WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly associate deception

  1. You can’t kid a kidder: Association between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the ability to deceive others, and the ability to detect deception, have long been proposed to confer an evolutionary advantage. Deception detection has been studied extensively, and the finding that typical individuals fare little better than chance in detecting deception is one of the more robust in the behavioral sciences. Surprisingly, little research has examined individual differences in lie-production ability. As a consequence, as far as we are aware, no previous study has investigated whether there exists an association between the ability to lie successfully and the ability to detect lies. Furthermore, only a minority of studies have examined deception as it naturally occurs; in a social, interactive setting. The present study therefore explored the relationship between these two facets of deceptive behavior by employing a novel competitive interactive deception task. For the first time, signal-detection theory was used to measure performance in both the detection and production of deception. A significant relationship was found between the deception-related abilities; those who could accurately detect a lie were able to produce statements that others found difficult to classify as deceptive or truthful. Furthermore, neither ability was related to measures of intelligence or emotional ability. We therefore suggest the existence of an underlying deception-general ability that varies across individuals.

  2. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People's and Police Officers' Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Glynis; Meijer, Ewout H; Vrij, Aldert; Merckelbach, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed.

  3. Strong, but Wrong: Lay People’s and Police Officers’ Beliefs about Verbal and Nonverbal Cues to Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the beliefs of students and police officers about cues to deception. A total of 95 police officers and 104 undergraduate students filled out a questionnaire addressing beliefs about cues to deception. Twenty-eight verbal cues were included in the questionnaire, all extracted from verbal credibility assessment tools (i.e., CBCA, RM, and SCAN). We investigated to what extent beliefs about nonverbal and verbal cues of deception differed between lay people (students) and police officers, and whether these beliefs were in agreement with objective cues known from research. Both students and police officers believed the usual stereotypical, but non-diagnostic (nonverbal) cues such as gaze aversion and increased movement to be indicative of deception. Yet, participants were less inclined to overestimate the relationship between verbal cues and deception and their beliefs fitted better with what we know from research. The implications of these findings for practice are discussed. PMID:27258014

  4. Unobtrusive Deception Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Burgoon, Judee; Calvo, Rafael; D' Mello, Sidney; Gratch, Jonathan; Kappas, Arvid

    In response to national security needs and human deception detection limitations paired with advances in sensor and computing technology research into automated deception detection has increased in recent years. These technologies rely on psychological and communication theories of deception to

  5. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  6. Deceptive intent: physiological reactions in different interpersonal contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ströfer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation advanced the deception field by examining the psychological processes associated with deceptive intent. The main focus forms the intention to deceive and more specifically, whether cues to deception already can be measured during truth telling with the mere intention to lie. In

  7. Deception: Counterdeception and Counterintelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.; Clark, Dr. Robert M.

    Bridging the divide between theory and practice, William L. Mitchell and Robert M. Clark's Deception: Counterdeception and Counterintelligence provides a thorough overview of the principles of deception and its uses in intelligence operations. This masterful guide focuses on practical training...... when conducting intelligence analysis. Finally, it goes beyond existing books by dealing with multichannel deception across the political, military, economic, social, infrastructure, and information domains, with special emphasis on use of the rich modern environment for conveying information....

  8. Patterns of reproductive isolation in Mediterranean deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, Giovanni; Musacchio, Aldo; Widmer, Alex; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2007-11-01

    The evolution of reproductive isolation is of central interest in evolutionary biology. In plants, this is typically achieved by a combination of pre- and postpollination mechanisms that prevent, or limit, the amount of interspecific gene flow. Here, we investigated and compared two ecologically defined groups of Mediterranean orchids that differ in pollination biology and pollinator specificity: sexually deceptive orchids versus food-deceptive orchids. We used experimental crosses to assess the strength of postmating prezygotic, and postzygotic reproductive isolation, and a phylogenetic framework to determine their relative rates of evolution. We found quantitative and qualitative differences between the two groups. Food-deceptive orchids have weak premating isolation but strong postmating isolation, whereas the converse situation characterizes sexually deceptive orchids. Only postzygotic reproductive isolation among food-deceptive orchids was found to evolve in a clock-like manner. Comparison of evolutionary rates, within a common interval of genetic distance, showed that the contribution of postmating barriers was more relevant in the food-deceptive species than in the sexually deceptive species. Asymmetry in prezygotic isolation was found among food-deceptive species. Our results indicate that postmating barriers are most important for reproductive isolation in food-deceptive orchids, whereas premating barriers are most important in sexually deceptive orchids. The different rate of evolution of reproductive isolation and the relative strength of pre- and postmating barriers may have implication for speciation processes in the two orchid groups.

  9. Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases are associated with floral isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schluter, P.M.; Shanklin, J.; Xu, S.; Gagliardini, V.; Whittle, E.; Grossniklaus, U.; Schiestl, F. P.

    2011-04-05

    The orchids Ophrys sphegodes and O. exaltata are reproductively isolated from each other by the attraction of two different, highly specific pollinator species. For pollinator attraction, flowers chemically mimic the pollinators sex pheromones, the key components of which are alkenes with different double-bond positions. This study identifies genes likely involved in alkene biosynthesis, encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) homologs. The expression of two isoforms, SAD1 and SAD2, is flower-specific and broadly parallels alkene production during flower development. SAD2 shows a significant association with alkene production, and in vitro assays show that O. sphegodes SAD2 has activity both as an 18:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 9} and a 16:0-ACP {Delta}{sup 4} desaturase. Downstream metabolism of the SAD2 reaction products would give rise to alkenes with double-bonds at position 9 or position 12, matching double-bond positions observed in alkenes in the odor bouquet of O. sphegodes. SAD1 and SAD2 show evidence of purifying selection before, and positive or relaxed purifying selection after gene duplication. By contributing to the production of species-specific alkene bouquets, SAD2 is suggested to contribute to differential pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among these species. Taken together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that SAD2 is a florally expressed barrier gene of large phenotypic effect and, possibly, a genic target of pollinator-mediated selection.

  10. Deception Detection in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhe; Singh, Bharat; Davis, Larry S.; Subrahmanian, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for covert automated deception detection in real-life courtroom trial videos. We study the importance of different modalities like vision, audio and text for this task. On the vision side, our system uses classifiers trained on low level video features which predict human micro-expressions. We show that predictions of high-level micro-expressions can be used as features for deception prediction. Surprisingly, IDT (Improved Dense Trajectory) features which have been widely ...

  11. Deception: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Chisholm and Feehan provide another illuminating example attributed to Immanuel Kant : “For there are types of intended deception that cannot properly...people draw the conclusion I want them to draw . . .’ But although I thus succeed in deceiving them, Kant insists, ‘I have not lied to them, for I

  12. Hazard of deceptive advertising of athletic footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S; Waked, E

    1997-12-01

    Athletic footwear are associated with frequent injury that are thought to result from repetitive impact. No scientific data suggest they protect well. Expensive athletic shoes are deceptively advertised to safeguard well through "cushioning impact", yet account for 123% greater injury frequency than the cheapest ones. This study tested the hypothesis that deceptive advertising creates a false sense of security with users of expensive athletic shoes, inducing attenuation of impact moderating behaviour, increased impact, and injury. Fifteen young healthy male volunteers confronted four surfaces: a bare force moment platform, and three with this platform covered by identical shoe sole material made to appear different and advertised divergently. Advertising messages suggested superior impact absorption and protection (deceptive message), poor impact absorption and high injury risk (warning message), and unknown impact absorption and safety (neutral message). Ground reaction forces were recorded for 10 barefoot footfalls, according to a protocol requiring stepping forward from perch to a surface 4.5 cm below. Impact varied as a function of advertising message (p shoes. This is the first report to suggest: (1) deceptive advertising of protective devices may represent a public health hazard and may have to be eliminated presumably through regulation; (2) a tendency in humans to be less cautious when using new devices of unknown benefit because of overly positive attitudes associated with new technology and novel devices.

  13. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    collection of deceptive and non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English instructed to answer...report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis, progress , quarterly, research, special, group study, etc. 3. DATES COVERED...non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English and are currently completing the use of this data to

  14. Deceptiveness and genetic algorithm dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liepins, G.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vose, M.D. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We address deceptiveness, one of at least four reasons genetic algorithms can fail to converge to function optima. We construct fully deceptive functions and other functions of intermediate deceptiveness. For the fully deceptive functions of our construction, we generate linear transformations that induce changes of representation to render the functions fully easy. We further model genetic algorithm selection recombination as the interleaving of linear and quadratic operators. Spectral analysis of the underlying matrices allows us to draw preliminary conclusions about fixed points and their stability. We also obtain an explicit formula relating the nonuniform Walsh transform to the dynamics of genetic search. 21 refs.

  15. Military Deception Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    my early departure from school. Huge thanks to my parents, sister, Suzy Streeter, Mack Bessemer , Tim Ryan, the RAF Lakenheath crew and friends who...collection, analysis, and dissemination systems (his communication channels). In essence, know thy enemy and his decision making process . The goal is...principles for deception: 1. Focus – aimed at the mind of the decision maker (how he receives it, processes it, experiences, preconceptions) 2. Action

  16. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wojciechowski

    Full Text Available Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI. However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  17. Emotional intelligence and mismatching expressive and verbal messages: a contribution to detection of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception.

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Mismatching Expressive and Verbal Messages: A Contribution to Detection of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Maciej; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Processing facial emotion, especially mismatches between facial and verbal messages, is believed to be important in the detection of deception. For example, emotional leakage may accompany lying. Individuals with superior emotion perception abilities may then be more adept in detecting deception by identifying mismatch between facial and verbal messages. Two personal factors that may predict such abilities are female gender and high emotional intelligence (EI). However, evidence on the role of gender and EI in detection of deception is mixed. A key issue is that the facial processing skills required to detect deception may not be the same as those required to identify facial emotion. To test this possibility, we developed a novel facial processing task, the FDT (Face Decoding Test) that requires detection of inconsistencies between facial and verbal cues to emotion. We hypothesized that gender and ability EI would be related to performance when cues were inconsistent. We also hypothesized that gender effects would be mediated by EI, because women tend to score as more emotionally intelligent on ability tests. Data were collected from 210 participants. Analyses of the FDT suggested that EI was correlated with superior face decoding in all conditions. We also confirmed the expected gender difference, the superiority of high EI individuals, and the mediation hypothesis. Also, EI was more strongly associated with facial decoding performance in women than in men, implying there may be gender differences in strategies for processing affective cues. It is concluded that integration of emotional and cognitive cues may be a core attribute of EI that contributes to the detection of deception. PMID:24658500

  19. Statistical deception at work

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, John

    2013-01-01

    Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g

  20. Organizing for Operational Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    situational advantage. Deception operations that generate “A”- type effects can be compared to denial of service attacks on the Internet , where an...finger to his lips, in a stage whisper: “Hist,” he said, “It’s a g’muffin!” The man opposite tactfully displayed extreme gratification at being...hypothesis for as long as possible. In other words, “Red-handed” activities should be deferred to the last possible instant . Maxim 8: The Importance

  1. Information Asymmetry and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eClots Figueras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project’s value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee. The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a nonbinding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  2. Information asymmetry and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; Hernán-González, Roberto; Kujal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Situations such as an entrepreneur overstating a project's value, or a superior choosing to under or overstate the gains from a project to a subordinate are common and may result in acts of deception. In this paper we modify the standard investment game in the economics literature to study the nature of deception. In this game a trustor (investor) can send a given amount of money to a trustee (or investee). The amount received is multiplied by a certain amount, k, and the investee then decides on how to divide the total amount received. In our modified game the information on the multiplier, k, is known only to the investee and she can send a non-binding message to the investor regarding its value. We find that 66% of the investees send false messages with both under and over, statement being observed. Investors are naive and almost half of them believe the message received. We find greater lying when the distribution of the multiplier is unknown by the investors than when they know the distribution. Further, messages make beliefs about the multiplier more pessimistic when the investors know the distribution of the multiplier, while the opposite is true when they do not know the distribution.

  3. Web of Deception: Social Media and Implications for Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    additional deception and OPSEC concerns. 35 Beyond just the open source intelligence ( OSINT ) that can be collected by other entities, there is also a...witting participants, in an effort to mislead or confuse the enemy. Just as the United States would be monitoring social media for OSINT , the...deception. Exploiting adversary use of social media OSINT through DISO is another lower threat avenue to examine as a starting point. As previously

  4. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-05-01

    The orchid family is renowned for its enormous diversity of pollination mechanisms and unusually high occurrence of non-rewarding flowers compared to other plant families. The mechanisms of deception in orchids include generalized food deception, food-deceptive floral mimicry, brood-site imitation, shelter imitation, pseudoantagonism, rendezvous attraction and sexual deception. Generalized food deception is the most common mechanism (reported in 38 genera) followed by sexual deception (18 genera). Floral deception in orchids has been intensively studied since Darwin, but the evolution of non-rewarding flowers still presents a major puzzle for evolutionary biology. The two principal hypotheses as to how deception could increase fitness in plants are (i) reallocation of resources associated with reward production to flowering and seed production, and (ii) higher levels of cross-pollination due to pollinators visiting fewer flowers on non-rewarding plants, resulting in more outcrossed progeny and more efficient pollen export. Biologists have also tried to explain why deception is overrepresented in the orchid family. These explanations include: (i) efficient removal and deposition of pollinaria from orchid flowers in a single pollinator visit, thus obviating the need for rewards to entice multiple visits from pollinators; (ii) efficient transport of orchid pollen, thus requiring less reward-induced pollinator constancy; (iii) low-density populations in many orchids, thus limiting the learning of associations of floral phenotypes and rewards by pollinators; (iv) packaging of pollen in pollinaria with limited carry-over from flower to flower, thus increasing the risks of geitonogamous self-pollination when pollinators visit many flowers on rewarding plants. All of these general and orchid-specific hypotheses are difficult to reconcile with the well-established pattern for rewardlessness to result in low pollinator visitation rates and consequently low levels of fruit

  5. Chinese Principles of Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Jr, Michael

    2006-01-01

    .... An analysis of Chinese employment of operational deception in each modern day Chinese conflict since the Chinese Civil War determines that China's principles of operation match those of the United States...

  6. Maximum Likelihood Joint Tracking and Association in Strong Clutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Perlovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a maximum likelihood formulation for a joint detection, tracking and association problem. An efficient non-combinatorial algorithm for this problem is developed in case of strong clutter for radar data. By using an iterative procedure of the dynamic logic process “from vague-to-crisp” explained in the paper, the new tracker overcomes the combinatorial complexity of tracking in highly-cluttered scenarios and results in an orders-of-magnitude improvement in signal-to-clutter ratio.

  7. IS SELF-DECEPTION PRETENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO PORCHER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I assess Tamar Gendler's (2007 account of self-deception according to which its characteristic state is not belief, but imaginative pretense. After giving an overview of the literature and presenting the conceptual puzzles engendered by the notion of self-deception, I introduce Gendler's account, which emerges as a rival to practically all extant accounts of self-deception. I object to it by first arguing that her argument for abandoning belief as the characteristic state of self-deception conflates the state of belief and the process of belief-formation when interpreting David Velleman's (2000 thesis that belief is an essentially truth-directed attitude. I then call attention to the fact that Velleman's argument for the identity of motivational role between belief and imagining, on which Gendler's argument for self-deception as pretense depends, conflates two senses of 'motivational role'-a stronger but implausible sense and a weaker but explanatorily irrelevant sense. Finally, I introduce Neil Van Leeuwen's (2009 argument to the effect that belief is the practical ground of all non-belief cognitive attitudes in circum-stances wherein the latter prompt action. I apply this framework to Gendler's account to ultimately show that imaginative pretense fails to explain the existence of voluntary actions which result from self-deception.

  8. Explicit instructions increase cognitive costs of deception in predictable social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel eFalkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Convincing participants to deceive remains one of the biggest and most important challenges of laboratory-based deception research. The simplest and most prevalent method involves explicitly instructing participants to lie or tell the truth before presenting each task item. The usual finding of such experiments is increased cognitive load associated with deceptive responses, explained by necessity to inhibit default and automatic honest responses. However, explicit instructions are usually coupled with the absence of social context in the experimental task. Context plays a key role in social cognition by activating prior knowledge, which facilitates behaviors consistent with the latter. We hypothesized that in the presence of social context, both honest and deceptive responses can be produced on the basis of prior knowledge, without reliance on truth and without additional cognitive load during deceptive responses. In order to test the hypothesis, we have developed Speed-Dating Task (SDT, which is based on a real-life social event. In SDT, participants respond both honestly and deceptively to questions in order to appear similar to each of the dates. The dates are predictable and represent well-known categories (i.e. atheist or conservative. In one condition participants rely on explicit instructions preceding each question (external cue. In the second condition no explicit instructions are present, so the participants need to adapt based on prior knowledge about the category the dates belong to (internal cue. With internal cues, reaction times are similar for both honest and deceptive responses. However, in the presence of external cues, reaction times are longer for deceptive than honest responses, suggesting that deceptive responses are associated with increased cognitive load. Compared to internal cues, deception costs were higher when external cues were present. However, the effect was limited to the first part of the experiment, only

  9. Body-image dissatisfaction is strongly associated with chronic dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Josefsson, Kim; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Heinonen, Erkki; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2013-09-05

    Individual depressive symptoms may contribute to the risk of chronic depression. This study aimed to explore which symptoms predict chronic dysphoria, a hallmark of depression. 1057 participants from the population-based Young Finns study were examined for four times during a 16-year period. Those with a modified Beck's Depression Inventory score in the upper third at all four screenings were considered to have chronic dysphoria (n=135). Participants with only one high depression score formed the reference group of transient dysphoria (n=179). Individual items of the Inventory were analyzed in terms of their association with dysphoria status and chronicity, controlling for potential confounding factors, such as personality assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Body-image dissatisfaction was strongly associated with chronically elevated dysphoria (Bonferroni-corrected p=0.006). The degree of body-image dissatisfaction was associated with the probability for chronic dysphoria in a dose-response manner, with the estimated probability ranging from 0.01 to 0.60 as a function of item response. The association remained after adjustments for a wide range of personality characteristics. The study relied on self-reports of mood and personality, and lacked information on external opinion on participants appearances. The requirement of full time-series data may have resulted in attrition-related bias. Body-image dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of chronic depression characterized by dysphoria. This finding suggests that dysfunctional attitude towards oneself might represent a potentially important target for cognitive therapies and preventive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong association between earlier abuse and revictimization in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela

    2014-07-14

    Violence victimization among youth is recognized as a public health problem. The objective was to analyze the risk pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse during the past 12 months by gender, sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviors, and exposure to abuse before the age of 15, among young men and women attending youth health centers in Sweden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a nationally representative sample of youth health centers. A total of 2,250 young women and 920 young men aged 15-23 completed a self-administered questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% CI were calculated. A consistent and strong association was noted between exposure to all types of violence during the past year and victimization before the age of 15 for all types of violence for both women and men. The only exceptions were childhood sexual victimization and sexual violence during the past year for men. Younger age was associated with all violence exposure for the women and with emotional violence for the men. For the women, drug use was associated with all types of violence, while the association with hazardous alcohol use and not living with parents was restricted to physical and sexual violence exposure, present smoking was restricted to emotional and physical violence exposure, and partnership and living in urban areas were restricted to sexual violence. For men, not being partnered, hazardous alcohol consumption, and drug use meant increased risk for physical violence, while smoking and living in urban areas were associated with sexual violence. After adjustment, immigration had no association with violence exposure. Violence victimization in young men and women is often not a single experience. Findings underline the importance of early interventions among previously abused youth.

  11. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M; Svendsen, M T; Habel, L A; Friedman, G D; Friis, S

    2017-10-01

    The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. To study the association between use of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined potential confounders obtained from demographic, prescription and patient registries. Ever-use of hydrochlorothiazide was associated with an adjusted OR for SCC lip cancer of 2.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.6), increasing to 3.9 (95%CI: 3.0-4.9) for high use (≥25 000 mg). There was a clear dose-response effect (P hydrochlorothiazide (≥100 000 mg) presenting an OR of 7.7 (95%CI: 5.7-10.5). No association with lip cancer was seen with use of other diuretics or nondiuretic antihypertensives. Assuming causality, we estimated that 11% of the SCC lip cancer cases could be attributed to hydrochlorothiazide use. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with an increased risk of lip cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. De Novo Coding Variants Are Strongly Associated with Tourette Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willsey, A Jeremy; Fernandez, Thomas V; Yu, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    damaging missense) are overrepresented in probands (RR 1.37, p = 0.003). We identify four likely risk genes with multiple de novo damaging variants in unrelated probands: WWC1 (WW and C2 domain containing 1), CELSR3 (Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3), NIPBL (Nipped-B-like), and FN1...... trios from the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium on Genetics (511 total). We observe strong and consistent evidence for the contribution of de novo likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants (rate ratio [RR] 2.32, p = 0.002). Additionally, de novo damaging variants (LGD and probably...... (fibronectin 1). Overall, we estimate that de novo damaging variants in approximately 400 genes contribute risk in 12% of clinical cases. VIDEO ABSTRACT....

  13. An Analysis of Trust in Deception Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    presents an overview of deception, both from the military and academic perspectives. The importance of the adversarial mind to a successful deception is...to most literature on deception. This section will introduce both military and academic theories of deception and discuss their relevance to trust...claim, faking documentation, plagiarism , and purchasing one (p. 226). A doctorate is regarded as a valuable item for establishing reputational

  14. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Illusory Paschen curves associated with strongly electronegative gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Using analytical linear regression analysis, it is shown that, for a strongly electronegative gas, the (direct) breakdown voltage curve obtained with a moderately nonuniform field is effectively linear. For a strongly electronegative gas, breakdown voltage measurements made on a moderately...... nonuniform field test gap give rise to an apparently liner curve. The curve can be designated a Paschen curve, but the erroneous nature of this designation becomes apparent from a linear regression analysis of the experimental breakdown data...

  16. Placebo and deception: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Anne; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-02-01

    In a recent article in this Journal, Shlomo Cohen and Haim Shapiro (2013) introduce the concept of "comparable placebo treatments" (CPTs)--placebo treatments with biological effects similar to the drugs they replace--and argue that doctors are not being deceptive when they prescribe or administer CPTs without revealing that they are placebos. We critique two of Cohen and Shapiro's primary arguments. First, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not lying to the patient, but rather is making a self-fulfilling prophecy--telling a "lie" that, ideally, will become true. We argue that offering undisclosed placebos is not a "lie" but is a straightforward case of deceptively misleading the patient. Second, Cohen and Shapiro argue that offering undisclosed CPTs is not equivocation. We argue that it typically is equivocation or deception of another sort. If justifiable, undisclosed placebo use will have to be justified as a practice that is deceptive in most instances. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Inc. 2014.

  17. Digging in the Dark Triad: A Replication of ``Machiavellianism and Dating: Deception and Intimacy''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand, Guillaume

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a replication and an extension of Dussault, Hojjat, and Boone (2013. Machiavellianism and dating: Deception and intimacy. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 41(2, 283-294. The results support the positive association between Machiavellianism and the use of deceptive dating strategies, but fail to detect a correlation between Machiavellianism and perceived intimacy. The extension to the Dark Triad reveals that psychopathy is a stronger predictor than Machiavellianism to assess deceptive dating strategies, and supports a relationship between higher degrees of narcissism and history of intimate behaviors.

  18. Strong association between myotonic dystrophy type 2 and autoimmune diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, A.A.; Broeder, A. den; Logt, A. van de; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder, characterised by progressive proximal weakness, myotonia, cataracts and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Our clinical impression of an association between DM2 and autoimmune diseases or autoantibody

  19. Military Deception: Transparency in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grohe, Edwin J

    2007-01-01

    .... Operational Deception, which grants the operational commander freedom of action, relies on confusing the adversary either through a flood of conflicting information or a supply of incorrect information...

  20. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    deception. 193 FOOTNOTES ’John von Neuman and Oskar Morgenstern , Theory of Games and Eco- nomic Behavior (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1947), p...and the key issues with which it must deal. Aswasnoted by von Neuman and Morgenstern as they set forth on the task of providing a theoretical...der Gesellschaftsspiele" Math. Annalen, 100 (1928), 295-320. 6J. von Neuman and 0. Morgenstern , Theory of Games, sections 17, 18; J. D. Williams, The

  1. The Ethics of Military Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    he actually expressed disgust at the lack of what one might call ’ semiotic sensitivity’ on the part of U.S. forces. To Echuca, it was clear that the...stage of the Kiyomizu Temple.ൠ This semiotic insensitivity resulting in American self-deception prompted Prange to observe, "We cannot stress too...nations do not put their prisoners to death or devastate cities or countries, it is because intelligence plays a larger part in their methods of

  2. Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with tuberculosis in Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisjahbana, B.; Crevel, R. van; Sahiratmadja, E.; Heijer, M. den; Maya, A.; Istriana, E.; Danusantoso, H.; Ottenhoff, T.H.; Nelwan, R.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    SETTING: Diabetes mellitus is a known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB), but no studies have been reported from South-East Asia, which has a high burden of TB and a rapidly growing prevalence of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To examine if and to what extent diabetes is associated with an increased risk of TB

  3. Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with strong wind events in Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Peña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of having a daily synoptic weather type catalogue and even more, a detailed catalogue for high impact weather events is well recognised by both climatologist and meteorologist communities. In this way the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC has produced some accurate classifications for extreme events, such as hailstorms or strong winds (SW. Within the framework of the MEDEX project, the SMC has been collaborating to increase the level of awareness about these events. Following this line of work, the aim of this study is to characterise the SW events in Catalonia.

    According to the guidelines of the MEDEX project we worked with its SW event database for the period June 1995 to May 2004. We also used the period 2005–2009 to test the methodology. The methodology is based on principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses and applied to four variables: SLP, temperature at 850 hPa and geopotential at 500 hPa on a synoptic-scale and local gust wind. We worked with ERA-Interim reanalysis and applied discriminant analysis to test the quality of the methodology and to classify the events of the validation period.

    We found seven patterns for the SW events. The strongest event corresponds to NW-Flow with the Azores Anticyclone and the passing of a low pressure through the Pyrenees. This methodology has distinguished the summer events in an independent cluster. The results obtained encourage us to follow this line of work.

  4. Hydrochlorothiazide use is strongly associated with risk of lip cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Olesen, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use of hydrochlorothia......Background: The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide is amongst the most frequently prescribed drugs in the United States and Western Europe, but there is suggestive evidence that hydrochlorothiazide use increases the risk of lip cancer. Objectives: To study the association between use...... of hydrochlorothiazide and squamous cell carcinoma of the lip. Methods: We conducted a case-control study using Danish nationwide registry data. From the Cancer Registry (2004-2012), we identified 633 case patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip and matched them to 63 067 population controls using a risk......-set sampling strategy. Hydrochlorothiazide use (1995-2012) was obtained from the Prescription Registry and defined according to cumulative use. Applying conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) for SCC lip cancer associated with hydrochlorothiazide use, adjusting for predefined...

  5. On strongly J -clean rings associated with polynomial identity g ( x =0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Haj seyyed javadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper‎, ‎we introduce the new notion of strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$‎, ‎as a generalization of strongly $ J $-clean rings‎. ‎We denote strongly $J $-clean rings associated with polynomial identity $g(x=0$ by strongly $ g(x $-$J $-clean rings‎. ‎Next‎, ‎we investigate some properties of strongly $ g(x $-$ J $-clean.

  6. Detecting deception: the scope and limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila E; Roepstorff, Andreas; McGregor, William

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing interest in the neuroimaging of deception and its commercial application, there is a need to pay more attention to methodology. The weakness of studying deception in an experimental setting has been discussed intensively for over half a century. However, even though much effor...

  7. A Comparison of Approaches to Detect Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    noteworthy literature suggests that psychopathy tends to moderate deceptive responses (Phinney, 1992; Nunez, Casey, Egner, Hare, & Hirsch, 2005), little is...that psychopathy influences deceptive responses (Fullam, McKie, & Dolan, 2009; Nunez et al., 2005), little is known whether individual differences

  8. Consumer Frauds and Deceptions: A Learning Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Fred E.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist helping professionals responsible for developing consumer education programs for older adults on the topic of consumer fraud and deception. In a modular presentation format, the materials address the following areas of concern: (1) types of frauds and deceptions such as money schemes, mail order fraud,…

  9. Pollinator-Driven Speciation in Sexually Deceptive Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been suggested to play a major role for the origin and maintenance of the species diversity in orchids. Sexually deceptive orchids are one of the prime examples for rapid, pollinator-mediated plant radiations, with many species showing little genetic differentiation, lack of postzygotic barriers, but strong prezygotic reproductive isolation. These orchids mimic mating signals of female insects and employ male insects as pollinators. This kind of sexual mimicry leads to highly specialised pollination and provides a good system for investigating the process of pollinator-driven speciation. Here, we summarise the knowledge of key processes of speciation in this group of orchids and conduct a meta-analysis on traits that contribute to species differentiation, and thus potentially to speciation. Our study suggests that pollinator shift through changes in floral scent is predominant among closely related species in sexually deceptive orchids. Such shifts can provide a mechanism for pollinator-driven speciation in plants, if the resulting floral isolation is strong. Furthermore, changes in floral scent in these orchids are likely controlled by few genes. Together these factors suggest speciation in sexually deceptive orchids may happen rapidly and even in sympatry, which may explain the remarkable species diversity observed in this plant group.

  10. Types of deception and underlying motivation: what people think

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.

    2005-01-01

    In computer-mediated communication, there are various types of possible deception such as category deception (gender switching), attractiveness deception, or identity concealment. The present article argues that it is meaningful to differentiate among these types of deception. More specifically, it

  11. Federal Trade Commission's authority to regulate marketing to children: deceptive vs. unfair rulemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Food and beverage marketing directed at children is of increasing concern to the public health and legal communities. The new administration at the Federal Trade Commission and abundant science on the topic make it a particularly opportune time for the government to reconsider regulating marketing directed at youth. This Article analyzes the Commission's authority to regulate food and beverage marketing directed at children under its jurisdiction over unfair and deceptive acts and practices to determine which avenue is most viable. The author finds that the Federal Trade Commission has the authority to regulate deceptive marketing practices directed at vulnerable populations. Although the Commission can issue individual orders, its remedial power to initiate rules would better address the pervasiveness of modern marketing practices. The Commission does not currently have the power to regulate unfair marketing to children; however, even if Congress reinstated this authority, the Commission's authority over deceptive marketing may be preferable to regulate these practices. Deceptive communications are not protected by the First Amendment and the deceptive standard matches the science associated with marketing to children. The Federal Trade Commission has the authority to initiate rulemaking in the realm of food and beverage marketing to children as deceptive communications in interstate commerce, in violation of the Federal Trade Commission Act. However, to effectuate this process, Congress would need to grant the Commission the authority to do so under the Administrative Procedures Act.

  12. Review. Specificity in pollination and consequences for postmating reproductive isolation in deceptive Mediterranean orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Salvatore; Scopece, Giovanni

    2008-09-27

    The type of reproductive isolation prevalent in the initial stages of species divergence can affect the nature and rate of emergence of additional reproductive barriers that subsequently strengthen isolation between species. Different groups of Mediterranean deceptive orchids are characterized by different levels of pollinator specificity. Whereas food-deceptive orchid species show weak pollinator specificity, the sexually deceptive Ophrys species display a more specialized pollination strategy. Comparative analyses reveal that orchids with high pollinator specificity mostly rely on premating reproductive barriers and have very little postmating isolation. In this group, a shift to a novel pollinator achieved by modifying the odour bouquet may represent the main isolation mechanism involved in speciation. By contrast, orchids with weak premating isolation, such as generalized food-deceptive orchids, show strong evidence for intrinsic postmating reproductive barriers, particularly for late-acting postzygotic barriers such as hybrid sterility. In such species, chromosomal differences may have played a key role in species isolation, although strong postmating-prezygotic isolation has also evolved in these orchids. Molecular analyses of hybrid zones indicate that the types and strength of reproductive barriers in deceptive orchids with contrasting premating isolation mechanisms directly affect the rate and evolutionary consequences of hybridization and the nature of species differentiation.

  13. Can Magic Deception Be Detected at an Unconscious Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Naoaki; Miura, Emi

    2017-06-01

    Magicians present magic tricks that seem to defy the laws of nature, entertaining us by manipulating our attention, perception, and awareness. However, although we are unaware of these manipulations at the level of conscious experience, we may still be aware of them at an unconscious level. We examined whether people can detect a magic deception outside of conscious awareness using an indirect measure. In the present study, we used the Cups and Balls magic trick, which is the transposition of balls between two cups. Participants viewed a video of the magic performance and were required to indicate the position of the ball in a direct self-report measure and completed the Single Category Implicit Association Test as an indirect measure. The results showed that the indirect measure of trick detection had higher accuracy than the direct measure. Our results suggest that while humans cannot consciously detect the magic deception, they do have a sense of what occurred on an unconscious level.

  14. Pollinator specificity, floral odour chemistry and the phylogeny of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids: implications for pollinator-driven speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakall, Rod; Ebert, Daniel; Poldy, Jacqueline; Barrow, Russell A; Francke, Wittko; Bower, Colin C; Schiestl, Florian P

    2010-10-01

    • Sexually deceptive orchids are predicted to represent a special case of plant speciation where strong reproductive isolation may be achieved by differences in floral scent. • In this study of Australian sexually deceptive Chiloglottis orchids, we performed choice experiments to test for wasp pollinator specificity in the field; identified the compounds involved in pollinator attraction by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass selective detection (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and behavioural bioassays; and mapped our chemical findings on to a phylogeny of the orchids. • Field experiments confirmed pollination is a highly specific interaction, but also revealed a pool of nonpollinating 'minor responder' wasps. Six novel compounds, all 2,5-dialkylcyclohexan-1,3-diones, called 'chiloglottones', were discovered to be involved in pollinator attraction. Bioassays confirmed that pollinator specificity has a strong chemical basis, with specificity among sympatric orchids maintained by either different single compounds or a variation in a blend of two compounds. The phylogenetic overlay confirmed that speciation is always associated with pollinator switching and usually underpinned by chemical change. • If the chemical differences that control reproductive isolation in Chiloglottis have a strong genetic basis, and given the confirmed pool of potential pollinators, we conclude that pollinator-driven speciation appears highly plausible in this system. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  15. Modulation of financial deprivation on deception and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Ling, Xiaoli; Zheng, Li; Chen, Jia; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Guo, Xiuyan

    2017-11-01

    Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision. Twenty-one participants were scanned when they played a series of adapted Dictator Game with different partners after a ball-guess game. Specifically, participants gained or lost money in the ball-guess game, and had opportunities to get more financial gains through cheating in the following adapted Dictator Game. Behavioral results indicated that participants did not cheat to the full extent; instead they were more likely to lie after losing money compared with gaining money. At the neural level, weaker activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were observed when participants lied after losing money than gaining money. Together, our data indicated that, people really had an internalized norm of keeping honest, but it would be lenient when people feel financial deprivation. And suppressing the truthful response originating from moral norm of keeping honest was associated with increased level of activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, but this association became weaker when people were under financial deprivation.

  16. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  17. Manipulating the Media for Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heckman, Scot

    2000-01-01

    The military must manipulate the media in order to deceive the enemy. Since the media is an intelligence source for the enemy commander, information conveyed through the media must be consistent with the overall deception cover plan...

  18. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Saeb

    Full Text Available Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals.

  19. Markers of Deception in Italian Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eSpence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lying is a universal activity and the detection of lying a universal concern. Presently, there is great interest in determining objective measures of deception. The examination of speech, in particular, holds promise in this regard; yet, most of what we know about the relationship between speech and lying is based on the assessment of English-speaking participants. Few studies have examined indicators of deception in languages other than English. The world’s languages differ in significant ways, and cross-linguistic studies of deceptive communications are a research imperative. Here we review some of these differences amongst the world’s languages, and provide an overview of a number of recent studies demonstrating that cross-linguistic research is a worthwhile endeavour. In addition, we report the results of an empirical investigation of pitch, response latency, and speech rate as cues to deception in Italian speech. True and false opinions were elicited in an audio-taped interview. A within subjects analysis revealed no significant difference between the average pitch of the two conditions; however, speech rate was significantly slower, while response latency was longer, during deception compared with truth-telling. We explore the implications of these findings and propose directions for future research, with the aim of expanding the cross-linguistic branch of research on markers of deception.

  20. Building a Strong Library Association: A Case of the Ghana Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author explores ways of building a strong library association with specific reference to the Ghana Library Association. The paper states that library associations represent librarians and libraries that provide valuable services to them and their communities. The different types of library associations are discussed.

  1. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  2. An Investigation on the Detectability of Deceptive Intent about Flying through Verbal Deception Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinberg, B.; Nahari, G.; Arntz, A.; Verschuere, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Academic research on deception detection has largely focused on the detection of past events. For many applied purposes, however, the detection of false reports about someone’s intention merits attention. Based on the verbal deception detection paradigm, we explored whether true

  3. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sattar, Naveed

    2009-06-23

    Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke.

  4. Ravines and Sugar Pills: Defending Deceptive Placebo Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that deceptive placebo use can be morally permissible, on the grounds that the deception involved in the prescription of deceptive placebos can differ in kind to the sorts of deception that undermine personal autonomy. In order to argue this, I shall first delineate two accounts of why deception is inimical to autonomy. On these accounts, deception is understood to be inimical to the deceived agent’s autonomy because it either involves subjugating the deceived agent’s will to another’s authority or because it precludes the agent from acting effectively in pursuit of their ends. I shall argue that providing an agent with false beliefs is not inimical to their autonomy if they are only able to effectively pursue their autonomously chosen ends by virtue of holding those particular false beliefs. Finally, I show that deceptive placebo use need only involve this latter sort of deception. PMID:25503607

  5. Deception used for Cyber Defense of Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2009-05-01

    Control system cyber security defense mechanisms may employ deception to make it more difficult for attackers to plan and execute successful attacks. These deceptive defense mechanisms are organized and initially explored according to a specific deception taxonomy and the seven abstract dimensions of security previously proposed as a framework for the cyber security of control systems.

  6. How children with head injury represent real and deceptive emotion in short narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P

    1998-02-15

    Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.

  7. Operational Deception and Modern Warfare: The Use of Deception in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, Francis

    2000-01-01

    This paper asserts that the use of operational deception, despite the increased capabilities of sophisticated high-tech collection and dissemination systems, will continue to be feasible and desirable...

  8. Genic rather than genome-wide differences between sexually deceptive Ophrys orchids with different pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Scopece, Giovanni; Staedler, Yannick M; Schönenberger, Jürg; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2014-12-01

    High pollinator specificity and the potential for simple genetic changes to affect pollinator attraction make sexually deceptive orchids an ideal system for the study of ecological speciation, in which change of flower odour is likely important. This study surveys reproductive barriers and differences in floral phenotypes in a group of four closely related, coflowering sympatric Ophrys species and uses a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to obtain information on the proportion of the genome that is differentiated between species. Ophrys species were found to effectively lack postpollination barriers, but are strongly isolated by their different pollinators (floral isolation) and, to a smaller extent, by shifts in flowering time (temporal isolation). Although flower morphology and perhaps labellum coloration may contribute to floral isolation, reproductive barriers may largely be due to differences in flower odour chemistry. GBS revealed shared polymorphism throughout the Ophrys genome, with very little population structure between species. Genome scans for FST outliers identified few markers that are highly differentiated between species and repeatable in several populations. These genome scans also revealed highly differentiated polymorphisms in genes with putative involvement in floral odour production, including a previously identified candidate gene thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of pseudo-pheromones by the orchid flowers. Taken together, these data suggest that ecological speciation associated with different pollinators in sexually deceptive orchids has a genic rather than a genomic basis, placing these species at an early phase of genomic divergence within the 'speciation continuum'. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 16 CFR 20.1 - Deception generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sale or sell any industry product unless a clear and conspicuous disclosure that such product has been used or contains used parts is made in advertising, sales promotional literature and invoices and on product packaging. Additionally, it is unfair or deceptive to offer for sale or to sell any rebuilt...

  10. <strong/>Costs and benefits of cold acclimation in field released DrosophilaAssociating laboratory and field results<strong>. strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; A. Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-01-01

    Physiological and evolutionary responses to thermal variation are often investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. However, this approach may fail to account for the complexity of natural environments. Here we investigated the costs and benefits of developmental or adult cold acclimation...... that the ability to locate a field resource has a genetic basis with a high heritability since only round of selection on parental flies (F0) revealed clear differences in the ability of offspring (F1 and F2) to locate field resources at cold temperatures. Again we found a poor association between field...... and laboratory performance emphasising the importance of testing thermal resistance under relevant/natural conditions....

  11. Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, People's Republic of China. 3Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. [Shang D., Zhang X., Sun M., Wei Y. and Wen Y. 2013 Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and bromhidrosis in a.

  12. Strong but variable associations between social dominance and clutch sex ratio in a colonial corvid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, H. M.; Dijkstra, C.; Verhulst, S.

    2008-01-01

    We studied primary sex ratio of clutches in relation to social dominance for 6 years in a colony of free-living jackdaws, a small corvid. Social dominance was strongly associated with clutch sex ratio, with the difference in clutch sex ratio between the most and least dominant pairs being 30-40%. To

  13. Strong human association with plant invasion success for Trifolium introductions to New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravuer, Kelly; Sullivan, Jon J; Williams, Peter A; Duncan, Richard P

    2008-04-29

    It has proven difficult, when focused only on biological determinants, to explain why some plant species become naturalized in or invade new locations, whereas others fail. We analyzed the invasion of Trifolium (true clover) species into New Zealand, assessing a range of human, biogeographic, and biological influences at three key invasion stages: introduction, naturalization, and spread. We used sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) to define suites of related attributes and aggregated boosted trees to model relationships with invasion outcomes. Human and biogeographic attributes were strongly associated with success at all stages. Whereas biogeographic attributes, notably large native range, were consistently associated with success, different human factors appeared to favor success at different stages, such as presence in early trade/immigration hotspots (introduction), intentional large-scale planting (naturalization), and frequent presence as a seed contaminant (relative spread rate). Biological traits were less strongly associated with success for introduction and spread and little if at all for naturalization; we found that tall perennials with long flowering periods were more frequently selected for introduction, whereas species with extended flowering in New Zealand spread more rapidly. In addition to causal relationships, the importance of human factors may reflect indirect associations, including ecological traits associated with both human use and invasion. Nevertheless, our results highlight key roles that humans can play in facilitating plant invasion via two pathways: (i) commercial introduction leading to widespread planting and concomitant naturalization and spread and (ii) unintentional introduction and spread of species associated with human activities, such as seed contaminants.

  14. The face of an imposter : Computer Vision for Deception Detection Research in Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkins, Aaron C.; Sun, Yijia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Jensen, Matthew; Meservy, Thomas; Burgoon, Judee; Nunamaker, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Using video analyzed from a novel deception experiment, this paper introduces computer vision research in progress that addresses two critical components to computational modeling of deceptive behavior: 1) individual nonverbal behavior differences, and 2) deceptive ground truth. Video interviews

  15. Phenotypic plasticity in an ant with strong caste-genotype association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Alexandre; Darras, Hugo; Aron, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Caste determination in social Hymenoptera (whether a female egg develops into a reproductive queen or a sterile worker) is a remarkable example of phenotypic plasticity where females with highly similar genomes exhibit striking differences in morphology and behaviour. This phenotypic dichotomy is typically influenced by environmental factors. However, recent studies have revealed a strong caste-genotype association in hybridogenetic ants: workers are all interlineage hybrids while queens are all purebred, suggesting that female caste fate is genetically determined. Using the hybridogenetic ant Cataglyphis mauritanica , we show that under laboratory conditions, purebred offspring develop into reproductive queens but occasionally give rise to workers. Moreover, while hybrids typically become workers, juvenile hormone treatment can switch their developmental pathway to the reproductive caste. These results indicate that phenotypic plasticity has been retained in an ant with a strong caste-genotype association, despite its lack of expression in natural conditions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Self-Deception in Terminal Patients: Belief System at Stake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echarte, Luis E; Bernacer, Javier; Larrivee, Denis; Oron, J V; Grijalba-Uche, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS) is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes - deep-seated beliefs - intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis) that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-)deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  17. Self-deception in terminal patients: belief system at stake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Echarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial minority of patients with terminal illness hold unrealistically hopeful beliefs about the severity of their disease or the nature of its treatment, considering therapy as curative rather than palliative. We propose that this attitude may be understood as self-deception, following the current psychological theories about this topic. In this article we suggest that the reason these patients deceive themselves is to preserve their belief systems. According to some philosophical accounts, the human belief system (HBS is constituted as a web with a few stable central nodes –deep seated beliefs– intimately related with the self. We hypothesize that the mind may possess defensive mechanisms, mostly non-conscious, that reject certain sensory inputs (e.g., a fatal diagnosis that may undermine deep-seated beliefs. This interpretation is in line with the theory of cognitive dissonance. Following this reasoning, we also propose that HBS-related self-deception would entail a lower cognitive load than that associated with confronting the truth: whereas the latter would engage a myriad of high cognitive functions to re-configure crucial aspects of the self, including the setting of plans, goals, or even a behavioral output, the former would be mostly non-conscious. Overall, we believe that our research supports the hypothesis that in cases of terminal illness, (self-deceiving requires less effort than accepting the truth.

  18. An Investigation on the Detectability of Deceptive Intent about Flying through Verbal Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Academic research on deception detection has largely focused on the detection of past events. For many applied purposes, however, the detection of false reports about someone’s intention merits attention. Based on the verbal deception detection paradigm, we explored whether true statements on intentions were more detailed and more specific than false statements on intentions, particularly when instructed to be as specific as possible. Method: Participants ('n' = 222 lied or told the truth about their upcoming travel plans either providing ‘as much information as possible’ (standard instructions or being ‘as specific as possible’ (i.e., mentioning times, locations, places; specific instructions, resulting in four conditions (truthful vs. deceptive intention by standard vs. specific instructions. We collected data via a custom-made web app and performed automated verbal content analysis of participants’ written answers. Findings: We did not find a significant difference in the specificity of participants’ statements. The instruction to be as specific as possible promoted more specific information but did not help to discern honest from deceptive flying intentions. Conclusion: The experiment reported here attempted to demonstrate automated verbal deception detection of intentions. The difficulty in capturing genuine intentions, and the non-intrusive, non-interactive questioning approach might explain the null findings and raise questions for further research. We conclude with suggestions for a novel framework on semi-interactive information elicitation.

  19. Strategic Deception in Modern Democracies: Ethical, Legal, and Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    ample tools available for employing strategic deception effectively. However, no liberal-democratic theory or doctrine for its use currently exists...research. For obvious reasons, cost-benefi t analyses and other forms of risk management must take place whenever states choose to employ strategic ... theory of deception would thus improve the probability that our strategic deception plan will work. Second, it must enhance professional military

  20. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  1. Detecting deception via eyeblink frequency modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S. Perelman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of using eyeblink frequency modulation to detect deception about a third party, 32 participants were sent on a mission to deliver a package to an interviewer. 17 of the participants lied to the interviewer about the details of their mock mission and 15 responded truthfully. During the interview, eyeblink frequency data were collected via electromyography and recorded video. Liars displayed eyeblink frequency suppression while lying, while truth tellers exhibited an increase in eyeblink frequency during the mission relevant questioning period. The compensatory flurry of eyeblinks following deception observed in previous studies was absent in the present study. A discriminant function using eyeblink suppression to predict lying correctly classified 81.3% of cases, with a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 73.3%. This technique, yielding a reasonable sensitivity, shows promise for future testing as, unlike polygraph, it is compatible with distance technology.

  2. The effect of Linkedin on deception in resumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Hancock, Jeffrey T

    2012-03-01

    This study explores how Linkedin shapes patterns of deception in resumes. The general self-presentation goal to appear favorably to others motivates deception when one's true characteristics are inconsistent with their desired impression. Because Linkedin makes resume claims public, deception patterns should be altered relative to traditional resumes. Participants (n=119) in a between-subjects experiment created resumes in one of three resume settings: a traditional (offline) resume, private Linkedin profiles, or publicly available Linkedin profiles. Findings suggest that the public nature of Linkedin resume claims affected the kinds of deception used to create positive impressions, but did not affect the overall frequency of deception. Compared with traditional resumes, Linkedin resumes were less deceptive about the kinds of information that count most to employers, namely an applicant's prior work experience and responsibilities, but more deceptive about interests and hobbies. The results stand in contrast to assumptions that Internet-based communication is more deceptive than traditional formats, and suggests that a framework that considers deception as a resource for self-presentation can account for the findings.

  3. Soviet Operational Deception: The Red Cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    of military art In the L’vov-Sandomierz operations]. Voyenno Istordcheskli zhurnal [Military history journal], February 1960:15-31, Japan. Kantogun... history journal], April 1982:18-26, 1985 Art of War Symposiwn-From the Dnepr to the Ilstula: Soviet Offensive Operations, November 1943-August 1944...2. World War, 1939- 1945-Military intelligence-Soviet Union. 3. Deception (Military science)- History -20th century. 4. Strategy- History -20th century

  4. German Strategic Deception in the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Disinformation Rumors (deliberately planted) 40 11 Radio (deceptive traffic ) 35 15 Press leaks (including public 32 0 announcements) Negotiations 21 2 Fake... traffic . The Reichswehr smuggled across the Baltic items such as bombs difficult to identify as non-military. Airmen killed during training at Lipetsk...the start, and I pointed this out at the time. The miso-en-scene was so childish that I could never understand how anybody could be taken in by it

  5. Overcoming Deception in Evolution of Cognitive Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    When scaling neuroevolution to complex behaviors, cognitive capabilities such as learning, communication, and memory become increasingly important. However, successfully evolving such cognitive abilities remains difficult. This paper argues that a main cause for such difficulty is deception, i.......e. novelty search, often evolves the desired cognitive behaviors. The conclusion is that open-ended methods of evolution may better recognize and reward the stepping stones that are necessary for cognitive behavior to emerge....

  6. Deceptively simple… The deception-general ability and the need to put the liar under the spotlight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon R.T. Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This Focused Review expands upon our original paper (You can’t kid a kidder": Interaction between production and detection of deception in an interactive deception task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6:87. In that paper we introduced a new socially interactive, laboratory-based task, the Deceptive Interaction Task (DeceIT, and used it to measure individuals’ ability to lie, their ability to detect the lies of others, and potential individual difference measures contributing to these abilities. We showed that the two skills were correlated; better liars made better lie detectors (a deception general ability and this ability seemed to be independent of cognitive (IQ and emotional (EQ intelligence. Here, following the Focused Review format, we outline the method and results of the original paper and comment more on the value of lab-based experimental studies of deception, which have attracted criticism in recent years. While acknowledging that experimental paradigms may fail to recreate the full complexity and potential seriousness of real-world deceptive behavior, we suggest that lab-based deception paradigms can offer valuable insight into ecologically-valid deceptive behavior. The use of the DeceIT procedure enabled deception to be studied in an interactive setting, with motivated participants, and importantly allowed the study of both the liar and the lie detector within the same deceptive interaction. It is our thesis that by addressing deception more holistically - by bringing the liar into the ‘spotlight’ which is typically trained exclusively on the lie detector – we may further enhance our understanding of deception.

  7. Visual evoked potentials show strong positive association with intracranial pressure in patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Adriano da Cunha Silva Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To verify the relationship between intracranial pressure and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Method The sample included adults diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis admitted at a reference hospital for infectious diseases. The patients were subjected to F-VEP tests shortly before lumbar puncture. The Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient was calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. Results : Eighteen individuals were subjected to a total of 69 lumbar punctures preceded by F-VEP tests. At the first lumbar puncture performed in each patient, N2 latency exhibited a strong positive correlation with intracranial pressure (r = 0.83; CI = 0.60 - 0.94; p < 0.0001. The direction of this relationship was maintained in subsequent punctures. Conclusion : The intracranial pressure measured by spinal tap manometry showed strong positive association with the N2 latency F-VEP in patients with cryptococcal meningitis.

  8. Scabies is strongly associated with acute rheumatic fever in a cohort study of Auckland children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger; Jarrett, Paul; Sundborn, Gerhard; Reynolds, Edwin; Schofield, Grant

    2018-02-14

    This study sought to determine whether scabies infection is associated with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) or chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD). A cohort study was undertaken using health records of children aged 3-12 years attending an oral health service for the first time. Subjects were then linked to hospital diagnoses of scabies and ARF or CRHD. A total of 213 957 children free of rheumatic heart disease at baseline were available for analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 5.1 years, 440 children were diagnosed with ARF or CRHD in hospital records. Children diagnosed with scabies during follow-up were 23 times more likely to develop ARF or CRHD, compared with children who had no scabies diagnosis. After adjustment for confounders in a Cox model, the association reduced but remained strong (adjusted hazard ratio: 8.98; 95% confidence interval: 6.33-20.2). In an analysis restricted to children hospitalised at least once during follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratio for the same comparison was 3.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-6.37). A recent diagnosis of scabies from hospital records is strongly associated with a subsequent diagnosis of ARF. Further investigation of the role that scabies infestation may play in the aetiology of ARF is warranted. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Strong ion gap is associated with mortality in pediatric burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Wiktor, Arek; Berndtson, Allison; Greenhalgh, David; Palmieri, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Severe burn injury produces significant tissue damage, resulting in metabolic acidosis. Current methods of acid-base evaluation are based on dependent variables that may not be accurate after burn injury. The strong ion method of acid-base evaluation is based on independent variables and may accurately predict outcomes in severely burn-injured patients. The authors hypothesize that an increased strong ion gap present on admission will be associated with mortality in severely burn-injured pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review was performed of burn-injured pediatric patients with a TBSA 20% or greater. Data collected included age, TBSA burn injury, mechanism of injury, survival, ventilator days, hospital length of stay, intensive care unit length of stay, and admission laboratory values. Apparent and effective strong ion difference (SIDa, SIDe) were calculated. The strong ion gap (SIG) was determined as the difference between SIDa and SIDe. A total of 48 patients were included in the study. Mean age (years) and TBSA were 7.9 ± 0.8 years and 56.8 ± 2.6%. Eleven patients (23%) died. Mean TBSA for survivors (54.2 ± 2.9%) did not significantly differ from that of nonsurvivors (65.7 ± 5.34%). Ten patients suffered inhalation injury, which was associated with an odds ratio of 10.1* for mortality. Mean SIDa was 44.2 ± 3.2 for the entire study population. Survivors had a significantly lower SIDa (36.6 ± 0.5) than nonsurvivors (59.7 ± 13*). Mean SIDe for all patients was (25 ± 0.7) and did not differ significantly between survivors (24.7 ± 0.7) and nonsurvivors (25.8 ± 2). SIG for nonsurvivors (33.91 ± 14*) was significantly higher than for survivors (14.9 ± 0.3). Controlling for both TBSA and inhalation injury, death was associated with both an increased SIDa (B = 19.3*) and SIG (B = 17.3*). SIG is increased in severely burn-injured pediatric patients, indicating the presence of metabolic acidosis. Furthermore, an increased SIG is significantly

  10. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  11. An Exploration of Multiple Channel Evaluations in Attributions of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-24

    the rhythm of speech). 59 57 Paul Ekman, Wallace V. Friesen and Klaus Scherer, "Body Movement and Pitch In Deceptive Interaction," Semiotica , Vol. 16...Friesen, W.V., and Scherer, K., "Body Movement and Pitch in Deceptive Interaction," Semiotica , Vol. 16:1, (1976), pp. 23-26. Ekman, P. and Oster, H

  12. Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Yi

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts.

  13. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Ströfer

    Full Text Available Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

  14. Deceptive Intentions: Can Cues to Deception Be Measured before a Lie Is Even Stated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströfer, Sabine; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Ufkes, Elze G; Giebels, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Can deceitful intentions be discriminated from truthful ones? Previous work consistently demonstrated that deceiving others is accompanied by nervousness/stress and cognitive load. Both are related to increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. We hypothesized that SNS activity already rises during intentions to lie and, consequently, cues to deception can be detected before stating an actual lie. In two experiments, controlling for prospective memory, we monitored SNS activity during lying, truth telling, and truth telling with the aim of lying at a later instance. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as an indicator of SNS. EDA was highest during lying, and compared to the truth condition, EDA was also raised during the intention to deceive. Moreover, the switch from truth telling toward lying in the intention condition evoked higher EDA than switching toward non-deception related tasks in the lie or truth condition. These results provide first empirical evidence that increased SNS activity related to deception can be monitored before a lie is stated. This implies that cues to deception are already present during the mere intention to lie.

  15. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  16. Somatic Variation of T-Cell Receptor Genes Strongly Associate with HLA Class Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Klarenbeek

    Full Text Available Every person carries a vast repertoire of CD4+ T-helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells for a healthy immune system. Somatic VDJ recombination at genomic loci that encode the T-cell receptor (TCR is a key step during T-cell development, but how a single T cell commits to become either CD4+ or CD8+ is poorly understood. To evaluate the influence of TCR sequence variation on CD4+/CD8+ lineage commitment, we sequenced rearranged TCRs for both α and β chains in naïve T cells isolated from healthy donors and investigated gene segment usage and recombination patterns in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets. Our data demonstrate that most V and J gene segments are strongly biased in the naïve CD4+ and CD8+ subsets with some segments increasing the odds of being CD4+ (or CD8+ up to five-fold. These V and J gene associations are highly reproducible across individuals and independent of classical HLA genotype, explaining ~11% of the observed variance in the CD4+ vs. CD8+ propensity. In addition, we identified a strong independent association of the electrostatic charge of the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3 in both α and β chains, where a positively charged CDR3 is associated with CD4+ lineage and a negatively charged CDR3 with CD8+ lineage. Our findings suggest that somatic variation in different parts of the TCR influences T-cell lineage commitment in a predominantly additive fashion. This notion can help delineate how certain structural features of the TCR-peptide-HLA complex influence thymic selection.

  17. “Time for Some Traffic Problems": Enhancing E-Discovery and Big Data Processing Tools with Linguistic Methods for Deception Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Smith Crabb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic deception theory provides methods to discover potentially deceptive texts to make them accessible to clerical review. This paper proposes the integration of these linguistic methods with traditional e-discovery techniques to identify deceptive texts within a given author’s larger body of written work, such as their sent email box. First, a set of linguistic features associated with deception are identified and a prototype classifier is constructed to analyze texts and describe the features’ distributions, while avoiding topic-specific features to improve recall of relevant documents. The tool is then applied to a portion of the Enron Email Dataset to illustrate how these strategies identify records, providing an example of its advantages and capability to stratify the large data set at hand.

  18. Analysing deception in a psychopath's speech: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela ALMELA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy involves a series of specific cognitive, social and emotional features which make the psychopath different from the general population; the two most significant characteristics are extreme selfishness and deep emotional deficit that is reflected in apathy. Notably, psychopaths are skilled communicators who that use language to lie. As there has been little examination of the speech associated specifically with psychopaths, especially in the Spanish language, the present study aims to contrast different veracious excerpts to others which are deceptive. The text analysis is framed within forensic computational linguistics, and complemented with some information related to the stylometric profile of the text. The investigation shows how the parameter mainly affected by the psychological condition of the psychopath subject is the distribution of grammatical persons; in addition, some further evidence includes the frequency of certainty adverbs and verbs related to cognitive processes.

  19. Lies and Deception: A Failed Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The traditional view of lying says that lying is a matter of intending to deceive others by making statements that one believes to be false. Jennifer Lackey has recently defended the following version of the traditional view: A lies to B just in case (i) A states that p to B, (ii) A believes that...... is false and (iii) A intends to be deceptive to B in stating that p. I argue that, despite all the virtues that Lackey ascribes to her view, conditions (i), (ii) and (iii) are not sufficient for lying....

  20. Erectile dysfunction among men with diabetes is strongly associated with premature ejaculation and reduced libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, Lasantha S; Jayaratne, Shanthilal D; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T; Sivayogan, Sivagurunathan; Fernando, Devaka J; Levy, Jonathan C

    2008-09-01

    = 3.3, CI = 1.2-8.8). ED was strongly associated with PE and reduced libido. Diabetic patients presenting with one of these three conditions should be screened for the other two.

  1. Stool consistency is strongly associated with gut microbiota richness and composition, enterotypes and bacterial growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Doris; Falony, Gwen; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Tito, Raul Y; Joossens, Marie; Raes, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of potentially confounding factors affecting colon microbiota composition is essential to the identification of robust microbiome based disease markers. Here, we investigate the link between gut microbiota variation and stool consistency using Bristol Stool Scale classification, which reflects faecal water content and activity, and is considered a proxy for intestinal colon transit time. Through 16S rDNA Illumina profiling of faecal samples of 53 healthy women, we evaluated associations between microbiome richness, Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, enterotypes, and genus abundance with self-reported, Bristol Stool Scale-based stool consistency. Each sample's microbiota growth potential was calculated to test whether transit time acts as a selective force on gut bacterial growth rates. Stool consistency strongly correlates with all known major microbiome markers. It is negatively correlated with species richness, positively associated to the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio, and linked to Akkermansia and Methanobrevibacter abundance. Enterotypes are distinctly distributed over the BSS-scores. Based on the correlations between microbiota growth potential and stool consistency scores within both enterotypes, we hypothesise that accelerated transit contributes to colon ecosystem differentiation. While shorter transit times can be linked to increased abundance of fast growing species in Ruminococcaceae-Bacteroides samples, hinting to a washout avoidance strategy of faster replication, this trend is absent in Prevotella-enterotyped individuals. Within this enterotype adherence to host tissue therefore appears to be a more likely bacterial strategy to cope with washout. The strength of the associations between stool consistency and species richness, enterotypes and community composition emphasises the crucial importance of stool consistency assessment in gut metagenome-wide association studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  2. Shallow structure of Deception Island, Antarctica, from correlations of ambient seismic noise on a set of dense seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, F.; Almendros, J.; García-Jerez, A.

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the shallow velocity structure of Deception Island volcano, Antarctica, using correlations of ambient seismic noise. We selected long records of noise obtained by eight seismic arrays deployed along the inner coast of Deception during the period 2003-2005. Using these data, we calculated average dispersion curves and estimated local 1-D velocity models for the array sites. The combination of these profiles allowed us to obtain a comprehensive model of the shallow velocity structure of the island. The volcano is composed of relatively soft layers of pyroclastic deposits and sediments extending to a depth of about 400 m, with different degrees of compaction. Two layers with thicknesses of about 100 and 300 m and S-wave velocities of around 0.2-0.8 and 0.7-1.1 km s-1, respectively, can be differentiated. The deeper structure is highly variable in terms of wave velocities and layer depths. Although the resolving capabilities are reduced for these layers, the larger S-wave velocities in the range 1.3-2.8 km s-1 indicate that they can be associated with pre-caldera structures and products. There are substantial differences between the different models, which can be spatially related to heterogeneities in the volcano structure. The lowest S-wave velocities may be related to the alterations produced by hydrothermal activity near the surface. On the contrary, the largest velocities occur near the caldera border, revealing the presence of compact materials at shallow depths. Sharp lateral variations can also be observed in the northwest of the bay, which points to the presence of NW-SE faults and/or strong velocity gradients.

  3. Strong allelic association between Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome and D17S805

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, M.; Jagell, S.; Sillen, A. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Sjoegren-Larsson Syndrom (SLS) is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, spastic di- or tetraplegia and mental retardation. It is an autosomal recessive trait that has been described in many populations, but is particularly frequent in the northern part of Sweden. A defect in the enzyme fatty alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAD) has been suggested, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Based on linkage analysis and allelic association, the disorder has now been mapped to chromosome 17. Meiotic recombinations suggests that the gene is flanked by D17S805 on the centromeric and D17S783 and D17S925 on the telomeric side. These three markers map to the same location in reference pedigrees. Strong allelic association (chi-square 60.28, p<0.0003) to D17S805 suggests that the mutation is located at a limited distance on the telomeric side of this marker. It is possible that the gene can be identified by functional complementation of SLS cells using YACs from this region. Alternatively, positional cloning should be possible in this presumable small area. The markers identified are close and informative enough to allow accurate genetic diagnosis.

  4. Rapid growth and childhood obesity are strongly associated with lysoPC(14:0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Kirchberg, Franca F; Peissner, Wolfgang; Harder, Ulrike; Grote, Veit; Weber, Martina; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity. To discover biomarkers reflective of weight change in the first 6 months and overweight/obesity at age 6 years via a targeted metabolomics approach. This analysis comprised 726 infants from a European multicenter randomized trial (Childhood Obesity Programme, CHOP) for whom plasma blood samples at age 6 months and anthropometric data up to the age of 6 years were available. 'Rapid growth' was defined as a positive difference in weight within the first 6 months of life standardized to WHO growth standards. Weight change was regressed on each of 168 metabolites (acylcarnitines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and amino acids). Metabolites significant after Bonferroni's correction were tested as predictors of later overweight/obesity. Among the overall 19 significant metabolites, 4 were associated with rapid growth and 15 were associated with a less-than-ideal weight change. After adjusting for feeding group, only the lysophosphatidylcholine LPCaC14:0 remained significantly associated with rapid weight gain (β = 0.18). Only LPCaC14:0 at age 6 months was predictive of overweight/obesity at age 6 years (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04-1.69). LPCa14:0 is strongly related to rapid growth in infancy and childhood overweight/obesity. This suggests that LPCaC14:0 levels may represent a metabolically programmed effect of infant weight gain on the later obesity risk. However, these results require confirmation by independent cohorts. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Self-Reported Visual Perceptual Abnormalities Are Strongly Associated with Core Clinical Features in Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brian P; Cruz, Lisa N; Paterno, Danielle; Silverstein, Steven M

    2018-01-01

    Past studies using the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (hereafter, Bonn Scale) have shown that self-reported perceptual/cognitive disturbances reveal which persons have or will soon develop schizophrenia. Here, we focused specifically on the clinical value of self-reported visual perceptual abnormalities (VPAs) since they are underexplored and have been associated with suicidal ideation, negative symptoms, and objective visual dysfunction. Using the 17 Bonn Scale vision items, we cross-sectionally investigated lifetime occurrence of VPAs in 21 first-episode psychosis and 22 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ/SA) patients. Relationships were probed between VPAs and illness duration, symptom severity, current functioning, premorbid functioning, diagnosis, and age of onset. Increased VPAs were associated with: earlier age of onset; more delusions, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and depressive symptoms; and worse premorbid social functioning, especially in the childhood and early adolescent phases. SZ/SA participants endorsed more VPAs as compared to those with schizophreniform or psychotic disorder-NOS, especially in the perception of color, bodies, faces, object movement, and double/reversed vision. The range of self-reported VPAs was strikingly similar between first-episode and chronic patients and did not depend on the type or amount of antipsychotic medication. As a comparative benchmark, lifetime occurrence of visual hallucinations did not depend on diagnosis and was linked only to poor premorbid social functioning. A brief 17-item interview derived from the Bonn Scale is strongly associated with core clinical features in schizophrenia. VPAs hold promise for clarifying diagnosis, predicting outcome, and guiding neurocognitive investigations.

  6. An intronic LINE-1 insertion in MERTK is strongly associated with retinopathy in Swedish Vallhund dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Everson

    Full Text Available The domestic dog segregates a significant number of inherited progressive retinal diseases, several of which mirror human retinal diseases and which are collectively termed progressive retinal atrophy (PRA. In 2014, a novel form of PRA was reported in the Swedish Vallhund breed, and the disease was mapped to canine chromosome 17. The causal mutation was not identified, but expression analyses of the retinas of affected Vallhunds demonstrated a 6-fold increased expression of the MERTK gene compared to unaffected dogs. Using 24 retinopathy cases and 97 controls with no clinical signs of retinopathy, we replicated the chromosome 17 association in Swedish Vallhunds from the UK and aimed to elucidate the causal variant underlying this association using whole genome sequencing (WGS of an affected dog. This revealed a 6-8 kb insertion in intron 1 of MERTK that was not present in WGS of 49 dogs of other breeds. Sequencing and BLASTN analysis of the inserted segment was consistent with the insertion comprising a full-length intact LINE-1 retroelement. Testing of the LINE-1 insertion for association with retinopathy in the UK set of 24 cases and 97 controls revealed a strong statistical association (P-value 6.0 x 10-11 that was subsequently replicated in the original Finnish study set (49 cases and 89 controls (P-value 4.3 x 10-19. In a pooled analysis of both studies (73 cases and 186 controls, the LINE-1 insertion was associated with a ~20-fold increased risk of retinopathy (odds ratio 23.41, 95% confidence intervals 10.99-49.86, P-value 1.3 x 10-27. Our study adds further support for regulatory disruption of MERTK in Swedish Vallhund retinopathy; however, further work is required to establish a functional overexpression model. Future work to characterise the mechanism by which this intronic mutation disrupts gene regulation will further improve the understanding of MERTK biology and its role in retinal function.

  7. Detecting deception in movement: the case of the side-step in rugby.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Brault

    Full Text Available Although coordinated patterns of body movement can be used to communicate action intention, they can also be used to deceive. Often known as deceptive movements, these unpredictable patterns of body movement can give a competitive advantage to an attacker when trying to outwit a defender. In this particular study, we immersed novice and expert rugby players in an interactive virtual rugby environment to understand how the dynamics of deceptive body movement influence a defending player's decisions about how and when to act. When asked to judge final running direction, expert players who were found to tune into prospective tau-based information specified in the dynamics of 'honest' movement signals (Centre of Mass, performed significantly better than novices who tuned into the dynamics of 'deceptive' movement signals (upper trunk yaw and out-foot placement (p<.001. These findings were further corroborated in a second experiment where players were able to move as if to intercept or 'tackle' the virtual attacker. An analysis of action responses showed that experts waited significantly longer before initiating movement (p<.001. By waiting longer and picking up more information that would inform about future running direction these experts made significantly fewer errors (p<.05. In this paper we not only present a mathematical model that describes how deception in body-based movement is detected, but we also show how perceptual expertise is manifested in action expertise. We conclude that being able to tune into the 'honest' information specifying true running action intention gives a strong competitive advantage.

  8. The Slow Decay and Quick Revival of Self-Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eChance

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1; this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2.

  9. The slow decay and quick revival of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2015-01-01

    People demonstrate an impressive ability to self-deceive, distorting misbehavior to reflect positively on themselves—for example, by cheating on a test and believing that their inflated performance reflects their true ability. But what happens to self-deception when self-deceivers must face reality, such as when taking another test on which they cannot cheat? We find that self-deception diminishes over time only when self-deceivers are repeatedly confronted with evidence of their true ability (Study 1); this learning, however, fails to make them less susceptible to future self-deception (Study 2). PMID:26347666

  10. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  11. Strong and consistent natural selection associated with armour reduction in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Rouzic, Arnaud; Østbye, Kjartan; Klepaker, Tom O; Hansen, Thomas F; Bernatchez, Louis; Schluter, Dolph; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-06-01

    Measuring the strength of natural selection is tremendously important in evolutionary biology, but remains a challenging task. In this work, we analyse the characteristics of selection for a morphological change (lateral-plate reduction) in the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Adaptation to freshwater, leading with the reduction or loss of the bony lateral armour, has occurred in parallel on numerous occasions in this species. Completely-plated and low-plated sticklebacks were introduced into a pond, and the phenotypic changes were tracked for 20 years. Fish from the last generation were genotyped for the Ectodysplasin-A (Eda) locus, the major gene involved in armour development. We found a strong fitness advantage for the freshwater-type fish (on average, 20% fitness advantage for the freshwater morph, and 92% for the freshwater genotype). The trend is best explained by assuming that this fitness advantage is maximum at the beginning of the invasion and decreases with time. Such fitness differences provide a quantifiable example of rapid selection-driven phenotypic evolution associated with environmental change in a natural population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Deception and confession: Experimental evidence from a deception game in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, Keiko; Akai, Kenju; Onoshiro, Kenta

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated lying behavior and the behavior of people who are deceived by using a deception game (Gneezy, 2005) in both anonymity and face-to-face treatments. Subjects consist of students and non-students (citizens) to investigate whether lying behavior is depended on socioeconomic backgrounds. To explore how liars feel about lying, we give senders a chance to confess their behaviors to their counter partner for the guilty aversion of lying. The following results are obtained: i) ...

  13. Strong association of epidermal growth factor receptor status with breast cancer FDG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joohee; Moon, Seung Hwan; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jeong [Seoul Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seokhwi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Imaging tumor FDG uptake could complement breast cancer biomarkers of risk and treatment response. Although breast cancer FDG uptake is reputedly influenced by major biomarker states, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression remains largely unexplored. This is a retrospective study that included 499 patients with primary breast cancer at initial presentation. Tumor FDG uptake was measured on pretreatment PET/CT as maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue. Regression analysis was performed for predictors of high tumor FDG uptake (SUVmax ≥ 8.6). SUVmax was higher in ER- (36.5%; 11.2 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), PR- (42.3%; 10.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.2 ± 5.2), and triple-negative tumors (19.8%; 12.0 ± 6.9 vs. 8.7 ± 5.2; all p < 0.0001). EGFR expression (28.5%) was more frequent in ER-, PR-, triple-negative, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) + and mutant P53 (mP53) + tumors (all p < 0.0001). EGFR+ was associated with higher SUVmax among all tumors (11.9 ± 6.0 vs. 8.3 ± 5.3), ER- tumors (p < 0.0001), PR- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.027), hormone receptor- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.006), non-triple negative tumors (p < 0.0001), CK5/6- and + tumors (p = 0.021 and <0.0001), and mP53- and + tumors (p < 0.0001 and 0.008). Tumors had high FDG uptake in 73.2% of EGFR+ and 40.6% of EGFR- tumors. On regression analysis, significant multivariate predictors of high tumor FDG uptake were large size, EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for the entire subjects, and EGFR+ and CK5/6+ for ER- and hormone receptor negative subgroups. High FDG uptake was able to sub-stratify EGFR+ tumors that were more likely to be ER- and CK5/6+, and EGFR- tumors more likely to be mP53 +. Primary breast tumor FDG uptake is strongly influenced by EGFR status beyond that by other major biomarkers including hormone receptor and HER2 status, and EGFR

  14. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  15. The Art of Deception and the Role of Intelligence Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Dr. William L.

    2016-01-01

    Is deception an art? And if so, what role might it have in military intelligence education? To offer some answers to the these questions, the paper draws upon the discovery phase of efforts to synchronize deception theory, research, practice, in order to develop a post-graduate military deception...... and practice through the adaptive use of Boyds Observe-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) and a target centric intelligence approach to explain the dynamics concerning military intelligence in warfighting. These initial findings suggest that deception, as part of a post-graduate military intelligence education, not only...... has sufficient philosophy of science facets to bear a post-graduate level course, it has unique qualities that facilitate the role intelligence education might have in managing it....

  16. Statistical Evaluation and Modeling of Experimental Methods to Measure Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flanberg, Stephen E

    2005-01-01

    ... response that otherwise would not occur (zero baserate), and if this work is successful to assist him in the implementation and evaluation of the application of these tools in the detection of deception...

  17. Allies in the Shadows: Why We Need Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Rem

    2004-01-01

    This paper is aimed at convincing the joint task force commander that deception offers distinct advantages to even today's military that relies upon the idea of overwhelming combined arms force to achieve objectives...

  18. Assessment of Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD) Pretest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Academy for Credibility Assessment (DACA) Research Division contracted with Battelle to conduct scientific research to determine the relationship between the content of the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception (PDD...

  19. The Art of Darkness Deception and Urban Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerwehr, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... Both the battle on friendly urban terrain and the employment of deception might be fairly characterized as asymmetric strategies, aimed at reducing an opponent's strengths and exposing his weaknesses...

  20. Managing Uncertainity: Soviet Views on Deception, Surprise, and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    .... In the first two cases (deception and surprise), the emphasis is on how the Soviets seek to sow uncertainty in the minds of the enemy and how the Soviets then plan to use that uncertainty to gain military advantage...

  1. 14 CFR 257.4 - Unfair and deceptive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... violation of 49 U.S.C. 41712 unless, in conjunction with such holding out or sale, carriers and ticket... Unfair and deceptive practice. The holding out or sale of scheduled passenger air transportation...

  2. Determination of the Trainability of Deception Detection Cues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    .... Therefore, it is important that our leaders be able to recognize if they are being deceived. This study examines the results of training five categories of deception cues to 190 Air Force Officers...

  3. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  4. Spontaneous Innovation for Future Deception in a Male Chimpanzee

    OpenAIRE

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical persp...

  5. Mimics and magnets: the importance of color and ecological facilitation in floral deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Craig I; Johnson, Steven D

    2008-06-01

    Plants that lack floral rewards can attract pollinators if they share attractive floral signals with rewarding plants. These deceptive plants should benefit from flowering in close proximity to such rewarding plants, because pollinators are locally conditioned on floral signals of the rewarding plants (mimic effect) and because pollinators are more abundant close to rewarding plants (magnet effect). We tested these ideas using the non-rewarding South African plant Eulophia zeyheriana (Orchidaceae) as a study system. Field observations revealed that E. zeyheriana is pollinated solely by solitary bees belonging to a single species of Lipotriches (Halictidae) that appears to be closely associated with the flowers of Wahlenbergia cuspidata (Campanulaceae), a rewarding plant with which the orchid is often sympatric. The pale blue color of the flowers of E. zeyheriana differs strongly from flowers of its congeners, but is very similar to that of flowers of W. cuspidata. Analysis of spectral reflectance patterns using a bee vision model showed that bees are unlikely to be able to distinguish the two species in terms of flower color. A UV-absorbing sunscreen was applied to the flowers of the orchid in order to alter their color, and this resulted in a significant decline in pollinator visits, thus indicating the importance of flower color for attraction of Lipotriches bees. Pollination success in the orchid was strongly affected by proximity to patches of W. cuspidata. This was evident from one of two surveys of natural populations of the orchid, as well as experiments in which we translocated inflorescences of the orchid either into patches of W. cuspidata or 40 m outside such patches. Flower color and location of E. zeyheriana plants relative to rewarding magnet patches are therefore key components of the exploitation by this orchid of the relationship between W. cuspidata and Lipotriches bee pollinators.

  6. From Tactical to Strategic Deception Detection: Application of Psychological Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Reid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deception detection has ubiquitously focussed upon detecting deceit in the individual, whether in national security, forensic or business-related environments. In contrast an understanding of how to identify deception committed by multiple individuals or groups challenging strategic interests has been neglected. In this article - to enhance understanding of practitioners working across security, intelligence and forensic areas - a process of psychological synthesis is advocated. Psychological synthesis incorporates a multitude of approaches reflecting contextual requirements towards deception detection across verbal/linguistic behavior, non-verbal behavior, online interactions and intelligence analysis approaches. These combined with in-depth understanding of individuals’ cultures, personality and manner of presentation can be understood in challenging environments. Juxtaposed to these factors psychological synthesis considers how intelligence, surveillance and evidence may be used in detecting deception and identifying links between individuals engaging in deception and related activities. An illustration of how such an approach may work is provided through a scenario of a terrorist incident and how a tailored deception detection approach may seek to counter such a threat.

  7. Colour mimicry and sexual deception by Tongue orchids ( Cryptostylis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskett, A. C.; Herberstein, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, floral colour attracts pollinators by advertising rewards such as nectar, but how does colour function when pollinators are deceived, unrewarded, and may even suffer fitness costs? Sexually deceptive orchids are pollinated only by male insects fooled into mating with orchid flowers and inadvertently transferring orchid pollinia. Over long distances, sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators with counterfeit insect sex pheromones, but close-range deception with colour mimicry is a tantalising possibility. Here, for the first time, we analyse the colours of four sexually deceptive Cryptostylis orchid species and the female wasp they mimic ( Lissopimpla excelsa, Ichneumonidae), from the perspective of the orchids’ single, shared pollinator, male Lissopimpla excelsa. Despite appearing different to humans, the colours of the orchids and female wasps were effectively identical when mapped into a hymenopteran hexagonal colour space. The orchids and wasps reflected predominantly red-orange wavelengths, but UV was also reflected by raised bumps on two orchid species and by female wasp wings. The orchids’ bright yellow pollinia contrasted significantly with their overall red colour. Orchid deception may therefore involve accurate and species-specific mimicry of wavelengths reflected by female wasps, and potentially, exploitation of insects’ innate attraction to UV and yellow wavelengths. In general, mimicry may be facilitated by exploiting visual vulnerabilities and evolve more readily at the peripheries of sensory perception. Many sexually deceptive orchids are predominantly red, green or white: colours that are all potentially difficult for hymenoptera to detect or distinguish from the background.

  8. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent noise (SDN, which captured the directional connectivity underlying the impression management during the bargaining game. We found that the sophisticated strategists engaged stronger directional connectivity from both dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and retrosplenial cortex to rostral prefrontal cortex, and the strengths of these directional influences were associated with higher level of deception during the game. Using the directional connectivity as a neural signature, we identified the strategic deception with 80% accuracy by a machine-learning classifier. These results suggest that different social strategies are supported by distinct patterns of directional connectivity among key brain regions for social cognition.

  9. Mature habitats associated with genetic divergence despite strong dispersal ability in an arthropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Derek J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations may be bound by contemporary gene flow, selective sweeps, and extinction-recolonization processes. Indeed, existing molecular estimates indicate that species with low levels of gene flow are rare. However, strong priority effects and local selective regimes may hinder gene flow (despite dispersal sending populations on independent evolutionary trajectories. In this scenario (the monopolization hypothesis, population differentiation will increase with time and genealogical evidence should yield ample private haplotypes. Cyclical parthenogens (e.g. rotifers and cladocerans such as Daphnia have an increased capacity for rapid local adaptation and priority effects because sexual reproduction is followed by multiple generations of clonal selection and massive egg bank formation. We aimed to better understand the history of population differentiation and ongoing gene flow in Daphnia rosea s.l., by comparing population and regional divergences in mature unglaciated areas and younger previously glaciated areas. We also examined the timing and paths of colonization of previously-glaciated areas to assess the dispersal limitations of D. rosea s.l. We used DNA sequence variation (84 populations and >400 individuals at the mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear HSP90 loci from Holarctic populations for our genetic analyses. Results The genetic evidence indicated pronounced historical structure. Holarctic mtDNA phylogenies of D. rosea s.l. revealed three geographically restricted and divergent clades: European, Siberian and Japanese/American. The Japanese/American clade showed marked population genetic structure (FST > 0.8 that was weakly associated with geographic distance, and a high proportion of private haplotypes. Populations from older unglaciated habitats (i.e., Japan showed higher DNA sequence divergences than populations from presumed younger habitats (i.e. non-Beringian North America with nDNA and with mtDNA. Mismatch

  10. Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Brown, G R; Dixon, K W; Hayes, C; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the wasp lineages exploited by orchids. We focused on species that are pollinated by sexual deception of thynnine wasps in the distantly related genera Caladenia and Drakaea, including new field observations for 45 species of Caladenia. Specialization was extreme with most orchids using a single pollinator species. Unexpectedly, seven cases of pollinator sharing were found, including two between Caladenia and Drakaea, which exhibit strikingly different floral morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of pollinators using four nuclear sequence loci demonstrated that although orchids within major clades primarily use closely related pollinator species, up to 17% of orchids within these clades are pollinated by a member of a phylogenetically distant wasp genus. Further, compared to the total diversity of thynnine wasps within the study region, orchids show a strong bias towards exploiting certain genera. Although these patterns may arise through conservatism in the chemical classes used in sex pheromones, apparent switches between wasp clades suggest unexpected flexibility in floral semiochemical production. Alternatively, wasp sex pheromones within lineages may exhibit greater chemical diversity than currently appreciated. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes, and that a ......The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes...

  12. Working with MRI: An investigation of occupational exposure to strong static magnetic fields and associated symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) makes use of electromagnetic fields in the non-ionizing radiation frequency ranges. One of them is a continuously present strong static magnetic field (SMF), which extends up to several meters around the scanner. Each time an MRI worker performs tasks near the

  13. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  14. Feature selection for fMRI-based deception detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Strasburger, Alvin; Laken, Steven J; Kozel, F Andrew; Johnson, Kevin A; George, Mark S; Lu, Xinghua

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technology used to detect brain activity. Patterns of brain activation have been utilized as biomarkers for various neuropsychiatric applications. Detecting deception based on the pattern of brain activation characterized with fMRI is getting attention – with machine learning algorithms being applied to this field in recent years. The high dimensionality of fMRI data makes it a difficult task to directly utilize the original data as input for classification algorithms in detecting deception. In this paper, we investigated the procedures of feature selection to enhance fMRI-based deception detection. Results We used the t-statistic map derived from the statistical parametric mapping analysis of fMRI signals to construct features that reflect brain activation patterns. We subsequently investigated various feature selection methods including an ensemble method to identify discriminative features to detect deception. Using 124 features selected from a set of 65,166 original features as inputs for a support vector machine classifier, our results indicate that feature selection significantly enhanced the classification accuracy of the support vector machine in comparison to the models trained using all features and dimension reduction based models. Furthermore, the selected features are shown to form anatomic clusters within brain regions, which supports the hypothesis that specific brain regions may play a role during deception processes. Conclusion Feature selection not only enhances classification accuracy in fMRI-based deception detection but also provides support for the biological hypothesis that brain activities in certain regions of the brain are important for discrimination of deception. PMID:19761569

  15. A generative framsework for modeling human behavior with an application to analysis of deceptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcou, Nicolas; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Jensen, Matthew; Meservy, Thomas; Burgoon, Judee; Nunamaker, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Deception is a message knowingly and intentionally transmitted with the intent to foster false beliefs or conclusions. This definition encompasses strategies to mislead, such as equivocation, ambiguity, evasiveness and outright falsification. There are differences between deception and lying, but

  16. Deception Detection in a Computer-Mediated Environment: Gender, Trust, and Training Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dziubinski, Monica

    2003-01-01

    .... This research draws on communication and deception literature to develop a conceptual model proposing relationships between deception detection abilities in a computer-mediated environment, gender, trust, and training...

  17. Deception detection approach for data veracity in online digital news: Headlines vs contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eembi@Jamil, Normala Che; Ishak, Iskandar; Sidi, Fatimah

    2017-10-01

    Veracity is a way to find the truthfulness, availability, accountability and authenticity while deception refers to the way of identifying whether verbal expressions or the overall content is truthful or not. Among the issue in data veracity is the use of deception element in digital news content. Many research have been conducted to address the issue of deception especially in news content they proposed machine learning-based approaches to detect deception in news content. In this paper we compare available deception detection model to improve deception detection accuracy for online digital news veracity. We also proposed a framework to improve deception detection accuracy over digital news portal focusing on headlines. Furthermore, this paper also discussed potential directions for future research in deception of online news.

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing ...

  19. Strong association of the SNP rs17822931 with wet earwax and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wet earwax is a dominant Mendelian trait associated with the. GA/GG genotype of SNP rs17822931 in the ABCC11 gene. It is also often associated with the axillary odour (bromhidro- sis). To investigate their possible relationship we genotyped rs17822931 in a Chinese family affected with axillary odour. Direct sequencing ...

  20. Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hor, Hyun; Kutalik, Zoltán; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing......*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P ... ratio = 0.02; P HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility....

  1. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  2. Lyin' eyes: ocular-motor measures of reading reveal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anne E; Hacker, Douglas J; Webb, Andrea K; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean D; Woltz, Dan J; Kircher, John C

    2012-09-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a "guilty" group that committed one of two mock crimes or an "innocent" group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants' incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and rereading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception-vigilance and strategy-and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts.

  3. When deception influences memory: the implication of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-07-01

    When deceiving, one should remember to whom a falsified story was previously told; otherwise he or she may include inconsistencies, and the deception will probably be discovered. Bearing this in mind, we investigated the potential relationship between deception and the ability to remember to whom a piece of information was previously told (i.e., destination memory). Forty-one adults were given a destination memory task in which they had to decide to whom proverbs had previously been told. They were also given a questionnaire about deception (e.g., "I sometimes tell lies if I have to) and a cognitive theory of mind task in which they had to predict the behaviour of protagonists who hold a mistaken belief about the state of the world. Results showed a positive correlation between deception and destination memory (p mind ability (p mind) results in better processing of the target and consequently better destination memory. By showing the involvement of deception and theory of mind in destination memory, our findings emphasize the memory variations in social and interpersonal interactions.

  4. Ocean noise triggering of LP events at Deception Island volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, D.; Almendros, J.; Jiménez, V.; Mancilla, F.; Carmona, E.

    2012-04-01

    During the austral winter 2009, swarms of long-period (LP) events with astonishingly regular interevent times were recorded at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica. Swarm events have similar waveforms, indicating the repeated activation of a non-destructive source process. These swarms may last up to a few hours, and characteristic inter-event times range from ~10 s to ~20 s for individual swarms. The amplitudes of the periodic LPs vary significantly over a short time scale, which makes an association with a steady state internal process complicate. On the other hand, we observe that LP inter-event times are approximate integer multiples of the dominant periods of the oceanic microseism, and propose that the periodicity observed in the occurrence times of LP events is the result of dynamic triggering of the LP source process by the effect of oceanic microtremors. A positive correlation between microseism amplitude and LP periodicity supports this idea. We attribute LP periodicity to the coincidence of sustained LP activity in an unstable hydrothermal system and external forcing by ocean noise that introduces periodic pressure variations in volcano fluids. We estimate the volumetric strain change generated by the oceanic microseism at the source location and conclude that strain of order 10-7 is sufficient to introduce clear periodicity in the LP sequences.

  5. 16 CFR 254.6 - Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or... GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.6 Deceptive use of diplomas, degrees, or certificates. (a) It is deceptive for an industry member to issue a degree, diploma, certificate...

  6. The gambler's fallacy is associated with weak affective decision making but strong cognitive ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Xue

    Full Text Available Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler's fallacy (GF. The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals' use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making.

  7. The Gambler’s Fallacy Is Associated with Weak Affective Decision Making but Strong Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Chen, Chunhui; Liu, Yuyun; Chen, Chuansheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Humans demonstrate an inherent bias towards making maladaptive decisions, as shown by a phenomenon known as the gambler’s fallacy (GF). The GF has been traditionally considered as a heuristic bias supported by the fast and automatic intuition system, which can be overcome by the reasoning system. The present study examined an intriguing hypothesis, based on emerging evidence from neuroscience research, that the GF might be attributed to a weak affective but strong cognitive decision making mechanism. With data from a large sample of college students, we found that individuals’ use of the GF strategy was positively correlated with their general intelligence and executive function, such as working memory and conflict resolution, but negatively correlated with their affective decision making capacities, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Our result provides a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying the GF, which highlights the significant role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision-making. PMID:23071701

  8. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS.

  9. Regular exercise is strongly associated with anticipated success for reducing health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is a healthy behavior associated with desirable benefits. Regular exercise also makes manifest 2 fundamental behaviors-a choice and the discipline to continuously act on that choice. This cross-sectional analysis of more than 10 000 adults examines the association of regular exercise with unhealthy behaviors. Compared with people who are more regularly exercising, nonexercisers are less likely to choose to change an unhealthy habit. Nonexercisers are also much less likely to be confident of their success when they do choose a habit to change. Regular exercise seems to be a gateway behavior for reducing other unhealthy habits.

  10. Familial Longevity Is Associated With Higher TSH Secretion and Strong TSH-fT3 Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Spoel, Evie

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Longevity is associated with changes in circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) and/or TSH in animals and humans, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: We explored in 38 offspring of nonagenarian participants from the Leiden Longevity Study, who are enriched for longevity...... properties of TSH. The temporal relationship between TSH and free T3 at zero delay was higher in offspring (0.48 ± 0.2) compared with partners (0.26 ± 0.4) (P = .05), but the feedback and forward interplay between TSH and TH did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: Familial longevity is associated with increased basal...

  11. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Bender

    Full Text Available We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check.The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work and individual socioeconomic position were retrieved from national administrative registers. Multilevel regression analyses with log links and binary distributions were conducted to obtain relative risks, intraclass correlation coefficients and proportional change in variance.Large differences between neighborhoods existed in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%. In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose-response fashion. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had up to 37% decreased probability of participating compared to those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. Inclusion of individual socioeconomic position in the model attenuated the neighborhood deprivation coefficients, but all except for income deprivation remained statistically significant.Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which

  12. Associations Between Participant Ratings of PREP for Strong Bonds and Marital Outcomes 1 Year Postintervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Post, Kristina M; Markman, Howard J; Rhoades, Galena K; Stanley, Scott M

    2017-07-01

    After completing a relationship education program, collecting participant evaluations of the program is common practice. These are generally used as an index of "consumer satisfaction" with the program, with implications for feasibility and quality. Rarely have these ratings been used as predictors of changes in marital quality, although such feedback may be the only data providers collect or have immediate access to when considering the success of their efforts. To better understand the utility of such ratings to predict outcomes, we evaluated links between participant ratings and changes in self-reported marital satisfaction and communication scores one year later for a sample of 191 Army couples who had participated in a relationship education program delivered by Army chaplains (PREP for Strong Bonds). Overall ratings of general satisfaction with the program and the leader did not predict changes in marital outcomes one year later, whereas higher ratings of how much was learned, program helpfulness, increased similarity in outlook regarding Army life, and helpfulness of communication skills training predicted greater change in communication skills one year later. Higher ratings of items reflecting intent to invest more time in the relationship, and increased confidence in constructive communication and working as a team with the spouse predicted greater increases in both marital satisfaction and communication skills one year later. The constructs of intention and confidence (akin to perceived behavioral control) suggest that the Theory of Planned Behavior may be particularly useful when considering which Army couples will show ongoing benefit after relationship education.

  13. (Methylthio)phenol semiochemicals are exploited by deceptive orchids as sexual attractants for Campylothynnus thynnine wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Flematti, Gavin R; Peakall, Rod

    2017-09-28

    Until recently, (methylthio)phenols as natural products had only been reported from bacteria. Now, four representatives of this class of sulfurous aromatic compounds have been discovered as semiochemicals in the orchid Caladenia crebra, which secures pollination by sexual deception. In this case, field bioassays confirmed that a 10:1 blend of 2-(methylthio)benzene-1,4-diol (1) and 4-hydroxy-3-(methylthio)benzaldehyde (2) sexually attracts the male thynnine wasp Campylothynnus flavopictus (Tiphiidae:Thynnineae), the exclusive pollinator of C. crebra. Here we show with field bioassays that another undescribed species of Campylothynnus (sp. A) is strongly sexually attracted to a 1:1 blend of compounds 1 and 2, which elicits very high attempted copulation rates (88%). We also confirm that this Campylothynnus species is a pollinator of Caladenia attingens subsp. attingens. Chemical analysis of the flowers of this orchid revealed two (methylthio)phenols, compound 2 and 2-(methylthio)phenol (3), as candidate semiochemicals involved in pollinator attraction. Thus, (methylthio)phenols are likely to be more widely used than presently known. The confirmation of this Campylothynnus as a pollinator of C. attingens subsp. attingens at our study sites was unexpected, since elsewhere this orchid is pollinated by a different thynnine wasp (Thynnoides sp). In general, sexually deceptive Caladenia only use a single species of pollinator, and as such, this unusual case may offer a tractable study system for understanding the chemical basis of pollinator switching in sexually deceptive orchids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome and proteome data reveal candidate genes for pollinator attraction in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Qi, Weihong; Schauer, Monica A; Gupta, Alok K; Poveda, Lucy; Xu, Shuqing; Liu, Zhong-Jian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schiestl, Florian P; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2013-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys mimic the mating signals of their pollinator females to attract males as pollinators. This mode of pollination is highly specific and leads to strong reproductive isolation between species. This study aims to identify candidate genes responsible for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation between three closely related species, O. exaltata, O. sphegodes and O. garganica. Floral traits such as odour, colour and morphology are necessary for successful pollinator attraction. In particular, different odour hydrocarbon profiles have been linked to differences in specific pollinator attraction among these species. Therefore, the identification of genes involved in these traits is important for understanding the molecular basis of pollinator attraction by sexually deceptive orchids. We have created floral reference transcriptomes and proteomes for these three Ophrys species using a combination of next-generation sequencing (454 and Solexa), Sanger sequencing, and shotgun proteomics (tandem mass spectrometry). In total, 121 917 unique transcripts and 3531 proteins were identified. This represents the first orchid proteome and transcriptome from the orchid subfamily Orchidoideae. Proteome data revealed proteins corresponding to 2644 transcripts and 887 proteins not observed in the transcriptome. Candidate genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis were represented by 156 and 61 unique transcripts in 20 and 7 genes classes, respectively. Moreover, transcription factors putatively involved in the regulation of flower odour, colour and morphology were annotated, including Myb, MADS and TCP factors. Our comprehensive data set generated by combining transcriptome and proteome technologies allowed identification of candidate genes for pollinator attraction and reproductive isolation among sexually deceptive orchids. This includes genes for hydrocarbon and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, and the development of

  15. Pollination by sexual deception promotes outcrossing and mate diversity in self-compatible clonal orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M R; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2015-08-01

    The majority of flowering plants rely on animals as pollen vectors. Thus, plant mating systems and pollen dispersal are strongly influenced by pollinator behaviour. In Australian sexually deceptive orchids pollinated by male thynnine wasps, outcrossing and extensive pollen flow is predicted due to floral deception, which minimizes multiple flower visitations within patches, and the movement of pollinators under mate-search rather than foraging behaviours. This hypothesis was tested using microsatellite markers to reconstruct and infer paternity in two clonal, self-compatible orchids. Offspring from naturally pollinated Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii were acquired through symbiotic culture of seeds collected over three seasons. In both species, outcrossing was extensive (tm  = 0.924-1.00) despite clone sizes up to 11 m wide. The median pollen flow distance based on paternity for both taxa combined was 14.5 m (n = 18, range 0-69 m), being larger than typically found by paternity analyses in other herbaceous plants. Unexpectedly for orchids, some capsules were sired by more than one father, with an average of 1.35 pollen donors per fruit. This is the first genetic confirmation of polyandry in orchid capsules. Further, we report a possible link between multiple paternity and increased seed fitness. Together, these results demonstrate that deceptive pollination by mate-searching wasps enhances offspring fitness by promoting both outcrossing and within-fruit paternal diversity. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Is the Number of Different MRI Findings More Strongly Associated with Low Back Pain Than Single MRI Findings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjaer, Per; Kent, Peter

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis using 2 different data sets OBJECTIVE.: To investigate if the number of different MRI findings present is more strongly associated with low back pain (LBP) than single MRI findings. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Most previous studies have....... The outcome for the cross-sectional study was presence of LBP during the last year. The outcome for the longitudinal study was days to recurrence of activity limiting LBP. In both data sets we created an aggregate score of the number of different MRI findings present in each individual and assessed...... investigated the associations between single MRI findings and back pain rather than investigating combinations of MRI findings. If different individuals have different pathoanatomic sources contributing to their pain, then combinations of MRI findings may be more strongly associated with LBP. METHODS...

  17. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...... in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%). In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose...

  18. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  19. Neonatal thalamic hemorrhage is strongly associated with electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, Karina J; de Vries, Linda S; Leijten, Frans S S; Braun, Kees P J; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Groenendaal, Floris; Benders, Manon J N L; Jansen, Floor E

    2013-04-01

    Thalamic hemorrhage has been associated with neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT), especially when the straight sinus is involved, and often presents with neonatal seizures. Early thalamic injury has previously been shown to predispose to epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep-induced epileptic electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities and postneonatal epilepsy after neonatal thalamic hemorrhage associated with CSVT, in the absence of more widespread cerebral damage. Between 2003 and 2008 15 neonates were diagnosed with a thalamic hemorrhage due to suspected or proven CSVT. Neurodevelopment and the history of seizures were assessed at follow-up in the outpatient clinic in all 14 survivors (age 2-9 years). Whole-night or sleep-deprived EEG recordings were obtained to assess the prevalence of interictal epileptiform activity (EA) and calculate a sleep-induced spike and wave index (SWI). Three children were diagnosed with classic ESES (SWI >85%). Two children had ESES spectrum disorder (SWI between 50% and 85%), and in two children significant sleep-induced epileptiform activity (SIEA) was noted (SWI between 25% and 50%). Two other children were diagnosed with focal epilepsy, in the absence of sleep-induced epileptiform EEG abnormalities. Five children (age 2-7 years) had normal EEG recordings at follow-up. Deficits in neurodevelopment were seen significantly more often in children with ESES, ESES spectrum, or SIEA. Neonates with thalamic hemorrhage associated with straight sinus thrombosis, without evidence of more widespread cerebral damage, are at high risk of developing ESES (spectrum) disorder (35%), SIEA (14%), or focal epilepsy (14%). Electrographic abnormalities may already be present prior to recognition of cognitive deficits. Early diagnosis may guide parents and caregivers, and subsequent treatment may improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Routine

  20. What if I get busted? Deception, choice and decision-making in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sip, Kamila Ewa; Skewes, Joshua; Agustus, Jennifer L Marchant

    2012-01-01

    Deception is an essentially social act, yet little is known about how social consequences affect the decision to deceive. In this study, participants played a computerized game of deception without constraints on whether or when to attempt to deceive their opponent. Participants were questioned...... by the opponent. This design, therefore, creates a context in which a deceptive participant runs the risk of being punished if their deception is detected. Our results show that participants were slower to give honest than to give deceptive responses when they knew more about the display and could use...

  1. Onset polarity in bipolar disorder: A strong association between first depressive episode and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Laura; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Vismara, Matteo; Dobrea, Cristina; Buoli, Massimiliano; Ketter, Terence A; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The role of onset polarity (OP) in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) has been increasingly investigated over the last few years, for its clinical, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The present study sought to assess whether OP was associated with specific correlates, in particular with a differential suicidal risk in BD patients. A sample of 362 recovered BD patients was dichotomized by OP: depressed (DO) or elevated onset (EO: hypomanic/manic/mixed). Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compared between the subgroups. Additionally, binary logistic regression was performed to assess features associated with OP. DO compared with EO patients had older current age and were more often female, but less often single and unemployed. Clinically, DO versus EO had a more than doubled rate of suicide attempts, as well as significantly higher rates of BD II diagnosis, lifetime stressful events, current psychotropics and antidepressants use, longer duration of the most recent episode (more often depressive), but lower rates of psychosis and involuntary commitments. Retrospective design limiting the accurate assessment of total number of prior episodes of each polarity. Our results support the influence of OP on BD course and outcome. Moreover, in light of the relationship between DO and a higher rate of suicide attempts, further investigation may help clinicians in identifying patients at higher risk of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Modeling the two-locus architecture of divergent pollinator adaptation: how variation in SAD paralogs affects fitness and evolutionary divergence in sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2015-01-01

    Divergent selection by pollinators can bring about strong reproductive isolation via changes at few genes of large effect. This has recently been demonstrated in sexually deceptive orchids, where studies (1) quantified the strength of reproductive isolation in the field; (2) identified genes that appear to be causal for reproductive isolation; and (3) demonstrated selection by analysis of natural variation in gene sequence and expression. In a group of closely related Ophrys orchids, specific floral scent components, namely n-alkenes, are the key floral traits that control specific pollinator attraction by chemical mimicry of insect sex pheromones. The genetic basis of species-specific differences in alkene production mainly lies in two biosynthetic genes encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturases (SAD) that are associated with floral scent variation and reproductive isolation between closely related species, and evolve under pollinator-mediated selection. However, the implications of this genetic architecture of key floral traits on the evolutionary processes of pollinator adaptation and speciation in this plant group remain unclear. Here, we expand on these recent findings to model scenarios of adaptive evolutionary change at SAD2 and SAD5, their effects on plant fitness (i.e., offspring number), and the dynamics of speciation. Our model suggests that the two-locus architecture of reproductive isolation allows for rapid sympatric speciation by pollinator shift; however, the likelihood of such pollinator-mediated speciation is asymmetric between the two orchid species O. sphegodes and O. exaltata due to different fitness effects of their predominant SAD2 and SAD5 alleles. Our study not only provides insight into pollinator adaptation and speciation mechanisms of sexually deceptive orchids but also demonstrates the power of applying a modeling approach to the study of pollinator-driven ecological speciation.

  3. Repeat interruptions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 expansions are strongly associated with epileptic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N.; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Zeng, Desmond; Raskin, Salmo; Moscovich, Mariana; Gatto, Emilia M.; Ochoa, Adriana; Teive, Hélio A. G.; Rasmussen, Astrid; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, is the result of a non-coding, pentanucleotide repeat expansion within intron 9 of the Ataxin 10 gene. SCA10 patients present with pure cerebellar ataxia; yet, some families also have a high incidence of epilepsy. SCA10 expansions containing penta- and heptanucleotide interruption motifs, termed “ATCCT interruptions,” experience large contractions during germline transmission, particularly in paternal lineages. At the same time, these alleles confer an earlier age at onset which contradicts traditional rules of genetic anticipation in repeat expansions. Previously, ATCCT interruptions have been associated with a higher prevalence of epileptic seizures in one Mexican-American SCA10 family. In a large cohort of SCA10 families, we analyzed whether ATCCT interruptions confers a greater risk for developing seizures in these families. Notably, we find that the presence of repeat interruptions within the SCA10 expansion confers a 6.3-fold increase in the risk of an SCA10 patient developing epilepsy (6.2-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only) and a 13.7-fold increase in having a positive family history of epilepsy (10.5-fold when considering patients of Mexican ancestry only). We conclude that the presence of repeat interruptions in SCA10 repeat expansion indicates a significant risk for the epilepsy phenotype and should be considered during genetic counseling. PMID:24318420

  4. Severity of rhinitis and wheezing is strongly associated in preschoolers: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Margarida; Morais-Almeida, Mário; Santos, Natacha; Nunes, Carlos; Bousquet, Jean; Fonseca, João Almeida

    2015-11-01

    In preschool children, no study assessed the relation between wheezing and rhinitis severity. Our aims were to estimate the prevalence of current wheezing (CW) in preschoolers and to study the association between CW and current rhinitis (CR), considering its severity/persistency. This is a cross-sectional, nationwide, population-based study including a representative sample of 5003 Portuguese children aged 3-5 years. Data were collected by a face-to-face interview with caregivers using an adapted ISAAC questionnaire. CW was defined as presence of ≥1 wheezing episode in the previous 12 months. Rhinitis severity/persistency was classified according to Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma. Current wheezing prevalence was 24.5% [95% CI 23.3-25.7]; 9.4% of the participants had ≥4 wheezing episodes in the previous year. Children with CR had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.0 [95% CI 3.4-4.5] for CW; it was highest for children with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis (11.5 [95% CI 8.1-16.3]), even after adjusting for possible confounders. Wheezers with CR reported more wheezing treatment use (p = 0.024) than those without CR. There was a trend for a higher number of wheezing episodes with more persistent and severe nasal disease - 48.4% of children with moderate-severe persistent rhinitis had >4 wheezing episodes vs. 28.9% in moderate-severe intermittent, 20.0% in mild persistent, 10.8% in mild intermittent, and 3.6% in those without CR; p rhinitis, especially moderate-severe persistent disease. Preschoolers with both CW and rhinitis seem to have a more severe phenotype, emphasizing the need for concurrent evaluation of nasal and bronchial symptoms even in small children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The 8.1 ancestral MHC haplotype is strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eva Katalin; Kocsis, Judit; Madaras, Balázs; Bíró, Adrienn; Pocsai, Zsuzsa; Fust, George; Blaskó, Bernadett; Karádi, István; Adány, Róza; Laki, Judit

    2007-10-15

    Many recent data indicate that some alleles encoded in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (Class III) of short arm of chromosome 6 may modify the risk of cancer development. Therefore we determined 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this region (TNF-alpha -308 G > A, RAGE -429 T > C, HSP70-2 -1267 A > G, LTA 252 A > G) in genomic DNA samples from 183 Hungarian patients with colorectal cancer and 141 age matched control subjects representing the Hungarian population of the same age and gender. No significant differences were found in either SNP tested. When, however, three- or four-locus haplotypes consisting of known constituents of the so-called 8.1 ancestral haplotype (8.1AH) were considered, marked differences were observed. Frequency of TNF-alpha -308A, RAGE -429C, HSP70-2 -1267G, LTA 252G (8.1AH) haplotype was significantly (p = 0.006) more frequent (19.1%) among patients than in the controls (7.7%). Age- and gender-adjusted ratio of the 8.1AH carriers vs. non-carriers to have colorectal cancer was 2.514 (1.130-5.594). This risk was higher in cancer-indicate that carriers of the 8.1AH, encoding for an altered immune response and known to be associated with alterations of several immune functions and autoimmune diseases have an increased risk for some cancer types. These findings may contribute to better understanding how the defense mechanisms against tumors could be enhanced/strengthened. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Type 2 diabetes associated variants of KCNQ1 strongly confer the risk of cardiovascular disease among the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha S. Al-Shammari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Polymorphisms within the KCNQ1 (potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 gene are consistently associated with T2D in a number of populations. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the association of 3 polymorphisms of KCNQ1 (rs2237892, rs151290 and rs2237895 with T2D and/or CVD. Patients diagnosed with either T2D (320 patients, CVD (250 patients or both (60 patients and 516 healthy controls were genotyped by TaqMan assay run on a real time PCR thermocycler. A statistically significant association was found for SNPs rs151290 (OR = 1.76; 95%CI = 1.02-3.05; p = 0.0435 and rs2237895 (OR = 2.49; 95%CI = 1.72-3.61; p < 0.0001 with CVD. SNP rs151290 (OR = 7.43; 95%CI = 1.00-55.22; p = 0.0499 showed a strong association in patients with both T2D and CVD. None of the SNPs showed any significant association with T2D. Haploview analysis showed that the ACC (rs151290, rs2237892 and rs2237895 haplotype is the most significant risk allele combination for CVD, while CCA is the most significant risk haplotype for co-morbidity with T2D. KCNQ1 polymorphism at SNPs rs151290 and rs2237895 is strongly associated with CVD in this population, but presented no association with T2D.

  7. On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiestl, Florian P.

    2005-06-01

    A standing enigma in pollination ecology is the evolution of pollinator attraction without offering reward in about one third of all orchid species. Here I review concepts of pollination by deception, and in particular recent findings in the pollination syndromes of food deception and sexual deception in orchids. Deceptive orchids mimic floral signals of rewarding plants (food deception) or mating signals of receptive females (sexual deception) to attract pollen vectors. In some food deceptive orchids, similarities in the spectral reflectance visible to the pollinator in a model plant and its mimic, and increased reproductive success of the mimic in the presence of the model have been demonstrated. Other species do not mimic specific model plants but attract pollinators with general attractive floral signals. In sexually deceptive orchids, floral odor is the key trait for pollinator attraction, and behaviorally active compounds in the orchids are identical to the sex pheromone of the pollinator species. Deceptive orchids often show high variability in floral signals, which may be maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, since pollinators can learn and subsequently avoid common deceptive morphs more quickly than rare ones. The evolution of obligate deception in orchids seems paradoxical in the light of the typically lower fruit set than in rewarding species. Pollination by deception, however, can reduce self-pollination and encourage pollen flow over longer distances, thus promoting outbreeding. Although some food deceptive orchids are isolated through postzygotic reproductive barriers, sexually deceptive orchids lack post-mating barriers and species isolation is achieved via specific pollinator attraction. Recent population genetic and phylogenetic investigations suggest gene-flow within subgeneric clades, but pollinator-mediated selection may maintain species-specific floral traits.

  8. Enrichment, distribution and sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-04-15

    Sediment samples from 13 sampling sites in Deception Bay, Australia were analysed for the presence of heavy metals. Enrichment factors, modified contamination indices and Nemerow pollution indices were calculated for each sampling site to determine sediment quality. The results indicate significant pollution of most sites by lead (average enrichment factor (EF) of 13), but there is also enrichment of arsenic (average EF 2.3), zinc (average EF 2.7) and other heavy metals. The modified degree of contamination indices (average 1.0) suggests that there is little contamination. By contrast, the Nemerow pollution index (average 5.8) suggests that Deception Bay is heavily contaminated. Cluster analysis was undertaken to identify groups of elements. Strong correlation between some elements and two distinct clusters of sampling sites based on sediment type was evident. These results have implications for pollution in complex marine environments where there is significant influx of sand and sediment into an estuarine environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Web Of Deception: Misinformation On The Internet | Chete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine if Misinformation and Deception exist on the Internet. The survey technique was adopted for this study . The respondents were Academic staff of Computer Science Department, staff of the Central Records Processing Unit, staff of the University Network, and also final year Students of ...

  10. The Neural Basis of Deception in Strategic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten G Volz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication based on informational asymmetries abounds in politics, business, and almost any other form of social interaction. Informational asymmetries may create incentives for the better-informed party to exploit her advantage by misrepresenting information. Using a game-theoretic setting, we investigate the neural basis of deception in human interaction. Unlike in most previous fMRI research on deception, the participants decide themselves whether to lie or not. We find activation within the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, the (precuneus (CUN, and the anterior frontal gyrus (aFG when contrasting lying with truth telling. Notably, our design also allows for an investigation of the neural foundations of sophisticated deception through telling the truth—when the sender does not expect the receiver to believe her (true message. Sophisticated deception triggers activation within the same network as plain lies, i.e., we find activity within the rTPJ, the CUN, and aFG. We take this result to show that brain activation can reveal the sender’s veridical intention to deceive others, irrespective of whether in fact the sender utters the factual truth or not.

  11. Action Simulation Plays a Critical Role in Deceptive Action Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in

  12. Deception in experiments: revisiting the arguments in its defense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertwig, R.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2008), s. 59-92 ISSN 1050-8422 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : deception * experimental control * research ethics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2008

  13. Plagiarism and Source Deception Detection Based on Syntax Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Salih Al-Shamery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the shingle algorithm with Jaccard method are employed as a new approach to detect deception in sources in addition to detect plagiarism . Source deception occurs as a result of taking a particular text from a source and relative it to another source, while plagiarism occurs in the documents as a result of taking part or all of the text belong to another research, this approach is based on Shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient , Shingling is an efficient way to compare the set of shingle in the files that contain text which are used as a feature to measure the syntactic similarity of the documents and it will work with Jaccard coefficient that measures similarity between sample sets . In this proposed system, text will be checked whether it contains syntax plagiarism or not and gives a percentage of similarity with other documents , As well as research sources will be checked to detect deception in source , by matching it with available sources from Turnitin report of the same research by using shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient. The motivations of this work is to discovery of literary thefts that occur on the researches , especially what students are doing in their researches , also discover the deception that occurs in the sources.

  14. Detecting deception in children: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongola, Jennifer; Scurich, Nicholas; Quas, Jodi A

    2017-02-01

    Although research reveals that children as young as 3 can use deception and will take steps to obscure truth, research concerning how well others detect children's deceptive efforts remains unclear. Yet adults regularly assess whether children are telling the truth in a variety of contexts, including at school, in the home, and in legal settings, particularly in investigations of maltreatment. We conducted a meta-analysis to synthesize extant research concerning adults' ability to detect deceptive statements produced by children. We included 45 experiments involving 7,893 adult judges and 1,858 children. Overall, adults could accurately discriminate truths/lies at an average rate of 54%, which is slightly but significantly above chance levels. The average rate at which true statements were correctly classified as honest was higher (63.8%), whereas the rate at which lies were classified as dishonest was not different from chance (47.5%). A small positive correlation emerged between judgment confidence and judgment accuracy. Professionals (e.g., social workers, police officers, teachers) slightly outperformed laypersons (e.g., college undergraduates). Finally, exploratory analyses revealed that the child's age did not significantly affect the rate at which adults could discriminate truths/lies from chance. Future research aimed toward improving lie detection accuracy might focus more on individual differences in children's lie-telling abilities in order to uncover any reliable indicators of deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. 16 CFR 254.2 - Deceptive trade or business names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.2 Deceptive trade or business names. (a) It is... misleads or deceives prospective students as to the nature of the school, its accreditation, programs of... school. (c) If an industry member conducts its instruction by correspondence, or other form of distance...

  16. Mechanisms and evolution of deceptive pollination in orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, - (2006), s. 219-235 ISSN 1464-7931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : cross-pollination * floral deception * geitonogamy * inbreeding * nectar * Orchidaceae * pollinaria * reward * self-pollination Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.565, year: 2006

  17. The criminal sanctions of commercial deceptions in Ethiopia: Could ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been contended that criminalization of commercial wrongs would chill economic activities due to the over-deterrence effect of criminal sanctions. However, a growing amount of legal literature has emerged in this area and it has indicated that deceptive commercial behaviors deserve criminal sanctions since they ...

  18. 48 CFR 2103.570 - Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Unfair Advertising. 2103.570 Section 2103.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL..., Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising. (a) OPM, or the Contractor with the approval of OPM, makes available to..., serves as certification of the employee's coverage under the FEGLI Program. Any marketing/advertising...

  19. Group Performance in Military Scenarios Under Deceptive Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    .... The analysis of the post-game surveys showed support for participants in games using a face-to-face communication method to have lower perceptions of deception and task difficulty when compared to games using real-time plain text chat.

  20. Registered report : Measuring unconscious deception detection by skin temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Veer, Anna E.; Stel, Marielle; van Beest, Ilja; Gallucci, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even

  1. Household income is strongly associated with health-related quality of life among Japanese men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Fukuhara, S; Suzukamo, Y

    2005-07-01

    As socio-economic status (SES) strongly reflects individual economic status, evaluating the association between SES and health could provide information that is important for planning integrated economic and public health policies. We examined the association between annual household income as a measure of SES and the eight scale scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a quantifier of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Data were from the SF-36 national survey in Japan. A total of 4500 people aged 16 years or older were selected from the entire population of Japan using stratified-random sampling, and 3395 responded to the survey. Men with lower levels of annual household income had lower scores in all SF-36 domains. However, only 'general health perceptions' and 'social functioning' showed statistically significant trends among the women surveyed. In the subgroup of women working full-time, there were no domains that showed significant trends. A strong association exists between annual household income and SF-36 scores among men, but there is only a limited association among women. The employment and economic policies that affect annual household income potentially influence HRQOL.

  2. Historic hydrovolcanism at Deception Island (Antarctica): implications for eruption hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzi, Dario; Németh, Károly; Geyer, Adelina; Álvarez-Valero, Antonio M.; Aguirre-Díaz, Gerardo; Bartolini, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Deception Island (Antarctica) is the southernmost island of the South Shetland Archipelago in the South Atlantic. Volcanic activity since the eighteenth century, along with the latest volcanic unrest episodes in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, demonstrates that the volcanic system is still active and that future eruptions are likely. Despite its remote location, the South Shetland Islands are an important touristic destination during the austral summer. In addition, they host several research stations and three summer field camps. Deception Island is characterised by a Quaternary caldera system with a post-caldera succession and is considered to be part of an active, dispersed (monogenetic), volcanic field. Historical post-caldera volcanism on Deception Island involves monogenetic small-volume (VEI 2-3) eruptions such forming cones and various types of hydrovolcanic edifices. The scientific stations on the island were destroyed, or severely damaged, during the eruptions in 1967, 1969, and 1970 mainly due to explosive activity triggered by the interaction of rising (or erupting) magma with surface water, shallow groundwater, and ice. We conducted a detailed revision (field petrology and geochemistry) of the historical hydrovolcanic post-caldera eruptions of Deception Island with the aim to understand the dynamics of magma-water interaction, as well as characterise the most likely eruptive scenarios from future eruptions. We specifically focused on the Crimson Hill (estimated age between 1825 and 1829), and Kroner Lake (estimated age between 1829 and 1912) eruptions and 1967, 1969, and 1970 events by describing the eruption mechanisms related to the island's hydrovolcanic activity. Data suggest that the main hazards posed by volcanism on the island are due to fallout, ballistic blocks and bombs, and subordinate, dilute PDCs. In addition, Deception Island can be divided into five areas of expected activity due to magma-water interaction, providing additional

  3. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Osvath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes. As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  4. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  5. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  6. Evidence for progenitor–derivative speciation in sexually deceptive orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Philipp M.; Ruas, Paulo M.; Kohl, Gudrun; Ruas, Claudete F.; Stuessy, Tod F.; Paulus, Hannes F.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys use mimicry of pollinator females to attract specific pollinators. Pollinator shifts may drive speciation in Ophrys, since novel pollinators may in principle act as isolating factors immediately. It is thus possible that evolution of novel species occurs rapidly and with a progenitor–derivative pattern. The aims of this study are to compare genetic structure and diversity among widespread and geographically restricted Ophrys taxa, to test whether genetic structure is associated with specific pollinators, and to investigate whether any widespread species may have acted as a progenitor for the evolution of more restricted taxa. Methods Genetic differentiation and diversity were investigated in O. leucadica and O. cinereophila, the two taxa of the Ophrys fusca sensu lato complex widespread in the Aegean, and three geographically restricted taxa from Rhodes, O. attaviria, O. parvula and O. persephonae, all differing in their specific pollinators. This was done using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting, and sequencing of the low-copy nuclear gene LEAFY (LFY). Key Results All taxa were found to be separate genetic entities, with O. leucadica forming two geographic groups from the west and east of the Aegean. Genetic structure was significantly shaped by pollinators and geography, and comparison of sequence and AFLP data revealed ancestral polymorphisms shared among several taxa. Among the sampled taxa, O. leucadica harbours the greatest genetic differentiation and geographic structure, and the highest genetic diversity. Part of the genome of O. parvula, endemic to Rhodes, may be derived from O. leucadica. Conclusions Pollinators probably influence the genetic structure of the investigated Ophrys species. The genetic pattern identified is consistent with O. leucadica being the oldest of the sampled taxa, making O. leucadica a candidate progenitor species from which more

  7. Tropospheric mid-latitude geopotential wave characteristics associated with strong wind events in the North Atlantic/European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Simmonds, Ian; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2015-04-01

    The variability of strong synoptic scale wind events in the mid-latitudes have long been linked to baroclinic wave activity in the mid troposphere. Previous studies have also shown that greater amplitudes of planetary waves in the mid troposphere are likely to increase the occurrence of regional extremes in temperature and precipitation. In this study we examine whether characteristics of planetary and synoptic mid-latitude waves show systematic anomalies in the North Atlantic/ European region which can be related to the occurrence of a strong surface wind event. We will mainly focus on two questions: 1) Do amplitudes for waves with different wave lengths show a systematic anomaly when a strong wind event occurs? 2) Can phases of the individual wave components be detected that favour strong wind events? In order to decompose the mid-tropospheric flow into longitudinal waves we employ the fast Fourier transform to the meridional mean of the geopotential height in 500hPa between 35° and 60°N for i) the entire latitude belt and ii) for a North Atlantic/European sector (36°W to 36°E). Our definition of strong wind events is based on the Storm Severity Index (SSI) alongside a wind tracking algorithm identifying areas of exceedances of the local 98th percentile of the 10m wind speed. First results using ERA-Interim Reanalysis from 1979 - 2014 for the extended winter season (ONDJFM) for the 50 most intense strong wind systems with respect to the SSI reveal a greater amplitude for all investigated wave numbers. Especially waves with wave lengths below 2000km show an increase of about 25% of the daily standard deviation on average. The distribution of wave phases for the different wave numbers with respect to the location of a strong wind event shows a less homogenous picture. There is however a high proportion of events that can be associated with phases around 3π/4 and 5π/4 of waves with lengths of around 6000km, equivalent to wave number 5 on a planetary scale

  8. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Karhunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight-loss and weight-maintenance (WM periods. During the WM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets. However, when regarding all study subjects, success in WM was most strongly associated with a greater increase in the flexible control of eating and experience of greater easiness of WM and control of food intake and a greater decrease in uncontrollable eating and psychological distress. Psychobehavioural factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.

  9. Psychobehavioural Factors Are More Strongly Associated with Successful Weight Management Than Predetermined Satiety Effect or Other Characteristics of Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila; Lyly, Marika; Lapveteläinen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors associated with weight management, especially whether satiety value of food as a part of a weight-maintenance diet would affect self-regulation of food intake and weight management. Altogether 82 obese subjects completed the study consisting of weight...... factors seem to be more strongly associated with successful weight management than the predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of the diet.......-loss and weight-maintenance (WM) periods. During theWM, subjects were randomized into higher- and lower-satiety food groups. No differences were observed in the changes in body weight, energy intake, or eating behaviour between the groups, even despite the different macronutrient compositions of the diets...

  10. A missense mutation in growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 is strongly associated with litter size in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Våge Dag I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome wide association study for litter size in Norwegian White Sheep (NWS was conducted using the recently developed ovine 50K SNP chip from Illumina. After genotyping 378 progeny tested artificial insemination (AI rams, a GWAS analysis was performed on estimated breeding values (EBVs for litter size. Results A QTL-region was identified on sheep chromosome 5, close to the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, which is known to be a strong candidate gene for increased ovulation rate/litter size. Sequencing of the GDF9 coding region in the most extreme sires (high and low BLUP values revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.1111G>A, responsible for a Val→Met substitution at position 371 (V371M. This polymorphism has previously been identified in Belclare and Cambridge sheep, but was not found to be associated with fertility. In our NWS-population the c.1111G>A SNP showed stronger association with litter size than any other single SNP on the Illumina 50K ovine SNP chip. Based on the estimated breeding values, daughters of AI rams homozygous for c.1111A will produce minimum 0.46 - 0.57 additional lambs compared to daughters of wild-type rams. Conclusion We have identified a missense mutation in the bioactive part of the GDF9 protein that shows strong association with litter size in NWS. Based on the NWS breeding history and the marked increase in the c.1111A allele frequency in the AI ram population since 1983, we hypothesize that c.1111A allele originate from Finnish landrace imported to Norway around 1970. Because of the widespread use of Finnish landrace and the fact that the ewes homozygous for the c.1111A allele are reported to be fertile, we expect the commercial impact of this mutation to be high.

  11. Use of Deception to Improve Client Honeypot Detection of Drive-by-Download Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovsky, Barbara; Narvaez Suarez, Julia F.; Seifert, Christian; Frincke, Deborah A.; O' Neil, Lori R.; Aval, Chiraag U.

    2009-07-24

    This paper presents the application of deception theory to improve the success of client honeypots at detecting malicious web page attacks from infected servers programmed by online criminals to launch drive-by-download attacks. The design of honeypots faces three main challenges: deception, how to design honeypots that seem real systems; counter-deception, techniques used to identify honeypots and hence defeating their deceiving nature; and counter counter-deception, how to design honeypots that deceive attackers. The authors propose the application of a deception model known as the deception planning loop to identify the current status on honeypot research, development and deployment. The analysis leads to a proposal to formulate a landscape of the honeypot research and planning of steps ahead.

  12. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Masip

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a repeat strategy to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers and guilty participants (liars had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi, contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after one week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable, 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable, to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable. These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%.

  13. Strategic Interviewing to Detect Deception: Cues to Deception across Repeated Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Jaume; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Martínez, Carmen; Herrero, Carmen; Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    Previous deception research on repeated interviews found that liars are not less consistent than truth tellers, presumably because liars use a “repeat strategy” to be consistent across interviews. The goal of this study was to design an interview procedure to overcome this strategy. Innocent participants (truth tellers) and guilty participants (liars) had to convince an interviewer that they had performed several innocent activities rather than committing a mock crime. The interview focused on the innocent activities (alibi), contained specific central and peripheral questions, and was repeated after 1 week without forewarning. Cognitive load was increased by asking participants to reply quickly. The liars’ answers in replying to both central and peripheral questions were significantly less accurate, less consistent, and more evasive than the truth tellers’ answers. Logistic regression analyses yielded classification rates ranging from around 70% (with consistency as the predictor variable), 85% (with evasive answers as the predictor variable), to over 90% (with an improved measure of consistency that incorporated evasive answers as the predictor variable, as well as with response accuracy as the predictor variable). These classification rates were higher than the interviewers’ accuracy rate (54%). PMID:27847493

  14. Lie, truth, lie: the role of task switching in a deception context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; Liefooghe, Baptist; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    A cornerstone of the task switching literature is the finding that task performance is typically slower and more error-prone when the task switches than when it repeats. So far, deception research has largely ignored that such cognitive switch costs should also emerge when switching between truth telling and lying, and may affect the cognitive cost of lying as reflected in higher prefrontal brain activity and slower and less accurate responding compared to truth telling. To get a grasp on the relative size of the switch costs associated with lying and truth telling, the current study had participants perform a reaction time-based deception task, in which they alternated between lying and telling the truth to yes/no questions that were related to activities performed in the lab (Experiment 1) or neutral autobiographical facts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the error and reaction time switch costs were found to be equally large for switching from truth telling to lying and from lying to truth telling. This symmetry in switch costs can be explained from the hypothesis that lying requires a first step of truth telling, and demonstrates that task switching does not contribute to the cognitive cost of lying when the repetition/switch ratio is balanced. Theoretical and methodological implications are considered.

  15. Strong association of MRI meniscal derangement and bone marrow lesions in knee osteoarthritis: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, G H; Hunter, D J; Nevitt, M; Lynch, J; McAlindon, T E

    2009-06-01

    Meniscal damage is common in knee Osteoarthritis (OA) and predictive of structural progression, suggesting that their disruption plays a role in the development of OA. The bone marrow lesion (BML) is associated with pain and is a strong risk factor for structural progression. These lesions are associated with abnormal loading in a knee joint. Therefore, our hypothesis was that in those with symptomatic knee OA, large BMLs would be associated with ipsi-compartmental meniscal derangement. This was a cross-sectional study of a subsample of the Osteoarthritis Initiative where one set of magnetic resonance (MR) images from each participant was scored for tibiofemoral BMLs and meniscal derangement. We performed chi-squared tests comparing the prevalence of large BMLs in those with ipsi-compartmental meniscal derangement and those without. 160 Participants had a mean age of 61 (+/-9.9), mean BMI of 30.3 (+/-4.7) and 50% were female. 79% of medial and 39% of lateral menisci showed MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) derangement. In those with medial meniscal MRI derangement, 44% had large medial BMLs while in those without medial meniscal derangement, 0% had large BMLs. Similar results were seen in the lateral compartment. Medial and lateral MRI meniscal derangement are highly prevalent in symptomatic knee OA and BMLs are highly associated with ipsi-compartmental MRI meniscal derangement.

  16. Skin colonisation at the catheter exit site is strongly associated with catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vennila; Perperoglou, Aris; Venkatesh, Vidheya; Curley, Anna; Brown, Nicholas; Tremlett, Catherine; Clarke, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The commonest mode of catheter colonisation is via the extraluminal route with skin bacteria. Catheter-related sepsis causes significant mortality and morbidity in neonates. Our aim was to study the relationships between culture-positive catheter exit site skin swabs, percutaneous central venous catheter segments and blood to determine the magnitude of associations between exit site skin colonisation, catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis. In a prospective study, an exit site skin swab and three formerly in vivo catheter segments (proximal, middle and tip) were taken for culture at catheter removal. In those neonates who were clinically unwell at catheter removal, a peripheral blood culture was also collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study associations. Skin swabs were culture positive in 39 (21%) of 187 catheter removals. With a culture-positive skin swab, the risk of associated catheter colonisation was nearly eight times higher (OR: 7.84, 95% CI: 3.59-17.15) and the risk of definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism was nearly 10 times higher (OR 9.86, 95% CI: 3.13-31.00). Culture-positive skin swabs from the catheter exit site were strongly associated with catheter colonisation and with definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism. These data provide further evidence supporting catheter colonisation via the extraluminal route and highlight the importance of optimising skin disinfection before catheter insertion. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cognitive simplicity and self-deception are crucial in martyrdom and suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Trivers, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Suicide attacks and terrorism are characterized by cognitive simplicity, which is related to self-deception. In justifying violence in pursuit of ideologically and/or politically driven commitment, people with high religious commitment may be particularly prone to mechanisms of self-deception. Related megalomania and glorious self-perception are typical of self-deception, and are thus crucial in the emergence and expression of (suicide) terrorism.

  18. Pollen transfer efficiency and its effect on inflorescence size in deceptive pollination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, G; Schiestl, F P; Cozzolino, S

    2015-03-01

    Pollination systems differ in pollen transfer efficiency, a variable that may influence the evolution of flower number. Here we apply a comparative approach to examine the link between pollen transfer efficiency and the evolution of inflorescence size in food and sexually deceptive orchids. We examined pollination performance in nine food-deceptive, and eight sexually deceptive orchids by recording pollen removal and deposition in the field. We calculated correlations between reproductive success and flower number (as a proxy for resources allocated during reproductive process), and directional selection differentials were estimated on flower number for four species. Results indicate that sexually deceptive species experience decreased pollen loss compared to food-deceptive species. Despite producing fewer flowers, sexually deceptive species attained levels of overall pollination success (through male and female function) similar to food-deceptive species. Furthermore, a positive correlation between flower number and pollination success was observed in food-deceptive species, but this correlation was not detected in sexually deceptive species. Directional selection differentials for flower number were significantly higher in food compared to sexually deceptive species. We suggest that pollination systems with more efficient pollen transfer and no correlation between pollination success and number of flowers produced, such as sexual deception, may allow the production of inflorescences with fewer flowers that permit the plant to allocate fewer resources to floral displays and, at the same time, limit transpiration. This strategy can be particularly important for ecological success in Mediterranean water-deprived habitats, and might explain the high frequency of sexually deceptive species in these specialised ecosystems. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Deception Detection: Accuracy Levels Among International Military Officers Using Content and Contextual Questioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    average, people are slightly better than fifty-fifty at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article...at detecting deception, as seen in a published Personality and Social Psychology Review article. Modern research ideology favors using diagnostic...identified the deceptive message immediately, a finding replicated by Lindsey, Dunbar, and Russell (2011) in organizational settings. Park et al.’s (2002

  20. Misleading or Falsification? Inferring Deceptive Strategies and Types in Online News and Social Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Jang, Jin Yea

    2018-04-27

    Deceptive information in online news and social media has had dramatic effect on our society in recent years. This study is the first to gain deeper insights into writers' intent behind digital misinformation by analyzing psycholinguistic signals: moral foundations and connotations extracted from different types of deceptive news ranging from strategic disinformation to propaganda and hoaxes. To ensure consistency of our findings and generalizability across domains, we experiment with data from: (1) confirmed cases of disinformation in news summaries, (2) {propaganda}, hoax, and disinformation news pages, and (3) social media news. We first contrast lexical markers of biased language, syntactic and stylistic signals, and connotations across deceptive news types including disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes, and {deceptive} strategies including misleading or falsification. We then incorporate these insights to build machine learning and deep learning predictive models to infer deception strategies and deceptive news types. Our experimental results demonstrate that unlike earlier work on deception detection, content combined with biased language markers, moral foundations, and connotations leads to better predictive performance of deception strategies compared to syntactic and stylistic signals (as reported in earlier work on deceptive reviews). Falsification strategy is easier to identify than misleading strategy. Disinformation is more difficult to predict than to propaganda or hoaxes. Deceptive news types (disinformation, propaganda, and hoaxes), unlike deceptive strategies (falsification and misleading), are more salient, and thus easier to identify in tweets than in news reports. Finally, our novel connotation analysis across deception types provides deeper understanding of writers' perspectives and therefore reveals the intentions behind digital misinformation.

  1. The Role of Power and Negotiation in Online Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Albrecht

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to advance theoretical understanding of the important role of both power and negotiation during online deception.  By so doing, the paper provides insight into the relationship between perpetrator and victim in Internet fraud. The growing prevalence of Internet Fraud continues to be a burden to both society and individuals. In an attempt to better understand Internet fraud and online deception, this article attempts to build an interactive model, based upon the dimensions of power and negotiation from the management and psychology literature. Using the model presented, the article examines the effects of the Internet on the communication process that takes place between perpetrator and victim. Finally, the article discusses some of the major tactics employed to appeal to each power type in predominant fraud forms, as well exploring future types of fraud.

  2. Robot Lies in Health Care: When Is Deception Morally Permissible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Autonomous robots are increasingly interacting with users who have limited knowledge of robotics and are likely to have an erroneous mental model of the robot's workings, capabilities, and internal structure. The robot's real capabilities may diverge from this mental model to the extent that one might accuse the robot's manufacturer of deceiving the user, especially in cases where the user naturally tends to ascribe exaggerated capabilities to the machine (e.g. conversational systems in elder-care contexts, or toy robots in child care). This poses the question, whether misleading or even actively deceiving the user of an autonomous artifact about the capabilities of the machine is morally bad and why. By analyzing trust, autonomy, and the erosion of trust in communicative acts as consequences of deceptive robot behavior, we formulate four criteria that must be fulfilled in order for robot deception to be morally permissible, and in some cases even morally indicated.

  3. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  4. Cortical network during deception detection by functional neuroimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    We examined the coherence of cortical network during deception detection. First, we performed combined EEG-MRI experiments during the Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) using number cards which has been used to model deception and 5 right-handed healthy participants performed the experiment. The superior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate cortex and the inferior parietal lobule were activated and the P 300 event-related brain potential (300-450 ms) was detected at only 'Lie' card. Secondary, we measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) data during GKT and the other 5 right-handed healthy subjects participated in the next experiment. The coherence between the superior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule showed significant differences between 'Lie' card and 'truth' cards during P 300 emerging. This results indicates that the coherence of cortical network is useful for GKT. (author)

  5. A pilot study of functional magnetic resonance imaging brain correlates of deception in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, F Andrew; Revell, Letty J; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Shastri, Ananda; Elhai, Jon D; Horner, Michael David; Smith, Adam; Nahas, Ziad; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that specific brain regions would activate during deception, and these areas would correlate with changes in electrodermal activity (EDA). Eight men were asked to find money hidden under various objects. While functional MRI images were acquired and EDA was recorded, the subjects gave both truthful and deceptive answers regarding the money's location. The group analysis revealed significant activation during deception in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFCx) and anterior cingulate (AC), but individual results were not consistent. Individually and as a group, EDA correlated with blood flow changes in the OFCx and AC. Specific brain regions were activated during deception, but the present technique lacks good predictive power for individuals.

  6. Employing Special Operations Forces to Conduct Deception in Support of Shaping and Decisive Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeMire, Guy

    2002-01-01

    .... The increased demand for intelligence, information superiority, as well as the increased need for operational security to conduct successful deception also present a significant challenge to military planners...

  7. Deception Recognition: Rethinking the Operational Commander’s Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    direct support of a specific theatre commander. 17 CONCLUSIONS For the operational commander to minimize risk in all phases of war he must be...Strategic Surprise (London, England: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, 1982), 190. 22 Patrick Porter, Good Anthropology , Bad History: The Cultural Turn...of Military Deception. London, England: Leo Cooper, 1997. Porter, Patrick. Good Anthropology , Bad History: The Cultural Turn in Studying War

  8. The Principles of Military Deception and Operation QUICKSILVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...based on his false preconception even several days after the Normandy invasion. In the book “Hoodwinking Hitler” Albert Speer was quoted concerning the...Cruickshank, 178. 14 Cruickshank, 181. 15 Cruickshank, 181. 16 Latimer , Jon, Deception in War, (New York, NY: Overlook Press, 2001), 102. AU/ACSC

  9. Deception Operations: Doctrinal Side Show or Operational Imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-31

    Defense or any of its $enct*s. This 40cUOmt 8m8y n1t be roleaed for open publication UAW It h" bee cleated by Ctb apopriate mitory ente or governenl...vehicles as an everyday occurrence, would be absolutely disoriented at the moment of the Soviet- Mongolian attack. With this objective, systematic daylight...effort for all Soviet forces, that includes special electronic deception units that transmit bogus signals , aimed at deceiving Western reconnaissance

  10. Once an Impression Manager, Always an Impression Manager? Antecedents of Honest and Deceptive Impression Management Use and Variability across Multiple Job Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bourdage, Joshua S.

    2017-01-01

    Research has examined the antecedents of applicants' use of impression management (IM) tactics in employment interviews. All existing empirical studies have measured IM in one particular interview. Yet, applicants generally interview multiple times for different positions, and thus have multiple opportunities to engage in IM, before they can secure a job. Similarly, recent theoretical advances in personnel selection and IM research have suggested that applicant behaviors should be considered as dynamic and adaptive in nature. In line with this perspective, the present study is the first to examine the role of individual differences in both applicants' use of IM tactics and the variability in IM use across multiple interviews. It also highlights which honest and deceptive IM tactics remain stable vs. vary in consecutive interviews with different interviewers and organizations. Results suggest that applicants high in Extraversion or core self-evaluations tend to engage in more honest self-promotion but do not adapt their IM approach across interviews. In contrast, applicants who possess more undesirable personality traits (i.e., low on Honesty-Humility and Conscientiousness, but high on Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, or Competitive Worldviews) tend to use more deceptive IM (and especially image creation tactics) and are also more likely to adapt their IM strategy across interviews. Because deceptive IM users can obtain better evaluations from interviewers and the personality profile of those users is often associated with undesirable workplace outcomes, this study provides additional evidence for the claim that deceptive IM (or faking) is a potential threat for organizations. PMID:28174546

  11. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3–5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8–10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09×10−13). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS–guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders. PMID:23028339

  12. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years. Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13. To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total and controls (n = 101 total and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  13. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  15. A strong association between non-musculoskeletal symptoms and musculoskeletal pain symptoms: results from a population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschudi-Madsen Hedda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of knowledge about the pattern of symptom reporting in the general population as most research focuses on specific diseases or symptoms. The number of musculoskeletal pain sites is a strong predictor for disability pensioning and, hence, is considered to be an important dimension in symptom reporting. The simple method of counting symptoms might also be applicable to non-musculoskeletal symptoms, rendering further dimensions in describing individual and public health. In a general population, we aimed to explore the association between self-reported non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites. Methods With a cross-sectional design, the Standardised Nordic Questionnaire and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory were used to record pain at ten different body sites and 13 non-musculoskeletal symptoms, respectively, among seven age groups in Ullensaker, Norway (n = 3,227. Results Results showed a strong, almost linear relationship between the number of non-musculoskeletal symptoms and the number of pain sites (r = 0.55. The number and type of non-musculoskeletal symptoms had an almost equal explanatory power in the number of pain sites reported (27.1% vs. 28.2%. Conclusion The linear association between the number of non-musculoskeletal and musculoskeletal symptoms might indicate that the symptoms share common characteristics and even common underlying causal factors. The total burden of symptoms as determined by the number of symptoms reported might be an interesting generic indicator of health and well-being, as well as present and future functioning. Research on symptom reporting might also be an alternative pathway to describe and, possibly, understand the medically unexplained multisymptom conditions.

  16. Consumption of preserved egg, a high-lead-containing food, is strongly associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Shao, Junwei; Yu, Fei; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Bao, Xue; Gu, Yeqing; Shi, Hongbin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Liu, Huijun; Wu, Yuntang; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.

  17. Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Swol, Lyn M.; Braun, Michael T.; Malhotra, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The study used Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count and Coh-Metrix software to examine linguistic differences with deception in an ultimatum game. In the game, the Allocator was given an amount of money to divide with the Receiver. The Receiver did not know the precise amount the Allocator had to divide, and the Allocator could use deception.…

  18. Neural correlates of deception in social contexts in normally developing children

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    Susumu eYokota

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deception is related to the ability to inhibit prepotent responses and to engage in mental tasks such as anticipating responses and inferring what another person knows, especially in social contexts. However, the neural correlates of deception processing, which requires mentalizing, remain unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of deception, including mentalization, in social contexts in normally developing children. Healthy right-handed children (aged 8–9 years were scanned while performing interactive games involving deception. The games varied along two dimensions: the type of reply (deception and truth and the type of context (social and less social. Participants were instructed to deceive a witch and to tell the truth to a girl. Under the social-context conditions, participants were asked to consider what they inferred about protagonists’ preferences from their facial expressions when responding to questions. Under the less-social-context conditions, participants did not need to consider others’ preferences. We found a significantly greater response in the right precuneus under the social-context than under less-social-context conditions. Additionally, we found substantially greater activation in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL under the deception than under the truth condition. These results suggest that deception in a social context requires not only inhibition of prepotent responses but also engagement in mentalizing processes. This study provides the first evidence of the neural correlates of the mentalizing processes involved in deception in normally developing children.

  19. An examination of motor and perceptual contributions to the recognition of deception from others' actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.; van Kesteren, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies thus far have confounded motor and perceptual experience when examining their contributions to the recognition of deceptive and non-deceptive intentions from another person's movements. In the present study, we manipulated viewing perspective as an additional demarcation to

  20. Method and Apparatus Providing Deception and/or Altered Operation in an Information System Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Fred; Rogers, Deanna T.; Neagoe, Vicentiu

    2008-10-14

    A method and/or system and/or apparatus providing deception and/or execution alteration in an information system. In specific embodiments, deceptions and/or protections are provided by intercepting and/or modifying operation of one or more system calls of an operating system.

  1. 48 CFR 2152.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 2152.203-70 Section 2152.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF..., deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in 2103.571, insert the following clause: Misleading, Deceptive, or Unfair Advertising (OCT 2005) The Contractor agrees that any advertising material authorized...

  2. Teachers' Beliefs about Cues to Deception and the Ability to Detect Deceit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to test beliefs about cues to deception and the ability to detect lies in a group of teachers with different teaching experience. Their results were compared with the results of non-teachers matched in age and with the results of educational studies and psychology students. Both the beliefs of deception indicators and overall…

  3. Gender difference in spontaneous deception: A hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew; Yu, Dongchuan

    2017-08-08

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the neural basis of deception involves a network of regions including the medial frontal cortex (MFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), etc. However, to test the actual activity of the brain in the act of deceptive practice itself, existing studies have mainly adopted paradigms of passive deception, where participants are told to lie in certain conditions, and have focused on intra-brain mechanisms in single participants. In order to examine the neural substrates underlying more natural, spontaneous deception in real social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a two-person gambling card-game. We demonstrated higher TPJ activation in deceptive compared to honest acts. Analysis of participants' inter-brain correlation further revealed that the STS is uniquely involved in deception but not in honesty, especially in females. These results suggest that the STS may play a critical role in spontaneous deception due to mentalizing requirements relating to modulating opponents' thoughts. To our knowledge, this study was the first to investigate such inter-brain correlates of deception in real face-to-face interactions, and thus is hoped to provide a new path for future complex social behavior research.

  4. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Anomalous ULF Emissions and Their Possible Association with the Strong Earthquakes in Sumatra, Indonesia, during 2007-2012

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    Suaidi Ahadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eleven strong Sumatran earthquakes, with their epicenter less than 550 km away from the Kototabang (KTB geomagnetic station (2007-2012, were studied to examine the occurrence of anomalous ultra-low frequency emissions (ULF-EM. Anomalous ULF signals, possibly associated with the earthquake’s precursors, were determined by the Welch ratio SZ/SH at 0.06 Hz at the KTB station. These ULF anomalies were then compared with geomagnetic data observed from two reference stations in Darwin and Davao, to prevent misinterpretation of global geomagnetic disturbances as precursors. This study aims to analyze the relationship between earthquake magnitude and hypocenter radius, and seismic index against lead time during ULF-EM anomalies. We used the polarization ratio Welch method in terms of power spectrum density to evaluate the geomagnetic data by overlapping windows and applying fast Fourier transform (FFT. The results showed anomalous variations in onset and lead time, determined using the standard deviation controlling the SZ/SH power pattern. Our positive correlation between lead time of ULF emission and earthquake magnitude as well as between lead time and seismic index. It shows a negative correlation between hypocenter distances to KTB station against lead time.

  6. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, H; Kawai, M; Niwa, F; Hasegawa, T; Iwanaga, K; Ohata, K; Tamaki, A; Heike, T

    2014-06-01

    Physical growth in neurologically healthy preterm infants affects motor development. This study investigated the separate relationships between muscle and fat in infancy and later motor development and physical growth. Muscle thickness and subcutaneous fat thickness of the anterior thigh were measured using ultrasound images obtained from neurologically healthy preterm infants at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months' corrected age. We also obtained the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Alberta Infant Motor Scale scores at 18 months' corrected age to assess motor ability and motor delay. Thirty preterm infants completed the study protocol. There was a significant positive correlation between motor ability and increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 and 6 months' corrected age (r = 0.48 and 0.40, p motor ability and muscle thickness growth in any of the periods. A secondary, logistic regression analysis showed that increments in subcutaneous fat thickness during the first 3 months were a protective factor for motor delay. Subcutaneous fat accumulation in early infancy is more strongly associated with motor development and delay than muscle growth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Strong Association between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5–3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5–2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3–0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level. PMID:26101275

  8. Initial epidemic area is strongly associated with the yearly extent of soybean rust spread in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Christopher C; Wallace, Larae D; Allen, Tom W; Hollier, Clayton A; Kemerait, Robert C; Sikora, Edward J

    2013-07-01

    Hosts of soybean rust ( Phakopsora pachyrhizi ) are sensitive to low temperatures, limiting this obligate parasite in the United States to overwintering sites in a restricted area along the Gulf Coast. This temperature sensitivity of soybean rust hosts allowed us to study spatial spread of epidemic invasions over similar territory for seven sequential years, 2005-2011. The epidemic front expanded slowly from early April through July, with the majority of expansion occurring from August through November. There was a 7.4-fold range of final epidemic extent (0.4 to 3.0 million km 2 ) from the year of smallest final disease extent (2011) to that of the largest (2007). The final epidemic area of each year was regressed against epidemic areas recorded at one-week intervals to determine the association of final epidemic extent with current epidemic extent. Coefficients of determination for these regressions varied between 0.44 to 0.62 during April and May. The correlation coefficients varied between 0.70 and 0.96 from early June through October, and then increased monotonically to 1.0 by year's end. Thus, the spatial extent of disease when the epidemics began rapid expansion may have been a crucial contributor to subsequent spread of soybean rust. Our analyses used presence/absence data at the county level to evaluate the spread of the epidemic front only; the subsequent local intensification of disease could be strongly influenced by other factors, including weather.

  9. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  10. Self-deception's adaptive value: effects of positive thinking and the winner effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jason Kido; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2012-03-01

    There is a puzzle about why self-deception, a process that obscures the truth, is so pervasive in human behavior given that tracking the truth seems important for our survival and reproduction. William von Hippel and Robert Trivers argue that, despite appearances, there is good reason to think that self-deception is an adaptation by arguing: (1) self-deception leads to a positive self-perception and (2) a positive self-perception increases an individual's fitness. D.S. Neil Van Leeuwen, however, gives persuasive arguments against both steps. In response, we will defend both propositions, thereby supporting the conclusion that self-deception indeed has adaptive value. The first premise will be bolstered by a survey of the philosophical literature and empirical work on self-deception, whereas the second will be strengthened by empirical research on a behavioral phenomenon known as the winner effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Deceptive-like behaviour in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Marianne T E; Manser, Marta B; Turner, Dennis C

    2017-05-01

    Deception, the use of false signals to modify the behaviour of the receiver, occurs in low frequencies even in stable signalling systems. For example, it can be advantageous for subordinate individuals to deceive in competitive situations. We investigated in a three-way choice task whether dogs are able to mislead a human competitor, i.e. if they are capable of tactical deception. During training, dogs experienced the role of their owner, as always being cooperative, and two unfamiliar humans, one acting 'cooperatively' by giving food and the other being 'competitive' and keeping the food for themselves. During the test, the dog had the options to lead one of these partners to one of the three potential food locations: one contained a favoured food item, the other a non-preferred food item and the third remained empty. After having led one of the partners, the dog always had the possibility of leading its cooperative owner to one of the food locations. Therefore, a dog would have a direct benefit from misleading the competitive partner since it would then get another chance to receive the preferred food from the owner. On the first test day, the dogs led the cooperative partner to the preferred food box more often than expected by chance and more often than the competitive partner. On the second day, they even led the competitive partner less often to the preferred food than expected by chance and more often to the empty box than the cooperative partner. These results show that dogs distinguished between the cooperative and the competitive partner, and indicate the flexibility of dogs to adjust their behaviour and that they are able to use tactical deception.

  13. Identifying Universal Linguistic Features Associated with Veracity and Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    of crimes were represented including animal cruelty, armed robbery, arson , assault and battery, ATM theft, auto theft, burglary, hit and run...cruelty, armed robbery, arson , assault and battery, ATM theft, auto theft, burglary, hit and run, FA9550-11-1-0306 Final Report 39 kidnapping

  14. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): Recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Martín, R.; Cortés, G.; Alguacil, G.; Moreno, J.; Martín, B.; Martos, A.; Serrano, I.; Stich, D.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Deception Island (South Shetland Island, Antarctica) is an active volcano with recent eruptions (e.g. 1967, 1969 and 1970). It is also among the Antarctic sites most visited by tourists. Besides, there are currently two scientific bases operating during the austral summers, usually from late November to early March. For these reasons it is necessary to deploy a volcano monitoring system as complete as possible, designed specifically to endure the extreme conditions of the volcanic environment and the Antarctic climate. The Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR) performs seismic monitoring on Deception Island since 1994 during austral summer surveys. The seismicity basically includes volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among other signals. The level of seismicity is moderate, except for a seismo-volcanic crisis in 1999. The seismic monitoring system has evolved during these years, following the trends of the technological developments and software improvements. Recent advances have been mainly focused on: (1) the improvement of the seismic network introducing broadband stations and 24-bit data acquisition systems; (2) the development of a short-period seismic array, with a 12-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system; (3) the implementation of wireless data transmission from the network stations and also from the seismic array to a recording center, allowing for real-time monitoring; (4) the efficiency of the power supply systems and the monitoring of the battery levels and power consumption; (5) the optimization of data analysis procedures, including database management, automated event recognition tools for the identification and classification of seismo-volcanic signals, and apparent slowness vector estimates using seismic array data; (6) the deployment of permanent seismic stations and the transmission of data during the winter using a satellite connection. A single permanent station is operating

  15. A Cognitive Model for Exposition of Human Deception and Counterdeception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    raft experience). ,. e. physiological damage; deprivation. l.l.C. Hypnosis can be used to induce sensor & affector hallucinations, make memory...disagree would make him look bad to himself or others (Logical Fallacy 27), or where to agree would make him look good. ’ ’ Have the deception put...1.4.1.2.2.1.A. Enhance THEY’s indecision by making all alternatives seem: a. equal. b. bad (Logical Fallacy 43). 1.4.1.2.2.1.B. Hinder THEY’s

  16. Improved Ventilatory Efficiency with Locomotor Muscle Afferent Inhibition is Strongly Associated with Leg Composition in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Ross, Manda L; Johnson, Bruce D; Carter, Rickey E; Joyner, Michael J; Eisenach, John H; Curry, Timothy B; Olson, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy contributes to increased afferent feedback (group III and IV) and may influence ventilatory control (high VE/VCO2 slope) in heart failure (HF). This study examined the influence of muscle mass on the change in VE/VCO2 with afferent neural block during exercise in HF. 17 participants [9 HF (60±6 yrs) and 8 controls (CTL) (63±7 yrs, mean±SD)] completed 3 sessions. Session 1: dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and graded cycle exercise to volitional fatigue. Sessions 2 and 3: 5 min of constant-work cycle exercise (65% of peak power) randomized to lumbar intrathecal injection of fentanyl (afferent blockade) or placebo. Ventilation (VE) and gas exchange (oxygen consumption, VO2; carbon dioxide production, VCO2) were measured. Peak work and VO2 were lower in HF (pLeg fat was greater in HF (34.4±3.0 and 26.3±1.8%) and leg muscle mass was lower in HF (63.0±2.8 and 70.4±1.8%, respectively, pleg muscle mass (r2=0.58, pleg fat mass (r2=0.73, pleg muscle mass had the greatest improvement in VE/VCO2 with afferent blockade with leg fat mass being the only predictor for the improvement in VE/VCO2 slope. Both leg muscle mass and fat mass are important contributors to ventilatory abnormalities and strongly associated to improvements in VE/VCO2 slope with locomotor afferent inhibition in HF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mycolactone-Dependent Depletion of Endothelial Cell Thrombomodulin Is Strongly Associated with Fibrin Deposition in Buruli Ulcer Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Ogbechi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A well-known histopathological feature of diseased skin in Buruli ulcer (BU is coagulative necrosis caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans macrolide exotoxin mycolactone. Since the underlying mechanism is not known, we have investigated the effect of mycolactone on endothelial cells, focussing on the expression of surface anticoagulant molecules involved in the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Congenital deficiencies in this natural anticoagulant pathway are known to induce thrombotic complications such as purpura fulimans and spontaneous necrosis. Mycolactone profoundly decreased thrombomodulin (TM expression on the surface of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVEC at doses as low as 2 ng/ml and as early as 8 hrs after exposure. TM activates protein C by altering thrombin's substrate specificity, and exposure of HDMVEC to mycolactone for 24 hours resulted in an almost complete loss of the cells' ability to produce activated protein C. Loss of TM was shown to be due to a previously described mechanism involving mycolactone-dependent blockade of Sec61 translocation that results in proteasome-dependent degradation of newly synthesised ER-transiting proteins. Indeed, depletion from cells determined by live-cell imaging of cells stably expressing a recombinant TM-GFP fusion protein occurred at the known turnover rate. In order to determine the relevance of these findings to BU disease, immunohistochemistry of punch biopsies from 40 BU lesions (31 ulcers, nine plaques was performed. TM abundance was profoundly reduced in the subcutis of 78% of biopsies. Furthermore, it was confirmed that fibrin deposition is a common feature of BU lesions, particularly in the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that there is decreased ability to control thrombin generation in BU skin. Mycolactone's effects on normal endothelial cell function, including its ability to activate the protein C anticoagulant pathway are strongly associated with this

  18. Height and sex is strongly associated with radial augmentation index in Korean patients with never-treated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn KT

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kye Taek Ahn, Kwang-In Park, Mi Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Ji Hye Han, Hee Jin Kwon, Seon-Ah Jin, Jun-Hyung Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Jae-Hwan Lee, Si Wan Choi, In-Whan Seong, Jin-Ok Jeong Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Objectives: Central hemodynamics may better represent the load imposed on the coronary and cerebral arteries and thereby bear a stronger relationship to cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Patients who had confirmed hypertension as assessed by daytime 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (≥135/85 mmHg were enrolled. Central blood pressure and radial augmentation index (AIx corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (radial AIx 75 were measured for all patients. We evaluated the association of age, height, and sex with central hemodynamics in patients with never-treated hypertension. Results: A total of 203 patients were enrolled, of whom men numbered 101 (49.7%. The median height of all patients was 162 cm, and mean age was 53.2 years. In the Pearson correlation analysis, regardless of sex difference (R=-0.627 for height, R=0.035 for age, P-value =0.005, a stronger relationship was observed between height and radial AIx 75 than between age and radial AIx 75. In the multiple regression analysis, the sex difference and height were strongly associated with elevated radial AIx 75 in all patients (adjusted R2=0.428, β=6.237, 95% confidence interval [CI] for women 1.480–10.995, P-value =0.011 and β=-0.632, 95% CI for height -0.929 to -0.335, P-value =0.009, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with never-treated hypertension, female sex and shorter height are the important risk factors of elevated radial AIx 75. Keywords: hypertension, augmentation index, height, sex

  19. Deception Improves Time Trial Performance in Well-trained Cyclists without Augmented Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Paul; Thomas, Kevin; Howatson, Glyn; Amann, Markus; Goodall, Stuart

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of feedback, in the form of a virtual avatar paced at 100% and 102% of baseline performance, on neuromuscular fatigue after a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). We hypothesized that improved cycling performance would occur because of the participants exceeding a previously established critical threshold and experiencing greater neuromuscular fatigue. After familiarization, 10 well-trained cyclists performed a baseline 4-km TT without feedback (BASE), followed by two 4-km TT where they raced against an avatar (set at 100% accurate [ACC] and 102% deception [DEC] of baseline power output) in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Before and after each TT, neuromuscular fatigue was assessed using maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the quadriceps, and supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, during and 2 s after MVCs to assess voluntary activation and potentiated twitch force. Blood lactate was taken pretrials and posttrials and RPE was taken throughout each TT. Time trial performance improved after deception of feedback compared with baseline performance (-5.8 s, P = 0.019). Blood lactate increased after DEC compared with BASE (+1.37 mmol·L, P = 0.019). Despite this, there was no difference in any measures of exercise-induced neuromuscular fatigue (P > 0.05). Similarly, RPE was not different between trials. Well-trained male cyclists can improve cycling TT performance when competing against an avatar increased to 102% of a previously established best effort. However, this improvement is not associated with a measurable augmentation of neuromuscular fatigue.

  20. Multifrequency OFDM SAR in Presence of Deception Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuerger Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is considered in this paper from the perspective of usage in imaging radar scenarios with deception jamming. OFDM radar signals are inherently multifrequency waveforms, composed of a number of subbands which are orthogonal to each other. While being employed extensively in communications, OFDM has not found comparatively wide use in radar, and, particularly, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR applications. In this paper, we aim to show the advantages of OFDM-coded radar signals with random subband composition when used in deception jamming scenarios. Two approaches to create a radar signal by the jammer are considered: instantaneous frequency (IF estimator and digital-RF-memory- (DRFM- based reproducer. In both cases, the jammer aims to create a copy of a valid target image via resending the radar signal at prescribed time intervals. Jammer signals are derived and used in SAR simulations with three types of signal models: OFDM, linear frequency modulated (LFM, and frequency-hopped (FH. Presented results include simulated peak side lobe (PSL and peak cross-correlation values for random OFDM signals, as well as simulated SAR imagery with IF and DRFM jammers'-induced false targets.

  1. Registered Report: Measuring Unconscious Deception Detection by Skin Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth Van 't Veer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the deception detection literature suggest that although people are not skilled in consciously detecting a liar, they may intuit that something about the person telling a lie is off. In the current proposal, we argue that observing a liar influences the observer’s physiology even though the observer may not be consciously aware of being lied to (i.e., the observers’ direct deception judgment does not accurately differentiate between liars and truth-tellers. To test this hypothesis, participants’ finger temperature will be measured while they watch videos of persons who are either honest or dishonest about their identity. We hypothesize that skin temperature will be lower when observing a liar than when observing a truth-teller. Additionally, we test whether perceiving a liar influences finger skin temperature differently when an individual is, or is not, alerted to the possibility of deceit. We do this by varying participants’ awareness of the fact that they might be lied to. Next to measuring physiological responses to liars and truth-tellers, self-reported direct and indirect veracity judgments (i.e., trustworthiness and liking of the target persons will be assessed. We hypothesize that indirect veracity judgments will better distinguish between liars and truth-tellers than direct veracity judgments.

  2. Predatory Personalities as Behavioral Mimics and Parasites: Mimicry-Deception Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel N

    2014-07-01

    Humans use a variety of deceptive tactics to extract resources from unsuspecting others. In this article, I suggest that much can be learned about patterns of human deception from predatory nonhuman animal behavior and parasitic infections. Nonhuman animals and parasitic infections utilize deceptive tactics to extract resources through two overarching strategies: (a) complex deception, slow resource extraction, heavy integration into a host or community, and low risk of detection, or (b) superficial deception, immediate resource extraction, little host or community specificity, and increased risk of detection. Predatory and parasitic human personalities may operate in analogous ways. Guided by analogies derived from nonhuman animal mimicry (such as color or behavioral deception) and micro-organismic infections, I have developed a theoretical framework to better understand deceptive and parasitic human behaviors as well as the characteristics defining them. Although applicable to areas of predatory and parasitic human behavior, two specific traits (psychopathy and Machiavellianism) are highlighted that have dire consequences for financial fraud, interpersonal harm, and organizational misbehavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Receivers limit the prevalence of deception in humans: evidence from diving behaviour in soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K David

    Full Text Available Deception remains a hotly debated topic in evolutionary and behavioural research. Our understanding of what impedes or facilitates the use and detection of deceptive signals in humans is still largely limited to studies of verbal deception under laboratory conditions. Recent theoretical models of non-human behaviour have suggested that the potential outcome for deceivers and the ability of receivers to discriminate signals can effectively maintain their honesty. In this paper, we empirically test these predictions in a real-world case of human deception, simulation in soccer. In support of theoretical predictions in signalling theory, we show that cost-free deceit by soccer players decreases as the potential outcome for the signaller becomes more costly. We further show that the ability of receivers (referees to detect deceptive signals may limit the prevalence of deception by soccer players. Our study provides empirical support to recent theoretical models in signalling theory, and identifies conditions that may facilitate human deception and hinder its detection.

  4. Using G-Theory to Enhance Evidence of Reliability and Validity for Common Uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-01-01

    We applied a new approach to Generalizability theory (G-theory) involving parallel splits and repeated measures to evaluate common uses of the Paulhus Deception Scales based on polytomous and four types of dichotomous scoring. G-theory indices of reliability and validity accounting for specific-factor, transient, and random-response measurement error supported use of polytomous over dichotomous scores as contamination checks; as control, explanatory, and outcome variables; as aspects of construct validation; and as indexes of environmental effects on socially desirable responding. Polytomous scoring also provided results for flagging faking as dependable as those when using dichotomous scoring methods. These findings argue strongly against the nearly exclusive use of dichotomous scoring for the Paulhus Deception Scales in practice and underscore the value of G-theory in demonstrating this. We provide guidelines for applying our G-theory techniques to other objectively scored clinical assessments, for using G-theory to estimate how changes to a measure might improve reliability, and for obtaining software to conduct G-theory analyses free of charge.

  5. Coercive forms of sexual risk and associated violence perpetrated by male partners of female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita

    2011-03-01

    Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Deception, power, and self-differentiation in college students' romantic relationships: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, T M; Nelson, E S; Coleman, P K

    2001-01-01

    The relationships among deception, power, and self-differentiation in college students' romantic relationships were explored. As hypothesized, lower total deception scores were found to significantly predict higher self-differentiation scores. Both men and women reported that men held significantly more power in their relationships. A secondary analysis revealed that men were significantly more likely than women to indicate they would be inclined to use deceptive strategies. Counter to the hypotheses, a significant negative correlation was not detected between power scores and omission scores, and positive relationships between power scores and contradiction scores were not found.

  7. Platinum nanoparticles strongly associated with graphitic carbon nitride as efficient co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Kofuji, Yusuke; Kanazawa, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Hirokatsu; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Hirai, Takayuki

    2014-12-14

    Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles with C3N4) by reduction at 673 K behave as efficient co-catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light (λ >420 nm). This is achieved by strong Pt-support interaction due to the high temperature treatment, which facilitates efficient transfer of photoformed conduction band electrons on g-C3N4 to Pt particles.

  8. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  9. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  10. Adaptive Countering Technique for Angle Deception Based on Dual Polarization Radar Seeker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angle deception jamming makes the monopulse radar seeker track to itself but not the real target, which is catastrophic for the guidance radar. In this paper, an adaptive technique based on dual polarization radar is presented to counter it. How angle deception jamming acts on the monopulse tracking radar is first investigated. An angle estimation technique of the real target is then derived from the conventional monopulse method, although it is being interfered with by angle deception jamming. Meanwhile, the polarization ratio characteristic of the angle deception jamming could be adaptively estimated in current practical scene. Furthermore, the similar characteristic of Jones vectors is defined as the rule to judge whether the target is being interfered with by jamming. It can make the radar seeker select different techniques for angle estimation adaptively. Finally, two major factors of angle estimation accuracy are analyzed by simulation and the effectiveness of the proposed technique is proved through experiments.

  11. Theodramatic Rehearsal: Fighting Self-Deception through the Dramatic Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Vaden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to appropriate the insights of dramatic theology for Christian psychology and soul care. According to Kevin Vanhoozer, Scripture is the ‘script’ for human beings’ fitting participation in the acts and deeds of God in the world (i.e., ‘theodrama’. Keeping with this dramatic paradigm, the author will explore what ‘rehearsal’ might entail by drawing from a branch of psychotherapy called ‘psychodrama.’ The main question to be addressed in this appropriation of dramatic theology is, “How might dramatic rehearsal combat self-deception?” The author will only begin to answer this question, but in the attempt it is hoped that further reflection and clarity will be induced.

  12. Deceptively Simple: Unpacking the Notion of “Sharing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airi Lampinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay approaches social media by addressing the deceptively simple notion of “sharing.” While “sharing” is central to how activities taking place on social media get discussed, the word does not necessarily help us get our analytical work about social media done. It is at risk of turning into one of those words that mean little because we try to make them mean too many things at once. While it remains relevant to address and analyze discourses surrounding the notion of “sharing,” it is important to be critical about them. Sharing is not a monolith. Sharing is diverse. Sharing serves the economic interests of big corporations. Perhaps most importantly, referring to activities as “sharing” is political and value-laden.

  13. The detection of deception within investigative contexts: Key challenges and core issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Maria; Hammond, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A large and continually-growing body of research has explored the ways in which deception might be detected. The area is developing rapidly, opening up new avenues of study. This special issue of the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling brings together an exciting array of papers on the detection of deception within investigative contexts, examining a wide range of issues including; the efficacy of different interviewing techniques, the reliability of statement veracity ...

  14. KNOW THY TEAM, KNOW THY ENEMY: USING DECEPTION TEAMS TO ACHIEVE AIR SUPERIORITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Defenses (SEAD) specialist, cyber specialist, social media specialist, and cultural expert. Examples of deception teams in action solidify the...some suggestions on how the USAF can introduce it into its culture . US enemies are advancing technologically and studying past US conflicts to...another deception maneuver a task force consisting of 460 people simulated the activity of 16,000 troops with dummy tanks and guns , false radio

  15. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  16. Development of high-brightness ultrafast electron microscope for studying nanoscale dynamics associated with strongly correlated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhensheng

    Strongly correlated-electron materials are a class of materials that exhibit numerous intriguing emergent phenomena, including metal-to-insulator transition, colossal magnetoresistance, high-temperature superconductivity, etc. These phenomena are beyond the reach of the conventional solid state physics, which is based on the band theory. Instead, strong electron-electron correlations are found to play important roles, which leads to complicated interplay between different degrees of freedoms (charge, lattice, spins...). In this thesis, ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) is used to investigate the photo-induced ultrafast structural dynamics of strongly correlated materials, among which VO2 is taken as an exemplar system, one that reveals the fundamental physics behind photo-induced phase transitions, electron-electron correlation on nanometer scales, and the electron-phonon coupling in this exotic class of materials. The phenomena presented here are expected to have more general significance as they may reflect the physics to which other strongly correlated materials also conform. In polycrystalline VO2 thin films, the structural changes resulting from photoexcitation with femtosecond laser pulses with different wavelengths are observed to lead to non-thermal phase transitions, which require less energy compared to the phase transitions induced by thermal excitation. The details of the structural change are extracted from the UED results revealing stepwise atomic movements after photoexcitation, which suggests the phase transition starts with a dilation of the correlated d electrons. On the other hand, the structural phase transition is found to be decoupled from the metal-to-insulator transition when the sample dimension is reduced to the sub-micrometer scale, which is attributed to the interface charge doping effects from different substrates. A new phase (M3, monoclinic metallic phase) is distinguished, which has not been discussed by the existing theoretical

  17. Fluctuating selection across years and phenotypic variation in food-deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopece, Giovanni; Juillet, Nicolas; Lexer, Christian; Cozzolino, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Nectarless flowers that deceive pollinators offer an opportunity to study asymmetric plant-insect interactions. Orchids are a widely used model for studying these interactions because they encompass several thousand species adopting deceptive pollination systems. High levels of intra-specific phenotypic variation have been reported in deceptive orchids, suggesting a reduced consistency of pollinator-mediated selection on their floral traits. Nevertheless, several studies report on widespread directional selection mediated by pollinators even in these deceptive orchids. In this study we test the hypothesis that the observed selection can fluctuate across years in strength and direction thus likely contributing to the phenotypic variability of this orchid group. We performed a three-year study estimating selection differentials and selection gradients for nine phenotypic traits involved in insect attraction in two Mediterranean orchid species, namely Orchis mascula and O. pauciflora , both relying on a well-described food-deceptive pollination strategy. We found weak directional selection and marginally significant selection gradients in the two investigated species with significant intra-specific differences in selection differentials across years. Our data do not link this variation with a specific environmental cause, but our results suggest that pollinator-mediated selection in food-deceptive orchids can change in strength and in direction over time. In perennial plants, such as orchids, different selection differentials in the same populations in different flowering seasons can contribute to the maintenance of phenotypic variation often reported in deceptive orchids.

  18. Examining well-being, anxiety, and self-deception in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah Sheridan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the combined influence of six positive psychology variables (optimism, hope, self-efficacy, grit, gratitude, and subjective life satisfaction, termed covitality, in relation to buffering individuals against anxiety symptoms. In addition, the influence of self-deception was examined to test whether this construct had an influence on the reporting of these positive psychology variables. A total of 268 individuals (203 females and 65 males with a mean age of 22.2 years (SD = 7.4 years from one Queensland university took part in the study. The participants completed an online questionnaire, which included a battery of positive psychological measures, plus a measure of anxiety and self-deception. The results indicated that the covitality constructs had a moderation effect on anxiety. In a regression analysis, the six covitality constructs explained an additional 24.5% of the variance in anxiety, after controlling for self-deception. Further analyses revealed that those higher in self-deception scored higher in self-efficacy and all positive covitality measures and lower in anxiety, than those lower in self-deception. These findings illustrate the importance of considering the role that self-deception might play in the reporting of positive psychology variables.

  19. Temporal view of the costs and benefits of self-deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Zoë; Norton, Michael I.; Gino, Francesca; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have documented many cases in which individuals rationalize their regrettable actions. Four experiments examine situations in which people go beyond merely explaining away their misconduct to actively deceiving themselves. We find that those who exploit opportunities to cheat on tests are likely to engage in self-deception, inferring that their elevated performance is a sign of intelligence. This short-term psychological benefit of self-deception, however, can come with longer-term costs: when predicting future performance, participants expect to perform equally well—a lack of awareness that persists even when these inflated expectations prove costly. We show that although people expect to cheat, they do not foresee self-deception, and that factors that reinforce the benefits of cheating enhance self-deception. More broadly, the findings of these experiments offer evidence that debates about the relative costs and benefits of self-deception are informed by adopting a temporal view that assesses the cumulative impact of self-deception over time. PMID:21383150

  20. Genome-wide association study provides strong evidence of genes affecting the reproductive performance of Nellore beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Thaise Pinto de; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; Carvalheiro, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive traits are economically important for beef cattle production; however, these traits are still a bottleneck in indicine cattle since these animals typically reach puberty at older ages when compared to taurine breeds. In addition, reproductive traits are complex phenotypes, i.e., they are controlled by both the environment and many small-effect genes involved in different pathways. In this study, we conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) and functional analyses to identify important genes and pathways associated with heifer rebreeding (HR) and with the number of calvings at 53 months of age (NC53) in Nellore cows. A total of 142,878 and 244,311 phenotypes for HR and NC53, respectively, and 2,925 animals genotyped with the Illumina Bovine HD panel (Illumina®, San Diego, CA, USA) were used in GWAS applying the weighted single-step GBLUP (WssGBLUP) method. Several genes associated with reproductive events were detected in the 20 most important 1Mb windows for both traits. Significant pathways for HR and NC53 were associated with lipid metabolism and immune processes, respectively. MHC class II genes, detected on chromosome 23 (window 25-26Mb) for NC53, were significantly associated with pregnancy success of Nellore cows. These genes have been proved previously to be associated with reproductive traits such as mate choice in other breeds and species. Our results suggest that genes associated with the reproductive traits HR and NC53 may be involved in embryo development in mammalian species. Furthermore, some genes associated with mate choice may affect pregnancy success in Nellore cattle.

  1. Absence of Granzyme B Positive Tumour-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Primary Melanoma Excisional Biopsies is Strongly Associated with the Presence of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. van Houdt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN status is strongly related to clinical outcome in melanoma patients. In this study we investigated the possible association between the presence of activated and/or suppressive Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs and SLN status in clinically stage I/II melanoma patients.

  2. Property Values Associated with the Failure of Individual Links in a System with Multiple Weak and Strong Links.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations are developed and illustrated for the distribution of link property values at the time of link failure in the presence of aleatory uncertainty in link properties. The following topics are considered: (i) defining properties for weak links and strong links, (ii) cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, (iii) integral-based derivation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (iv) sampling-based approximation of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (v) verification of integral-based and sampling-based determinations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure, (vi) distributions of link properties conditional on time of link failure, and (vii) equivalence of two different integral-based derivations of CDFs for link property at time of link failure.

  3. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  4. Comparison of simultaneous variations of the ionospheric total electron content and geomagnetic field associated with strong earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Naaman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, perturbations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC are compared with geomagnetic oscillations. Comparison is made for a few selected periods, some during earthquakes in California and Japan and others at quiet periods in Israel and California. Anomalies in TEC were extracted using Global Positioning System (GPS observations collected by GIL (GPS in Israel and the California permanent GPS networks. Geomagnetic data were collected in some regions where geomagnetic observatories and the GPS network overlaps. Sensitivity of the GPS method and basic wave characteristics of the ionospheric TEC perturbations are discussed. We study temporal variations of ionospheric TEC structures with highest reasonable spatial resolution around 50 km. Our results show no detectable TEC disturbances caused by right-lateral strike-slip earthquakes with minor vertical displacement. However, geomagnetic observations obtained at two observatories located in the epicenter zone of a strong dip-slip earthquake (Kyuchu, M = 6.2, 26 March 1997 revealed geomagnetic disturbances occurred 6–7 h before the earthquake.

  5. A new goniothalamin N-acylated aza-derivative strongly downregulates mediators of signaling transduction associated with pancreatic cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Rosimeire Coura; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Pastre, Julio Cezar; Dias, Marina Pereira; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise

    2014-11-24

    In this study, a novel concise series of molecules based on the structure of goniothalamin (1) was synthesized and evaluated against a highly metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line (Panc-1). Among them, derivative 8 displayed a low IC50 value (2.7 μM) and its concentration for decreasing colony formation was 20-fold lower than goniothalamin (1). Both compounds reduced the levels of the receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) and cyclin D1 which are known to be overexpressed in pancreatic cancer cells. Importantly, despite the fact that goniothalamin (1) and derivative 8 caused pancreatic cancer cell cycle arrest and cell death, only derivative 8 was able to downregulate pro-survival and proliferation pathways mediated by mitogen activated protein kinase ERK1/2. Another interesting finding was that Panc-1 cells treated with derivative 8 displayed a strong decrease in the transcription factor (c-Myc), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. Notably, the molecular effects caused by derivative 8 might not be related to ROS generation, since no significant production of ROS was observed in low concentrations of this compound (from 1.5 up to 3 μM). Therefore, the downregulation of important mediators of pancreatic cancer aggressiveness by derivative 8 reveals its great potential for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Lam, Ernest T.; Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in huma...

  7. Production of the effector cytokine interleukin-17, rather than interferon-γ, is more strongly associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew M.; Zamzami, Omar M.; Whibley, Natasha; Hampsey, Daniel P.; Haggart, Anne M.; Vickers, Mark A.; Barker, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17A is the signature cytokine of the Th17 subset and drives inflammatory pathology, but its relevance to autoantibody-mediated diseases is unclear. Th1 cells secreting interferon-γ have been implicated in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, so the aim was to determine which cytokine is more closely associated with disease severity. Design and Methods Interferon-γ and interleukin-17A were measured in the sera of patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and healthy donors, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with autologous red blood cells, or a panel of peptides spanning red blood cell autoantigen. Results Serum interleukin-17A, but not interferon-γ, was significantly raised in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (P anemia. Interleukin-17A was also more prominent in the responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia to red blood cells, and, again unlike interferon-γ, significantly associated with more severe anemia (P hemolytic anemia, challenging the model that the disease is driven primarily by Th1 cells. This raises the possibility that Th17, rather than Th1, cells should be the target for therapy. PMID:22419580

  8. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Zheng, Tianpeng; Qin, Linyuan; Hu, Xueping; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Yihong; Liu, Hongbo; Qin, Shenghua; Li, Gang; Li, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups criteria. Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores compared with those in the lowest quartile ( P population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of impaired cognitive function.

  9. Strong associations between national prevalence of various STIs suggests sexual network connectivity is a common underpinning risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2017-10-12

    If national peak Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence is positively associated with the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from before or early on in the HIV epidemics this would suggest common underlying drivers. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the prevalence of seven STIs at a country-level: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and HIV. The prevalence of all the STIs was highest in the sub-Saharan African region excluding chlamydia. The prevalence of all seven STIs were positively correlated excluding chlamydia. The correlations were strongest for HIV-HSV-2 (r = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and HSV-2-trichomoniasis (r = 0.82, P < 0.0001). Our results of a generally positive association between the prevalences of a range of STIs suggests that higher prevalences were driven by common underlying determinants. We review different types of evidence which suggest that differential sexual connectivity is a plausible common determinant.

  10. Obesity is more strongly associated with inappropriate eating behaviors than with mental health in older adults receiving congregate meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn N; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships of inappropriate eating behaviors and mental health with obesity in congregate meal participants in Georgia (N = 120, mean age = 75 years, 75% female, 43% African American). Inappropriate eating behaviors were evaluated with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (18 questions); mental health was assessed with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (21 questions); history of depression was assessed with the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey; and height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and obesity (52% ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). In bivariate analyses, obesity was associated with cognitive restraint (rho = 0.49, p eating (rho = 0.22; p emotional eating (rho = 0.32, p eating behavior and mental health indices, only cognitive restraint and emotional eating were consistently associated with obesity (p eating behaviors, particularly cognitive restraint and emotional eating, may be important targets for future research and intervention. Additional research is needed to better understand how cognitive restraint and emotional eating contribute to obesity in this population so that interdisciplinary research and health care teams can appropriately prevent and manage obesity in congregate meal participants.

  11. A Reverse Order Interview Does Not Aid Deception Detection Regarding Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eFenn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promising recent research suggests that more cognitively demanding interviews improve deception detection accuracy. Would these cognitively demanding techniques work in the same way when discriminating between true and false future intentions? In Experiment 1 participants planned to complete a task, but instead were intercepted and interviewed about their intentions. Participants lied or told the truth, and were subjected to high (reverse order or low (sequential order cognitive load interviews. Third-party observers watched these interviews and indicated whether they thought the person was lying or telling the truth. Subjecting participants to a reverse compared to sequential interview increased the misidentification rate and the appearance of cognitive load in truth tellers. People lying about false intentions were not better identified. In Experiment 2, a second set of third-party observers rated behavioral cues. Consistent with Experiment 1, truth tellers, but not liars, exhibited more behaviors associated with lying and fewer behaviors associated with truth telling in the reverse than sequential interview. Together these results suggest that certain cognitively demanding interviews may be less useful when interviewing to detect false intentions. Explaining a true intention while under higher cognitive demand places truth tellers at risk of being misclassified. There may be such a thing as too much cognitive load induced by certain techniques.

  12. Strongly Agree or Strongly Disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Nogales-Gómez, Amaya; Morales, Dolores Romero

    2016-01-01

    In linear classifiers, such as the Support Vector Machine (SVM), a score is associated with each feature and objects are assigned to classes based on the linear combination of the scores and the values of the features. Inspired by discrete psychometric scales, which measure the extent to which...... a factor is in agreement with a statement, we propose the Discrete Level Support Vector Machine (DILSVM) where the feature scores can only take on a discrete number of values, defined by the so-called feature rating levels. The DILSVM classifier benefits from interpretability and it has visual appeal...

  13. Strong Association between Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activity and Impaired Cognitive Function in Elderly Population with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT.Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older in Guilin. Plasma DPP4 activity, oxidative stress parameters, fasting active GLP-1, and inflammatory markers were measured in all participants. Impaired cognitive function was diagnosed according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups criteria.Results: Participants in the upper quartile of plasma DPP4 activity had higher C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and lower GLP-1 and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.001. The odds ratios (ORs for increased CRP, IL-6, 8-iso-PGF2a, nitrotyrosine, and decreased active GLP-1 were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles after adjustment for confounders (all P < 0.001. In the highest DPP4 quartile, impaired cognitive function risk was higher (OR, 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.76 than in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. The risk for impaired cognitive function increased more with higher levels of DPP4 activity, nitrotyrosine and 8-iso-PGF2a (P < 0.05, but not with higher IL-6, CRP or lower GLP-1.Conclusion: Plasma DPP4 activity is significantly and independently associated with impaired cognitive function, mainly executive, in elderly Chinese population with NGT. The underlying mechanisms for this association may be partly attributed to the effect of DPP4 on oxidative stress. Plasma DPP4 activity might serve as a risk biomarker or therapeutic

  14. Using reality monitoring to improve deception detection in the context of the cognitive interview for suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Michael; Book, Angela S; Frosina, Paul; Huizinga, Tylor; Amos, Shelby

    2015-08-01

    Research has found that deception detection accuracy in the context of suspect interrogation hovers around chance levels. Geiselman (2012) adapted the cognitive interview (typically used for witnesses) for use with suspects (CIS) and found that judgments of deception were more accurate than previous interrogation techniques. The current study attempted to use the CIS to improve deception detection with Reality Monitoring (RM: Vrij et al., 2008), which has already been validated in the context of witness statements. One hundred sixty-six undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 2 conditions. In the Truthful condition, participants played a game with a confederate, whereas in the Deceptive condition, participants rehearsed (but did not experience) a synopsis of the game scenario. Participants in the Deceptive condition were also instructed to steal $10 from a confederate's wallet. In both conditions, $10 was purported to be missing and a researcher blind to condition conducted a CIS. Statement veracity was coded using 6 of the RM criteria advanced by Vrij et al. (frequency of visual, auditory, spatial, temporal, cognitive, and affective details). According to results from a MANOVA, truthful and deceptive statements differed significantly on all RM criteria, with the exception of affective details, validating the importance for evaluation of statement veracity (p ≤ .01). Further, a binary logistic regression found that combining the RM criteria together correctly classified 86.6% of statements, χ(²)(6) = 114.4, p Cognitive details uniquely predicted condition. Findings support using RM criteria to detect deception in interviews conducted with the CIS. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals and associated human health risks: what, and how strong, is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Wong, Nora; Thomas, Joe; Talkington, Kathy; Jungman, Elizabeth; Coukell, Allan

    2017-07-04

    Antimicrobial resistance is a public health threat. Because antimicrobial consumption in food-producing animals contributes to the problem, policies restricting the inappropriate or unnecessary agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs are important. However, this link between agricultural antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance has remained contested by some, with potentially disruptive effects on efforts to move towards the judicious or prudent use of these drugs. The goal of this review is to systematically evaluate the types of evidence available for each step in the causal pathway from antimicrobial use on farms to human public health risk, and to evaluate the strength of evidence within a 'Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation'(GRADE) framework. The review clearly demonstrates that there is compelling scientific evidence available to support each step in the causal pathway, from antimicrobial use on farms to a public health burden caused by infections with resistant pathogens. Importantly, the pathogen, antimicrobial drug and treatment regimen, and general setting (e.g., feed type) can have significant impacts on how quickly resistance emerges or spreads, for how long resistance may persist after antimicrobial exposures cease, and what public health impacts may be associated with antimicrobial use on farms. Therefore an exact quantification of the public health burden attributable to antimicrobial drug use in animal agriculture compared to other sources remains challenging. Even though more research is needed to close existing data gaps, obtain a better understanding of how antimicrobial drugs are actually used on farms or feedlots, and quantify the risk associated with antimicrobial use in animal agriculture, these findings reinforce the need to act now and restrict antibiotic use in animal agriculture to those instances necessary to ensure the health and well-being of the animals.

  16. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination.

  17. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  18. Seismogenic ionospheric anomalies associated with the strong Indonesian earthquake occurred on 11 April 2012 (M = 8.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Uma; Singh, Ashutosh K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with a major earthquake (EQ) (M = 8.5) which occurred in India-Oceania region are investigated by monitoring subionospheric propagation of VLF signals transmitted from the NWC transmitter (F = 19.8 kHz), Australia to a receiving station at Varanasi (geographic lat. 25.3°N, long 82.99°E), India. The EQ occurred on 11 April 2012 at 08:38:35 h UT (magnitude ≈ 8.5, depth = 10 km, and lat. = 2.3°N, long. = 93.0°E). A significant increase of few days before the EQ has been observed by using the VLF nighttime amplitude fluctuation method (fixed frequency transmitter signal). The analysis of total electron contents (TEC) derived from the global positioning system (GPS) at three different stations namely, Hyderabad (latitude 17.38°N, longitude 78.48°E), Singapore (latitude 1.37°N, longitude 103.84°E) and Port Blair (latitude 11.62°N, longitude 92.72°E) due to this EQ has also been presented. Significant perturbation in TEC data (enhancements and depletion) is noted before and after the main shock of the EQ. The possible mechanisms behind these perturbations due to EQ have also been discussed.

  19. hs-CRP is strongly associated with coronary heart disease (CHD): A data mining approach using decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayefi, Maryam; Tajfard, Mohammad; Saffar, Sara; Hanachi, Parichehr; Amirabadizadeh, Ali Reza; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Taghipour, Ali; Ferns, Gordon A; Moohebati, Mohsen; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-04-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important public health problem globally. Algorithms incorporating the assessment of clinical biomarkers together with several established traditional risk factors can help clinicians to predict CHD and support clinical decision making with respect to interventions. Decision tree (DT) is a data mining model for extracting hidden knowledge from large databases. We aimed to establish a predictive model for coronary heart disease using a decision tree algorithm. Here we used a dataset of 2346 individuals including 1159 healthy participants and 1187 participant who had undergone coronary angiography (405 participants with negative angiography and 782 participants with positive angiography). We entered 10 variables of a total 12 variables into the DT algorithm (including age, sex, FBG, TG, hs-CRP, TC, HDL, LDL, SBP and DBP). Our model could identify the associated risk factors of CHD with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 96%, 87%, 94% and respectively. Serum hs-CRP levels was at top of the tree in our model, following by FBG, gender and age. Our model appears to be an accurate, specific and sensitive model for identifying the presence of CHD, but will require validation in prospective studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strong positive association of traditional Asian-style diets with blood cadmium and lead levels in the Korean adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-12-01

    Blood lead and cadmium levels are more than twofold to fivefold higher in the Korean population compared to that of the USA. This may be related to the foods consumed. We examined which food categories are related to blood lead and cadmium levels in the Korean adult population using the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5504). High and moderate consumption of bread and crackers, potatoes, meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and pizza and hamburger resulted in significantly lower odds ratios for blood lead levels than their low consumption. However, consumption of salted fish, white fish, green vegetables, white and yellow vegetables, coffee, and alcohol resulted in significantly higher odds ratios of blood lead and cadmium. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet based on rice, fish, vegetables, regular coffee, and alcoholic drinks may be associated with higher blood cadmium and lead levels. This study suggests that lead and cadmium contents should be monitored and controlled in agricultural products to reduce health risks from heavy metals.

  1. CRF19_cpx is an Evolutionary fit HIV-1 Variant Strongly Associated With Rapid Progression to AIDS in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouri, Vivian; Khouri, Ricardo; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeissel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Theys, Kristof; Megens, Sarah; Moutschen, Michel; Pfeifer, Nico; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Pérez, Ana B; Pérez, Jorge; Pérez, Lissette; Van Laethem, Kristel; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2015-03-01

    Clinicians reported an increasing trend of rapid progression (RP) (AIDS within 3 years of infection) in Cuba. Recently infected patients were prospectively sampled, 52 RP at AIDS diagnosis (AIDS-RP) and 21 without AIDS in the same time frame (non-AIDS). 22 patients were sampled at AIDS diagnosis (chronic-AIDS) retrospectively assessed as > 3 years infected. Clinical, demographic, virological, epidemiological and immunological data were collected. Pol and env sequences were used for subtyping, transmission cluster analysis, and prediction of resistance, co-receptor use and evolutionary fitness. Host, immunological and viral predictors of RP were explored through data mining. Subtyping revealed 26 subtype B strains, 6 C, 6 CRF18_cpx, 9 CRF19_cpx, 29 BG-recombinants and other subtypes/URFs. All patients infected with CRF19 belonged to the AIDS-RP group. Data mining identified CRF19, oral candidiasis and RANTES levels as the strongest predictors of AIDS-RP. CRF19 was more frequently predicted to use the CXCR4 co-receptor, had higher fitness scores in the protease region, and patients had higher viral load at diagnosis. CRF19 is a recombinant of subtype D (C-part of Gag, PR, RT and nef), subtype A (N-part of Gag, Integrase, Env) and subtype G (Vif, Vpr, Vpu and C-part of Env). Since subtypes D and A have been associated with respectively faster and slower disease progression, our findings might indicate a fit PR driving high viral load, which in combination with co-infections may boost RANTES levels and thus CXCR4 use, potentially explaining the fast progression. We propose that CRF19 is evolutionary very fit and causing rapid progression to AIDS in many newly infected patients in Cuba.

  2. Dysfunctions of mitochondria in close association with strong perturbation of long noncoding RNAs expression in down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jia-Jun; Liu, Yan-Na; Ren, Zhao-Rui; Yan, Jing-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and underlies Down syndrome. Epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications, plays a vital role in Down syndrome. However, the functions of epigenetics-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), found to have an impact on neural diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, remain unknown in Down syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data from Down syndrome-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and normal iPSCs. A large number of lncRNAs were identified differentially expressed in Down syndrome-iPSCs. Notably, stronger perturbation was shown in the expression of lncRNAs compared to protein coding genes (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, PDown syndrome. Through gene set enrichment analysis and bi-clustering, we also found that most of the differential expressed lncRNAs were closely associated with mitochondrial functions (e.g. mitochondrion organization, P=3.21×10 -17 ; mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled electron transport, P=1.73×10 -19 and mitochondrial membrane organization, P=4.04×10 -8 ). PCR-array and qRT-PCR results revealed that almost all genes related to mitochondria were down-regulated in Down syndrome-iPSCs, implying that mitochondria were dysfunctional in Down syndrome (e.g. ATP5B, Fold Change=-8.2317; COX6A1, Fold Change=-12.7788 and SLC25A17, Fold Change=-22.1296). All in all, our study indicated that a stronger perturbation of lncRNAs expression may lead to the dysfunction of mitochondria in Down syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. DU weaponry: a view on facts and deceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of literature research conducted by the author on the use of depleted uranium (DU) weaponry. The research was initiated during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 with an objective of searching for facts in the presence of massive deceptions staged by the huge propaganda machinery of DU weaponry use proponents. The U.S. made use of DU penetrators in the Persian Gulf war as well as in the Balkan wars both in Bosnia and Kosovo. Brief science and history backgrounds are provided including overviews of DU uses and abuses in these three wars. The U.S./NATO public pronouncements have been centered around the theme that there has been no proven link between DU and cancers. In the author's view, these types of carefully word engineered statements are motivated by possible compensation and cleanup claims rather than supported by hard data and sound science. Since underlying causes of so called Gulf and Balkan syndromes have not been found despite a decade elapsed since conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, the DU must continue to be a front-line suspect. From the standpoint of public health and safety, it is prudent and responsible to call for a moratorium. DU use in the Kosovo war, which was not sanctioned by the UN Security Council, was reckless in the extreme. (author)

  4. A search for the volcanomagnetic signal at Deception volcano (South Shetland I., Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ibáñez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available After the increase in seismic activity detected during the 1991-1992 summer survey at Deception Island, the continuous measurement of total magnetic intensity was included among the different techniques used to monitor this active volcano. The Polish geomagnetic observatory Arctowski, located on King George Island, served as a reference station, and changes in the differences between the daily mean values at both stations were interpreted as indicators of volcanomagnetic effects at Deception. A magnetic station in continuous recording mode was also installed during the 1993-1994 and 1994-1995 surveys. During the latter, a second magnetometer was deployed on Deception Island, and a third one in the vicinity of the Spanish Antarctic Station on Livingston Island (at a distance of 35 km and was used as a reference station. The results from the first survey suggest that a small magma injection, responsible for the seismic re-activation, could produce a volcanomagnetic effect, detected as a slight change in the difference between Deception and Arctowski. On the other hand, a long term variation starting at that moment seems to indicate a thermomagnetic effect. However the short register period of only two stations do not allow the sources to be modelled. The future deployment of a magnetic array during the austral summer surveys, throughout the volcano, and of a permanent geomagnetic observatory at Livingston I. is aimed at further observations of magnetic transients of volcanic origin at Deception Island.

  5. Research on the laser angle deception jamming technology of laser countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-wei; Chen, Wen-jian; Gao, Wei; Duan, Yuan-yuan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years , laser guided weapons behave very well at destroying the military goals in the local wars, the single-shot probability, effective range and hitting precision getting better. And the semi-active laser guided weapons are the most widely used laser guided weapons. In order to improve the viability and protect important military goals, it's necessary to study the technology to against the semi-active guided weapons. This paper studies the working principle, the advantages and disadvantages of the semi-active guided weapons at first, and analyze the possibility of laser angle deception jamming system working. Then it analyzes the working principle and process of laser angle deception jamming technology. Finally it designs a half-real simulation system of laser angle deception jamming, which consists of semi-active laser guided weapons simulation system and laser angle deception jamming system. The simulation system demonstrates the working process of the laser angle deception jamming system. This paper provides fundamental base for the research on the countermeasure technology of semi-active laser guided weapons.

  6. Cooperation and deception recruit different subsets of the theory-of-mind network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    Full Text Available The term "theory of mind" (ToM describes an evolved psychological mechanism that is necessary to represent intentions and expectations in social interaction. It is thus involved in determining the proclivity of others to cooperate or defect. While in cooperative settings between two parties the intentions and expectations of the protagonists match, they diverge in deceptive scenarios, in which one protagonist is intentionally manipulated to hold a false belief about the intention of the other. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm using cartoons showing social interactions (including the outcome of the interaction between two or three story characters, respectively, we sought to determine those brain areas of the ToM network involved in reasoning about cooperative versus deceptive interactions. Healthy volunteers were asked to reflect upon the protagonists' intentions and expectations in cartoons depicting cooperation, deception or a combination of both, where two characters cooperated to deceive a third. Reasoning about the mental states of the story characters yielded substantial differences in activation patterns: both deception and cooperation activated bilateral temporoparietal junction, parietal and cingulate regions, while deception alone additionally recruited orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions. These results indicate an important role for prefrontal cortex in processing a mismatch between a character's intention and another's expectations as required in complex social interactions.

  7. Stimulating the Right Temporoparietal Junction with tDCS Decreases Deception in Moral Hypocrisy and Unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Honghong; Ye, Peixia; Wang, Shun; Zhu, Ruida; Su, Song; Tong, Luqiong; Liu, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Self-centered and other-regarding concerns play important roles in decisions of deception. To investigate how these two motivations affect deception in fairness related moral hypocrisy, we modulated the brain activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), the key region for decision making involved in self-centered and other-regarding concerns. After receiving brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), participants finished a modified dictator game. In the game, they played as proposers to make allocations between themselves and recipients and had a chance to deceive by misreporting their totals for allocations. Results show that deception in moral hypocrisy was decreased after anodal stimulation than sham and cathodal stimulation, only when participants know that their reported totals (appearing fair) would be revealed to recipients rather than being unrevealed. Anodal stimulation also increased offers to recipients than cathodal stimulation regardless of the revelation of reported totals. These findings suggest that enhancing the activity of rTPJ decreased deception caused by impression management rather than self-deception in moral hypocrisy and unfairness through facilitating other-regarding concerns and weakening non-material self-centered motivations. They provide causal evidence for the role of rTPJ in both other-regarding concerns and non-material self-centered motivations, shedding light on the way to decrease moral hypocrisy.

  8. Stimulating the Right Temporoparietal Junction with tDCS Decreases Deception in Moral Hypocrisy and Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghong Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-centered and other-regarding concerns play important roles in decisions of deception. To investigate how these two motivations affect deception in fairness related moral hypocrisy, we modulated the brain activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ, the key region for decision making involved in self-centered and other-regarding concerns. After receiving brain stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, participants finished a modified dictator game. In the game, they played as proposers to make allocations between themselves and recipients and had a chance to deceive by misreporting their totals for allocations. Results show that deception in moral hypocrisy was decreased after anodal stimulation than sham and cathodal stimulation, only when participants know that their reported totals (appearing fair would be revealed to recipients rather than being unrevealed. Anodal stimulation also increased offers to recipients than cathodal stimulation regardless of the revelation of reported totals. These findings suggest that enhancing the activity of rTPJ decreased deception caused by impression management rather than self-deception in moral hypocrisy and unfairness through facilitating other-regarding concerns and weakening non-material self-centered motivations. They provide causal evidence for the role of rTPJ in both other-regarding concerns and non-material self-centered motivations, shedding light on the way to decrease moral hypocrisy.

  9. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deceptive trade or corporate names... Regulations § 301.43 Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name...

  10. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available Growth anomalies (GAs are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA (n = 304 surveys and Porites growth anomalies (PGA (n = 602 surveys from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites. As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  11. Growth anomalies on the coral genera Acropora and Porites are strongly associated with host density and human population size across the Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Haapkyla, Jessica; Harvell, C Drew; Neale, Stephen; Page, Cathie A; Raymundo, Laurie; Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo; Willis, Bette L; Work, Thierry M; Davy, Simon K

    2011-02-18

    Growth anomalies (GAs) are common, tumor-like diseases that can cause significant morbidity and decreased fecundity in the major Indo-Pacific reef-building coral genera, Acropora and Porites. GAs are unusually tractable for testing hypotheses about drivers of coral disease because of their pan-Pacific distributions, relatively high occurrence, and unambiguous ease of identification. We modeled multiple disease-environment associations that may underlie the prevalence of Acropora growth anomalies (AGA) (n = 304 surveys) and Porites growth anomalies (PGA) (n = 602 surveys) from across the Indo-Pacific. Nine predictor variables were modeled, including coral host abundance, human population size, and sea surface temperature and ultra-violet radiation anomalies. Prevalence of both AGAs and PGAs were strongly host density-dependent. PGAs additionally showed strong positive associations with human population size. Although this association has been widely posited, this is one of the first broad-scale studies unambiguously linking a coral disease with human population size. These results emphasize that individual coral diseases can show relatively distinct patterns of association with environmental predictors, even in similar diseases (growth anomalies) found on different host genera (Acropora vs. Porites). As human densities and environmental degradation increase globally, the prevalence of coral diseases like PGAs could increase accordingly, halted only perhaps by declines in host density below thresholds required for disease establishment.

  12. High resolution MRI of the breast at 3 T: which BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinker-Domenig, K.; Helbich, T.H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, W.; Gruber, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Bickel, H. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Duffy, S. [Queen Mary University of London, Cancer Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Statistics, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom); Schernthaner, M. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Dubsky, P. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Pluschnig, U. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Division of Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Rudas, M. [Medical University Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, S. [Medical University Vienna, Dept. of Radiology, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-02-15

    To identify which breast lesion descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS registered MRI lexicon are most strongly associated with the diagnosis of breast cancer when performing breast MR imaging at 3 T. 150 patients underwent breast MR imaging at 3 T. Lesion size, morphology and enhancement kinetics were assessed according to the BI-RADS {sup registered} classification. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. The effects of the BI-RADS {sup registered} descriptors on sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Histopathological diagnoses were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI at 3 T was 99%, 81% and 93%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the final diagnosis of malignancy was positively associated with irregular shape (p < 0.001), irregular margin (p < 0.001), heterogeneous enhancement (p < 0.001), Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.02), increasing patient age (p = 0.02) and larger lesion size (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, significant associations with malignancy remained for mass shape (p = 0.06), mass margin (p < 0.001), internal enhancement pattern (p = 0.03) and Type 3 enhancement kinetics (p = 0.06). The ACR BI-RADS {sup registered} breast lesion descriptors that are mostly strongly associated with breast cancer in breast MR imaging at 3 T are lesion shape, lesion margin, internal enhancement pattern and Type 3 enhancement kinetics. (orig.)

  13. Separating fact from fiction: an examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Catalina L; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Ellison, Nicole B

    2008-08-01

    This study examines self-presentation in online dating profiles using a novel cross-validation technique for establishing accuracy. Eighty online daters rated the accuracy of their online self-presentation. Information about participants' physical attributes was then collected (height, weight, and age) and compared with their online profile, revealing that deviations tended to be ubiquitous but small in magnitude. Men lied more about their height, and women lied more about their weight, with participants farther from the mean lying more. Participants' self-ratings of accuracy were significantly correlated with observed accuracy, suggesting that inaccuracies were intentional rather than self-deceptive. Overall, participants reported being the least accurate about their photographs and the most accurate about their relationship information. Deception patterns suggest that participants strategically balanced the deceptive opportunities presented by online self-presentation (e.g., the editability of profiles) with the social constraints of establishing romantic relationships (e.g., the anticipation of future interaction).

  14. Authority, Autonomy, and Deception: Evaluating the Legitimacy of Parental Authority and Adolescent Deceit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingo, Matthew; Roded, Alona D; Turiel, Elliot

    2017-12-01

    This research examined adolescents' judgments about lying to avoid parental control over different types of activities. Participants (N = 66, M age  = 16.38, 73% European American) were interviewed about hypothetical situations describing adolescents who defied parental directives and lied about their defiance. Judgments about the legitimacy of parents' directives and protagonists' deception differed by types of parent relationship with adolescents (mutual or unilateral). Directives were least accepted, and deception was most accepted, in the context of unilateral relationships. Judgments also differed by domain of the action (personal, prudential, or conventional). Participants were least accepting of parental directives, and most accepting of deception about personal activities. Findings indicate that adolescents value honesty and parental authority, but sometimes give priority to concerns with autonomy and mutuality. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Perceptual training effects on anticipation of direct and deceptive 7-m throws in handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharji, Khaled E; Wade, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of perceptual training on the performance of handball goalkeepers when anticipating the direction of both direct and deceptive 7-m throws. Skilled goalkeepers were assigned equally to three matched-ability groups based on their pre-test performance: a perceptual training group (n = 14) received video-based perceptual training, a placebo training group (n = 14) received video-based regular training and a control group received no training. Participants in the perceptual training group significantly improved their performance compared to both placebo and control groups; however, anticipation of deceptive throws improved less than for direct throws. The results confirm that although anticipating deception in handball is a challenging task for goalkeepers, task-specific perceptual training can minimise its effect and improve performance.

  16. The science of ethics: Deception, the resilient self, and the APA code of ethics, 1966-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper has two aims. The first is to shed light on a remarkable archival source, namely survey responses from thousands of American psychologists during the 1960s in which they described their contemporary research practices and discussed whether the practices were "ethical." The second aim is to examine the process through which the American Psychological Association (APA) used these survey responses to create principles on how psychologists should treat human subjects. The paper focuses on debates over whether "deception" research was acceptable. It documents how members of the committee that wrote the principles refereed what was, in fact, a disagreement between two contemporary research orientations. The paper argues that the ethics committee ultimately built the model of "the resilient self" into the APA's 1973 ethics code. At the broadest level, the paper explores how prevailing understandings of human nature are written into seemingly universal and timeless codes of ethics. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. When deception becomes easy: The effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVan Bockstaele

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people frequently respond deceptively, while it increases when people rarely respond deceptively (i.e., the truth proportion effect. In the present study, we investigated two possible underlying mechanisms of the truth proportion effect. In Experiment 1 (N = 121, we controlled for the impact of switch costs by keeping the number of switches between deceptive and truthful responses constant. We found that people who often responded deceptively made fewer errors when responding deceptively than people who only occasionally responded deceptively, replicating the truth proportion effect. Thus, while the truth proportion effect in earlier studies may be partially driven by the cost of switching between truthful and deceptive responses, we still found evidence for the truth proportion effect while controlling for switch costs. In Experiment 2 (N = 68, we assessed whether the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect. According to this view, the truth proportion effect should be reduced if participants are cued to maintain the task goals, while it should be larger when participants are allowed to neglect the task goals. In line with this hypothesis, we found a smaller truth proportion effect when participants were cued with the task goals compared to when they were not cued. This study shows that the truth proportion effect is influenced by goal neglect, implying that frequent deceptive responding strengthens the goal of responding deceptively. Our findings imply that the accuracy of lie detection tests could be increased by using a majority of truth-items (i.e., induce the truth proportion effect, and that the truth proportion effect should be maximized by

  18. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan P; Michaels, Helen J

    2017-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing. To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment. Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001) self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001) numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645) trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export. This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with rewarding flowers.

  19. When it pays to cheat: Examining how generalized food deception increases male and female fitness in a terrestrial orchid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Walsh

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing.To understand the role of deception in Orchidaceae reproduction we studied Cypripedium candidum. All species of the Cypripedium genus employ a generalized food deceptive pollination strategy and have been suggested as a model system for the study of pollinator deception. We conducted a nectar addition experiment that randomly assigned the four plants closest to a transect point to receive one of four histochemical dyes. Two individuals selected for nectar addition in each of altogether 25 blocks received 2μl of 25% sucrose solution in the labellum of each flower, while two others received no artificial nectar. Number of fruits produced, fruit mass and fruit abortion were scored at the end of the four-month experiment.Nectar addition increased (p<0.0001 self-pollination and pollen discounting by nearly 3x, while plants not receiving nectar had greater (p<0.0001 numbers of non-self pollinia deposited and lower rates of pollen discounting. There was a non-significant (p = 0.0645 trend for deceptive plants to set more fruit, while presence of nectar did not affect pollen export.This study demonstrates the adaptive advantages of food deception by showing a concurrent reduction in particular male and female functions when a food reward is restored to a deceptive flower. We found generalized food deception to not only decrease inbreeding depression in the system, but concurrently have no effect on pollinator attraction and fruit set when compared with

  20. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  1. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences: How strong are they and what do they mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Penke, Lars; Wicherts, Jelte M; Zeiler, Michael; Voracek, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of published studies and unpublished results obtained by personal communications with researchers, we identified 88 studies examining effect sizes of 148 healthy and clinical mixed-sex samples (>8000 individuals). Our results showed significant positive associations of brain volume and IQ (r=.24, R(2)=.06) that generalize over age (children vs. adults), IQ domain (full-scale, performance, and verbal IQ), and sex. Application of a number of methods for detection of publication bias indicates that strong and positive correlation coefficients have been reported frequently in the literature whilst small and non-significant associations appear to have been often omitted from reports. We show that the strength of the positive association of brain volume and IQ has been overestimated in the literature, but remains robust even when accounting for different types of dissemination bias, although reported effects have been declining over time. While it is tempting to interpret this association in the context of human cognitive evolution and species differences in brain size and cognitive ability, we show that it is not warranted to interpret brain size as an isomorphic proxy of human intelligence differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detention and deception: limits of ethical acceptability in detention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, I H

    2004-10-01

    The core of Australia's response to asylum seekers who arrive in an unauthorised manner has been to detain them in immigration detention centres until they are judged to engage Australia's protection obligations or, if they do not, until they are returned to their country of origin. For a number of asylum seekers this has resulted in very prolonged detention. This policy has aroused a storm of controversy with very polarised positions being taken by participants in the debate. In particular, the claim has frequently been made (including by this author) that the circumstances and duration of immigration detention cause substantial harm to the mental health of a significant number of detained asylum seekers. A rational debate on the effects of detention has been hampered by the fact that the Australian government has not allowed researchers access to the detention centres in spite of persistent requests for access by professional bodies. This paper is written in response to the following questions posed by the Journal: Is there a case to be made for individuals agreeing to participate in research studies and for the wider population of current and future detainees to be involved in research without informing either the detention provider or the host nation? Is is legitimate for a researcher to engage in potentially deceptive actions in order to obtain access to such detention facilities to undertake research? What ethical framework should underpin such research? Although there is very little guidance in the literature on the ethical conduct of research in settings such as immigration detention centres, a consideration of the ethical implications of carrying out research in the manner raised by these questions leads this author to conclude that such research cannot be ethically justified. Governments must be persuaded to allow, and to provide substantial support for, ethically conducted research on all aspects of detention. There is also a need for the development of

  3. Rain pollination provides reproductive assurance in a deceptive orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Li; Barrett, Spencer C. H.; Lin, Hua; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Jiang-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Abiotic pollination by wind or water is well established in flowering plants. In some species pollination by rain splashes, a condition known as ombrophily, has been proposed as a floral strategy. However, evidence for this type of abiotic pollination has remained controversial and many reported cases have subsequently been shown to be false. This study investigates ombrophily in the deceptive orchid Acampe rigida to determine the mechanism by which this species is able to maintain high fecundity, despite flowering during the rainy season in south-west China when pollinators are scarce. Methods The floral mechanisms promoting rain pollination in A. rigida were observed and described in detail. Controlled pollination experiments and observations of floral visitors were conducted. A field experiment using rain shelters at 14 sites in Guangxi, south-west China, evaluated the contribution of rain pollination to fruit-set. Key Results During rainfall, raindrops physically flicked away the anther cap exposing the pollinarium. Raindrops then caused pollinia to be ejected upwards with the strap-like stipe pulling them back and causing them to fall into the stigmatic cavity, resulting in self-pollination. Neither flower nor pollen function were damaged by water. Although A. rigida is self-compatible, it is incapable of autonomous self-pollination without the assistance of rain splashes. The results of the rain-sheltering experiment indicated that rain pollination contributed substantially to increasing fruit-set, although there was variation among sites in the intensity of this effect. Conclusions A. rigida flowers during the rainy season, when pollinators are scarce, and ombrophily functions to provide reproductive assurance without compromising opportunities for outcrossing. PMID:22851311

  4. IL23R and IL12B SNPs and Haplotypes Strongly Associate with Crohn's Disease Risk in a New Zealand Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Lynnette R.; Han, Dug Yeo; Fraser, Alan G.; Huebner, Claudia; Lam, Wen Jiun; Morgan, Angharad R.

    2010-01-01

    DNA samples from 339 Crohn's disease (CD) and 407 randomly selected controls from the Auckland (New Zealand) IBD project, were genotyped for five common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-23R (rs11805303, rs7517847, rs1343151, rs11209026, and rs10889677) and two in IL-12B (rs1363670 and rs6887695). While the IL-12B variants did not show an overall association and other IL23R variants led to minor changes in the risk of CD, rs1343151 and/or rs7517847 variants in the IL-23R gene strongly re...

  5. Primary study authors of significant studies are more likely to believe that a strong association exists in a heterogeneous meta-analysis compared with methodologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Orestis A; Ioannidis, John P A

    2012-07-01

    To assess the interpretation of a highly heterogeneous meta-analysis by authors of primary studies and by methodologists. We surveyed the authors of studies on the association between insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and prostate cancer, and 20 meta-analysis methodologists. Authors and methodologists presented with the respective meta-analysis results were queried about the effect size and potential causality of the association. We evaluated whether author responses correlated with the number of IGF-related articles they had published and their study results included in the meta-analysis. We also compared authors' and methodologists' responses. Authors who had published more IGF-related papers offered more generous effect size estimates for the association (ρ(s)=0.61, P=0.01) and higher likelihood that the odds ratio (OR) was greater than 1.20 (ρ(s)=0.63, P=0.01). Authors who had published themselves studies with statistically significant effects for a positive association were more likely to believe that the true OR is greater than 1.20 compared with methodologists (median likelihood 50% versus 2.5%, P=0.01). Researchers are influenced by their own investment in the field, when interpreting a meta-analysis that includes their own study. Authors who published significant results are more likely to believe that a strong association exists compared with methodologists. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Strong association between serological status and probability of progression to clinical visceral leishmaniasis in prospective cohort studies in India and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epco Hasker

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic persons infected with the parasites causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL usually outnumber clinically apparent cases by a ratio of 4-10 to 1. We assessed the risk of progression from infection to disease as a function of DAT and rK39 serological titers.We used available data on four cohorts from villages in India and Nepal that are highly endemic for Leishmania donovani. In each cohort two serosurveys had been conducted. Based on results of initial surveys, subjects were classified as seronegative, moderately seropositive or strongly seropositive using both DAT and rK39. Based on the combination of first and second survey results we identified seroconvertors for both markers. Seroconvertors were subdivided in high and low titer convertors. Subjects were followed up for at least one year following the second survey. Incident VL cases were recorded and verified.We assessed a total of 32,529 enrolled subjects, for a total follow-up time of 72,169 person years. Altogether 235 incident VL cases were documented. The probability of progression to disease was strongly associated with initial serostatus and with seroconversion; this was particularly the case for those with high titers and most prominently among seroconvertors. For high titer DAT convertors the hazard ratio reached as high as 97.4 when compared to non-convertors. The strengths of the associations varied between cohorts and between markers but similar trends were observed between the four cohorts and the two markers.There is a strongly increased risk of progressing to disease among DAT and/or rK39 seropositives with high titers. The options for prophylactic treatment for this group merit further investigation, as it could be of clinical benefit if it prevents progression to disease. Prophylactic treatment might also have a public health benefit if it can be corroborated that these asymptomatically infected individuals are infectious for sand flies.

  7. High-density lipoprotein levels are strongly associated with the recovery rate of insulin sensitivity during the acute phase of myocardial infarction: a study by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Martins, Naiara V; Moura, Filipe A; Cintra, Riobaldo M R; Almeida, Osorio L R; Quinaglia e Silva, Jose C; Sposito, Andrei C

    2013-01-01

    The decrease of insulin sensitivity (IS) during myocardial infarction (MI) is strongly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data suggest that in individuals under stable conditions, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may improve IS. To date, the role of HDL in the modulation of IS in acute metabolic stress conditions such as MI remains unknown. To explore the association between plasma HDL-C and the change in IS during the acute phase of MI. Consecutive nondiabetic patients with ST-segment elevation MI (n = 22) underwent direct measurement of IS through the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp on the first morning and on the fifth day after onset of MI. Patients were grouped according to HDL-C levels at admission above and below the median value (35 mg/dL). At admission, there was no significant difference in baseline IS index, clinical, anthropometric, or treatment characteristics between low and high HDL groups. Between admission and fifth day, there was a decrease of 8% in IS index in the low HDL group and an 11% increase in the high HDL group (P = .001 for intragroup and P = .012 for intergroup difference). This difference remained significant after we controlled for the sex, age, waist circumference, triglycerides, baseline IS index, and statin dose during hospitalization. This is the first study to provide evidence that plasma levels of HDL-C are strongly associated with the recovery rate of IS during the acute phase of MI. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  9. How do incentives lead to deception in advisors-client interactions? Explicit and implicit strategies of self-interested deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMackinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When confronted with important questions we like to rely on the advice of experts. However, uncertainty can occur regarding advisors’ motivation to pursue self-interest and deceive the client. This can especially occur when the advisor has the possibility to receive an incentive by recommending a certain alternative. We investigated how the possibility to pursue self-interest led to explicit strategic behavior (bias in recommendation and transfer of information and to implicit strategic behavior (bias in information processing: evaluation and memory. In Study 1 explicit strategic behavior could be identified: Self-interested advisors recommended more often the self-serving alternative and transferred more self-interested biased information to their client compared to the advisor without specific interest. Also deception through implicit strategic behavior was identified: Self-interested advisors biased the evaluation of information less in favor of the client compared to the control group. Self-interested advisors also remembered conflicting information regarding their self-interest worse compared to advisors without self-interest. In Study 2 beside self-interest we assessed accountability which interacted with self-interest and increased the bias: When accountability was high advisor’s self-interest led to higher explicit strategic behavior (less transfer of conflicting information, and to higher implicit strategic behavior (devaluated and remembered less conflicting information. Both studies identified implicit strategic behavior as mediator which can explain the relation between self-interest and explicit strategic behavior. Results of both studies suggest that self-interested advisors use explicit and implicit strategic behavior to receive an incentive. Thus, advisors do not only consciously inform their clients self-interested, but they are influenced unconsciously by biased information processing—a tendency which even increased with

  10. Is prehypertension more strongly associated with long-term ambient air pollution exposure than hypertension? Findings from the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Heinrich, Joachim; Lin, Shao; Lawrence, Wayne R; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Hu, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were calculated using data from monitoring stations. Effects were analyzed using generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses, controlling for covariates. We found positive associations of all pollutants with prehypertension (e.g. odds ratio (OR) was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.25) per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 10 ) in a fully adjusted model, as compared to normotensive participants. These associations were stronger than associations with hypertension (e.g. OR was 1.03 (95% CI, 1.00, 1.07) per IQR of PM 10 ). We have also found positive associations of all studied pollutants with systolic and diastolic BP: e.g., associations with PM 10 per IQR were 1.24 mmHg (95% CI, 1.03-1.45) for systolic BP and 0.47 mmHg (95% CI, 0.33-0.61) for diastolic BP. Further, we observed that associations with BP were stronger in women and in older participants (systolic BP only). In conclusion, long-term exposure to ambient air pollution was more strongly associated with prehypertension than with hypertension, especially among females and the elderly. Thus, interventions to reduce air pollution are of great significance for preventing future cardiovascular events, particularly among individuals with prehypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Visceral adipose tissue is more strongly associated with insulin resistance than subcutaneous adipose tissue in Chinese subjects with pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Feng, Jitao; Zhang, Gong; Yuan, Xiaodan; Li, Fan; Yang, Tingting; Hao, Shujie; Huang, Dejian; Hsue, Cunyi; Lou, Qinging

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the value of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in a cohort of a community's residents who were diagnosed as pre-diabetes, and to evaluate the association of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance. This study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 107 adults. VAT and SAT were assessed by computed tomography. Insulin resistance was defined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance >2.69. The relationship of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance were examined by linear regression. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of VAT and SAT with insulin resistance. A total of 87 subjects had VAT ≥100 cm 2 . Thirty-six out of 107 (33.6%) subjects were detected to have insulin resistance, 71 were normal (66.4%), and all had insulin resistance with VAT ≥100 cm 2 . VAT (r = 0.378, p VAT and SAT were simultaneously included after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and WC, the association between VAT and insulin resistance was still maintained (p = .003), but that of SAT was lost. Pre-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance had elevated levels of VAT. VAT was more strongly associated with insulin resistance than SAT in Chinese subjects with pre-diabetes.

  12. "It's not my fault!": Investigating the effects of the deceptive behaviour of a humanoid robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, L.; Coenen, J.; Grzyb, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the deceptive behaviour of a robot, hypothesising that a lying robot would be perceived as more intelligent and human-like, but less trust-worthy than a non-lying robot. The participants engaged in a collaborative task with the non-lying and lying humanoid robot NAO.

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation in the detection of deception: scientific challenges and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Bruce; Fisher, Carl; Appelbaum, Paul S; Ploesser, Marcus; Lisanby, Sarah H

    2009-01-01

    Tools for noninvasive stimulation of the brain, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have provided new insights in the study of brain-behavior relationships due to their ability to directly alter cortical activity. In particular, TMS and tDCS have proven to be useful tools for establishing causal relationships between behavioral and brain imaging measures. As such, there has been interest in whether these tools may represent novel technologies for deception detection by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit. Investigation of deceptive behavior using noninvasive brain stimulation is at an early stage. Here we review the existing literature on the application of noninvasive brain stimulation in the study of deception. Whether such approaches could be usefully applied to the detection of deception by altering a person's ability to engage brain networks involved in conscious deceit remains to be validated. Ethical and legal consequences of the development of such a technology are discussed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Prokaryotic communities and operating metabolisms in the surface and the permafrost of Deception Island (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez, Manuel J.; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Rivas, Luis A.; Parro, Victor

    In this study we examined the microbial community composition and operating metabolisms on the surface and in the permafrost of Deception Island, (Antarctica) with an on site antibody microarray biosensor. Samples (down to a depth of 4.2m) were analysed with LDChip300 (Life Detector Chip), an

  15. Advances in seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica since the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carmona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island is an active volcano located in the south Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It constitutes a natural laboratory to test geophysical instruments in extreme conditions, since they have to endure not only the Antarctic climate but also the volcanic environment. Deception is one of the most visited places in Antarctica, both by scientists and tourists, which emphasize the importance of volcano monitoring. Seismic monitoring has been going on since 1986 during austral summer surveys. The recorded data include volcano-tectonic earthquakes, long-period events and volcanic tremor, among others. The level of seismicity ranges from quiet periods to seismic crises (e.g. 1992-1993, 1999. Our group has been involved in volcano monitoring at Deception Island since 1994. Based on this experience, in recent years we have made the most of the opportunities of the International Polar Year 2007-2008 to introduce advances in seismic monitoring along four lines: (1 the improvement of the seismic network installed for seismic monitoring during the summer surveys; (2 the development and improvement of seismic arrays for the detection and characterization of seismo-volcanic signals; (3 the design of automated event recognition tools, to simplify the process of data interpretation; and (4 the deployment of permanent seismic stations. These advances help us to obtain more data of better quality, and therefore to improve our interpretation of the seismo-volcanic activity at Deception Island, which is a crucial step in terms of hazards assessment.

  16. Deception in social psychological experiments: two misconceptions and a research agenda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertwig, R.; Ortmann, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 3 (2008), s. 222-227 ISSN 0190-2725 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : social psychology experiments * deception * misconceptions Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2008

  17. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  18. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs; Szalai, Ferenc; Scheuring, István

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  19. Trust and Deception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Social Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiying; Tian, Yuan; Fang, Jing; Lu, Haoyang; Wei, Kunlin; Yi, Li

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated abnormal trust and deception behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and we aimed to examine whether these abnormalities were primarily due to their specific deficits in social learning. We tested 42 high-functioning children with ASD and 38 age- and ability-matched typically developing (TD)…

  20. Destination memory and deception: when I lie to Barack Obama about the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj, Mohamad El; Saloppé, Xavier; Nandrino, Jean Louis

    2017-01-20

    This study investigates whether deceivers demonstrate high memory of the person to whom lies have been told (i.e., high destination memory). Participants were asked to tell true information (e.g., the heart is a vital organ) and false information (e.g., the moon is bigger than the sun) to pictures of famous people (e.g., Barack Obama) and, in a subsequent recognition test, they had to remember to whom each type of information had previously been told. Participants were also assessed on a deception scale to divide them into two populations (i.e., those with high vs. those with low deception). Participants with high tendency to deceive demonstrated similar destination memory for both false and true information, whereas those with low deception demonstrated higher destination memory for lies than for true information. Individuals with a high tendency to deceive seem to keep track of the destination of both true information and lies to be consistent in their future social interactions, and thus to avoid discovery of their deception. However, the inconsistency between deceiving and the moral standard of individuals with a low tendency to deceive may result in high destination memory in these individuals.

  1. Deception Undermines the Stability of Cooperation in Games of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is often claimed as one of the key mechanisms of human cooperation. It works only if there is a reputational score keeping and each individual can inform with high probability which other individuals were good or bad in the previous round. Gossip is often proposed as a mechanism that can maintain such coherence of reputations in the face of errors of transmission. Random errors, however, are not the only source of uncertainty in such situations. The possibility of deceptive communication, where the signallers aim to misinform the receiver cannot be excluded. While there is plenty of evidence for deceptive communication in humans the possibility of deception is not yet incorporated into models of indirect reciprocity. Here we show that when deceptive strategies are allowed in the population it will cause the collapse of the coherence of reputations and thus in turn it results the collapse of cooperation. This collapse is independent of the norms and the cost and benefit values. It is due to the fact that there is no selection for honest communication in the framework of indirect reciprocity. It follows that indirect reciprocity can be only proposed plausibly as a mechanism of human cooperation if additional mechanisms are specified in the model that maintains honesty.

  2. 48 CFR 1652.203-70 - Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including that...

  3. Use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to assess eyewitness accuracy and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, C D; Marchand, Y; Smith, S M; Connolly, J F

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated eyewitness identification using ERPs. Twenty participants completed two eyewitness lineup tasks (standard and deception conditions). For the standard condition, participants tried to accurately identify the culprit, whereas in the deception condition, they were asked to deceptively conceal their recognition of the culprit. Identification rates based on P300 patterns were calculated using two different individual analysis procedures (A and B) that varied in stringency. Correct identification rates for the standard condition were 100% for both procedures A and B. For the deception condition, correct identification rates of the concealed culprit were 90%, and 70% respectively for procedures A and B. Data from a prior study [the culprit-absent condition from Lefebvre, C.D., Marchand, Y., Smith, S.M. & Connolly, J.F., 2007. Determining eyewitness identification accuracy using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Psychophysiology, 44, 894-904.] was reanalysed to investigate differences in false identification rates based on procedures A and B. False identifications were substantially higher when using procedure A (29%) versus procedure B (0%). Overall, superiority was found for procedure B compared to procedure A based on Grier's A'.

  4. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  5. 16 CFR 424.1 - Unfair or deceptive acts or practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PRACTICES § 424.1 Unfair or deceptive acts or practices. In connection with the sale of offering for sale by retail food stores of food, grocery products or other merchandise to... Federal Trade Commission Act, 15 U.S.C. 45(a)(1), to offer any such products for sale at a stated price...

  6. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  7. Observations of volcanic earthquakes and tremor at Deception Island - Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morales

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families of seismic events: 1 long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2 volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10; 3 hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very

  8. The Use of Deception in Public Health Behavioral Intervention Trials: A Case Study of Three Online Alcohol Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Kypri, Kypros; Bendtsen, Preben; Porter, John

    2013-01-01

    Some public health behavioral intervention research studies involve deception. A methodological imperative to minimize bias can be in conflict with the ethical principle of informed consent. As a case study, we examine the specific forms of deception used in three online randomized controlled trials evaluating brief alcohol interventions. We elaborate our own decision making about the use of deception in these trials, and present our ongoing findings and uncertainties. We discuss the value of the approach of pragmatism for examining these kinds of ethical issues that can arise in research on public health interventions. PMID:24161181

  9. IL23R and IL12B SNPs and Haplotypes Strongly Associate with Crohn's Disease Risk in a New Zealand Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette R. Ferguson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA samples from 339 Crohn's disease (CD and 407 randomly selected controls from the Auckland (New Zealand IBD project, were genotyped for five common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-23R (rs11805303, rs7517847, rs1343151, rs11209026, and rs10889677 and two in IL-12B (rs1363670 and rs6887695. While the IL-12B variants did not show an overall association and other IL23R variants led to minor changes in the risk of CD, rs1343151 and/or rs7517847 variants in the IL-23R gene strongly reduced the risk of developing CD at both allelic and genotype levels. A significantly decreased risk of first diagnosis of childhood CD was observed in individuals carrying the A allele of rs1343151, or between 17–40 y in individuals carrying the G allele in rs7517847 of IL-23R. A significantly decreased risk of ileocolonic or structuring disease was observed in individuals carrying the A allele in either rs11209026 or rs1343151, or the G allele in rs7517847 of IL-23R, and when such individuals did develop the disease, they were unlikely to require a bowel resection. Certain haplotypes very strongly modified risk. There was evidence for interactions of IL-23R variants with the NOD2 wild-type (d/d genotype. Down-regulating the function of the IL-23R gene may decrease CD risk in the normal population.

  10. Quantitative analysis of species specificity of two anti-parvalbumin antibodies for detecting southern hemisphere fish species demonstrating strong phylogenetic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Tan, Chui Choo; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Lopata, Andreas L; Lee, N Alice

    2017-12-15

    This study aimed to develop a novel approach to determine the correlation between the parvalbumin (PAV) contents and their corresponding immunoreactivity (detectability) in southern hemisphere fish species. The immuno-detected PAV contents of the test fish species were estimated by a quantitative SDS-PAGE. A quantitative Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) was formatted to assess relative immunoreactivity of PAV. Sixteen species (forty-three percent) displayed a positive correlation with the anti-cod PAV polyclonal antibody, but no correlation with the anti-carp PAV monoclonal antibody. There was a strong phylogenetic association of the PAV immunoreactivity. Species from the order of Perciformes showed strong binding with both antibodies; whereas species from Salmoniformes, Ophidiiformes, Scombriformes, Scorpaeniformes, and Tetraodontiformes showed weak or no binding. This approach showed for the first time a statistical correlation between the PAV content and the immunoreactivity and allowed to rank the relative species/order specificity of the two antibodies for the southern hemisphere fish PAV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peripheral Zone Inflammation is Not Strongly Associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptom Incidence and Progression in the Placebo Arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulac, Ibrahim; Gumuskaya, Berrak; Drake, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Beverly; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Isaacs, William B.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Intraprostatic inflammation has been associated with lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) progression. However, prior studies used tissue removed for clinical indications, potentially skewing inflammation extent or biasing the association. We, therefore, evaluated inflammation and LUTS incidence and progression in men who underwent biopsy of the prostate peripheral zone irrespective of indication. Material and Methods We developed nested case-control sets in men in the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial who were free of clinical BPH and had a protocol-directed year 7 biopsy. Cases had baseline IPSS 75th percentile (N = 46) and controls had a slope 75th percentile (N = 46) and controls had a slope inflammation and mean extent (%) of tissue area with inflammation. Results Inflammation prevalence in low cases (64%) was similar to controls (66%), but higher in moderate (69%) and high (73%) cases (P-trend = 0.4). Extent did not differ across LUTS categories (P-trend = 0.5). For progression from IPSS inflammation (10.1% versus 4.6%, P = 0.06). Conclusion Peripheral zone intraprostatic inflammation is not strongly associated with LUTS incidence or progression. PMID:27325488

  12. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Nicolas J.; Wilson, Carol A.; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A.; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking ‘Cope's rule of specialization’. PMID:23055065

  13. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies.We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility.677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  14. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  15. Is arson the crime most strongly associated with psychosis?--A national case-control study of arson risk in schizophrenia and other psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sophia; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin; Fazel, Seena

    2011-05-01

    The association of psychosis with certain serious crimes, such as homicide, has been clearly demonstrated, but it is uncertain to what extent psychotic disorders are associated with arson. We used a case-control design to investigate the association of being diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychoses and committing arson. Data were obtained from Swedish national registers for criminal convictions, hospital discharge diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9], and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision [ICD-10]), and sociodemographic factors for 1988-2000. We included all convicted arson offenders of both sexes in Sweden (N=1689) and compared them with a random sample of general population control subjects (N=40,560). After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, arson offenders were more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (in men, adjusted odds ratio [OR]=22.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]=14.8-34.4; in women, adjusted OR=38.7, 95% CI=20.4-73.5) or other psychoses (in men, adjusted OR=17.4, 95% CI=11.1-27.5; in women, adjusted OR=30.8, 95% CI=18.8-50.6). Individuals with schizophrenia and other psychoses have significantly increased risks of an arson conviction. These risk estimates are higher than those reported for other violent crimes and place arson in the same category as homicide as crimes that are most strongly associated with psychotic disorders. © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  17. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  18. Effects of placebos without deception compared with no treatment: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Grace; Charlesworth, James E G; Kelley, John; Miller, Franklin; Roberts, Nia; Howick, Jeremy

    2015-11-26

    Placebos have long provided a robust control for evaluating active pharmacological preparations, but frequently demonstrate a variable therapeutic effect when delivered in double-blinded placebo-controlled trials. Delivery of placebos as treatment alone has been considered unethical, as it has been thought that deception is essential for their effect. However, recent evidence suggests that clinical benefit can be derived from placebos delivered without deception (unblinded/open-label) manner. Here, we present a protocol for the first systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the effects of non-deceptive placebos compared with no treatment. This protocol will compare the effect of placebos delivered non-deceptively to no treatment. It will also assess the methods of delivery used for non-deceptive placebos. Studies will be sought through relevant database searches and will include those within disease settings and those among healthy controls. To be included, trials must include both non-deceptive (open-label) placebo and no treatment groups. All data extraction and analysis will be conducted by two independent reviewers. The analysis will evaluate any differences in outcome measures between the non-deceptive placebo and no treatment groups. Outcome measures will be the clinically-relevant outcomes detailed in the primary papers. The delivery methods, such as verbal instructions, which may provide positive expectations and outcomes, of non-deceptive placebos will also be assessed. Each study will be comprehensively assessed for bias. Subgroup analyses will identify any discrepancies among heterogeneous data. This review does not require ethical approval. The completed review will be widely disseminated by publication and social media where appropriate. This protocol has been registered on PROSPERO (2015:CRD42015023347). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Childhood ADHD is strongly associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders during adolescence: a population-based birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J; Colligan, Robert C; Voigt, Robert G; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Katusic, Slavica K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we identified 379 ADHD incident cases and 758 age-gender matched non-ADHD controls, passively followed to age 19 years. All psychiatric diagnoses were identified and abstracted, but only those confirmed by qualified medical professionals were included in the analysis. For each psychiatric disorder, cumulative incidence rates for subjects with and without ADHD were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Corresponding hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox models adjusted for gender and mother's age and education at the subject's birth. The association between ADHD and the likelihood of having an internalizing or externalizing disorder was summarized by estimating odds ratios (OR). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was associated with a significantly increased risk of adjustment disorders (HR = 3.88), conduct/oppositional defiant disorder (HR = 9.54), mood disorders (HR = 3.67), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.94), tic disorders (HR = 6.53), eating disorders (HR = 5.68), personality disorders (HR = 5.80), and substance-related disorders (HR = 4.03). When psychiatric comorbidities were classified on the internalization-externalization dimension, ADHD was strongly associated with coexisting internalizing/externalizing (OR = 10.6), or externalizing-only (OR = 10.0) disorders. This population-based study confirms that children with ADHD are at significantly increased risk for a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Besides treating the ADHD, clinicians should identify and provide appropriate treatment for psychiatric comorbidities. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  20. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei; He, Jinyan; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Xu, Jian; Li, Xia; Li, Peng; Wu, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae) is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70), IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT) of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  1. Adipose tissue has aberrant morphology and function in PCOS: enlarged adipocytes and low serum adiponectin, but not circulating sex steroids, are strongly associated with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Leonhardt, Henrik; Kullberg, Joel; Jennische, Eva; Odén, Anders; Holm, Göran; Hellström, Mikael; Lönn, Lars; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lönn, Malin

    2011-02-01

    Comprehensive characterization of the adipose tissue in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), over a wide range of body mass indices (BMIs), is lacking. Mechanisms behind insulin resistance in PCOS are unclear. To characterize the adipose tissue of women with PCOS and controls matched pair-wise for age and BMI, and to identify factors, among adipose tissue characteristics and serum sex steroids, that are associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS. Seventy-four PCOS women and 31 controls were included. BMI was 18-47 (PCOS) and 19-41 kg/m(2) (controls). Anthropometric variables, volumes of subcutaneous/visceral adipose tissue (magnetic resonance imaging; MRI), and insulin sensitivity (clamp) were investigated. Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained to determine adipocyte size, lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, and macrophage density. Circulating testosterone, free testosterone, free 17β-estradiol, SHBG, glycerol, adiponectin, and serum amyloid A were measured/calculated. Comparison of 31 pairs revealed lower insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, and higher free 17β-estradiol in PCOS. Abdominal adipose tissue volumes/distribution did not differ in the groups, but PCOS women had higher waist-to-hip ratio, enlarged adipocytes, reduced adiponectin, and lower LPL activity. In regression analysis, adipocyte size, adiponectin, and waist circumference were the factors most strongly associated with insulin sensitivity in PCOS (R(2)=0.681, P fat accumulation, but this is not supported by MRI. Enlarged adipocytes and reduced serum adiponectin, together with a large waistline, rather than androgen excess, may be central factors in the pathogenesis/maintenance of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  2. Elongation Factor Tu and Heat Shock Protein 70 Are Membrane-Associated Proteins from Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Capable of Inducing Strong Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Jiang

    Full Text Available Chronic non-progressive pneumonia, a disease that has become a worldwide epidemic has caused considerable loss to sheep industry. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae (M. ovipneumoniae is the causative agent of interstitial pneumonia in sheep, goat and bighorn. We here have identified by immunogold and immunoblotting that elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70 are membrane-associated proteins on M. ovipneumonaiea. We have evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo by immunizing BALB/c mice with both purified recombinant proteins rEF-Tu and rHSP70. The sera of both rEF-Tu and rHSP70 treated BALB/c mice demonstrated increased levels of IgG, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12(p70, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-6. In addition, ELISPOT assay showed significant increase in IFN-γ+ secreting lymphocytes in the rHSP70 group when compared to other groups. Collectively our study reveals that rHSP70 induces a significantly better cellular immune response in mice, and may act as a Th1 cytokine-like adjuvant in immune response induction. Finally, growth inhibition test (GIT of M. ovipneumoniae strain Y98 showed that sera from rHSP70 or rEF-Tu-immunized mice inhibited in vitro growth of M. ovipneumoniae. Our data strongly suggest that EF-Tu and HSP70 of M. ovipneumoniae are membrane-associated proteins capable of inducing antibody production, and cytokine secretion. Therefore, these two proteins may be potential candidates for vaccine development against M. ovipneumoniae infection in sheep.

  3. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem.

  5. Bodyguard of lies: the vicissitudes of deception among mad men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The television series Mad Men is critically acclaimed despite grievous flaws as a drama. Its immense popularity is important psychological data and needs to be explored from the vantage of the dynamics of deception, including motivation, appeal and consequences for relationships and the self. The show's creator is inspired by John Cheever, the depth of whose complex characterizations is contrasted to the lures of the show. The parallel between the manipulations of authenticity inherent in advertising, the relationships between those who are involved in it and the relationship the show establishes with its audience is studied through two contiguous brief scenes that portray multiple reverberating deceits. These characters in these scenes are understood as creating both longing and disappointment at multiple levels. The psychic costs for both the deceivers, those deceived, as well as witnesses to the deception are fundamental.

  6. The fundamental attribution error in detecting deception: the boy-who-cried-wolf effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2003-10-01

    Most people are unable to detect accurately when others are lying. Many explanations for this inability have been suggested but the cognitive heuristics involved in lie detection have received little attention. The present study offers evidence from two experiments, based on two different groups of observers, judging two different kinds of lies, presented in two different testing situations, that the fundamental attribution error significantly undermines the ability to detect honesty and deception accurately. Trait judgments of trustworthiness were highly correlated with state judgments of truthfulness, leading, as predicted, to positive correlations with honest detection accuracy and negative correlations with deception detection accuracy. More accurate lie detectors were significantly more likely than less accurate lie detectors to separate state and trait judgments of honesty. The effect of other biases, such as the halo effect and the truthfulness bias, also are examined. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  7. Undoing the past in order to lie in the present: Counterfactual thinking and deceptive communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briazu, Raluca A; Walsh, Clare R; Deeprose, Catherine; Ganis, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    This paper explores the proposal that there is a close link between counterfactual thinking and lying. Both require the imagination of alternatives to reality and we describe four studies which explore this link. In Study 1 we measured individual differences in both abilities and found that individuals with a tendency to generate counterfactual thoughts were also more likely to generate potential lies. Studies 2 and 3 showed that counterfactual availability influences people's ability to come up with lies and the extent to which they expect others to lie. Study 4 used a behavioural measure of deception to show that people tend to lie more in situations also known to elicit counterfactual thoughts. Overall, the results show that the imagination of alternatives to the past plays an important role in the generation of lies. We discuss the implications for the fields of counterfactual thinking and deception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of psychophysiology in forensic assessments: deception detection, ERPs, and virtual reality mock crime scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ralf; Allen, John J B

    2008-03-01

    Few data are available to address whether the use of ERP-based deception detection alternatives have sufficient validity for applied use. The present study was designed to replicate and extend J. P. Rosenfeld, M. Soskins, G. Bosh, and A. Ryan's (2004) study by utilizing a virtual reality crime scenario to determine whether ERP-based procedures, including brain fingerprinting, can be rendered less effective by participant manipulation by employing a virtual reality crime scenario and multiple countermeasures. Bayesian and bootstrapping analytic approaches were used to classify individuals as guilty or innocent. Guilty subjects were detected significantly less frequently compared to previous studies; countermeasures further reduced the overall hit rates. Innocent participants remained protected from being falsely accused. Reaction times did not prove suitable for accurate classification. Results suggested that guilty verdicts from ERP-based deception detection approaches are likely to be accurate, but that innocent (or indeterminate) verdicts yield no useful interpretation in an applied setting.

  9. Impact of Adult Attachment Anxiety on Deception Judgments: Examining the Moderating Effect of Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Ying; Jin, Shenghua

    2018-04-01

    Several psychologists have paid attention to individual differences in deception detection, but only a few studies have found significant results. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between attachment anxiety and deception judgment when there are no obvious cues to distinguish lies from truth, and to examine the moderating effect of motives. Participants were instructed to judge each of 10 audios on whether they were true or false. Subsequently, the attachment anxiety of participants was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Results revealed that, compared with people who had low attachment anxiety, those with high attachment anxiety tend to have higher truth biases in the low-motive condition and lower accuracy in the high-motive condition.

  10. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no characteristics (duration

  11. Toward a Robust Method of Presenting a Rich, Interconnected Deceptive Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    connections, and correspond to the Data Link and Network Layer of the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model . The OSI model is an abstraction that...research project to build a model for our network [39]. • Another option is to have a separate node in our network with a real, physical link that we...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS TOWARD A ROBUST METHOD OF PRESENTING A RICH, INTERCONNECTED DECEPTIVE NETWORK TOPOLOGY

  12. (When) Would I Lie To You? Comment on ?Deception: The Role of Consequences?

    OpenAIRE

    Sjaak Hurkens; Navin Kartik

    2006-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the evidence on lying or deception presented in Gneezy (2005, American Economic Review). We argue that Gneezy's data cannot reject the hypothesis that people are one of two kinds: either a person will never lie, or a person will lie whenever she prefers the outcome obtained by lying over the outcome obtained by telling the truth. This implies that so long as lying induces a preferred outcome over truth-telling, a person's decision of whether to lie may be...

  13. By Force or by Fraud: Optimizing U.S. Information Strategy With Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    applies to all persons at all times.12 Michael I. Handel builds upon Kantian ethics in his work, Intelligence and Deception, noting that “those who...best chance of achieving dominance. Built upon rational choice, apart from morality or ethics , game theory anticipates course-of-action selection to...our MILDEC divestiture range from structural insufficiencies to an ethical framework that emphasizes truth and transparency. Simultaneously, the onset

  14. Learning from the Chilcot Report: Propaganda, Deception and the 'War on Terror'

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, P.

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 Iraq Inquiry Report (the Chilcot report) was highly critical of the British government and its involvement in the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation. Drawing upon the authoritative material in the report, this article provides the most comprehensive and conceptually grounded post-Chilcot assessment of the empirical evidence now available regarding whether deception and propaganda were used to mobilize support for the invasion of Iraq. Employing a conceptual framework des...

  15. The Functional Architecture of the Brain Underlies Strategic Deception in Impression Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Luo; Qiang Luo; Yina Ma; Yina Ma; Meghana A. Bhatt; Meghana A. Bhatt; P. Read Montague; P. Read Montague; P. Read Montague; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng; Jianfeng Feng

    2017-01-01

    Impression management, as one of the most essential skills of social function, impacts one's survival and success in human societies. However, the neural architecture underpinning this social skill remains poorly understood. By employing a two-person bargaining game, we exposed three strategies involving distinct cognitive processes for social impression management with different levels of strategic deception. We utilized a novel adaptation of Granger causality accounting for signal-dependent...

  16. A sacred command of reason? Deceit, deception, and dishonesty in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Kant (Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals. Hackett, Indianapolis, 1797) described honesty as 'a sacred command of reason' which should be obeyed at all times and at any cost. This study inquires into the practice of dishonesty, deception, and deceit by universities in the UK in the pursuit of quality indicators such as league table positions, Research Excellence Framework (REF) scores, and student satisfaction survey results. Deception occurs when the metrics which inform these tables and surveys are manipulated to suggest an improvement in quality when, in fact, the raised scores are merely the result of clever strategic planning. Deceit occurs when these manipulated scores are deliberately and knowingly presented as real improvements in research and educational quality. It might be argued that, within the context of the artificial ivory tower world of academe, this is a game played by almost every academic in every higher education institution with no real losers and little wider consequence. However, this study suggests that some of the strategies employed by institutions to improve their scores without directly addressing the issue of quality can, in certain practice-based disciplines such as nursing, result in dire consequences for practitioners and service users. It concludes with a number of suggestions taken from personal experience to resolve the tension between the contractual demands placed on nurse academics by their employers and the moral and practical obligations of their professional body, most notably the use of subversion. The conclusion, contra Kant, is that the most effective strategy against dishonesty and deception is often more dishonesty and deception. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Crying wolf to a predator: deceptive vocal mimicry by a bird protecting young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; McLachlan, Jessica; Lehtinen, Inkeri; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-06-22

    Animals often mimic dangerous or toxic species to deter predators; however, mimicry of such species may not always be possible and mimicry of benign species seems unlikely to confer anti-predator benefits. We reveal a system in which a bird mimics the alarm calls of harmless species to fool a predator 40 times its size and protect its offspring against attack. Our experiments revealed that brown thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla) mimic a chorus of other species' aerial alarm calls, a cue of an Accipiter hawk in flight, when predators attack their nest. The absence of any flying predators in this context implies that these alarms convey deceptive information about the type of danger present. Experiments on the primary nest predators of thornbills, pied currawongs (Strepera graculina), revealed that the predators treat these alarms as if they themselves are threatened by flying hawks, either by scanning the sky for danger or fleeing, confirming a deceptive function. In turn, these distractions delay attack and provide thornbill nestlings with an opportunity to escape. This sophisticated defence strategy exploits the complex web of interactions among multiple species across several trophic levels, and in particular exploits a predator's ability to eavesdrop on and respond appropriately to heterospecific alarm calls. Our findings demonstrate that prey can fool predators by deceptively mimicking alarm calls of harmless species, suggesting that defensive mimicry could be more widespread because of indirect effects on predators within a web of eavesdropping. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex, lies and fMRI--gender differences in neural basis of deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Marchewka

    Full Text Available Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG. Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.

  19. Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Ludwig Sporer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deception and Cognitive Load: Expanding our Horizon with a Working Memory ModelAbstractRecently, studies on deception and its detection have increased dramatically. Many of these studies rely on the cognitive load approach as the sole explanatory principle to understand deception. These studies have been exclusively on lies about negative actions (usually lies of suspects of [mock] crimes. Instead, we need to re-focus more generally on the cognitive processes involved in generating both lies and truths, not just on manipulations of cognitive load. Using Baddeley's (2000, 2007, 2012 working memory model, which integrates verbal and visual processes in working memory with retrieval from long-term memory and control of action, not only verbal content cues but also nonverbal, paraverbal and linguistic cues can be investigated within a single framework. The proposed model considers long-term semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory and their connections with working memory and action. It also incorporates ironic processes of mental control (Wegner, 1994, 2009, the role of scripts and schemata and retrieval cues and retrieval processes. Specific predictions of the model are outlined and support from selective studies is presented. The model is applicable to different types of reports, particularly about lies and truths about complex events, and to different modes of production (oral, hand-written, typed. Predictions regarding several moderator variables and methods to investigate them are proposed.

  20. Sex, Lies and fMRI—Gender Differences in Neural Basis of Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631

  1. Sex, lies and fMRI--gender differences in neural basis of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Artur; Jednorog, Katarzyna; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.

  2. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  3. Improvements in Cycling Time Trial Performance Are Not Sustained Following the Acute Provision of Challenging and Deceptive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie S Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available TThe provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception.Seventeen trained male cyclists were assigned to either an accurate or deceptive feedback group and performed four 16.1 km cycling TTs; 1 and 2 ride-alone baseline TTs where a fastest baseline (FBL performance was identified, 3 a TT against a virtual avatar representing 102% of their FBL performance (PACER, and 4 a subsequent ride-alone TT (SUB. The deception group, however, were initially informed that the avatar accurately represented their FBL, but prior to SUB were correctly informed of the nature of the avatar. Affect, self-efficacy and RPE were measured every quartile. Both groups performed PACER faster than FBL and SUB (p < 0.05 and experienced lower affect (p = 0.016, lower self-efficacy (p = 0.011, and higher RPE (p < 0.001 in PACER than FBL. No significant differences were found between FBL and SUB for any variable. The presence of the pacer rather than the manipulation of performance beliefs acutely facilitates TT performance and perceptual responses. Revealing that athletes’ performance beliefs were falsely negative due to deceptive feedback provision has no effect on subsequent perceptions or performance. A single experiential exposure may not be sufficient to produce meaningful

  4. Building a self-regulatory model of sleep deprivation and deception: the role of caffeine and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David T; Ellis, Aleksander P J; Christian, Michael S; Mai, Ke Michael

    2014-11-01

    Employees are getting less sleep, which has been shown to deplete self-regulatory resources and increase unethical behavior (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011; Christian & Ellis, 2011). In this study, we extend the original mediated model by examining the role of 2 moderators in the relationship between sleep deprivation, depletion, and deceptive behavior. First, we derive psychological arguments from the psychopharmacology literature to hypothesize that caffeine moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and depletion by replenishing self-regulatory resources. Second, we draw from recent research in social psychology to hypothesize that social influence moderates the relationship between depletion and deceptive behavior, such that depleted individuals are less able to resist the negative influence of others. Results of a laboratory study provide support for our expanded model combining mediation and moderation, adding to our understanding of the role of sleep deprivation in the incidence of workplace deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. Deception and Drug Acquisition: Correlates of "Success" Among Drug-Seeking Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Amber N; Eassey, John M; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2016-07-01

    Most research examining patient-based drug diversion neglects to assess physician deception directly. We attempt to determine if motives for deception are linked to success, and, similarly, if any health, demographic, or substance use history characteristics of the patients are predictive of being able to successfully deceive a physician. Stratified random sampling was utilized to obtain a sample of 2349 young adults. Respondents completed a survey detailing their substance use histories and whether they had ever deceived a physician for medication. Ninety-three of these respondents reported attempting to deceive a physician for a medication and compose the analytic sample for the study. Of the 93 young adults who reported having attempted to deceive a physician for pharmaceuticals (4.0% of the general sample), 64 (68.8%) were successful. This included 24 only seeking medications for their own use, 9 only for financial purposes, and 31 with both motives. Respondents who reported recreationally using pharmaceuticals in the past were more likely to report successful attempts at obtaining a prescription compared with respondents without a history of abuse. With respect to demographic characteristics of the respondents, only race/ethnicity distinguished between successful attempts and failure. Although a rare occurrence in the overall sample, significant correlates of successful deception did emerge. Respondents motivated to obtain a prescription in order to sell it to others were overwhelmingly likely to succeed in their pursuit to deceive as compared with respondents who sought prescriptions for their own abuse. Successful deceivers were also more likely to have been legitimately prescribed medication in the past. Successful respondents were more likely to be Caucasian than any other race/ethnicity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M K; Grant, Peter J; Spector, Timothy D; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Swords Jenny, Nancy; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R; Rose, Lynda M; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C; Chambers, John C; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; de Geus, Eco J C; Tracy, Russell P; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P; Hamsten, Anders; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2013-09-17

    Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (90 000 subjects of European ancestry, the first genome-wide association meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 studies in blacks totaling 8289 samples, and a genome-wide association study in Hispanics totaling 1366 samples. Evaluation for association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with clinical outcomes included a total of 40 695 cases and 85 582 controls for coronary artery disease, 4752 cases and 24 030 controls for stroke, and 3208 cases and 46 167 controls for venous thromboembolism. Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10(-8)) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the 3 structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines, and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a few loci were significantly associated with coronary artery disease, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead single-nucleotide polymorphisms was not significant for coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and coronary artery disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism.

  8. Detection of long-duration tremors at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Morales, Vanessa; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique

    2017-11-01

    We analyze seismic data from permanent seismic stations located on Deception Island volcano, Livingston Island, and Cierva Cove, Antarctica, and identify a type of signal named Deception long-duration signals (DLDS). They are characterized by low amplitudes, long durations (several hours to days), frequency content limited to the 0.5-5 Hz band, and are detected only at Deception Island. We develop a semi-automated method to systematically detect the occurrence of DLDS during February 2008-January 2015. We identify 276 DLDS episodes with amplitudes in the range of 0.5-2 μm/s and durations from 3 h to 13 days. The temporal distribution shows an annual modulation, suggesting a seasonal effect. DLDS activity generally increases during the austral winter, although the annual distributions display two different behaviors. Some of them have a single maximum in the winter, while others are bimodal and show a second maximum during spring. Several mechanisms can explain the occurrence of long-duration signals. However, the only mechanism that explains the spectral content, duration, temporal distribution, and station coverage of the DLDS is the occurrence of volcanic tremors. Tremor generation at Deception Island has been explained by the resonance of fluid-filled conduits within the hydrothermal and/or shallow volcanic conduits. However, the long durations of the DLDS require a triggering mechanism that could be active for a long time span. The seasonal modulation of the DLDS suggests the influence of external effects. Most DLDS episodes can be related to periods with high-amplitude oceanic microseisms, which can induce an external forcing and introduce pressure variations in the volcanic/hydrothermal fluids. However, in some cases DLDS occur independently from oceanic noise amplitude. These cases precede summer surveys with large numbers of seismic events, indicating an increasingly restless state of the volcano. They can be produced by triggering mechanisms of internal

  9. A Multi-Ethnic Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Over 100,000 Subjects Identifies 23 Fibrinogen-Associated Loci but no Strong Evidence of a Causal Association between Circulating Fibrinogen and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Huang, Jie; Chasman, Daniel; Naitza, Silvia; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D; Teumer, Alexander; Reiner, Alex P; Folkersen, Lasse; Basu, Saonli; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Trompet, Stella; Mälarstig, Anders; Baumert, Jens; Bis, Joshua C.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hottenga, Jouke J; Shin, So-Youn; Lopez, Lorna M; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Yanek, Lisa R; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Wilson, James F; Navarro, Pau; Huffman, Jennifer E; Zemunik, Tatijana; Redline, Susan; Mehra, Reena; Pulanic, Drazen; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Wild, Sarah H; Campbell, Harry; Curb, J David; Wallace, Robert; Liu, Simin; Eaton, Charles B.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, Elisabeth; Palotie, Aarno; Fornage, Myriam; Green, David; Gross, Myron; Davies, Gail; Harris, Sarah E; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Williams, Frances M.K.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Strawbridge, Rona J; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Dongen, Jenny; Willemsen, G; Boomsma, Dorret I; Yao, Jie; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Haritunians, Talin; McKnight, Barbara; Lumley, Thomas; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Grotevendt, Anne; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas; Goel, Anuj; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Seedorf, Udo; Clarke, Robert; Steri, Maristella; Tarasov, Kirill V; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Stott, David J; Sattar, Naveed; Buckley, Brendan M; Rumley, Ann; Lowe, Gordon D; McArdle, Wendy L; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Song, Jaejoon; Boerwinkle, Eric; Folsom, Aaron R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Teichert, Martina; Ikram, M Arfan; Mosley, Thomas H; Bevan, Steve; Dichgans, Martin; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sudlow, Cathie L M; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Chambers, John C.; Saleheen, Danish; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Danesh, John; Nelson, Christopher P; Erdmann, Jeanette; Reilly, Muredach P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Schunkert, Heribert; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Eriksson, Johan G; Jacobs, David; Deary, Ian J; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; de Geus, Eco JC; Tracy, Russell P.; Hayward, Caroline; Koenig, Wolfgang; Cucca, Francesco; Jukema, J Wouter; Eriksson, Per; Seshadri, Sudha; Markus, Hugh S.; Watkins, Hugh; Samani, Nilesh J; Wallaschofski, Henri; Smith, Nicholas L.; Tregouet, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; Strachan, David P.; Hamsten, Anders; O’Donnell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), range from 34 to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies only explain a small proportion (< 2%) of its variation. Methods and Results We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 GWA studies, including more than 90,000 subjects of European ancestry, the first GWA meta-analysis of fibrinogen levels in 7 African Americans studies totaling 8,289 samples, and a GWA study in Hispanic-Americans totaling 1,366 samples. Evaluation for association of SNPs with clinical outcomes included a total of 40,695 cases and 85,582 controls for coronary artery disease (CAD), 4,752 cases and 24,030 controls for stroke, and 3,208 cases and 46,167 controls for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Overall, we identified 24 genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) independent signals in 23 loci, including 15 novel associations, together accounting for 3.7% of plasma fibrinogen variation. Gene-set enrichment analysis highlighted key roles in fibrinogen regulation for the three structural fibrinogen genes and pathways related to inflammation, adipocytokines and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone signaling. Whereas lead SNPs in a few loci were significantly associated with CAD, the combined effect of all 24 fibrinogen-associated lead SNPs was not significant for CAD, stroke or VTE. Conclusion We identify 23 robustly associated fibrinogen loci, 15 of which are new. Clinical outcome analysis of these loci does not support a causal relationship between circulating levels of fibrinogen and CAD, stroke or VTE. PMID:23969696

  10. Genetic Essentialism: On the Deceptive Determinism of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Heine, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of genetic essentialist biases: cognitive biases associated with essentialist thinking that are elicited when people encounter arguments that genes are relevant for a behavior, condition, or social group. Learning about genetic attributions for various human conditions leads to a particular set of thoughts…

  11. Meta-analysis of associations between human brain volume and intelligence differences : How strong are they and what do they mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietschnig, J.; Penke, L.; Wicherts, J.M.; Zeiler, M.; Voracek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between human intelligence and brain size have been suspected for more than 150 years. Nowadays, modern non-invasive measures of in vivo brain volume (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) make it possible to reliably assess associations with IQ. By means of a systematic review of

  12. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Mälarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Räikkönen, K.; Widén, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.E.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; van Dongen, J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Swords Jenny, N.; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Völzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Rose, L.M.; Franco-Cereceda, A.; Teichert, M.; Ikram, M.A.; Mosley, T.H.; Bevan, S.; Dichgans, M.; Rothwell, P.M.; Sudlow, C.L.; Hopewell, J.C.; Chambers, J.C.; Saleheen, D.; Kooner, J.S.; Danesh, J.; Nelson, C.P.; Erdmann, J.; Reilly, M.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Schunkert, H.; Morange, P.E.; Ferrucci, L.; Eriksson, J.G.; Jacobs, D.; Deary, I.J.; Soranzo, N.; Witteman, J.C.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Hayward, C.; Koenig, W.; Cucca, F.; Jukema, J.W.; Eriksson, P.; Seshadri, S.; Markus, H.S.; Watkins, H.; Samani, N.J.; Wallaschofski, H.; Smith, N.L.; Tregouet, D.A.; Ridker, P.M.; Tang, W.; Strachan, D.P.; Hamsten, A.; O'Donnell, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND-: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND

  13. Multiethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >100 000 subjects identifies 23 fibrinogen-associated Loci but no strong evidence of a causal association between circulating fibrinogen and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabater-Lleal, M.; Huang, J.; Chasman, D.; Naitza, S.; Dehghan, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Teumer, A.; Reiner, A.P.; Folkersen, L.; Basu, S.; Rudnicka, A.R.; Trompet, S.; Malarstig, A.; Baumert, J.; Bis, J.C.; Guo, X.; Hottenga, J.J.; Shin, S.Y.; Lopez, L.M.; Lahti, J.; Tanaka, T.; Yanek, L.R.; Oudot-Mellakh, T.; Wilson, J.F.; Navarro, P.; Huffman, J.E.; Zemunik, T.; Redline, S.; Mehra, R.; Pulanic, D.; Rudan, I.; Wright, A.F.; Kolcic, I.; Polasek, O.; Wild, S.H.; Campbell, H.; Curb, J.D.; Wallace, R.; Liu, S.; Eaton, C.B.; Becker, D.M.; Becker, L.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Raikkonen, K.; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Fornage, M.; Green, D.; Gross, M.; Davies, G.; Harris, S.E.; Liewald, D.C.; Starr, J.M.; Williams, F.M.; Grant, P.J.; Spector, T.D.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Silveira, A.; Sennblad, B.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Hofman, A.; Dongen, J. Van; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Yao, J.; Jenny, N. Swords; Haritunians, T.; McKnight, B.; Lumley, T.; Taylor, K.D.; Rotter, J.I.; Psaty, B.M.; Peters, A.; Gieger, C.; Illig, T.; Grotevendt, A.; Homuth, G.; Volzke, H.; Kocher, T.; Goel, A.; Franzosi, M.G.; Seedorf, U.; Clarke, R.; Steri, M.; Tarasov, K.V.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Stott, D.J.; Sattar, N.; Buckley, B.M.; Rumley, A.; Lowe, G.D.; McArdle, W.L.; Chen, M.H.; Tofler, G.H.; Song, J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Folsom, A.R.; Teichert, M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimates of the heritability of plasma fibrinogen concentration, an established predictor of cardiovascular disease, range from 34% to 50%. Genetic variants so far identified by genome-wide association studies explain only a small proportion (<2%) of its variation. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  14. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  15. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  16. Simultaneous Event-Triggered Fault Detection and Estimation for Stochastic Systems Subject to Deception Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited. This approach can transform the considered system into two subsystems and the unknown disturbances are removed from one of the subsystems. The gain of fault-detection filter is derived by minimizing an upper bound of filter error covariance. Meanwhile, system faults can be reconstructed by the remote fault estimator. An recursive approach is developed to obtain fault estimator gains as well as guarantee the fault estimator performance. Furthermore, the corresponding event-triggered sensor data transmission scheme is also presented for improving working-life of the wireless sensor node when measurement information are aperiodically transmitted. Finally, a scaled version of an industrial system consisting of local PC, remote estimator and wireless sensor node is used to experimentally evaluate the proposed theoretical results. In particular, a novel fault-alarming strategy is proposed so that the real-time capacity of fault-detection is guaranteed when the event condition is triggered.

  17. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert A; Berkowitz, Shari R; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting 'beneficial' false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional 'false-memory therapy' that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale-rating (both studies) and open-text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R.; Roche, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting ‘beneficial’ false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional ‘false‐memory therapy’ that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale‐rating (both studies) and open‐text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28111495

  19. Simultaneous Event-Triggered Fault Detection and Estimation for Stochastic Systems Subject to Deception Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunji; Wu, QingE; Peng, Li

    2018-01-23

    In this paper, a synthesized design of fault-detection filter and fault estimator is considered for a class of discrete-time stochastic systems in the framework of event-triggered transmission scheme subject to unknown disturbances and deception attacks. A random variable obeying the Bernoulli distribution is employed to characterize the phenomena of the randomly occurring deception attacks. To achieve a fault-detection residual is only sensitive to faults while robust to disturbances, a coordinate transformation approach is exploited. This approach can transform the considered system into two subsystems and the unknown disturbances are removed from one of the subsystems. The gain of fault-detection filter is derived by minimizing an upper bound of filter error covariance. Meanwhile, system faults can be reconstructed by the remote fault estimator. An recursive approach is developed to obtain fault estimator gains as well as guarantee the fault estimator performance. Furthermore, the corresponding event-triggered sensor data transmission scheme is also presented for improving working-life of the wireless sensor node when measurement information are aperiodically transmitted. Finally, a scaled version of an industrial system consisting of local PC, remote estimator and wireless sensor node is used to experimentally evaluate the proposed theoretical results. In particular, a novel fault-alarming strategy is proposed so that the real-time capacity of fault-detection is guaranteed when the event condition is triggered.

  20. Cost overruns and demand shortfalls - Deception or selection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Jonas; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    A number of highly cited papers by Flyvbjerg and associates have shown that ex ante infrastructure appraisals tend to be overly optimistic. Ex post evaluations indicate a bias where investment costs are higher and benefits lower on average than predicted ex ante. These authors argue that the bias...... must be attributed to intentional misrepresentation by project developers. This paper shows that the bias may arise simply as a selection bias, without there being any bias at all in predictions ex ante, and that such a bias is bound to arise whenever ex ante predictions are related to the decisions...

  1. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  2. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  3. Saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT): a deceptively benign disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J N; Ascher, E; DePippo, P; Lorensen, E; Scheinman, M; Yorkovich, W; Hingorani, A

    1998-04-01

    The association between deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the hypercoagulable state is a well-established entity. However, the association between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis and coagulation abnormalities has not been investigated. Although thrombosis of varicose veins typically runs a benign course, phlebitis of the saphenous system may propagate to the deep system or saphenofemoral junction that requires more aggressive therapy. Given the potential similarity in clinical outcome between saphenous vein thrombophlebitis (SVT) and DVT, we have investigated the coagulation profile of patients presenting with isolated SVT. Seventeen consecutive patients who presented to our vascular laboratory with isolated SVT had a coagulation profile performed that included antithrombin III (AT III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS) antigen and activity levels, activated protein C (APC) resistance, factor V DNA mutation, and coagulation factors II and X. All patients had duplex scans performed on both the superficial and deep venous systems. Patients with SVT only were treated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and warm soaks as outpatients, whereas those patients found to have DVT or a clot at the saphenofemoral junction were fully anticoagulated with heparin and coumadin therapy. All 17 patients had at least one repeat coagulation profile performed up to 5 months after their SVT occurrence to ensure that the results of hypercoagulability were not transient. Ten (59%) of the 17 patients with SVT had abnormal coagulation profiles on initial presentation. All 10 patients who were hypercoagulable had repeat tests and 6 (35%) remained abnormal. Four patients who had abnormal results converted to normal values. Seven patients with normal coagulation profiles on initial presentation had repeat tests and all remained normal. The incidence of the hypercoagulable state in patients with SVT is high. Thirty-five percent of patients with isolated SVT had consistently abnormal

  4. The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren C J; Pichersky, Eran; Peakall, Rod

    2017-01-01

    Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.

  5. When deception becomes easy : The effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockstaele, B.; Wilhelm, C.; Meijer, E.; Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people

  6. Effect of nectar supplementation on male and female components of pollination success in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, S.D.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Pupin, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2008), s. 300-306 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Dactylorhiza sambucina * Deception * Nectar supplementation * Pollination * Pollen removal and deposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.456, year: 2008

  7. Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression and Deception during Early Childhood: A Multimethod, Multi-Informant Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Ries, Emily E.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2008-01-01

    A short-term longitudinal study examined relational and physical aggression and deceptive behavior among 120 preschool-aged children (M = 44.36 months old, SD = 11.07). Multiple informants and methods (i.e., observational, teacher reports) were used. Evidence for discriminant validity of the observations of aggression subtypes was found. For…

  8. The Myth of Offenders' Deception on Self-Report Measure Predicting Recidivism: Example from the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Wagdy; Loza-Fanous, Amel; Heseltine, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…

  9. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  10. Elevated skin autofluorescence is strongly associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetes : a cross-sectional, observational study of Chinese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Hang; Han, Chun-mao; Hu, Xin-lei; Ye, Wan-lan; Huang, Wen-juan; Smit, Andries J.

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between skin autofluorescence (AF), an indicator of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and foot ulcers in subjects with diabetes. In this study, 195 Chinese diabetic subjects were examined. Their feet were examined regardless of whether an

  11. Strong Associations Exist among Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Biomarkers in the Circulating, Cellular and Urinary Anatomical Compartments in Guatemalan Children from the Western Highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Soto-Méndez

    Full Text Available A series of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic compounds act to protect cells from uncontrolled propagation of free radicals. It is poorly understood, though, to what extent and how their interaction is harmonized.To explore associative interactions among a battery of urinary and blood biomarkers of oxidative stress and enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of the antioxidant defense system in children from low income households.For this cross-sectional descriptive study, urine, red cells, and plasma were sampled in 82 preschool children attending three daycare centers in Quetzaltenango Guatemala. The urinary oxidative stress biomarkers studied were F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine. Red cell enzyme activities measured were: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Circulating non-enzymatic antioxidants selected were: retinol, tocopherols, β-carotene and coenzymes Q9 and Q10.In a Spearman rank-order correlation hemi-matrix, of 55 paired combinations of the 11 biomarkers, 28 (51% were significantly correlated among each other (p ≤ 0.05, with the strongest association being retinol and tocopherols (r = 0.697, p 0.5 to ≤ 0.10. F2-isoprostanes showed the greatest number of cross-associations, having significant interactions with 8 of the 10 remaining biomarkers. Goodness-of-fit modeling improved or maintained the r value for 24 of the significant interactions and for one of the 5 borderline associations. Multiple regression backward stepwise analysis indicated that plasma retinol, β-carotene and coenzyme Q10 were independent predictors of urinary F2-isoprostanes.Numerous significant associations resulted among biomarkers of oxidation and responders to oxidation. Interesting findings were the apparent patterns of harmonious interactions among the elements of the oxidation-antioxidation systems in this population.

  12. <strong>Project proposal:strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2007-01-01

    The Standard Template Library (STL) is a collection of generic algorithms and data structures that is part of the standard run-time environment of the C++ programming language. The STL provides four kinds of associative element containers: set, multiset, map, and multimap. In this project the goal...

  13. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varani, Stefania; Gelsomino, Francesco; Bartoletti, Michele; Viale, Pierluigi; Mastroianni, Antonio; Briganti, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Patrizia; Albertini, Francesco; Calzetti, Carlo; Prati, Francesca; Cenni, Patrizia; Castellani, Gastone; Morini, Silvia; Rossini, Giada; Landini, Maria Paola; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS) cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS. PMID:26569288

  14. Meningitis Caused by Toscana Virus Is Associated with Strong Antiviral Response in the CNS and Altered Frequency of Blood Antigen-Presenting Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Varani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Toscana virus (TOSV is a Phlebotomus-transmitted RNA virus and a frequent cause of human meningitis and meningoencephalitis in Southern Europe during the summer season. While evidence for TOSV-related central nervous system (CNS cases is increasing, little is known about the host defenses against TOSV. We evaluated innate immune response to TOSV by analyzing frequency and activation of blood antigen-presenting cells (APCs and cytokine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with TOSV neuroinvasive infection and controls. An altered frequency of different blood APC subsets was observed in TOSV-infected patients, with signs of monocytic deactivation. Nevertheless, a proper or even increased responsiveness of toll-like receptor 3 and 7/8 was observed in blood APCs of these patients as compared to healthy controls. Systemic levels of cytokines remained low in TOSV-infected patients, while levels of anti-inflammatory and antiviral mediators were significantly higher in CSF from TOSV-infected patients as compared to patients with other infectious and noninfectious neurological diseases. Thus, the early host response to TOSV appears effective for viral clearance, by proper response to TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists in peripheral blood and by a strong and selective antiviral and anti-inflammatory response in the CNS.

  15. Nine supramolecular assemblies from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and carboxylic acids by strong classical H-bonds and other noncovalent associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Shide; Guo, Ming; Liu, Hui; Guo, Jianzhong; Wang, Daqi

    2017-12-01

    This article demonstrates 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine based organic salt formation in nine crystalline solids 1-9, in which the carboxylates have been integrated. Addition of equivalents of the COOH to the solution of 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine generates the singly protonated cationic species which direct the carboxylates. The nine compounds crystallize as their organic salts with the COOH proton transferred to the aromatic N of the 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine. All salts have been characterized by IR, mp, EA and XRD technique. The major driving force in 1-9 is the classical H-bonds from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and the acids, here the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bonds were found in all salts. Other extensive non-covalent interactions also exhibit great functions in space association of the molecular counterparts in relevant crystals. Except 4, all salts had the CHsbnd O, or CH3sbnd O interactions or both. Except 9, the common R22 (8) graph set has been observed in all salts due to the H-bonds and the non-covalent associations. For the synergistic interactions of the classical H-bonds and the various non-covalent associations, the salts displayed 1D-3D structures.

  16. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p water quality were not associated with individual household latrine ownership. The relationship between community latrine coverage and child height was strongest among households without a latrine; for these households, each 10% increase in latrine coverage was associated with a 0.031 (p-value = 0.040) increase in height-for-age z-score. In this study, the level of sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health. PMID:28514143

  17. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body nonverbal features in body-worn cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; den Hollander, Richard; van der Zee, Sophie; Baan, Jan; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; van Diepen, Sjaak; van den Haak, Paul; van Rest, Jeroen

    2016-10-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on intuition without objective technical support. However, psychological research has shown that humans can hardly perform better than random guessing. Deception detection is a multi-disciplinary research area with an interest from different fields, such as psychology and computer science. In the last decade, several developments have helped to improve the accuracy of lie detection (e.g., with a concealed information test, increasing the cognitive load, or measurements with motion capture suits) and relevant cues have been discovered (e.g., eye blinking or fiddling with the fingers). With an increasing presence of mobile phones and bodycams in society, a mobile, stand-off, automatic deception detection methodology based on various cues from the whole body would create new application opportunities. In this paper, we study the feasibility of measuring these visual cues automatically on different parts of the body, laying the groundwork for stand-off deception detection in more flexible and mobile deployable sensors, such as body-worn cameras. We give an extensive overview of recent developments in two communities: in the behavioral-science community the developments that improve deception detection with a special attention to the observed relevant non-verbal cues, and in the computer-vision community the recent methods that are able to measure these cues. The cues are extracted from several body parts: the eyes, the mouth, the head and the fullbody pose. We performed an experiment using several state-of-the-art video-content-analysis (VCA) techniques to assess the quality of robustly measuring these visual cues.

  18. Endogenous proteolytic cleavage of disease-associated prion protein to produce C2 fragments is strongly cell- and tissue-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-04-02

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrP(Sc) N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrP(Sc) accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrP(Sc) proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrP(Sc) fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrP(Sc) and cell pathogenesis of prion infection.

  19. Endogenous Proteolytic Cleavage of Disease-associated Prion Protein to Produce C2 Fragments Is Strongly Cell- and Tissue-dependent*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, Michel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Salamat, Muhammad Khalid Farooq; Bernard, Julie; Cronier, Sabrina; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrPSc) accumulating in nervous and lymphoid tissues of prion-infected individuals can be naturally cleaved to generate a N-terminal-truncated fragment called C2. Information about the identity of the cellular proteases involved in this process and its possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. We investigated PrPSc N-terminal trimming in different cell lines and primary cultured nerve cells, and in the brain and spleen tissue from transgenic mice infected by ovine and mouse prions. We found the following: (i) the full-length to C2 ratio varies considerably depending on the infected cell or tissue. Thus, in primary neurons and brain tissue, PrPSc accumulated predominantly as untrimmed species, whereas efficient trimming occurred in Rov and MovS cells, and in spleen tissue. (ii) Although C2 is generally considered to be the counterpart of the PrPSc proteinase K-resistant core, the N termini of the fragments cleaved in vivo and in vitro can actually differ, as evidenced by a different reactivity toward the Pc248 anti-octarepeat antibody. (iii) In lysosome-impaired cells, the ratio of full-length versus C2 species dramatically increased, yet efficient prion propagation could occur. Moreover, cathepsin but not calpain inhibitors markedly inhibited C2 formation, and in vitro cleavage by cathepsins B and L produced PrPSc fragments lacking the Pc248 epitope, strongly arguing for the primary involvement of acidic hydrolases of the endolysosomal compartment. These findings have implications on the molecular analysis of PrPSc and cell pathogenesis of prion infection. PMID:20154089

  20. First and second trimester gestational weight gains are most strongly associated with cord blood levels of hormones at delivery important for glycemic control and somatic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Fleisch, Abby; Hivert, Marie-France; Mantzoros, Christos; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights. Outcomes were levels of umbilical cord blood hormones related to fetal and postnatal growth. We used linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, education, pregnancy smoking status and child sex; 2nd and 3rd trimester models were additionally adjusted for GWG in prior trimesters. Mean±SD pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.9±5.5kg/m 2 , 30% were non-white, and 63% were college graduates. Mean±SD cord blood hormone levels were insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1 (56.4±24.3ng/mL), IGF-2 (408.5±92.7ng/mL), IGFBP-3 (1084±318ng/mL), insulin (6.5±7.2 uU/mL), C-peptide (1.0±0.6ng/mL), leptin (9.0±6.6ng/mL) and adiponectin (28.7±6.8μg/mL). Mean±SD 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates were 0.22±0.22, 0.49±0.19 and 0.46±0.22kg/wk. Greater 1st trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher insulin (0.5 uU/mL; 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) and C-peptide (0.06ng/mL; 95% CI 0.02, 0.09) and lower adiponectin (-0.4μg/mL; 95% CI -0.9, 0.0). Greater 2nd trimester GWG (per 0.2kg/wk) was associated with higher IGF-1 (2.3ng/mL; 95% CI 0.6, 4.0), IGF-2 (7.9ng/mL; 95% CI 1.2, 14.6), IGFBP-3 (41.6ng/mL; 95% CI 19.4, 63.7) and leptin (0.9ng/mL; 0.4, 1.4). 3rd trimester GWG was not associated with cord blood hormones. 1st trimester weight gain appears to matter more for cord blood hormones related to offspring glucose/insulin regulation, whereas 2nd trimester gain matters more for hormones related to growth and adiposity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Performing high-level sport is strongly associated with urinary incontinence in elite athletes: a comparative study of 372 elite female athletes and 372 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Alice; Natal Jorge, Renato; Bø, Kari

    2017-06-22

    To evaluate the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) in female elite athletes compared with controls and to investigate potential risk factors for UI among elite athletes. This cross-sectional study included 372 elite athletes (athletes group, AG) and 372 age-matched controls (control group, CG). The median age was low (19 years) and the vast majority were nulliparous. Potential risk factors, including clinical, demographic and sports practice characteristics, were collected by using a questionnaire. The International Consultation on Urinary Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence-Short Form was applied to estimate the prevalence of UI. OR with 95% CIs were used to estimate the association with UI. The final model was adjusted for constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infection. The prevalence of UI was 29.6% and 13.4% in AG and CG, respectively (psport (adjusted (adj) OR=3.31; 95% CI 2.20 to 4.97), family history of UI (adj OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.29), history of urinary infection (adj OR=1.53; 95% CI 1.05 to 2.23) and constipation (adj OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.98) were associated with UI. The prevalence of UI among Portuguese female elite athletes is high and the odds of UI were three times higher than in controls. Also, constipation, family history of UI and history of urinary infections were significantly associated with UI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. General parenting styles are not strongly associated with fruit and vegetable intake and social-environmental correlates among 11-year-old children in four countries in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Te Velde, S J; Maes, L; Pérez-Rodrigo, C; de Almeida, M D V; Brug, J

    2009-02-01

    To investigate whether fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in 11-year-olds, and social-environmental correlates of F&V intake such as parental modelling and encouragement, family food rules and home availability, differ according to general parenting styles in Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in four countries. Pupils and one of their parents completed questionnaires to measure F&V intake, related social-environmental correlates and general parenting styles. The sample size was 4555 (49.3 % boys); 1180 for Belgium, 883 for The Netherlands, 1515 for Portugal and 977 for Spain. Parenting styles were divided into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. No differences were found in F&V intake across parenting styles and only very few significant differences in social-environmental correlates. The authoritarian (more parental encouragement and more demands to eat fruit) and the authoritative (more availability of fruit and vegetables) parenting styles resulted in more favourable correlates. Despite earlier studies suggesting that general parenting styles are associated with health behaviours in children, the present study suggests that this association is weak to non-existent for F&V intakes in four different European countries.

  3. Strong association between non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and low 25(OH vitamin D levels in an adult population with normal serum liver enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzilli Paolo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D has been recently recognized as a worldwide epidemic. Since vitamin D exerts significant metabolic activities, comprising free fatty acids (FFA flux regulation from the periphery to the liver, its deficiency may promote fat deposition into the hepatocytes. Aim of our study was to test the hypothesis of a direct association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD in subjects with various degree of insulin-resistance and related metabolic disorders. Methods We studied 262 consecutive subjects referred to the Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases clinics for metabolic evaluation. NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed by upper abdomen ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome was identified according to the Third Report of National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP/ATPIII modified criteria. Insulin-resistance was evaluated by means of HOMA-IR. Fatty-Liver-Index, a recently identified correlate of NAFLD, was also estimated. Serum 25(OHvitamin D was measured by colorimetric method. Results Patients with NAFLD (n = 162,61.8% had reduced serum 25(OH vitamin D levels compared to subjects without NAFLD (14.8 ± 9.2 vs 20.5 ± 9.7 ng/ml, p Conclusions Low 25(OHvitamin D levels are associated with the presence of NAFLD independently from metabolic syndrome, diabetes and insulin-resistance profile.

  4. Two missense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) are strongly associated with dark ventral coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våge, D I; Nieminen, M; Anderson, D G; Røed, K H

    2014-10-01

    The protein-coding region of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was sequenced to identify potential variation affecting coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). A T→C sequence variation at nucleotide position 218 (c.218T>C) causing an amino acid (aa) change from methionine to threonine at aa position 73 (p.Met73Thr) was identified. In addition, a T→G sequence variation was found at nucleotide position 839 (c.839T>G), causing phenylalanine to be exchanged by cysteine at aa position 280 (p.Phe280Cys). The two sequence variants (c.218C and c.839G) were found to be closely associated with a darker belly coat compared with animals not having any of these two variants. The aa acid change p.Met73Thr affects the same position as p.Met73Lys previously reported to give constitutive activation of MC1R in black sheep (Ovis aries), whereas p.Phe280Cys is identical to one of two variants previously reported to be associated with dark coat color in Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus), supporting that the two variants found in reindeer are functional. The complete absence of Thr73 and Cys280 among the 51 wild reindeer analyzed provides some evidence that these variants are more common in the domestic herds. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  6. Placebos without deception: a randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted J Kaptchuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Placebo treatment can significantly influence subjective symptoms. However, it is widely believed that response to placebo requires concealment or deception. We tested whether open-label placebo (non-deceptive and non-concealed administration is superior to a no-treatment control with matched patient-provider interactions in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS.Two-group, randomized, controlled three week trial (August 2009-April 2010 conducted at a single academic center, involving 80 primarily female (70% patients, mean age 47 ± 18 with IBS diagnosed by Rome III criteria and with a score ≥ 150 on the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS. Patients were randomized to either open-label placebo pills presented as "placebo pills made of an inert substance, like sugar pills, that have been shown in clinical studies to produce significant improvement in IBS symptoms through mind-body self-healing processes" or no-treatment controls with the same quality of interaction with providers. The primary outcome was IBS Global Improvement Scale (IBS-GIS. Secondary measures were IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, IBS Adequate Relief (IBS-AR and IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QoL.Open-label placebo produced significantly higher mean (±SD global improvement scores (IBS-GIS at both 11-day midpoint (5.2 ± 1.0 vs. 4.0 ± 1.1, p<.001 and at 21-day endpoint (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 3.9 ± 1.3, p = .002. Significant results were also observed at both time points for reduced symptom severity (IBS-SSS, p = .008 and p = .03 and adequate relief (IBS-AR, p = .02 and p = .03; and a trend favoring open-label placebo was observed for quality of life (IBS-QoL at the 21-day endpoint (p = .08.Placebos administered without deception may be an effective treatment for IBS. Further research is warranted in IBS, and perhaps other conditions, to elucidate whether physicians can benefit patients using placebos consistent with informed consent.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01010191.

  7. A strong association between biologically active testosterone and leptin in non-obese men and women is lost with increasing (central) adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, S; Olsson, T; Eliasson, M; Johnson, O; Brismar, K; Carlström, K; Ahrén, B

    2001-01-01

    In both humans and rodents, males have lower levels of leptin than females at any level of adiposity. Experimental data support the idea that testosterone exerts a negative influence on leptin levels. There are, however, major inconsistencies in available data concerning the possible association between androgenicity and leptin in humans. Reasons could be the influence of androgenicity on leptin production being dependent on body composition, and incomplete measures of biologically active testosterone levels. In the present study we have characterized the relationship between biologically active testosterone and leptin after careful stratification for gender and adiposity. Healthy subjects (n=158; 85 men and 73 pre- and postmenopausal women) from the Northern Sweden MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) population were studied with a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Circulating levels of leptin, insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by radioimmunoassays or microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Apparent concentrations of free testosterone and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were calculated. After adjustments for age, BMI and insulin, leptin levels were inversely correlated to testosterone levels in non-obese men (r=-0.56, Ptestosterone correlated in a positive manner in non-obese women (r=0.59, Plow waist circumference (r=-0.59, Plow levels of biologically active testosterone and SHBG in men with low and medium waist circumference, insulin in men with high waist circumference, high levels of testosterone and insulin in non-obese women, and BMI in obese women. We conclude that low leptin levels are associated with androgenicity in non-obese men and women and that the direction of this association is dependent on gender and body fat

  8. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  9. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1 closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1 is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival. Methods Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. Results YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046. We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002, indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of

  10. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  11. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy can induce considerable, sustained viral suppression followed by immunological recovery, in which naive CD4 + cells are important. Long-term immunological recovery was investigated during the first 3 y of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 210 HIV-1......-infected patients. The focus was on the naive CD4 + cell time course and associations between naive CD4 + cell counts and established prognostic markers. Total and naive CD4 + cell counts were measured using flow cytometry. The HIV-RNA detection limit was 20 copies/ml. During 36 months of HAART, the total...... CD4 + count followed a triphasic pattern, reflecting an initial phase of rapid redistribution from lymphoid tissues, followed by a slow increase, partially due to an increase in naive CD4+ cell count. From Month 18 onwards, both naive and total CD4 + cell counts stabilized, although viral suppression...

  12. Community-Level Sanitation Coverage More Strongly Associated with Child Growth and Household Drinking Water Quality than Access to a Private Toilet in Rural Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Alzua, Maria Laura; Osbert, Nicolas; Pickering, Amy

    2017-06-20

    Sanitation access can provide positive externalities; for example, safe disposal of feces by one household prevents disease transmission to households nearby. However, little empirical evidence exists to characterize the potential health benefits from sanitation externalities. This study investigated the effect of community sanitation coverage versus individual household sanitation access on child health and drinking water quality. Using a census of 121 villages in rural Mali, we analyzed the association of community latrine coverage (defined by a 200 m radius surrounding a household) and individual household latrine ownership with child growth and household stored water quality. Child height-for-age had a significant and positive linear relationship with community latrine coverage, while child weight-for-age and household water quality had nonlinear relationships that leveled off above 60% coverage (p sanitation access of surrounding households was more important than private latrine access for protecting water quality and child health.

  13. Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong TEC gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background TEC is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced TEC decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.

  14. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a potent risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis enhancing local and systemic inflammation associated with strong oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisina I Onofrio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The immune mechanisms underlying experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, and more interestingly, the effect of T. cruzi chronic infection on the pathogenesis of this metabolic disorder are not completely understood.We evaluated immunological parameters in male C57BL/6 wild type and TLR4 deficient mice fed with a standard, low fat diet, LFD (3% fat as control group, or a medium fat diet, MFD (14% fat in order to induce NASH, or mice infected intraperitoneally with 100 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain and also fed with LFD (I+LFD or MFD (I+MFD for 24 weeks. We demonstrated that MFD by itself was able to induce NASH in WT mice and that parasitic infection induced marked metabolic changes with reduction of body weight and steatosis revealed by histological studies. The I+MFD group also improved insulin resistance, demonstrated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR analysis; although parasitic infection increased the triglycerides and cholesterol plasma levels. In addition, hepatic M1 inflammatory macrophages and cytotoxic T cells showed intracellular inflammatory cytokines which were associated with high levels of IL6, IFNγ and IL17 plasmatic cytokines and CCL2 chemokine. These findings correlated with an increase in hepatic parasite load in I+MFD group demonstrated by qPCR assays. The recruitment of hepatic B lymphocytes, NK and dendritic cells was enhanced by MFD, and it was intensified by parasitic infection. These results were TLR4 signaling dependent. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that the reactive oxygen species and peroxinitrites produced by liver inflammatory leukocytes of MFD group were also exacerbated by parasitic infection in our NASH model.We highlight that a medium fat diet by itself is able to induce steatohepatitis. Our results also suggest a synergic effect between damage associated with molecular patterns generated during NASH and parasitic infection

  16. Urinary pH Levels are Strongly Associated with Bladder Recurrence After Nephroureterectomy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Patients with a Smoking History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Nozomi; Hongo, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-12-01

    Aromatic amines, well-known bladder carcinogens, derived from cigarette smoke are activated by acidic urine. We herein determined whether urinary pH levels are associated with bladder recurrence in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients with a positive smoking history. A total of 256 upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients who were surgically treated at our institution between 1990 and 2013 were included. Urinary pH levels were defined as the median of at least two consecutive measurements within 1 month of surgery. Ninety-six patients (37.5 %) had pH pH ≥5.5, and urinary pH levels were identified as one of the significant predictors for bladder recurrence in univariate but not multivariate Cox regression analysis in overall. In patients with a positive smoking history among those without a history of bladder tumor (N = 110), the 5-year bladder recurrence-free survival rate was 52.5 % in patients with pH ≥5.5, which was significantly higher than that in those with pH pH pH pH for urine alkalization may prevent bladder recurrence.

  17. A multivariate analysis of variation in genome size and endoreduplication in angiosperms reveals strong phylogenetic signal and association with phenotypic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainard, Jillian D; Bainard, Luke D; Henry, Thomas A; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Ocean noise triggering of rhythmic long period events at Deception Island volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Daniel; Almendros, Javier; Jiménez, Vanessa; Mancilla, Flor; Carmona, Enrique

    2011-11-01

    We report on swarms of repeating long-period (LP) events with remarkably periodic occurrence at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica. The LP events show dominant frequencies near 2 Hz and characteristic inter-event times that range from ˜10 s to ˜20 s for individual swarms. We observe that LP inter-event times are approximate integer multiples of the dominant periods of the oceanic microseism, indicating a synchronization of LP activity with the phase of ocean noise. We attribute LP periodicity to the coincidence of sustained LP activity in an unstable hydrothermal system and external forcing by ocean noise that introduces periodic pressure variations in volcano fluids. We estimate the volumetric strain change generated by the oceanic microseism at the source location and conclude that strain of order 10-7 is sufficient to introduce clear periodicity in the LP sequences, and that periodicity increases with increasing strain.

  19. It pays to cheat: tactical deception in a cephalopod social signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum; Garwood, Martin P; Williamson, Jane E

    2012-10-23

    Signals in intraspecific communication should be inherently honest; otherwise the system is prone to collapse. Theory predicts, however, that honest signalling systems are susceptible to invasion by cheats, the extent of which is largely mediated by fear of reprisal. Cuttlefish facultatively change their shape and colour, an ability that evolved to avoid predators and capture prey. Here, we show that this ability is tactically employed by male mourning cuttlefish (Sepia plangon) to mislead conspecifics during courtship in a specific social context amenable to cheating 39 per cent of the time, while it was never employed in other social contexts. Males deceive rival males by displaying male courtship patterns to receptive females on one side of the body, and simultaneously displaying female patterns to a single rival male on the other, thus preventing the rival from disrupting courtship. The use of tactical deception in such a complex communication network indicates that sociality has played a key role in the cognitive evolution of cephalopods.

  20. Equating Efficiency with Reduction: A Self-Deception in Energy Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhite, Harold; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    results from India and China, with more than one third of the world population, to show how there is likely to be dramatic increases in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in those countries over the next half-century. Much of this increase will be in conjunction with the development of basic services...... efficiency alone will offset continued growth in energy services to the extent that deep reductions in energy use are possible. Many researchers and environmentalists seem to have, partly for strategic reasons, adapted to this view and thereby supported politicians in the self-deception. In this paper we use...... and infrastructure for homes, businesses, transport, health and public services, so that it is neither ethical nor even practical to argue for restrictions in overall energy growth in these and other developing countries. This places the onus for deep reductions in energy use on Europe, North America and the other...

  1. Liar, liar, working memory on fire: Investigating the role of working memory in childhood verbal deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; McCallum, Fiona; Alloway, Ross G; Hoicka, Elena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of working memory in verbal deception in children. We presented 6- and 7-year-olds with a temptation resistance paradigm; they played a trivia game and were then given an opportunity to peek at the final answers on the back of a card. Measures of both verbal and visuospatial working memory were included. The good liars performed better on the verbal working memory test in both processing and recall compared with the bad liars. However, there was no difference in visuospatial working scores between good liars and bad liars. This pattern suggests that verbal working memory plays a role in processing and manipulating the multiple pieces of information involved in lie-telling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A field test study of our non-invasive thermal image analyzer for deceptive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Somboonkaew, Armote; Sodsong, Tawee; Promduang, Itthipol; Sumriddetchkajorn, Niti

    2007-07-01

    We have developed a non-invasive thermal image analyzer for deceptive detection (TAD2) where the far-infrared data around the periorbital and nostril areas are simultaneously analyzed. Measured change in maximum skin temperature around two periorbital regions is converted to a relative blood flow velocity. A respiration pattern is also simultaneously determined via the ratio of the measured maximum and minimum temperatures in the nostril area. In addition, our TAD2 employs a simple normalized cross correlation scheme to independently track locations of the two periorbital and nostril areas. Our field case study from 7 subjects in two real crime scenes and with the use of our baseline classification criteria shows two-fold improvement in classification rate compared to our analysis using either the periorbital or nostril area alone.

  3. High diversity in functional properties of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) in divergent primate species is more strongly associated with phylogeny than coat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Ringholm, Aneta; Kelly, Joanne; Mundy, Nicholas I; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2007-09-01

    We have characterized the biochemical function of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a critical regulator of melanin synthesis, from 9 phylogenetically diverse primate species with varying coat colors. There is substantial diversity in melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding affinity and basal levels of activity in the cloned MC1Rs. MSH binding was lost independently in lemur and New World monkey lineages, whereas high basal levels of MC1R activity occur in lemurs and some New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. Highest levels of basal activity were found in the MC1R of ruffed lemurs, which have the E94K mutation that leads to constitutive activation in other species. In 3 species (2 lemurs and the howler monkey), we report the novel finding that binding and inhibition of MC1R by agouti signaling protein (ASIP) can occur when MSH binding has been lost, thus enabling continuing regulation of the melanin type via ASIP expression. Together, these findings can explain the previous paradox of a predominantly pheomelanic coat in the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra). The presence of a functional, MSH-responsive MC1R in orangutan demonstrates that the mechanism of red hair generation in this ape is different from the prevalent mechanism in European human populations. Overall, we have found unexpected diversity in MC1R function among primates and show that the evolution of the regulatory control of MC1R activity occurs by independent variation of 3 distinct mechanisms: basal MC1R activity, MSH binding and activation, and ASIP binding and inhibition. This diversity of function is broadly associated with primate phylogeny and does not have a simple relation to coat color phenotype within primate clades.

  4. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational Deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Acosta, P.S.; Cravo, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the future our daily life interactions with other people, with computers, robots and smart environments will be recorded and interpreted by computers or embedded intelligence in environments, furniture, robots, displays, and wearables. These sensors record our activities, our behaviour, and our

  6. Looks matter: changes in flower form affect pollination effectiveness in a sexually deceptive orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakosy, D; Cuervo, M; Paulus, H F; Ayasse, M

    2017-11-01

    Many species of the sexually deceptive genus Ophrys are characterized by insect-like flowers. Their form has been traditionally considered to play an important role in pollinator attraction and manipulation. Yet, the evolution of the floral form remains insufficiently understood. We hypothesize that pollinator-mediated selection is essential for driving floral form evolution in Ophrys, but that form components are being subjected to varying selection pressures depending on their role in mediating interactions with pollinators. By using the Eucera-pollinated Ophrys leochroma as a model, our aim has been to assess whether and in what manner pollination effectiveness is altered by experimental manipulation of the flower form. Our results show that floral form plays an essential and, so far, underestimated role in ensuring effective pollination by mechanically guiding pollinators towards the reproductive structures of the flower. Pollinators are significantly less effective in interacting with flowers having forms altered to resemble those of species pollinated by different hymenopteran genera. Further, those components used by pollinators as gripping points were found to be more effective in ensuring pollinia transfer than those with which pollinators do not directly interact. Thus, mechanically active and inactive components appear to be under different selection pressures. As a consequence, mechanically active components of the flower form could reflect adaptations to the interaction with particular pollinator groups, whereas mechanically inactive components can vary more freely. Disentangling selection patterns between the functionally different components of flower form may provide valuable insights into the mechanisms driving the morphological diversification of sexually deceptive pollination systems. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  9. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  10. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  11. Emerging ST121/agr4 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities: trigger for MRSA pneumonia and fatal aspiration pneumonia in an influenza-infected elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-W. Wan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA pneumonia in influenza-infected elderly individuals has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, a 92-year-old man infected with influenza developed CA-MRSA pneumonia. His CA-MRSA was an emerging type, originated in ST121/agr4 S. aureus, with diversities of Panton–Valentine leucocidin (PVL−/spat5110/SCCmecV+ versus PVL+/spat159(etc./SCCmec−, but with common virulence potentials of strong adhesin and cytolytic activities. Resistance to erythromycin/clindamycin (inducible-type and gentamicin was detected. Pneumonia improved with the administration of levofloxacin, but with the subsequent development of fatal aspiration pneumonia. Hence, characteristic CA-MRSA with strong adhesin and cytolytic activities triggered influenza-related sequential complications.

  12. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25–64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003–2004; 2008–2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. - Highlights: • The study included 1757 black, Latino, and white working class adults in Boston, MA. • Census tract poverty was associated with annual average black carbon exposure. • Annual household income was not associated with black carbon exposure. • Individual-level education was not associated with black carbon exposure. • The observed socioeconomic patterns varied by race/ethnicity. - In a US multiethnic urban working adult population, exposure to black carbon was more strongly associated with census tract as compared to household- or individual-level socioeconomic measures

  13. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  14. Deception, Disinformation, and Strategic Communications: How One Interagency Group Made a Major Difference (Strategic Perspectives, no. 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    high degree of network density and “ embeddedness .” Team Decisionmaking. Decisionmaking processes are employed to make sense of and solve a variety of...entirely disappeared—complicated Bailey’s management job but did not prevent the team from being highly productive.433 89 Deception, Disinformation...group was “ job satisfaction,” some- times referred to in organizational literature as “affective impetuous.” All the members we interviewed had a

  15. Unconscious Deception Detection Measured by Finger Skin Temperature and Indirect Veracity Judgments – Results of a Registered Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth van 't Veer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to beinglied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  16. Database of multi-parametric geophysical data from the TOMO-DEC experiment on Deception Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Jesús M.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Zandomeneghi, Daria; Wilcock, William; Barclay, Andrew; Almendros, Javier; Benítez, Carmen; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Alguacil, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) is one of the most closely monitored and studied volcanoes on the region. In January 2005, a multi-parametric international experiment was conducted that encompassed both Deception Island and its surrounding waters. We performed this experiment from aboard the Spanish oceanographic vessel 'Hespérides', and from five land-based locations on Deception Island (the Spanish scientific Antarctic base 'Gabriel de Castilla' and four temporary camps). This experiment allowed us to record active seismic signals using a large network of seismic stations that were deployed both on land and on the seafloor. In addition, other geophysical data were acquired, including bathymetric high precision multi-beam data, and gravimetric and magnetic profiles. To date, the seismic and bathymetric data have been analysed but the magnetic and gravimetric data have not. We provide P-wave arrival-time picks and seismic tomography results in velocity and attenuation. In this manuscript, we describe the main characteristics of the experiment, the instruments, the data, and the repositories from which data and information can be obtained.

  17. Learning to Detect Deception from Evasive Answers and Inconsistencies across Repeated Interviews: A Study with Lay Respondents and Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masip, Jaume; Martínez, Carmen; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Sánchez, Nuria; Herrero, Carmen; Ibabe, Izaskun

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that inconsistencies across repeated interviews do not indicate deception because liars deliberately tend to repeat the same story. However, when a strategic interview approach that makes it difficult for liars to use the repeat strategy is used, both consistency and evasive answers differ significantly between truth tellers and liars, and statistical software (binary logistic regression analyses) can reach high classification rates (Masip et al., 2016b). Yet, if the interview procedure is to be used in applied settings the decision process will be made by humans, not statistical software. To address this issue, in the current study, 475 college students (Experiment 1) and 142 police officers (Experiment 2) were instructed to code and use consistency, evasive answers, or a combination or both before judging the veracity of Masip et al.'s (2016b) interview transcripts. Accuracy rates were high (60% to over 90%). Evasive answers yielded higher rates than consistency, and the combination of both these cues produced the highest accuracy rates in identifying both truthful and deceptive statements. Uninstructed participants performed fairly well (around 75% accuracy), apparently because they spontaneously used consistency and evasive answers. The pattern of results was the same among students, all officers, and veteran officers only, and shows that inconsistencies between interviews and evasive answers reveal deception when a strategic interview approach that hinders the repeat strategy is used. PMID:29354078

  18. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  19. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  20. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  1. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  2. NUDT15 p.R139C variant is common and strongly associated with azathioprine-induced early leukopenia and severe alopecia in Korean patients with various neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Jin-Hong; Park, Jin-Sung; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Ki-Jong; Huh, So-Young; Oh, Ji Seon; Kang, Boram; Kim, Dae-Seong

    2017-07-15

    Azathioprine (AZA)-induced leukopenia is a relatively common complication in Korean patients. In addition to variation in TPMT (thiopurine S-methyltransferase), the NUDT15 p.R139C variant was recently identified to have a strong association with AZA-induced leukopenia. We investigated these associations in Korean patients undergoing AZA treatment with various neurological diseases. Among 84 enrolled patients, 20 (23.8%; 7 early, 13 late) exhibited leukopenia. The NUDT15 p.R139C variant was associated with leukopenia (OR: 11.844, 95% CI 3.984-36.024, p=1.327 × 10 -5 ). The allelic frequency of NUDT15 p.R139C was as high as 10.7% and the frequency of the C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes was 84.5, 10.7, and 5.9%, respectively. All T/T homozygous patients (5/5) developed early severe-grade leukopenia (white blood cells leukopenia and severe alopecia (OR for early leukopenia: 107.624, 95% CI 18.857-614.250, p=1.403 × 10 -7 , OR for severe alopecia: 77.152, 95% CI 17.378-342.526, p=1.101 × 10 -8 ). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting AZA-induced early leukopenia were 85.7% and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, the NUDT15 p.R139C variant is common and strongly associated with AZA-induced early leukopenia and severe alopecia in Korean patients with various neurological diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilizing the Dog Genome in the Search for Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Glioma Development-Genome Wide Association Mapping followed by Targeted Massive Parallel Sequencing Identifies a Strongly Associated Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Truvé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common form of malignant primary brain tumors in humans and second most common in dogs, occurring with similar frequencies in both species. Dogs are valuable spontaneous models of human complex diseases including cancers and may provide insight into disease susceptibility and oncogenesis. Several brachycephalic breeds such as Boxer, Bulldog and Boston Terrier have an elevated risk of developing glioma, but others, including Pug and Pekingese, are not at higher risk. To identify glioma-associated genetic susceptibility factors, an across-breed genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 39 dog glioma cases and 141 controls from 25 dog breeds, identifying a genome-wide significant locus on canine chromosome (CFA 26 (p = 2.8 x 10-8. Targeted re-sequencing of the 3.4 Mb candidate region was performed, followed by genotyping of the 56 SNVs that best fit the association pattern between the re-sequenced cases and controls. We identified three candidate genes that were highly associated with glioma susceptibility: CAMKK2, P2RX7 and DENR. CAMKK2 showed reduced expression in both canine and human brain tumors, and a non-synonymous variant in P2RX7, previously demonstrated to have a 50% decrease in receptor function, was also associated with disease. Thus, one or more of these genes appear to affect glioma susceptibility.

  4. Neuroscience, neuropolitics and neuroethics: the complex case of crime, deception and FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stuart; Plemmons, Dena

    2012-09-01

    Scientific developments take place in a socio-political context but scientists often ignore the ways their innovations will be both interpreted by the media and used by policy makers. In the rush to neuroscientific discovery important questions are overlooked, such as the ways: (1) the brain, environment and behavior are related; (2) biological changes are mediated by social organization; (3) institutional bias in the application of technical procedures ignores race, class and gender dimensions of society; (4) knowledge is used to the advantage of the powerful; and (5) its applications may reinforce existing structures of power that pose ethical questions about distributive justice. The case of crime, deception and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) shows the complexity, and the political and ethical challenges that confront those who seek to use neuroscience to explain the etiology of crime, and who base policy on its findings. An ethically grounded neuroscience needs to take account of existing structures of power and difference, and to develop a public neuropolitical consciousness that ensures that those subject to risk by the application of science and technology are participants in the decision-making processes involving the implementation of policies that affect them.

  5. Effects of Kinesio tape in individuals with lateral epicondylitis: A deceptive crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Ivan P H; Fan, Pak Che Patricia; Lee, Wang Yiu; Leong, Man Wai; Tang, Oi Yin; An, Winko W; Cheung, Roy T

    2017-12-01

    To determine the true and immediate effect of applying Kinesio tape (KT) on the pain intensity, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, and electromyographic activity with facilitatory KT, inhibitory KT, sham KT, and untaped condition in patients with lateral epicondylitis (LE) who were ignorant about KT. Deceptive crossover trial. Thirty-three patients with unilateral chronic LE who were ignorant about KT, 30 of them were successfully deceived in this study. Patients were randomly allocated into different sequences of four taping conditions: facilitatory KT, inhibitory KT, sham KT, and untaped condition. Pain intensity, pain-free grip strength, maximal grip strength, and electromyographic activity of wrist extensor muscles were assessed immediately after each tape application. No significant differences in the pain intensity (p = 0.321, η 2  = 0.04); pain-free grip strength (p = 0.312, η 2  = 0.04); maximal grip strength (p = 0.499, η 2  = 0.03); and electromyographic activity (maximal grip: p = 0.774, η 2  = 0.01; and pain-free grip: p = 0.618, η 2  = 0.02) were recorded among various taping conditions. Neither facilitatory nor inhibitory effects were observed between different application techniques of KT in patients with LE. Hence, alternative intervention should be used to manage LE.

  6. Can training improve laypersons helping behaviour in first aid? A randomised controlled deception trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Stijn; Roex, Ann; Vangronsveld, Karoline; Niezink, Lidewij; Van Praet, Koen; Heselmans, Annemie; Donceel, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert

    2013-04-01

    There is limited evidence indicating that laypersons trained in first aid provide better help, but do not help more often than untrained laypersons. This study investigated the effect of conventional first aid training versus conventional training plus supplementary training aimed at decreasing barriers to helping. The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial. After 24 h of conventional first aid training, the participants either attended an experimental lesson to reduce barriers to helping or followed a control lesson. The authors used a deception test to measure the time between the start of the unannounced simulated emergency and seeking help behaviour and the number of particular helping actions. The authors randomised 72 participants to both groups. 22 participants were included in the analysis for the experimental group and 36 in the control group. The authors found no statistically or clinically significant differences for any of the outcome measures. The time until seeking help (geometrical mean and 95% CI) was 55.5 s (42.9 to 72.0) in the experimental group and 56.5 s (43.0 to 74.3) in the control group. 57% of the participants asked a bystander to seek help, 40% left the victim to seek help themselves and 3% did not seek any help. Supplementary training on dealing with barriers to helping did not alter the helping behaviour. The timing and appropriateness of the aid provided can be improved. The authors registered this trial at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00954161.

  7. Friendship after a friends with benefits relationship: deception, psychological functioning, and social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D; Manthos, Megan

    2013-11-01

    Friends with benefits (FWB) relationships are formed by an integration of friendship and sexual intimacy, typically without the explicit commitments characteristic of an exclusive romantic relationship. The majority of these relationships do not transition into committed romantic relationships, raising questions about what happens to the relationship after the FWB ends. In a sample of 119 men and 189 women university students, with a median age of 19 years and the majority identified as Caucasian (63.6 %), we assessed relationship adjustment, feelings of deception, perception of the FWB relationship and friendship, social connectedness, psychological distress, and loneliness. Results demonstrated that the majority of FWB relationships continued as friendships after the sexual intimacy ceased and that about 50 % of the participants reported feeling as close or closer to their FWB partner. Those who did not remain friends were more likely to report that their FWB relationship was more sex- than friendship-based; they also reported higher levels of feeling deceived by their FWB partner and higher levels of loneliness and psychological distress, but lower levels of mutual social connectedness. Higher levels of feeling deceived were related to feeling less close to the post-FWB friend; also, more sex-based FWB relationships were likely to result in post-FWB friendships that were either more or less close (as opposed to unchanged). FWB relationships, especially those that include more attention to friendship based intimacy, do not appear to negatively impact the quality of the friendship after the "with benefits" ends.

  8. An informational diversity framework, illustrated with sexually deceptive orchids in early stages of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smouse, Peter E; Whitehead, Michael R; Peakall, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Reconstructing evolutionary history for emerging species complexes is notoriously difficult, with newly isolated taxa often morphologically cryptic and the signature of reproductive isolation often restricted to a few genes. Evidence from multiple loci and genomes is highly desirable, but multiple inputs require 'common currency' translation. Here we deploy a Shannon information framework, converting into diversity analogue, which provides a common currency analysis for maternally inherited haploid and bi-parentally inherited diploid nuclear markers, and then extend that analysis to construction of minimum-spanning networks for both genomes. The new approach is illustrated with a quartet of cryptic congeners from the sexually deceptive Australian orchid genus Chiloglottis, still in the early stages of speciation. Divergence is more rapid for haploid plastids than for nuclear markers, consistent with the effective population size differential (N(ep) orchids to lure the pollinators enforcing reproductive isolation. We describe possible extensions of this methodology to multiple ploidy levels and other types of markers, which should increase the range of application to any taxonomic assemblage in the very early stages of reproductive isolation and speciation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reflections on Phishing for Phools – The Economics of Manipulation and Deception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klikauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Nobel Prize winning economists Akerlof and Shiller’s phishing for phools explains the economics behind mass deception and manipulation in market economies. While “phishing” is commonly known as a form of internet fraught, their book ‘takes a new, broader meaning, i.e. getting people to do things that are in the interest of the phisherman, but not in the interest of the target. A phool is someone who, for whatever reason, is successfully phished. These are emotional phools (feelings override common sense and information phools (people act on information that is intentionally crafted to mislead them. Divided into “unpaid bills and financial crash”, “phishing in many contexts”, and “general lessons”, the book uses rafts of examples from economics, the media, and advertising to substantiate their claim. While it avoids linking their findings to capitalism, the book contains a few helpful hints when seeking to avoid being “phished as a phool”. In the end, and despite the economic analysis of the two Nobel Prize winners, the more illuminating book on the subject remains Lindstrom’s “Buyology”.

  10. Jumping the gun: Faster response latencies to deceptive questions in a realistic scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapala, Tessa; Warmelink, Lara; Linkenauger, Sally A

    2017-08-01

    Most theories of lie detection assume that lying increases cognitive load, resulting in longer response latencies during questioning. However, the studies supporting this theory are typically laboratory-based, in settings with no specific validity in security contexts. Consequently, using virtual reality (VR), we investigated how response latencies were influenced in an ecologically valid environment of interest to security professionals. In a highly realistic airport security terminal presented in VR, a security officer asked participants yes/no questions about their belongings. We found that liars actually responded more quickly to questions on which they were lying than to questions on which they were telling the truth. A control group, who answered the same questions but were not lying, answered equally quickly for all questions. We argue that this decrease in response time is possibly an unconscious reaction to questions on which individuals must answer deceptively. These results call into question the generalizability of previous research and highlight the importance of ecological validity when researching lie detection. These findings also uncover a new potential tool for enhancing lie detection in real-world scenarios.

  11. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  12. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  13. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  14. A massive experiment on choice blindness in political decisions: Confidence, confabulation, and unconscious detection of self-deception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rieznik

    Full Text Available We implemented a Choice Blindness Paradigm containing political statements in Argentina to reveal the existence of categorical ranges of introspective reports, identified by confidence and agreement levels, separating easy from very hard to manipulate decisions. CBP was implemented in both live and web-based forms. Importantly, and contrary to what was observed in Sweden, we did not observe changes in voting intentions. Also, confidence levels in the manipulated replies where significantly lower than in non-manipulated cases even in undetected manipulations. We name this phenomenon unconscious detection of self-deception. Results also show that females are more difficult to manipulate than men.

  15. Deception, discrimination, and fear of reprisal: lessons in ethics from third-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldicott, Catherine V; Faber-Langendoen, Kathy

    2005-09-01

    To systematically examine ethical conflicts reported by all State University of New York Upstate Medical University third-year students, compare them with conflicts reported in the literature, and identify content areas that compel new or renewed emphasis in national educational objectives, standard curricula, and texts. From 1999 to 2002, all third-year students submitted papers for a required bioethics course. These papers depicted ethical issues arising during clinical clerkships. The authors devised a checklist of ethical issues; after analyzing the students' papers, the authors applied the checklist to the papers to create a taxonomy. Three hundred twenty-seven students submitted 688 cases involving 40 ethical issues. The most common issues were deliberate lies or deceptions (n = 68), patients' right to refuse recommended treatment (n = 48), and insistence on futile treatment (n = 46). Students perceived overt and subtle discrimination toward patients, reflected in substandard or excessive treatment. In 81 cases (12%), students expressed reluctance to speak up about moral conflict for fear of reprisal. This fear was expressed in 18 (45%) of the 40 issues-particularly student-specific (36 [52% of 69]) and quality of care (7 [24% of 29])-and most frequently in cases involving surgery (p ethical dilemmas in both "usual and customary" and seemingly incidental situations. Students who described fear of speaking up perceived a tradeoff between academic survival and patients' interests. The cases demonstrated that students still lacked the tools to navigate ethical dilemmas effectively. The authors propose that moral courage is within the realm of professional expectations for medical students; its cultivation is an appropriate formal objective for medical education.

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns in pollination of deceptive Aristolochia rotunda L. (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlägel, B; von Tschirnhaus, M; Nuss, M; Nikolić, T; Wanke, S; Dötterl, S; Neinhuis, C

    2016-11-01

    Pollination success of highly specialised flowers is susceptible to fluctuations of the pollinator fauna. Mediterranean Aristolochia rotunda has deceptive trap flowers exhibiting a highly specialised pollination system. The sole pollinators are kleptoparasitic flies in search of food. This study investigates these pollinators on a spatio-temporal scale and the impact of weather conditions on their availability. Two potential strategies of the plants to cope with pollinator limitation, i.e. autonomous selfing and an increased floral life span, were tested. A total of 6156 flowers were investigated for entrapped pollinators in 10 Croatian populations. Availability of the main pollinator was correlated to meteorological data. Artificial pollination experiments were conducted and the floral life span was recorded in two populations according to pollinator availability. Trachysiphonella ruficeps (Chloropidae) was identified as dominant pollinator, along with less abundant species of Chloropidae, Ceratopogonidae and Milichiidae. Pollinator compositions varied among populations. Weather conditions 15-30 days before pollination had a significant effect on availability of the main pollinator. Flowers were not autonomously selfing, and the floral life span exhibited considerable plasticity depending on pollinator availability. A. rotunda flowers rely on insect pollen vectors. Plants are specialised on a guild of kleptoparasitic flies, rather than on a single species. Pollinator variability may result in differing selection pressures among populations. The availability/abundance of pollinators depends on weather conditions during their larval development. Flowers show a prolonged trapping flower stage that likely increases outcrossing success during periods of pollinator limitation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Hybrid floral scent novelty drives pollinator shift in sexually deceptive orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozzolino Salvatore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys attract their pollinators, male insects, on a highly specific basis through the emission of odour blends that mimic the female sex pheromone of the targeted species. In this study, we have investigated a contact site between Ophrys arachnitiformis and O. lupercalis, two sympatric orchid species that are usually reproductively isolated via the exploitation of different pollinator "niches", but occasionally hybridise despite their apparent combination of ethological and mechanical isolation barriers. In particular, we have investigated the extent to which these Ophrys hybrids generate "emergent" combinations (i.e. novel and unpredictable from the parents' phenotypes of floral traits, and how these phenotypic novelties, particularly the odour blends emitted by the flower, could facilitate the invasion of a novel pollinator "niche" and induce the rapid formation of reproductive isolation, a prerequisite for adaptive evolutionary divergence. Results Our chemical analyses of floral scents show that the Ophrys F1 hybrids investigated here produce more compounds, significantly different ratios (% of odour compounds in the total blend, as well as new compounds in their floral odour compared to their progenitors. When tested for their attractiveness to the pollinator of each parent orchid species, we found that floral scent extracts of the hybrids triggered less inspecting flights and contacts by the male bees with the scented dummy than those of the parental orchid species. However, a series of additional behavioural bioassays revealed that the novel floral scent of the hybrids was significantly more attractive than either of the two parents to a pollinator species not initially involved in the pollination of any of the parent Ophrys species. Conclusions Collectively, our results illustrate that the process of hybridisation can lead to the generation of evolutionary novelties, and that

  18. s-ICAM-1 and s-VCAM-1 in healthy men are strongly associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, becoming evident in the postprandial response to a lipid-rich meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the postprandial state for the early stages of atherogenesis is increasingly acknowledged. We conducted assessment of association between postprandial triglycerides, insulin and glucose after ingestion of a standardized lipid-rich test meal, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAM in young healthy subjects. Methods Metabolic parameters and sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured before and hourly until 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid-rich meal in 30 healthy young men with fasting triglycerides 260 mg/dl. Levels of CAM were compared in HR and NR, and correlation with postprandial triglyceride, insulin and glucose response was assessed. Results Fasting sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in HR as compared to NR (p = 0.046, p = 0.03. For sE-selectin there was such a trend (p = 0.05. There was a strong positive and independent correlation between sICAM-1 and postprandial insulin maxima (r = 0.70, p Conclusion This independent association of postprandial triglycerides with sICAM-1 may indicate a particular impact of postprandial lipid metabolism on endothelial reaction.

  19. Effect of nectar supplementation on male and female components of pollination success in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jersáková, Jana; Johnson, Steven D.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Pupin, Anne-Charlotte

    2008-05-01

    Many orchids lack floral nectar rewards and therefore rely on deception to attract pollinators. To determine the effect that a mutation for nectar production would have on overall pollination success of the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza sambucina, we recorded pollen deposition and removal in flowers of plants that had either been supplemented with an artificial nectar solution or left unmanipulated as controls. Nectar supplementation resulted in significant increases in the proportion of flowers pollinated, regardless of morph colour and the density of plants supplemented in the population. However, nectar supplementation had a significant positive effect on pollinaria removal only for the yellow morph in one experiment in which a low proportion of plants were supplemented. Thus a mutation for nectar production would have a positive effect on overall pollination success in D. sambucina, particularly the female component. The observed patterns are discussed in relation to other factors, such as cross-pollination and the reallocation of nectar resources for other plant functions, which are traditionally considered to shape the rewardless strategies of orchids.

  20. Measuring cues for stand-off deception detection based on full-body non-verbal features in body-worn cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Burghouts, G.J.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Zee, S. van der; Baan, J.; Hove, R.J.M. ten; Diepen, C.J. van; Haak, W.P. van den; Rest, J. van

    2016-01-01

    Deception detection is valuable in the security domain to distinguish truth from lies. It is desirable in many security applications, such as suspect and witness interviews and airport passenger screening. Interviewers are constantly trying to assess the credibility of a statement, usually based on

  1. When Appearances Are not Deceptive: A Comparative History of School Uniforms in Argentina and the United States (Nineteenth--Twentieth Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Appearances are deceptive, the saying goes. However, we devote much time to the presentation of ourselves, and ties and necklaces can take up more energy than other "substantial" matters. This article analyzes the history of the presentation of selves in schools through the study of school uniforms. It will be claimed that modernity…

  2. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  3. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  4. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  5. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  6. Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a

  7. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  8. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  9. Suppressing the truth as a mechanism of deception: Delta plots reveal the role of response inhibition in lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey, Evelyne; Ridderinkhof, Richard K; De Houwer, Jan; De Schryver, Maarten; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Lying takes more time than telling the truth. Because lying involves withholding the truth, this "lie effect" has been related to response inhibition. We investigated the response inhibition hypothesis of lying using the delta-plot method: A leveling-off of the standard increase of the lie effect with slower reaction times would be indicative of successful response inhibition. Participants performed a reaction-time task that required them to alternate between lying and truth telling in response to autobiographical questions. In two experiments, we found that the delta plot of the lie effect leveled off with longer response latencies, but only in a group of participants who had better inhibitory skills as indexed by relatively small lie effects. This finding supports the role of response inhibition in lying. We elaborate on repercussions for cognitive models of deception and the data analysis of reaction-time based lie tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative analysis of seismic wave propagation anomalies in azimuth and apparent slowness at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) using seismic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeguas, A. García.; Almendros, J.; Abella, R.; Ibáñez, J. M.

    2011-02-01

    We analyse shot data recorded by eight seismic arrays during an active-source seismic experiment carried out at Deception Island (Antarctica) in 2005 January. For each source we estimate the apparent slowness and propagation azimuth of the first wave arrival. Since both source and receiver positions are accurately known, we are able to interpret the results in terms of the effect of the heterogeneities of the medium on wave propagation. The results show the presence of significant propagation anomalies. Nearby shots produce large apparent slowness values above 0.6 s km-1, while distant shots produce small values, down to about 0.15-0.20 s km-1. These values are different for each array, which shows the importance of the local structure under the receiver. The spatial distributions of apparent slowness are not radial as we would expect in a flat-layered medium. And again, these distributions are different for each array. The azimuth anomalies defined as the difference between the empirical estimates and the values expected in a 1-D model (i.e. the source-array directions) suggest ubiquitous wave front distortions. We have detected both positive and negative anomalies. For some shot-array geometries, azimuth anomalies are quite large with values up to 60°. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the position of the array. Some of these features can be interpreted in terms of a shallow magma chamber and shallow rigid bodies imaged by high-resolution seismic tomography. However several details remain unexplained. Further work is required, including modelling of synthetic wavefields on realistic models of Deception Island and/or apparent slowness vector tomography.

  11. Mismatch in the distribution of floral ecotypes and pollinators: insights into the evolution of sexually deceptive orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R D; Bohman, B; Anthony, J M; Krauss, S L; Dixon, K W; Peakall, R

    2015-03-01

    Plants are predicted to show floral adaptation to geographic variation in the most effective pollinator, potentially leading to reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Many sexually deceptive orchids attract just a single pollinator species, limiting opportunities to experimentally investigate pollinator switching. Here, we investigate Drakaea concolor, which attracts two pollinator species. Using pollinator choice tests, we detected two morphologically similar ecotypes within D. concolor. The common ecotype only attracted Zaspilothynnus gilesi, whereas the rare ecotype also attracted an undescribed species of Pogonothynnus. The rare ecotype occurred at populations nested within the distribution of the common ecotype, with no evidence of ecotypes occurring sympatrically. Surveying for pollinators at over 100 sites revealed that ecotype identity was not correlated with wasp availability, with most orchid populations only attracting the rare Z. gilesi. Using microsatellite markers, genetic differentiation among populations was very low (GST = 0.011) regardless of ecotype, suggestive of frequent gene flow. Taken together, these results may indicate that the ability to attract Pogonothynnus has evolved recently, but this ecotype is yet to spread. The nested distribution of ecotypes, rather than the more typical formation of ecotypes in allopatry, illustrates that in sexually deceptive orchids, pollinator switching could occur throughout a species' range, resulting from multiple potentially suitable but unexploited pollinators occurring in sympatry. This unusual case of sympatric pollinators highlights D. concolor as a promising study system for further understanding the process of pollinator switching from ecological, chemical and genetic perspectives. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  13. Do We Believe the Tobacco Industry Lied to Us? Association with Smoking Behavior in a Military Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah A.; Debon, Margaret; Talcott, G. Wayne; Vanecek, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the dangers of smoking, tobacco companies continue to impede tobacco control efforts through deceptive marketing practices. Media campaigns that expose these practices have been effective in advancing anti-industry attitudes and reducing smoking initiation among young people, yet the association between knowledge of industry practices and…

  14. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  15. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  16. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  17. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  18. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  19. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  20. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  1. Availability of advance visual information constrains association-football goalkeeping performance during penalty kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matt; Button, Chris; Davids, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A pressing concern within the literature on anticipatory perceptual-motor behaviour is the lack of clarity on the applicability of data, observed under video-simulation task constraints, to actual performance in which actions are coupled to perception, as captured during in-situ experimental conditions. We developed an in-situ experimental paradigm which manipulated the duration of anticipatory visual information from a penalty taker's actions to examine experienced goalkeepers' vulnerability to deception for the penalty kick in association football. Irrespective of the penalty taker's kick strategy, goalkeepers initiated movement responses earlier across consecutively earlier presentation points. Overall goalkeeping performance was better in non-deception trials than in deception conditions. In deception trials, the kinematic information presented up until the penalty taker initiated his/her kicking action had a negative effect on goalkeepers' performance. It is concluded that goalkeepers are likely to benefit from not anticipating a penalty taker's performance outcome based on information from the run-up, in preference to later information that emerges just before the initiation of the penalty taker's kicking action.

  2. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  3. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  4. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  5. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  6. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  7. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  8. Quaternary volcanism in Deception Island (Antarctica): South Shetland Trench subduction-related signature in the Bransfield Basin back arc domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Ubide, T.; Lago, M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Rey, J.; Maestro, A.; Lopez-Martinez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Deception Island shows a volcanism related to the Phoenix Plate subduction and roll-back under South Shetland Block in the present times. The development of the island is related to the evolution and collapse of a volcanic caldera, and this study is focused on the petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the post-caldera rocks. We have made a study of the lava flows, dikes and the youngest historic eruption in 1970. These rocks range from dacite to rhyolite and have a microporphyritic texture with olivine and minor clinopyroxene. A pre-caldera basaltic andesite has also been studied. It has a microporphyritic texture with clinopyroxene. The intermediate and acid compositions alternating in the volcanostratigraphic sequence suggest either mafic recharge events or melt extraction from different levels in the deep magmatic system. All the studied compositions share a subduction-related signature similar to other magmatics from the Bransfield Basin. However, compositional differences between pre-caldera and post-caldera rocks indicate a different magma source and depth of crystallisation. According to the geothermobarometric calculations the pre-caldera magmas started to crystallise at deeper levels (13.5-15 km) than the post-caldera magmas (6.2-7.8 km). Specifically, the postcaldera magmas indicate a smaller influence of the subducting slab in the southwestern part of the Bransfield Basin in respect to the available data from other sectors as well as the involvement of crustal contamination in the genesis of the magmas. (Author)

  9. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Peci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARMTM processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (DebianTM as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  10. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-02

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis.

  11. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  12. Study of the active layer at the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla”, Deception Island, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo, M.A. de; Molina, A.; Recio, C.; Ramos, M.; Goyanes, G.; Ropero, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The degradation of permanent frozen ground (permafrost) and the increase in the thickness of the active layer may be caused both by natural processes (such as global climate change) and by anthropic activity, which changes the natural environmental conditions that allow its existence, as has been widely reported to occur in the northern polar and subpolar regions. In the case of Antarctica, some scientific research stations are located in areas with permafrost, such as the Spanish Antarctic station “Gabriel de Castilla” on Deception Island. In the place where the station is located, an important increase in erosion has been observed in recent years, including the excavation of new gullies and the erosion of the coastal cliffs. In order to develop an initial analysis of the possible effects of the station on the permafrost degradation, ground temperature has been monitored since 2012 and the thickness and of the active layer and the temperature, both inside and beneath the station, have also been sporadically measured. Here we show the results and discuss how the station reduces the freezing of the ground during the winter when the station is closed and facilitates the warming of the ground during the living periods of the station in the Antarctic summer. Those initial results and conclusions make necessary to continue the study of the permafrost and the active layer in the station site by systematic monitoring of the ground temperature and the thickness of the active layer. [es

  13. Functional Significance of Labellum Pattern Variation in a Sexually Deceptive Orchid (Ophrys heldreichii: Evidence of Individual Signature Learning Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stejskal

    Full Text Available Mimicking female insects to attract male pollinators is an important strategy in sexually deceptive orchids of the genus Ophrys, and some species possess flowers with conspicuous labellum patterns. The function of the variation of the patterns remains unresolved, with suggestions that these enhance pollinator communication. We investigated the possible function of the labellum pattern in Ophrys heldreichii, an orchid species in which the conspicuous and complex labellum pattern contrasts with a dark background. The orchid is pollinated exclusively by males of the solitary bee, Eucera berlandi. Comparisons of labellum patterns revealed that patterns within inflorescences are more similar than those of other conspecific plants. Field observations showed that the males approach at a great speed and directly land on flowers, but after an unsuccessful copulation attempt, bees hover close and visually scan the labellum pattern for up to a minute. Learning experiments conducted with honeybees as an accessible model of bee vision demonstrated that labellum patterns of different plants can be reliably learnt; in contrast, patterns of flowers from the same inflorescence could not be discriminated. These results support the hypothesis that variable labellum patterns in O. heldreichii are involved in flower-pollinator communication which would likely help these plants to avoid geitonogamy.

  14. New measures improve the accuracy of the directed-lie test when detecting deception using a mock crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian G; Kircher, John C; Bernhardt, Paul C

    2008-06-09

    The present study tested the accuracy of probable-lie and directed-lie polygraph tests. One hundred and twenty men and women were recruited from the general community and paid $30 to participate in a mock crime experiment. Equal numbers of males and females were assigned to either the guilty or innocent condition with equal numbers in each group receiving either a probable-lie or a directed-lie polygraph test resulting in a 2 x 2 design with two experimental factors (test type and deceptive condition). Half of the participants were guilty and half were innocent of committing a mock theft of $20 from a purse. All participants were paid a $50 bonus if they could convince the polygraph examiner that they were innocent. There were no significant differences in decision accuracy between probable-lie and directed-lie tests, but respiration measures were more diagnostic for the probable-lie test. New physiological measures, skin potential excursion and a new respiratory measure improved the accuracy of the directed-lie test such that 86% of the innocent participants and 93% of the guilty participants were correctly classified.

  15. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  16. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  17. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  18. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  19. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  20. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25-64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003-2004; 2008-2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.