantized flux tube model predicts the glueball ground state mass to be √3/α' ≅ 1.9 GeV where α' is the normal Regge slope. The groundstate as well as excited levels like considerably above the expectations of previous models and also above various proposed experimental candidates. The glueball Regge slope is only about three-eighths that for valence quark hadrons. A semi-classical calculation of the Regge slope is in good agreement with a numerically exact value
Coherent structures in wall-bounded turbulence
Jiménez, Javier
2018-05-01
This article discusses the description of wall-bounded turbulence as a deterministic high-dimensional dynamical system of interacting coherent structures, defined as eddies with enough internal dynamics to behave relatively autonomously from any remaining incoherent part of the flow. The guiding principle is that randomness is not a property, but a methodological choice of what to ignore in the flow, and that a complete understanding of turbulence, including the possibility of control, requires that it be kept to a minimum. After briefly reviewing the underlying low-order statistics of flows at moderate Reynolds numbers, the article examines what two-point statistics imply for the decomposition of the flow into individual eddies. Intense eddies are examined next, including their temporal evolution, and shown to satisfy many of the properties required for coherence. In particular, it is shown that coherent structures larger than the Corrsin scale are a natural consequence of the shear. In wall-bounded turbulence, they can be classified into coherent dispersive waves and transient bursts. The former are found in the viscous layer near the wall and as very-large structures spanning the boundary layer thickness. Although they are shear-driven, these waves have enough internal structure to maintain a uniform advection velocity. Conversely, bursts exist at all scales, are characteristic of the logarithmic layer, and interact almost linearly with the shear. While the waves require a wall to determine their length scale, the bursts are essentially independent from it. The article concludes with a brief review of our present theoretical understanding of turbulent structures, and with a list of open problems and future perspectives.
Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J
1995-01-01
Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....
OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE
2013-01-01
Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...
Generic Lower Bounds for Root Extraction and Signature Schemes in General Groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Koprowski, Maciej
2002-01-01
not use any special properties of the group at hand. We prove an exponential lower bound on the generic complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the public exponent itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms...... it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class groups. In all cases, security follows from a well defined complexity assumption (the strong root assumption), without relying on random oracles, and the assumption...
Study of the threshold anomaly in systems involving weakly bound nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Figueira, J.M.; Niello, J.O. Fernandez; Abelof, G.A.; Arazi, A.; Barmak, D.H.; Capurro, O.A.; Carnelli, P.; Fimiani, L.; Marti, G.V.; Heimann, D. Martinez; Negri, A.E.; Pacheco, A.J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Lubian, J.; Monteiro, D.S.
2009-01-01
Full text: One of the dominant mechanisms in systems involving weakly bound nuclei is the break-up channel; however, the dynamics of this process remains poorly understood. In elastic scattering of strongly bound nuclei it is clearly established that there is always a threshold anomaly (TA) in the optical potential. The TA is characterized by a localized peak in the real part of the potential and by a decrease of the imaginary part of the potential as the bombarding energy decreases towards the Coulomb barrier. But when at least one of the nuclei is weakly bound the results are different for different systems. Three kinds of situations have been reported: the usual TA is observed; the usual TA is not observed because the potentials are almost constant even close to the Coulomb barrier; the so-called Break up Threshold Anomaly (BTA), where the imaginary potential increases as the bombarding energy decreases towards the Coulomb barrier. The BTA is attributed to a strong coupling of the elastic channel with the breakup process, which might have a much larger cross section than fusion at sub-barrier energies. In order to understand how those differences are affected by the system properties it is important to have data of new systems available. In this work we contribute original elastic scattering data of the weakly bound 6,7 Li projectiles on 144 Sm at near coulomb barrier energies. The measurements have been performed at the TANDAR Laboratory using 6 Li and 7 Li beams and a 100 μg/cm 2 thick 144 Sm target. Eleven different bombarding energies between 21 and 42.3 MeV were used for each projectile. The results are analyzed using phenomenological optical potentials and compared with results from other systems involving weakly bound nuclei. (author)
Strong growth for Queensland mining
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-10-01
The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.
Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology
Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A
2013-01-01
We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).
Strongly interacting W's and Z's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaillard, M.K.
1984-01-01
The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data
Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG XIU-LAN
2012-01-01
A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.
Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.
Barany, Sandor
2009-01-01
Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a
Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ
Pittman, Roland N.
2012-01-01
The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po2 dependence of oxygen consumption, V̇o2, proportional to the rate of Po2 decrease. Fitting equations obtained from a model of heterogeneous intracellular Po2 were applied to recover the parameters describing respiration in muscle fibers, with a predicted sigmoidal shape for the dependence of V̇o2 on Po2. This curve consists of two regions connected by the point for critical Po2 of the cell (i.e., Po2 at the sarcolemma when the center of the cell becomes anoxic). The critical Po2 was below the Po2 for half-maximal respiratory rate (P50) for the cells. In six muscles at rest, the rate of oxygen consumption was 139 ± 6 nl O2/cm3·s and mitochondrial P50 was k = 10.5 ± 0.8 mmHg. The range of Po2 values inside the muscle fibers was found to be 4–5 mmHg at the critical Po2. The oxygen dependence of respiration can be studied in thin muscles under different experimental conditions. In resting muscle, the critical Po2 was substantially lower than the interstitial Po2 of 53 ± 2 mmHg, a finding that indicates that V̇o2 under this circumstance is independent of oxygen supply and is discordant with the conventional hypothesis of metabolic regulation of the oxygen supply to tissue. PMID:22523254
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T
2004-01-01
The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...
... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...
Central oxygen pipeline failure
African Journals Online (AJOL)
surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.
Oxygen Extraction from Minerals
Muscatello, Tony
2017-01-01
Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key
Langmuir, C. H.
2014-12-01
The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized
Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.
2004-09-01
We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.
Dall'Osto, Luca; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Havaux, Michel; Bassi, Roberto
2010-05-01
When light absorbed by plants exceeds the capacity of photosynthesis, the xanthophyll violaxanthin is reversibly de-epoxidized to zeaxanthin in the so-called xanthophyll cycle. Zeaxanthin plays a key role in the protection of photosynthetic organisms against excess light, by promoting rapidly reversible (qE) and long-term (qI) quenching of excited chlorophylls, and preventing lipid oxidation. The photoprotective role of zeaxanthin, either free or bound to light-harvesting complexes (Lhcs), has been investigated by using mutants lacking Chl b (ch1) and/or specific xanthophyll species (npq, lut2). The ch1 mutation causes (1) the absence of Lhcb proteins; (2) strong reduction of the feedback de-excitation (qE); and (3) accumulation of xanthophylls as free pigments into thylakoids. Ch1 mutants showed extreme sensitivity to photo-oxidative stress in high light, due to higher singlet oxygen (¹O₂) release. The double mutant ch1npq1 was more sensitive to photo-oxidation than ch1, showing that zeaxanthin does protect lipids even when free in the membrane. Nevertheless, lack of zeaxanthin had a much stronger impact on the level of lipid peroxidation in Lhcs-containing plants (WT vs npq1) with respect to Lhc-less plants (ch1 vs ch1npq1), implying that its protective effect is enhanced by interaction with antenna proteins. It is proposed that the antioxidant capacity of zeaxanthin is empowered in the presence of PSII-LHCs-Zea complexes, while its effect on enhancement of qE only provides a minor contribution. Comparison of the sensitivity of WT vs npq1 plants to exogenous ¹O₂ suggests that besides the scavenging of ¹O₂, at least one additional mechanism is involved in chloroplast photoprotection.
The neural basis of bounded rational behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coricelli, Giorgio
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Bounded rational behaviour is commonly observed in experimental games and in real life situations. Neuroeconomics can help to understand the mental processing underlying bounded rationality and out-of-equilibrium behaviour. Here we report results from recent studies on the neural basis of limited steps of reasoning in a competitive setting —the beauty contest game. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to study the neural correlates of human mental processes in strategic games. We apply a cognitive hierarchy model to classify subject’s choices in the experimental game according to the degree of strategic reasoning so that we can identify the neural substrates of different levels of strategizing. We found a correlation between levels of strategic reasoning and activity in a neural network related to mentalizing, i.e. the ability to think about other’s thoughts and mental states. Moreover, brain data showed how complex cognitive processes subserve the higher level of reasoning about others. We describe how a cognitive hierarchy model fits both behavioural and brain data.
La racionalidad limitada es un fenómeno observado de manera frecuente tanto en juegos experimentales como en situaciones cotidianas. La Neuroeconomía puede mejorar la comprensión de los procesos mentales que caracterizan la racionalidad limitada; en paralelo nos puede ayudar a comprender comportamientos que violan el equilibrio. Nuestro trabajo presenta resultados recientes sobre la bases neuronales del razonamiento estratégico (y sus límite en juegos competitivos —como el juego del “beauty contest”. Estudiamos las bases neuronales del comportamiento estratégico en juegos con interacción entre sujetos usando resonancia magnética funcional (fMRI. Las decisiones de los participantes se clasifican acorde al grado de razonamiento estratégico: el llamado modelo de Jerarquías Cognitivas. Los resultados muestran una correlación entre niveles de
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gal, A.; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal
2013-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n)→{0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: 1) if d=2, then w=Θ(n (lgn/lglgn)2); 2) if d=3, then w...
Tight bounds on computing error-correcting codes by bounded-depth circuits with arbitrary gates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gál, Anna; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal
2012-01-01
We bound the minimum number w of wires needed to compute any (asymptotically good) error-correcting code C:{0,1}Ω(n) -> {0,1}n with minimum distance Ω(n), using unbounded fan-in circuits of depth d with arbitrary gates. Our main results are: (1) If d=2 then w = Θ(n ({log n/ log log n})2). (2) If d...
Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...
Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces
Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil
2008-01-01
In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.
Bounds on an Energy-Dependent and Observer-Independent Speed of Light from Violations of Locality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hossenfelder, Sabine
2010-01-01
We show that models with deformations of special relativity that have an energy-dependent speed of light have nonlocal effects. The requirement that the arising nonlocality is not in conflict with known particle physics allows us to derive strong bounds on deformations of special relativity and rule out a modification to first order in energy over the Planck mass.
Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puffitsch, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....
Architecture-independent power bound for vibration energy harvesters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halvorsen, E; Le, C P; Mitcheson, P D; Yeatman, E M
2013-01-01
The maximum output power of energy harvesters driven by harmonic vibrations is well known for a range of specific harvester architectures. An architecture-independent bound based on the mechanical input-power also exists and gives a strict limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom, but is a least upper bound only for lossless devices. We report a new theoretical bound on the output power of vibration energy harvesters that includes parasitic, linear mechanical damping while still being architecture independent. This bound greatly improves the previous bound at moderate force amplitudes and is compared to the performance of established harvester architectures which are shown to agree with it in limiting cases. The bound is a hard limit on achievable power with one mechanical degree of freedom and can not be circumvented by transducer or power-electronic-interface design
Sharp bounds for periodic solutions of Lipschitzian differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zevin, A A
2009-01-01
A general system of Lipschitzian differential equations, containing simultaneously terms without delay and with arbitrary constant and time-varying delays, is considered. For the autonomous case, a lower bound for the period of nonconstant periodic solutions, expressed in the respective supremum Lipschitz constants, is found. For nonautonomous periodic equations, explicit upper bounds for the amplitudes and maximum derivatives of periodic solutions are obtained. For all n ≥ 2, the bounds do not depend on n and, in general, are different from that for n = 1. All the bounds are sharp; they are attained in linear differential equations with piece-wise constant deviating arguments. A relation between the obtained bounds and the sharp bounds in other metrics is established
``Carbon Credits'' for Resource-Bounded Computations Using Amortised Analysis
Jost, Steffen; Loidl, Hans-Wolfgang; Hammond, Kevin; Scaife, Norman; Hofmann, Martin
Bounding resource usage is important for a number of areas, notably real-time embedded systems and safety-critical systems. In this paper, we present a fully automatic static type-based analysis for inferring upper bounds on resource usage for programs involving general algebraic datatypes and full recursion. Our method can easily be used to bound any countable resource, without needing to revisit proofs. We apply the analysis to the important metrics of worst-case execution time, stack- and heap-space usage. Our results from several realistic embedded control applications demonstrate good matches between our inferred bounds and measured worst-case costs for heap and stack usage. For time usage we infer good bounds for one application. Where we obtain less tight bounds, this is due to the use of software floating-point libraries.
2006-01-01
Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...
Remnants of strong tidal interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mcglynn, T.A.
1990-01-01
This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs
Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells
Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram
2016-06-01
Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.
Strong seismic ground motion propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.
1988-10-01
At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials
Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.
An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue
2016-04-15
A model of the dark sector where O(few GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.
Inclusive breakup of three-fragment weakly bound nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, B.V.; Frederico, T.; Hussein, M.S.
2017-01-01
The inclusive breakup of three-fragment projectiles is discussed within a four-body spectator model. Both the elastic breakup and the non-elastic breakup are obtained in a unified framework. Originally developed in the 80's for two-fragment projectiles such as the deuteron, in this paper the theory is successfully generalized to three-fragment projectiles. The expression obtained for the inclusive cross section allows the extraction of the incomplete fusion cross section, and accordingly generalizes the surrogate method to cases such as (t, p) and (t, n) reactions. It is found that two-fragment correlations inside the projectile affect in a conspicuous way the elastic breakup cross section. The inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section is calculated and is found to contain the contribution of a three-body absorption term that is also strongly influenced by the two-fragment correlations. This latter cross section contains the so-called incomplete fusion where more than one compound nuclei are formed. Our theory describes both stable weakly bound three-fragment projectiles and unstable ones such as the Borromean nuclei.